Está en la página 1de 42

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6 MC LC CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V A CH IPV6...........................................................6 1.1 Gii Thiu V a Ch IPV6:...............................................................................6 1.1.

1 Cu Trc a Ch IPV6:................................................................................6 1.1.2 S Lc c im Ca IPV6:......................................................................6 1.2 PHN B A CH IPV6...................................................................................9 1.2.1 C Ch Cp Pht Chung:..............................................................................9 1.2.2 Cp Pht a Ch Theo Nh Cung Cp:......................................................10 1.3 PHNG THC GN A CH IPV6............................................................11 1.3.1 Cch nh a Ch IPV6:...........................................................................11 1.3.2 Phng Thc Gn a Ch IPV6................................................................12 1.4 Phn Loi a Ch IPV6.....................................................................................13 1.4.1 a Ch UNICAST:.....................................................................................13 1.4.2 a Ch Anycast..........................................................................................18 1.4.3 a Ch Multicast:.......................................................................................20 1.4.4 Cc Dng a Ch Khc..............................................................................21 1.5 Phn Tch Gi Tin IPV4.....................................................................................22 1.6 Phn Tch Gi Tin IPV6.....................................................................................24 1.7 So Snh IPV4 V IPV6......................................................................................26 CHNG 2 TRIN KHAI IPV6 ......................................................................................................................................27 2.1 Cc Giao Thc Lin Quan Ti IPV6.................................................................27 2.1.1 Giao Thc ICMPv6.....................................................................................27 2.1.2 Giao Thc nh Tuyn OSPF:....................................................................28 2.2 Trin Khai IPV6 Trn Nn IPV4.......................................................................29 2.2.1 Cc Vn Chung:.....................................................................................29 2.2.2 C Ch Chuyn i:...................................................................................30 2.3 Cng Ngh Chuyn i IPV4 Sang IPV6.........................................................31 2.3.1 Chng Giao Thc Kp:...............................................................................31 2.3.2 Cng Ngh ng Hm:.............................................................................31 2.3.3 Cng Ngh Bin Dch Tiu :..................................................................32 2.4 S Dng IPV6 Trong URL................................................................................33 CHNG 3 XY DNG M HNH THC NGHIM...........................................34 3.1 M Hnh Thc Nghim......................................................................................34 3.2 Demo Chng Trnh nh Tuyn IPV6.............................................................34 3.2.1 Cu Hnh Cho Cc Router:..........................................................................34 3.2.2 Cu hnh IPV6 cho cc PC:.........................................................................37 3.2.3 nh tuyn:..................................................................................................37 3.2.4 Kim Tra Kt Qu:......................................................................................40 3.3 Kt Lun.............................................................................................................42 3.4 Ti liu tham kho..............................................................................................42

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 1

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

DANH MC HNH V CC T VIT TT: AH D DNS : : : Authentication Header Delay Domain Name System Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Globally Routable Unicast Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Protocol Version 6 Internet Service Provider Network Address Translation Next Level Aggregator Network service Access Point Open Shortest Path First Routing Information Protocol Security Parameter Index Service Level Agreement Top Level Aggregator

DHCP : EIGRP : GRU IETF IPV6 ISP NAT NLA : : : : : : ICMP :

NSAP : OSPF : RIP SPI SLA TLA : : : :

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 2

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

LI NI U

Sau hn 10 nm chnh thc kt ni Internet ton cu, Internet Vit Nam c bc pht trin nhanh chng v ng vai tr ngy cng to ln trong i sng x hi, mang li nhiu li ch cho ngi s dng, cho doanh nghip v gp phn quan trng nng cao cht lng cuc sng ngi dn v pht trin kinh t x hi ca t nc. Tuy nhin, s bng n ca Internet trong nhng nm gn y dn n ngun ti nguyn a ch Internet IPv4 c tiu th mt cch nhanh chng. Vi tng s khong 4 t a ch IPV4, cng ng Internet ton cu ang ng trc nguy c cn kit a ch IPV4 trong khong t 2 n 4 nm na (theo s liu cng b ca Trung tm Thng tin mng Chu Thi Bnh Dng). Vic chuyn sang s dng th h a ch mi IPv6 thay th cho IPv4 ang l mt yu cu cp thit IETF bt u lm vic cho mt giao thc IP cp nht t nm 1990, l IPV6, cn gi l IPng (IP next generation), dng h tr cho tt c cc giao thc Internet khc . Tnh nng quan trng nht ca IPV6 l khng gian a ch ca n di hn. N di 128 bits nhiu hn IPV4 gp 4 ln. Nh vy no se cung cp u ia chi gan ia chi IP cho bt ky ngi nao va bt ky thit bi nao c chp nhn trn hanh tinh ny. Thc trng trin khai IPV6 khi IPV4 ang cn kit ti Vit Nam. Theo Trung tm Internet Vit Nam (VNNIC), vic chuyn sang s dng th h a ch mi IPv6 thay th IPv4 ang l mt yu cu cp thit, va nhm m bo s pht trin lin tc ca hot ng Internet, va pht huy li th vt tri v cng ngh mi. Nhng trong khi nhiu nc trin khai cung cp dch v trn IPv6 th ti Vit Nam, s lng ng k IPv6 hu nh khng c tin trin no. thc y s dng th h a ch mi, bt kp vi cng ngh, dch v hin i, p ng nhu cu s dng trong thi gian ti v trin khai chnh ph in t, B trng Thng tin truyn thng L Don Hp ch th cc c quan, t chc, doanh nghip thc hin mt s vic m trng tm l thnh lp Ban cng tc thc y pht trin IPv6 (IPv6 Task Force) lm u mi nghin cu hoch nh chin lc pht trin v ng dng IPv6, xy dng k hoch, l trnh trin khai vic chuyn i giao thc ny ti VN. Bn cnh l vic xy dng chnh sch h tr ti chnh cho cc doanh nghip.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 3

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Da vo tnh trng thc t th chuyn i giao thc IPV4 sang IPV6 l mt vn cn thit cho cc doanh nghip hin nay nht l cc nh cung cp mng nh VNPT v VIETTEL. V em chn ti nghin cu v trin khai IPV6 cho cc doanh nghip lm ti cho lun vn tt nghip ca mnh. Trong thi gian lm n em xin chn thnh cm n thy L T Thanh Khoa Khoa Hc My Tnh Trng C CNTT Hu Ngh Vit-Hn; tn tnh gip em trong qu trnh hon thnh bo co tt nghip. Em xin chn thnh cm n! Nng, Ngy /05/2010 Sinh vin

Phm Tun Thc

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 4

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 5

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

CHNG 1

TNG QUAN V A CH IPV6

1.1 Gii Thiu V a Ch IPV6:


Trong IPv6 giao thc Internet c ci tin mt cch rng ln thch nghi c s pht trin khng bit trc c ca Internet. nh dng v di ca nhng a ch IP cng c thay i vi nhng gi nh dng. Nhng giao thc lin quan, nh ICMP cng c ci tin. Nhng giao thc khc trong tng mng nh ARP, RARP, IGMP hoc b xo hoc c trong giao thc ICMPv6. Nhng giao thc tm ng nh RIP, OSPF cng c ci tin kh nng thch nghi vi nhng thay i ny. Nhng chuyn gia truyn thng d on l IPv6 v nhng giao thc lin quan vi n s nhanh chng thay th phin bn IP hin thi. 1.1.1

Cu Trc a Ch IPV6:

a ch th h mi ca internet l IPV6 c nhm chuyn trch v k thut IETF ca hip hi INTERNET xut thc hin k tha trn cu trc v t chc ca a ch IPV4. a ch IPv4 c cu trc 32 bit, trn l thuyt c th cung cp khng gian 232 = 4.294.967.296 a ch. i vi IPv6, a ch IPv6 c cu trc 128 bit, di gp 4 ln so vi cu trc ca a ch IPv4. Trn l thuyt, a ch IPv6 m ra khng gian 2^128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,45 6 a ch. S a ch ny nu tri u trn din tch 511,263 m 2 ca qu t, mi m 2 mt t s c cp 6655701018 a ch. y l mt khng gian a ch cc k ln, vi mc ch khng ch cho Internet m cn cho tt c cc mng my tnh, h thng vin thng, h thng iu khin v thm ch cn dnh cho tng vt dng trong gia nh. Ngi ta ni rng tng chic myiu ha, t lnh trong gia nh u c th mang mt a ch IPv6 v ch nhn can c th kt ni, ra lnh t xa. Vi nhu cu hin ti, ch c khong 15% khng gian a ch IPv6 c s dng, s cn li dnh d phng trong tng lai. 1.1.2 S Lc c im Ca IPV6: Khi pht trin phin bn mi, IPv6 hon ton da trn nn tng IPv4. Ngha l tt c nhng chc nng ca IPv4 u c tch hp vo IPv6. Tuy nhin, IPv6 cng c mt vi c im khc bit.

1.1.2.1

Tng kch thc ca tm a ch:

IPv6 s dng 128 bit a ch trong khi IPv4 ch s dng 32 bit; ngha l IPv6 c ti 2128 a ch khc nhau; 3 bit u lun l 001 c dnh cho cc a ch kh nh tuyn ton cu (Globally Routable Unicast GRU). Ngha l cn li 2125 a ch. Mt con s khng l. iu c ngha l a ch IPv6 s cha 1028 tm a ch IPv4.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 6

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

1.1.2.2

Tng s phn cp a ch:

IPv6 chia a ch thnh mt tp hp cc tm xc nh hay boundary: 3 bit u cho php bit c a ch c thuc a ch kh nng nh tuyn ton cu (GRU) hay khng, gip cc thit b nh tuyn c th x l nhanh hn. Top Level Aggregator (TLA) ID c s dng v 2 mc ch: th nht, n c s dng ch nh mt khi a ch ln m t cc khi a ch nh hn c to ra cung cp s kt ni cho nhng a ch no mun truy cp vo Internet; th hai, n c s dng phn bit mt ng (Route) n t u. Nu cc khi a ch ln c cp pht cho cc nh cung cp dch v v sau c cp pht cho khch hng th s d dng nhn ra cc mng chuyn tip m ng i qua cng nh mng m t Route xut pht. Vi IPv6, vic tm ra ngun ca 1 Route s rt d dng. Next Level Aggregator (NLA) l mt khi a ch c gn bn cnh khi TLA, nhng a ch ny c tm tt li thnh nhng khi TLA ln hn, khi chng c trao i gia cc nh cung cp dch v trong li Internet, ch li ca loi cu trc a ch ny l: Th nht, s n nh v nh tuyn, nu chng ta c 1 NLA v mun cung cp dch v cho cc khch hng, ta s c cung cp dch v y nht, tt nht. Th hai, chng ta cng mun cho php cc khch hng nhn c y bng nh tuyn nu h mun, to vic nh tuyn theo chnh sch, cn bng ti... thc hin vic ny chng ta phi mang tt c cc thng tin v ng i trong Backbone c th chuyn cho h.

1.1.2.3

n gin ha vic t a ch Host:

n gin cho vic cu hnh cc my trm, IPV6 h tr c vic t cu hnh a ch statefull nh kh nng cu hnh server DHCP v t cu hnh a ch stateless (khng c server DHCP). Vi s cu hnh a ch dng stateless, cc my trm trong lin kt t ng cu hnh chng vi a ch IPV6 ca lin kt (a ch cc b lin kt) v vi a ch rt ra t tin t c qung b vi router cc b. thm ch nu khng c router, cc my trm trn cng mt lin kt c th cu hnh chng vi cc a ch cc b lin kt v giao tip vi nhau m khng phi thit lp th cng. IPv6 s dng 64 bit sau cho a ch Host, trong 64 bit c c 48 bit l a ch MAC ca my, do , phi m vo mt s bit c nh ngha trc m cc thit b nh tuyn s bit c nhng bit ny trn subnet. Ngy nay, ta s dng chui 0xFF v 0xFE (:FF:FE: trong IPv6) m vo a ch MAC. Bng cch ny, mi Host s c mt Host ID duy nht trong mng. Sau ny nu s dng ht 48 bit MAC th c th s s dng lun 64 bit m khng cn m.

1.1.2.4

Header hp l:

Header ca IPv6 n gin v hp l hn IPv4. IPv6 ch c 6 trng v 2 a ch, trong khi IPv4 cha 10 trng v 2 a ch. IPv6 Header c dng:

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 7

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Hnh 1 nh dng IPv4 Header v IPv6 Header.


IPv6 cung cp cc n gin ha sau: - nh dng c n gin ha: IPv6 Header c kch thc c nh 40 octet vi t trng hn IPv4 nn gim c thi gian x l Header, tng linh hot. - Khng c Header checksum: Trng checksum ca IPv4 c b i v cc lin kt ngy nay nhanh hn v c tin cy cao hn v vy ch cn cc Host tnh checksum cn Router th khi cn. - Khng c s phn on theo tng hop: Trong IPv4, khi cc packet qu ln th Router c th phn on n. Tuy nhin, vic ny s lm tng them Overhead cho packet. Trong IPv6 ch c Host ngun mi c th phn on mt packet theo cc gi tr thch hp da vo mt MTU path m n tm c. Do , h tr Host th IPv6 cha mt hm gip tm ra MTU t ngun n ch.

1.1.2.5

Bo mt:

IPv6 tch hp tnh bo mt vo trong kin trc ca mnh bng cch gii thiu 2 Header m rng ty chn: Authentication Header (AH) v Encrypted Security Payload (ESP) Header. Hai Header ny c th c s dng chung hay ring h tr nhiu chc nng bo mt. AH quan trng nht trong Header ny l trng Integriry Check Value (ICU). ICU c tnh bi ngun v c tnh li bi ch xc minh. Qu trnh ny cung cp vic xc minh tnh ton vn v xc minh ngun gc ca d liu. AH cng cha c mt s th t nhn ra mt tn cng bng cc packet replay gip ngn cc gi tin c nhn bn. - ESP Header: ESP Header cha mt trng : Security Parameter Index (SPI) gip ch ca gi tin bit payload c m ha nh th no. ESP Header c th c s dng khi tunneling, trong tunnelling th c Header v payload gc s c m ha v b vo mt
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 8

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

ESP Header bc ngoi, khi n gn ch th cc gateway bo mt s b Header bc ngoi ra v gii m tm ra Header v payload gc.

1.1.2.6

Hiu sut:

Gim c thi gian x l Header, gim Overhead v chuyn dch a ch: v trong IPv4 c s dng private address trnh ht a ch, Do , xut hin k thut NAT dch a ch, nn tng Overhead cho gi tin. Trong IPv6 do khng thiu a ch nn khng cn private address, nn khng cn dch a ch. Gim c thi gian x l nh tuyn: nhiu khi a ch IPv4 c phn pht cho cc user nhng li khng tm tt c, nn phi cn cc entry trong bng nh tuyn lm tng kch thc ca bng nh tuyn v thm Overhead cho qu trnh nh tuyn. Ngc li, cc a ch IPv6 c phn pht qua cc ISP theo mt kiu phn cp a ch gip gim c Overhead. Tng n nh cho cc ng: trong IPv4, hin tng route flapping thng xy ra, trong IPv6, mt ISP c th tm tt cc route ca nhiu mng thnh mt mng n, ch qun l mng n v cho php hin tng flapping ch nh hng n ni b ca mng b flapping. Gim Broadcast: trong IPv4 s dng nhiu Broadcast nh ARP, trong khi IPv6 s dng Neighbor Discovery Protocol thc hin chc nng tng t trong qu trnh t cu hnh m khng cn s dng Broadcast. Multicast c gii hn: trong IPv6, mt a ch Multicast c cha mt trng scope c th hn ch cc gi tin Multicast trong cc Node, trong cc link, hay trong mt t chc. Khng c checksum.

1.2 PHN B A CH IPV6


1.2.1 C Ch Cp Pht Chung: Rt kinh nghim t vic phn b ca IPv4, cc nh thit k IPv6 xy dng 1 c ch phn b a ch hon ton m, ngha l n khng ph thuc vo giai on ban u, hon ton c th thay i ty thuc vo nhng bin ng trong tng lai v vic cp pht v s dng a ch cc dch v, cc vng khc nhau. Mt khc, nhng ngi thit k IPv6 d on trc nhng kh nng c th phi sa i 1 vi im nh cu trc cc loi a ch, m rng 1 s loi a ch trong tng lai. iu ny l hon ton ng n i vi 1 giao thc ang trong giai on xy dng v hon thin.. Phn loi a ch IPv6 khng phi ch cung cp y cc dng khun mu v dng tin t ca cc loi a ch khc nhau. Vic phn loi a ch theo cc dng tin t 1 mt cho php cc Host nhn dng ra cc loi a ch c dng tin t FE80::/16 Host s nhn dng l a ch link-local ch kt ni cc Host
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 9

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

trong cng 1 mng, hoc vi a ch c dng tin t 3FEE::/16 s hiu l a ch ca mng 6Bone cung cp. Mt khc, vi nh dng cc a ch theo tin t cng cho php n gin trong cc bng nh tuyn v khi cc u vo ca cc bng Router s l nhng tin t n gin, chiu di ca n s bin i t 1 ti 128 bit. Ch c ngoi l duy nht khi nhng a ch c lin quan l nhng a ch c bit. Cc Host v Router thc s phi nhn ra cc a ch munticast, nhng a ch ny khng th c s l ging nh cc a ch Unicast v Anycast. Chng cng phi nhn ra cc a ch c bit, tiu biu nh a ch link-local. Ti liu cu trc cng dnh tin t cho cc a ch a l c s, cc a ch tng thch vi NSAP ( a ch im truy nhp dch v mng: Network service Access Point ). Bng cp pht a ch ch ra t l s dng ca cc loi a ch trong khng gian a ch. Phn chim khng gian a ch ln nht c s dng cho loi a ch Global Unicast dnh cho cc nh cung cp dch v IPv6 provider based ( phn theo nh cung cp ) nhng cng ch chim 1% ca tng khng gian a ch. Tt c cn hn 70% khng gian cn li cha c cp pht, phn ny c th cung cp nhng c hi phong ph cho vic cp pht mi trong tng lai. 1.2.2 Cp Pht a Ch Theo Nh Cung Cp: Theo cu trc bng phn b a ch trn, 1 trong s nhng loi a ch IPv6 quan trng nht l dng a ch Global Unicast, dng a ch ny cho php nh danh 1 giao din trn mng Internet ( mng IPv6 ) c tnh duy nht trn ton cu. ngha loi a ch ny cng ging nh a ch IPv4 nh danh 1 Host trong mng Internet hin nay. Khng gian ca dng a ch Global Unicast l rt ln, qun l v phn b hp l cc nh thit k IPv6 a ra m hnh phn b a ch theo cp cc nh cung cp dch v Internet. Dng a ch ny gm 3 bit tin t 010 theo sau bi 5 thnh phn m mi thnh phn ny c qun l bi cc nh cung cp dch v theo cc cp khc nhau. Ty theo vic phn b a ch cc thnh phn ny c 1 chiu di bin i iu ny 1 ln na cho thy tnh ng trong vic cp pht v qun l IPv6

Hnh 2 Cu trc a ch IPV6 dng Global Unicast Thnh phn u tin l ID ca cc nh cung cp dch v hng u tin Top Level registry. Cng ging nh IPv4, c 3 t chc qun l vic cp pht a ch IPv6. Cc t chc ny cp pht cc gi tr TLA ID u tin. C th nh sau: - Khu vc Bc M l Internet NIC ( network information center ) , t chc ny iu khin bi NSI di 1 hp ng vi U.S National Science Foundation. - Khu vc chu u l NCC ( network coordinoction center ) ca RIPE ( hip hi mng IP chu u ).
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 10

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

- Khu vc chu v Thi Bnh Dng l t chc APINC. - Ngoi ra cn c 1 t chc chung c th cp pht a ch cho cc khu vc khc nhau l IANA. Cc nh cung cp dch v Internet IPv6 phi c 1 provides ID ( nhn dng nh cung cp ) t nhng ng k trn. Theo k hoch cp pht a ch Provider ID l 1 s 16 bit, 8 bit tip theo s c cho bng 0 trong giai on u 8 bit ny cha s dng, c dnh cho cc m rng tng lai. Trong cu trc hin ti, nhng im ng k chnh c b xung bi 1 s ln cc im ng k vng hoc quc gia, v d French NIC qun l bi INRIA cho cc mng ca Php. Nhng im ng k ny s khng c nhn dng bng 1 s ng k. Thay vo h s nhn c phm vi nhn dng ca cc nh cung cp t cc c s ng k chnh. Vi cu trc a ch mi ny cho php khch hng ln c th c c cc nh danh ngn hn, v iu s cho h kh nng thm vo cc lp mng mi trong phn tng mng con ca h. Thc t cc khch hng ln cn c th i c chp nhn nh nh cung cp ca chnh h, v ly c ID nh cung cp t cc im ng k m khng phi l thuc vo nh cung cp dch v Internet ISP.

1.3 PHNG THC GN A CH IPV6


1.3.1 Cch nh a Ch IPV6: a ch IPv6 chiu di 128 bit nn vn nh a ch l ht sc kh khn. Nu vit thng thng nh a ch IPv4 th mi a ch IPv6 chia lm 16 nhm theo c s 10. Do cc nh thit k chn cch vit 128 bit thnh 8 nhm theo c s 16, mi nhm ngn cch nhau bi du hai chm (:).

V d: FE80:BA96:4367:BFFA:6784:3213:BAAC:ACDE.
im thun li ca k hiu Hexa l gn gng v tng minh. Tuy nhin, cch vit ny cng gy khng t kh khn cho nhng nh qun tr mng. Mt cch lm cho n gin hn l quy tc cho php vit tt. IPv6 trong giai on u pht trin, cc a ch IPv6 cha c s dng nhiu, nn phn ln cc bit trong cu trc a ch l 0. Mt ci tin u tin l cho php b qua nhng s 0 ng trc mi thnh phn h 16, c th vit 0 thay v vit 0000. V d: vi block 0008, ta c th vit 8. vi block 0800, ta c th vit 800. Qua cch vit ny, ta c th c cch vit ngn gn hn.

V d: 1080:0:0:0:8:800:200c:417A.
Ngoi ra cn c mt quy tc khc cho php rt gn, l quy c v cch vit du hai chm i (Double-colon). Trong mt a ch, mt nhm lin tip cc s 0 c th c thay th bi du hai chm i. V d ta c th thay th nhm 0:0:0 trong V d trc bi ::. Ta c 1080::8:800:200c:417A.. T a ch vit tt ny, ta c th vit li a ch chnh xc ban u nh quy tc sau:
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 11

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

cn tri cc s bn tri ca du :: trong a ch, sau cn phi tt c cc s bn tri ca du :: v u ly tt c bng 0. V d: FEDC:BA98::7654:3210 =>FEDC:BA98:0:0:0:0:7654:3210. FEDC:BA98:7654:3210::=>FEDC:BA98:7654:3210:0:0:0:0 ::FEDC:BA98:7654:3210=>0:0:0:0:FEDC:BA98:7654:3210 Quy c v cch s dng du ::ch c dng duy nht mt ln trong mi a ch IPv6. V d: 0:0:0:BA98:7654:0:0:0 c th c vit thnh ::BA98:7654:0:0:0 hoc 0:0:0:BA98:7654:: Trng hp ::BA98:7654:: l khng hp l v h thng s khng xc nh c a ch IPv6 chnh xc. C mt trng hp c bit cn lu . i vi loi a ch IPv4-embedded IPv6 c hnh thnh bng cch gn 96 bit 0 vo trc mt a ch IPv4. hn ch kh nng nhm ln trong vic chuyn i gia k hiu chm thp phn trong IPv4 vi chm thp lc phn trong IPv6. Cc nh thit k IPv6 cng thit lp mt c ch gii quyt vn ny. V d: vi mt a ch IPv4 10.0.0.1. a ch IPv4-embedded IPv6 c dng 0:0:0:0:0:0:A00:1, ta vn c th gi nguyn chm thp phn ca phn cui. Trong trng hp ny, vit a ch li di dng ::10.0.0.1 1.3.2 Phng Thc Gn a Ch IPV6 Theo c t ca giao thc IPv6, tt c cc loi a ch IPv6 c gn cho cc giao din, khng gn cho cc Node ( khc so vi IPv4 ). Mt a ch IPv6 loi Unicast (gi tt l Unicast) c gn cho 1 giao din n. V mi giao din thuc v 1 Node n do vy, mi a ch Unicast nh danh 1 giao din s nh danh 1 Node. Mt giao din n c th c gn nhiu a ch IPv6 ( cho php c 3 dng a ch ng thi Unicast, Anycast, Multicast ). Nhng nht thit 1 giao din phi c gn 1 a ch IPv6 dng Unicast link-local. thc hin cc kt ni Point - to Point gia cc giao din ngi ta thng gn cc a ch dng Unicast link-local cho cc giao din thc hin kt ni. ng thi, IPv6 cn cho php 1 a ch Unicast hoc 1 nhm a ch Unicast s dng nh danh 1 nhm cc giao din. Vi phng thc gn a ch ny, 1 nhm giao din c hiu nh l 1 giao din trong tng IP. Theo thit k ca IPv6, 1 Host c th nh danh bi cc a ch sau: - Mt a ch link-local cho mi giao din gn vi Host - Mt a ch Unicast c cung cp bi cc nh cung cp dch v - Mt a ch loopback - Mt a ch Multicast, m Host l thnh vin trong nhm c a ch Multicast . Mt Router nu h tr IPv6 s nhn bit c tt c cc loi a ch m Host chp nhn k trn, ngoi ra n cn c th c gn cc loi a ch nh sau: - Tt c cc a ch Multicast c gn trn Router - Tt c cc a ch Anycast c cu hnh trn Router

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 12

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

1.4 Phn Loi a Ch IPV6


1.4.1 a Ch UNICAST: Unicast l mt tn mi thay th cho kiu im im c s dng trong a ch IPV4.s dng nh danh cho mt giao din trn mng. mt packet c ac ch ch l dng a ch uniscast s c chuyn ti giao din c nh danh bi a ch a ch unicast cn gi l a ch n hng

Hnh 3 a Ch Unicast 001 :cho php bit c a ch c thuc a ch kh nh tuyn ton cu hay khng gip cc thit b nh tuyn c thit b nhanh hn TLA ID :c s dng v 2 mc ch Th nht : n c ch nh mt khi a ch ln m t cc khi a ch nh hn c to ra cung cp s kt ni cho nhng a ch no kt ni vo internet Th hai : n c s dng phn bit mt ng router n t u . Res :cha s dng NLA ID :nh danh nh cung cp dch v cp tip theo TLA SLA ID :nh dng cc site ca khch hng . Interface ID : gip xc nh cc interface ca cc host kt ni trong mt site

1.4.1.1 Phn Loi a Ch Unicast: a Ch Global Unicast:


c m t trong khuyn ngh RFC 2374. Dng nhn dng cc Interface,cho php kt ni cc Node trong mng Internet IPv6 ton cu. Dng a ch ny h tr cc ISP c nhu cu kt ni ton cu, c xy dng theo kin trc phn cp r rng, c th nh sau:

Hnh 4 Cu trc a ch UNICAST.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 13

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Trong : - 001: nh dng Prefix i vi loi a ch Global Unicast. - TLA ID: (Top Level Aggregation Identification) nh danh cc nh caung cp dch v cp cao nht trong h thng cc nh cung cp dch v. - RES : Cha s dng. - NLA ID: (Next Level Aggregation Identification) nh danh nh cung cp dch v bc 2 (sau TLA). - SLA ID: (Site Level Aggregaton Identification) nh dng cc Site ca khch hng. - Interface ID: Gip xc nh cc Interface ca cc Host kt ni trong mt Site. Nh vy loi a ch Global Unicast c thit k phn cp, cu trc ca n c chia thnh 3 phn: - 48 bit Public Topology. - 16 bit Site Topology. - 64 bit gip xc nh Interface. Trong mi phn c th c chia thnh nhng cp con nh sau:

Hnh 5 Kh nng phn cp ca a ch Global-Unicast


BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 14

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Theo cch phn cp ny, TLA ID c th phn bit 213 = 8192 cc TLA khc nhau. c mt TLA ID, phi yu cu qua cc t chc quc t. i vi mt ISP (V d nh VDC) trong m hnh phn cp ny c vai tr l mt NLA v NLA ID ca VDCphi c cp thng qua t chc TLA qun l NLA ca VDC. Hin nay c mt s phng thc xin cp NLA ID nh sau: - Xin cp thng qua 6BONE Community: khi TLA ID ca t chc ny l 3ffe::/16. 6BONE l mt mng th nghim IPv6 trn ton cu. Cc ISP sau khi tha mn mt s yu cu ca t chc ny s c cp pht NLA ID theo yu cu ca ISP ny. - Xin cp thng qua International Regional Internet Registry (RIP). - Gi lp a ch IPv6 t IPv4: phng php ny thun tin cho vic kt ni IPv6 t a ch IPv4. a ch Global Unicast trong trng hp ny TLA ID c Prefix 2002::/16; 32 bit cui cng chnh l a ch IPv4 ca Host. i vi mi t chc TLA, sau khi c TLA ID c th cp pht n cc t chc cp di. Vi mi TLA cho php tip tc phn cp, cp pht cho 2 24 cc t chc cpdi khc nhau. i vi cu trc NLA ID cng c phn ra thnh cc phn nh, s dng n bit trong s 24 bit NLA lm nh danh cho t chc . 24n bit cn li cng c th phn cp tip hoc cp cho cc Host trong mng. Trong mi NLA, SLA ID cng c th phn cp theo quy tc tng t nh NLA ID cung cp cho nhiu Site khch hng s dng. Mt Site thuc phm vi mt NLA khi yu c yu cu cp a ch s nhn c thng tin v TLA ID, NLA ID, SLA ID nh danh Site trong t chc v xc nh Subnet trong cc mng con. Phn cn li trong cu trc a ch Global Unicast l ch s Interface ID, c m t theo chun EUI-64. Ty vo cc loi Interface khc nhau s c Interface ID khc nhau. V d i vi chun giao tip Ethernet c phng thc to Interface ID nh sau: - 64 bit nh dng EUI-64 c xy dng t 48 bit MAC Address ca Interface cn gn a ch. - Chn 0xff-fe vo gia byte th 3 v byte th 4 ca a ch MAC. - o bit th 2 trong byte th nht ca a ch MAC. V d : a ch MAC ca mt Interface l 00-60-08-52-f9-d8 - Chn 0xff-fe vo gia Byte th 3 v byte th 4 ta c a ch EUI-64 nh sau: 00-60-00-ff-fe-52-f9-d8 - o bit th 2 trong Byte u tin trong a ch MAC ta c a ch EUI-64 nh sau: 02-60-00-ff-fe-52-f9-d8. a ch trn c s ngi cung cp c s dng chung bi 1 host bnh thng nh 1 a ch unicast. nh dng a ch c din t nh sau:

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 15

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Hnh 6 nh dng a ch Unicast Nhng trng cho a ch ngi dng trn c s cung cp nh sau : Type indentifier: Trng 3 bt ny nh ngha nhng a ch nh l 1 a ch trn c s ngi cung cp. Registry indentifier : Trng 5 bt ny trnh by chi nhnh ng k a ch. Hin thi th c 3 trung tm a ch c nh ngha: RIPE- NCC (m 01000): Ti Chu u. INTERNIC (m 11000): Ti Bc M. APNIC (m 10100): Ti Chu - Thi Bnh Dng Provider indentifier: Trng di tu bin ny xc nhn nh cung cp (provider) cho truy cp Internet 16 bit di l khuyn co i vi trng ny. Subscriber indentifier: Khi mt t chc t mua Internet di hn thng qua 1 nh cung cp, n c cp pht 1 th nhn dng ngi t mua (Subscriber indentification). 24 bt di l khuyn co i vi trng ny. Subnet indentifier: Mi subscriber c th c nhiu subnetwork khc nhau, v mi network c th c nhiu chng thc. Chng thc. Chng -thc subnet nh ngha mt network c th di khu vc ca subscriber. 32 bt di l khuyn co i vi trng ny. None indentifier: trng cui cng nh ngha nhn dng giao im kt ni ti subnet. di 8 bt l khuyn co vi trng ny lm n thch hp vi a ch link 48 bt (Vt l) c s dng bi Ethernet. Trong tng lai a ch link ny c l s ging a ch vt l node. Chng ta c th ngh v mt i ch cung cp trung tm nh 1 ng cp chng thc c mt s tin t. Nh nhng g thy hnh 1.6, mi tin t nh ngha mt cp bc ca h thng. Kiu tin t nh ngha kiu, tin t nh nghi 1 cch duy nht v nh cung cp bc ng k, tin t nh cung cp nh ngha 1 cch duy
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 16

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

nht v nh cung cp, tin t subnet nh ngha 1 cch duy nht v subscriber, v tin t subnet nh ngha 1 cch duy nht v subnet.

Hnh 7 Chng Thc Cc Tin T

a Ch Local-Unicast:
Nhiu h thng mng cc b hin nay s dng giao thc TCP/IP, cc h thng ny cn c gi l mng Intranet. IPv4 dnh ring mt khong a ch ring cho cc h thng mng ny (V d khong a ch 192.168.0.0 ). i vi IPv6 c hai loi a ch Unicast h tr cc lin kt cc b trong cng mt mng, l a ch Link-local v a ch Site-local. a ch Site-local Unicast dng lin kt cc Node trong cng mt Site m khng xung t vi cc a ch Global. Cc gi tin mang loi a ch ny trong IP Header, Router s khng chuyn ra mng ngoi.

Hnh 8 Cu Trc Local -Unicast

a ch Site-local Unicast lun bt u bi Prefix FEC0::/48 theo sau l 16 bit Subnet ID, ngi dng c th dng 16 bit ny phn cp h thng mng ca mnh. Cui cng l 64 bit Interface ID dng phn bit cc Host trong mt Subnet Quy tc nh tuyn i vi dng a ch Site-local:

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 17

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Router khng th chuyn cc gi tin c a ch ngun hoc ch l a ch Site-local Unicast ra ngoi mng . - Cc a ch Site-local khng th c nh tuyn trn Internet. Phm vi ca chng ch trong mt Site, ch dng trao i d liu gia cc Host trong Site . a ch Link-local Unicast: dng cc Node l neighbor giao tip vi nhau trn cng mt lin kt.
-

Hnh 9 Cu Trc Link-Local Unicast. a ch Link-local Unicast lun bt u bi Prefix FE80::/64, kt thc l 64 bit Interface ID dng phn bit cc Host trong mt Subnet (nh m t phn trn). Nhng a ch ny ch c nh ngha trong phm vi kt ni Point-to-point. Quy tc nh tuyn i vi loi a ch ny cng ging nh i vi Site-local Unicast, Router khng th chuyn bt k gi tin no c a ch ngun hoc ch l a ch Link-local.Mt Interface c th c gn nhiu loi a ch khc nhau

1.4.1.2

a Ch Unicast Theo Chun IPX

Hnh 10 a Ch Unicast Theo Chun IPX

a ch unicast theo chun IPX cha c xc nh v cn trong giai on nghin cu

1.4.2 a Ch Anycast
ach Anycast c gn cho mt nhm interface thng thng nhng node khc nhau nhng gi tin c a ch ch l nhng a ch anycast s c gi n node gn nht mang a ch ny .
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 18

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Trong IPV6 Ancast khng c cu trc c bit cc a ch Anycast chim mt phn trong khng gian a ch Unicast .do v mt cu trc a ch Unicast khng th phn bit vi a ch Unicast khi a ch Unicast c gn nhiu hn mt intrerface ,n tr thnh a ch Anycast

Hnh 11 Cu Trc a Ch Anycast Trong cu trc ca bt k a ch Anycast no cng c mt Prefix P di nht xc nh vng m a ch Anycast gn cho cc interface theocu trc ny Prefix P cho php thc hin qui tc nh tuyn i vi a ch Anycast nh sau : Trong bng nh tuyn trn router ca h thng thnh nhng mc ring bit vi nhau i vi giao tip bn ngoi mng khai bo trn router ch gm mt mc l phn Prefix P . C th hiu phn Prefix ny i din cho mt subnet ca mng bn trong . Trong mt vi trng hp c bit ton b phn Prefix ca a ch Anycast l mt tp hp cc gi tr 0 . Khi cc interface c gn cho a ch Anycast ny khng nm trong mt vng v trn bng nh tuyn Global phi khai bo ring r cho tng interface qua c ch n tuyn cho a ch Anycast nh trn ta thy mc ch thit k ca loi a ch Anycast h tr nhng cu trc mng phn cp Rong a ch Anycast gn cho router .cc router ny c chia thnh cc vng hay on mng khi mt gi tin n router cp caonht trong h thng , c chuyn ng thi n cc router trong tng cng mt on s dng Anycast co mt s hn ch sau : a ch IPV6 Anycast khng c lm a ch ngun ca cc gi tin IPv6 Mt a ch Anycast khng c php gn cho mt host IPv6 do n ch gn cho router IPv6 .

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 19

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

1.4.3 a Ch Multicast: a Multicast cng dng nhn dng mt tp hp cc Node. Nhng khc vi a ch Anycast, mt gi tin khi chuyn n a ch Multicast s c chuyn n tt c cc Node mang a ch Multicast ny.

Hnh 12 Cu Trc a Ch Multicast

- a ch Multicast lun bt u bi mt Prefix 8 bit 1111 1111. - Flag c cu trc . - 3 bit th t cao c d tr v c xc lp gi tr 0. T = 0 m ch a ch Multicast Well-known, a ch ny c phn b bi Global Internet Numbering Authority. V c phn b c nh. T = 1 m ch a ch Multicast transient. a ch ny khng c phn b c nh. - Scope c m ha 4 bit, c dng m ha gii hn phm vi (scope) ca nhm a ch Multicast. Gi tr cc trng ny gm: Scope Gi tr 0 dnh 1 Node-local 2 Link-local 3 Cha phn b 4 Cha phn b 5 Site-local 6 Cha phn b 7 Cha phn b 8 Organization-local
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 20

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

9 Cha phn b A Cha phn b B Cha phn b C Cha phn b D Cha phn b E Global F Cha phn b Group ID gip nhn dng nhm Multicast trong phm vi mt Scope. a ch Multicast cp pht c nh hon ton c lp vi gi tr c xc lp trong trng Scope. V d mt nhm NTP Server c cp group ID 101 (hex). Ta c: - FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 : Tt c cc NTP trn cng Node vi Node gi. - FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 : Tt c cc NTP trn cng Link vi Node gi. - FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 : Tt c cc NTP trn cng Site vi Node gi. - FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 : Tt c cc NTP trn Internet. a ch Multicast cp pht khng c nh ch c ngha trong phm vi mt Scope. V d mt a ch Multicast FF15:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 c th c dng trong nhiu Site m khng xung t ln nhau. a ch Multicast khng c lm a ch ngun trong cc gi tin lu thng trn mng. Nhng a ch Multicast c nh ngha trc: - Nhng a ch Multicast Well-known c nh ngha trc: FF0x::/16 trong x c gi tr [0 n F]. Nhng a ch ny c gi li, khng cp cho cc Multicast group. - a ch Multicast ca tt c cc Node: FF01::1 v FF02::1. - a ch Multicast ca tt c cc Router:FF01::2, FF02::2, FF05::2. * Scope 1 (Node-local), Scope 2 (Link-local), Scope 5 (Site-local). - a ch Solicited-Node Multicast FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFxx:xxxx trong x c gi tr t [0 n F]. Thng thng cc bit ny c ly t 24 low-order bit ca a ch (Unicast hoc Anycast).

1.4.4 Cc Dng a Ch Khc 1.4.4.1 a Ch Khng Xc nh:


a ch 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 c gi l a ch khng xc nh. a ch ny khng c gn mt giao in no. Mt host khi khi to c th s ng a ch ny nh l mt a ch ngun ca n trc khi bit n a ch tht ca n

1.4.4.2

a Ch Loopback

a ch loopback c dng 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1. mt nude c th s dng a ch ny gi gi tin cho chnh n

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 21

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

1.4.4.3

a Ch IPV4 Trong a Ch IPV6

a ch IPV4 l tp con ca a ch IPV6. nn cu trc ca IPV6 trong IPV4 nh sau

Hnh 13 Bng cu trc a ch IPV4 trong IPV6

1.5 Phn Tch Gi Tin IPV4

Hnh 14 Cu Trc Gi Tin IPV4

Version IP-V4:
Khi gi tin ti b nh tuyn, b nh tuyn s phn tch nu thy phin bn c hn th b nh tuyn s hy b gi tin v thng bo cho trm ngun bit.s version Header length: di ca gi tin tnh theo n v 32 bit. Type of service: Kiu dch v c s dng trong tiu gi tin IP ch ra quan h u tin cho vic chuyn cc gi tin, thng thng cc gi tin IP c x l theo nguyn tc FIFO, cc bit 0,1,1 trong trng kiu dch v ch ra cc thng tin v tr, thng lng v tin cy. Thng thng 2 trong s 3 thng tin s c t, nhng trng chc nng ny khng buc tt c cc b nh tuyn phi x l.

D ( Delay): tr D=0: yu cu truyn tr bnh thng. D=1: yu cu tr thp. - T ( Throughput): thng lng
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 22

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

T=0: thng lng bnh thng. T=1: thng lng cao. - R ( Reliability): tin cy R=0: tin cy bnh thng. R=1: tin cy cao. Total length: di ton b ca gi tin Max 216=64 KB, thng thng ngn hn. Identification: S nh danh ca gi tin. Nu 1 gi tin phi phn thnh nhiu mnh truyn i th tt c cc mnh phi c cng nh danh. Flag: 1 bit d tr DF (dont Fragment) DF=1: khng c php phn gi tin thnh mnh tin. DF=0: cho php phn mnh truyn. MF (More Fragment) MF=1: cho bit cn c cc mnh tin tip theo thuc cng mt gi tin. MF=0: y l mnh tin cui cng ca gi tin hoc gi tin khng phn mnh. Offset: Cho bit v tr ca mnh tin trong gi tin, n v tnh l 8 byte. Ti tram thu, 3 trng (5), (6), (7) cho php ghp cc mnh tin thnh gi tin. Time to live (TTL): Thi gian sng ca gi tin. Trng ny c 8bit ban u tnh n v l giy, vy thi gian gi tin c php tn ti trn mng l: 28=256 giy > 4 pht Trong thc t trng ny cha s bc nhy chnh l s b nh tuyn m gi tin c php i qua. C mi ln gi tin qua mt b nh tuyn th TTL s tr i 1 v khi bng 0 th gi tin s b hy v thng bo cho trm ngun. y l gii php iu khin tc nghn. Protocol: Cho bit giao thc c s dng tng trn. - Nu tng giao vn l TCP th c m l 6. - Nu tng giao vn l UDP th c m l 17. - Nu l ICMP th c m l 1 Heder checksum: Kim tra li cho u gi tin. Soure Address: a ch ngun. Destination Address: a ch ch. Cc a ch ny c dng nh ng trn mng Internet nn cn gi l IP address. a ch di 32 bit c chia thnh 4 byte, mi byte c th hin bng mt s thp phn v cch nhau bi du chm. Option: La chn. -Record Route: ghi li a ch ca tt c cc b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua. di ca trng la chn ny do trm ngun quy nh. Nu s b nh tuyn m gi tin i qua qu nhiu th a ch ca cc b nh tuyn sau s khng c ghi vo gi tin. - Time Stamp (nhn thi gian): ghi li thi gian m gi tin i qua b nh tuyn. C 3 cch ghi.
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 23

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Khi gi tin i qua b nh tuyn, ghi li danh sch thi gian gi tin qua b nh tuyn. Ghi a ch IP v thi gian tng ng khi gi tin i qua. Trm ngun s ghi sn mt s a ch cn o thi gian v gi tin ti b nh tuyn c a ch tng ng th s c ghi thi gian vo.

1.6 Phn Tch Gi Tin IPV6

Hnh 15 Cu Trc Gi Tin IPV6 Version. 4 bits. IPv6 s version Traffic Class. 8 bits. Gi tr phn phi u tin trn ng truyn internet Nu 1 ngun t iu chnh giao thng chm li khi c tc nghn, giao thng s gn cho giao thng iu khin tc nghn. V d nh giao thc TCP s dng giao thc ca s trt (Sliding window protocol), c th d dng p ng giao thng. Trong giao thng iu khin tc nghn n c hiu l nhng gi tin c th n chm hoc thm ch mt hoc c nhn ngoi yu cu. D liu iu khin tc nghn c cp pht quyn u tin t 0 n 7 c th hin bng sau:

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 24

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Hnh 16 Quyn u Tin Trong Gi Tin IPV6 Flow Label. 20 bits c ch nh s dng router x l khi i t ngun ti ch ca gi tin Payload Length. 16 bits unsigned. Xc nh di ca d liu gi tin Next Header. 8 bits. Vng Header k tip l 1 trng 8 bt nh ngha 1 u mc m theo sau vng Header nn tng trong n v d liu. Vng header k tip l 1 trong nhng vng m rng tu la chn c s dng bi IP hoc vng Header cho 1 giao thc tng cao hn nh UDP hay TCP. Mi vng Header m rng li c cha trng ny. Bng sau cho chng ta thy nhng gi tr ca vng Header k tip

Hnh 17 Vng Header K Tip Trong Gi Tin IPV6 Hop Limit. 8 bits i vi mi router l khi chuyn tip cc gi d liu gii hn hop l decremented bi 1.khi c trng hp t ti s 0 th gi tin b loi b Source address. 16 bytes. xc minh ngun gc gi tin Destination address. 16 bytes. thng xc minh ch cui cng ca n v d liu. Tuy nhin nu router ngun c s dng th trng ny s cha a ch ca router k tip.. C th gi tin trong IPv6 c thy nh trong Hnh 1.16 di y. Mi gi tin bao gm mt vng header nn tng bt buc theo sau bi payload. Payload gm c 2 phn: nhng vng Header m rng tu chn v d liu t tng cao
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 25

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

hn. Vng Header nn tng chim gi 40 byte, trong khi nhng vng Header m rng v d liu t tng cao hn cha n 65535 byte thng tin.

Hnh 18 Payload Trong Gi Tin IPV6

1.7 So Snh IPV4 V IPV6


S khc nhau ng k nht gia IPv4 v IPv6 l chiu di ca a ch ngun v a ch ca chng

IPV4 a ch di 32 bit Khng nh dng c lung d liu S phn mnh c thc hin ti cc host gi v ti router, nn kh nng thc thi ca router chm Checksum header. Header c phn ty chn. ARP s dng frame ARP Request phn gii a ch IPv4 thnh a ch lp lin kt. IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) c dng qun l cc thnh vin ca mng con cc b. a ch broadcast gi lu lng n tt c cc node. Phi cu hnh bng tay hoc thng qua giao thc DHCP cho IPv4. S dng cc mu tin cha ti nguyn a ch host trong DNS nh x tn host thnh a ch IPv4.

IPV6 a ch di 128 bit nh dng c lung d liu nn h tr QoS tt hn. S phn mnh ch xy ra ti host gi. Khng checksum header Tt c d liu ty chn c chuyn vo phn header m rng. Frame ARP Request c thay th bi message Neighbor Solicitation. IGMP c thay th bi message MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery). IPv6 khng c a ch broadcast, m a ch multicast n tt c cc node (phm Link-Local). Cu hnh t ng, khng i hi DHCP cho IPv6 S dng cc mu tin AAAA trong DNS nh x tn host thnh a ch IPv6.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 26

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

CHNG 2

TRIN KHAI IPV6

2.1 Cc Giao Thc Lin Quan Ti IPV6


2.1.1 Giao Thc ICMPv6 Mt giao thc khc c chnh sa trong phin bn 6 ca nhm giao thc TCP/IP cho ph hp l ICMP (ICMPv6). Phin bn mi ny mang theo chin lc v mc ch c phin bn 4. ICMPv4 c chnh sa cho ph hp vi IPv6. Thm na mt vi giao thc c lp trong phin bn 4 by gi l mt phn ca ICMPv6. Giao thc ARP v IGMP phin bn 4 c kt hp trong phin bn 6. Giao thc RARP b loi khi nhm v khng thng xuyn c s dng. Theo BCOTP thay th RARP.

Hnh 19 Bng so snh IPCM4 v ICMP6 Mc d khun dng chung ca mt thng ip ICMP th khc vi mi kiu thng ip, 4 byte u tin th ph bin cho tt c nh ch ra trong hnh 34. Trong chng u tin kiu ICMP xc nh loi thng ip. M trng ch ra nguyn nhn ca kiu thng ip ring bit. Trng ph bin cui cng l trng tng kim tra, c tnh ton theo cng mt kiu nh c m t trong ICMPv4.

Hnh 20 Thng ip chung ca gi tin ICMP

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 27

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Nh chng ta thy mt trong nhim v chnh ca ICMP l bo co li. Nm kiu li c a ra : Destination Unrechable, Packet too Big, Time Exceeded, Parameter Problems, Redirection. ICMPv6 mt gi li, ci sau c ng gi trong mt gi d liu IP. Ci ny c chuyn n ngun ban u ca gi d liu sai

Hnh 21 Khung bo co li

So snh bo co li ca IPV6 v IPV4:

Destination unreachable: khi nim v thng ip khng th vi ti c ni n Packet too Big: y l mt kiu thng ip mi ca IPV6 Time Exceeded ( Vt qu thi gian):Thng ip ny gn ging vi 1 kiu thng ip tng phin bn 4. im khc bit duy nht l kiu gi tr c thay i ti 3. Hnh 38 ch ra kh ca thng ip vt qu thi gian Parameter Problem (Vn tham s): Thng ip ny ging vi loi thng ip k tha trong phin bn 4. Nhng d sao gi tr ca kiu ny cng c thay i ti 4 v c ca trng b li c tng ln thnh 4 byte

2.1.2 Giao Thc nh Tuyn OSPF:


OSPF l mt giao thc nh tuyn h tr IPv6 xut hin sm v ph bin nht Khc bit u tin so vi OSPFv2 (cho IPv4) l OSPFv3 enable trn tng interface ( OSPFv2 enable globally bng command router ospf [process ID] i vo mode Router)

Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf area 0


BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 28

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Tip theo l Router ID (RID): OSPFv3 cng yu cu Router chy OSPF phi c RID, quy tc xc nh tng t trong OSPFv2. iu c bit l RID trong OSPFv3 vn s dng IPv4 Address, nu Router ch chy thun IPv6 th bn vn phi vo mode Router, v cu hnh RID dng IPv4 Router(config-router)#ospf-id 192.168.1.1 Mt vi ch : - Cu hnh OSPFv3 vn yu cu command neighbor tng t OSPFv2 - Trong OSPFv3, 1 link c th xut hin trong nhiu OSPF instance, trong khi trong OSPF, 1 link ch c tham gia 1 OSPF instance. - OSPFv3 PPP v Point-to-Multipoint ko c qu trnh elect DR v BDR, tng t trong IPV4 - Reserved Add 224.0.0.5 v 224.0.0.6 trong OSPFv2 c thay th bng FF02::5 v FF02::6 trong OSPFv3

2.2 Trin Khai IPV6 Trn Nn IPV4


2.2.1 Cc Vn Chung: Giao thc IPv6 c nhiu u im vt tri so vi IPv4, p ng c nhu cu pht trin ca mng Internet hin ti v trong tng lai. Do , giao thc IPv6 s thay th IPv4. Tuy nhin, khng th chuyn i ton b cc nt mng IPv4 hin nay sang IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn. Hn na, nhiu ng dng mng hin ticha h tr IPv6. Thch thc ln m IPV6 phi i mt l kh nng chuyn i ton vn gi tin.IPV6 t nh dng IPV6 chuyn sang nh dng IPV4 v k t vn chuyn trong h thng mng IPV4. thc hin c yu cu ny qu trnh chuyn i IPV6 phi linh ng ht sc ti a Nhng l im mu thun vi quy m rng ln ca mng Internet. Do vy, y cng chnh l im cn quan tm trong qu trnh chuyn i, trin khai IPv6. Trc y tng tn ti mt vi giao thc c thit k nhm thay th TCP/IP nhng tht bi do khng th chy song song, cng nh tng thch gia cc h giao thc c v mi. Khi nghin cu n IPv6, nu ch quan tm n nhng chc nng mi m IPv6 cung cp, s khng thuyt phc c ngi dng chuyn t IPv4 sang IPv6. Do , phi m bo tnh tng thch trn c s cc chc nng ca IPv4 trong qu trnh chuyn i ln IPv6. trin khai IPv6, cn c cc phng php tin hnh ng thi, xy dng mng IPv6 trn nn h tng mng IPv4 sn c, sau s dn dn thay th mng IPv4. Ngi ta a ra nhng c ch chuyn i trong qu trnh nng cp mng t IPv4 ln IPv6. Mc ch ca cc c ch chuyn i l m bo cc ni dung sau: - m bo cc c tnh u vit ca mng IPv6 so vi mng IPv4 hin ti.
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 29

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

- Tn dng h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 trong giai on chuyn tip sang mt mng thun IPv6. - Tng cng kh nng cung cp v trin khai. Vic chuyn i i vi Host v Router c lp vi nhau. - Ti thiu ha s ph thuc trong qu trnh nng cp. Mt trong nhng iu kin bt buc c th nng cp Host ln IPv6 trc ht l phi nng cp h thng tn min (DNS). V y l dch v h tr vic tm kim a ch phc v cho cc ng dng khc. - Gn, cp cc loi a ch thun tin. Cc h thng mng hin nay c ci t v c gn a ch IPv4. Khng gian a ch IPv4 l mt tp hp con ca khng gian a ch IPv6, do , vn c th tip tc s dng cc a ch IPv4 sn c. Ch gn cc a ch cn thit cho cc kt ni ti mng 6BONE v tun theo k hoch phn b a ch ca t chc ny. - Nng cp ln mng IPv6 t tn chi ph v khng cn thit phi thay th ton b thit b hin c trn mng, v cc c ch chuyn i ny c thc hin hon ton trn nn IPv4 sn c. C ch chuyn i cng cn m bo cho cc trm IPv6 c th cng lm vic vi cc trm IPv4 bt k v tr no trn mng (LAN,WAN, Internet) cho n khi IPv4 khng cn tn ti (y l xu hng chung ca cng ngh). 2.2.2 C Ch Chuyn i: Hin nay s lng mng IPv4 l rt ln, hu ht cc dch v, cc giao dch trn mng u da vo IPv4. Do , c cc c ch cho php chuyn i qua li gia cc Host IPv4 v IPv6. Vic xy dng li giao thc lp Internet trong chng giao thc TCP/IP dn n nhiu thay i. Trong , vn thay i ln nht l vic thay i cu trc a ch. S thay i nh hng n cc vn sau: - nh hng n hot ng ca cc lp trn (lp giao vn v lp ng dng trong m hnh OSI). - nh hng n cc giao thc nh tuyn. Mt khc, mt yu cu quan trng trong vic trin khai IPv6 l phi thc hin c mc tiu ban u ra khi thit k giao thc IPv6. l IPv6 lm vic c trong mi trng IPv4. Trong mt s tnh hung, s c hin tng mt s Host ch s dng giao thc IPv6 v cng c nhng Host ch s dng giao thc IPv4. Vn y l phi m bo nhng Host thun IPv6 phi giao tip c vi cc Host thun IPv4 m vn m bo a ch IPv4 thng nht trn ton cu. Do vy, nhm to kh nng tng thch gia IPv4 v IPv6, cc nh nghin cu pht trin mt s c ch chuyn i khc nhau. c im chung ca cc c ch chuyn i ny l: - m bo cc Host/Router ci t IPv6 c th lm vic c vi nhau trn nn IPv4. - H tr cc kh nng trin khai cc Host v Router hot ng trn nn IPv6 vi mc tiu thay th dn cc Host ang hot ng IPv4. - C mt phng thc chuyn i d dng, thc hin cc cp khc nhau t pha ngi dng cui ti ngi qun tr h thng, cc nh qun tr mng v cung cp dch v.
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 30

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Cc c ch ny l mt tp hp cc giao thc thc hin i vi Host v cc Router, km theo l cc phng thc nh gn a ch v trin khai, thit k lm qu trnh chuyn i Internet sang IPv6 lm vic vi mc ri ro thp nht. Hin nay cc nh nghin cu IPv6 a ra nhng c ch chuyn i cho php kt ni IPv6 trn nn IPv4. Sau y l mt s c ch tiu biu: - Dual IP layer: C ch ny m bo mt Host/Router c ci c hai giao thc (trong trng hp ny gi l Dual stack) IPv4 v IPv6 Internet layer trong m hnh phn lp TCP/IP. - IPv6 Tunneling over IPv4 : C ch ny thc hin ng gi tin IPv6 vo mt gi theo chun giao thc IPv4 c th chuyn gi tin qua mng IPv4 thun ty. Trong trng hp ny, mng xem nh l mt gi tin IPv4 bnh thng. Theo nh hng dn trong khuyn ngh RFC 1933, IETF gii thiu hai phng php to ng hm cho cc Site IPv6 kt ni vi nhau xuyn qua h tng IPv4: Automatic Tunneling v Configured Tunneling. - Ngoi ra ngi ta cn s dng NAT-PAT cho php cc Host/Router dng IPv4 thun ty v cc Host/Router dng IPv6 thun ty c th kt ni lm vic vi nhau trong qu trnh chuyn i ln IPv6. Dng NAT-PT, ta c th nh x qua li gia a ch IPv6 v IPv4.

2.3 Cng Ngh Chuyn i IPV4 Sang IPV6 2.3.1 Chng Giao Thc Kp:
L hnh thc thi TCP/IP bao gm c tng IP ca IPv4 v tng IP ca IPv6. Chin lc ny khuyn ngh mi trm trc chuyn i hon ton sang IPv6 phi c chng giao thc kp. xc nh s dng phin bn no khi gi mt gi ti ch, trm ngun truy vn DNS (Domain name system). Nu DNS tr li a ch IPv4, trm ngun gi gi IPv4. Nu DNS tr li a ch IPv6, trm ngun gi gi IPv6 V ng dng hin nay hot ng dual-stack nh Dual-stack trong h iu hnh Windows XP, Windows 2003, h iu hnh ca thit b nh tuyn Cisco 2.3.2 Cng Ngh ng Hm: Cng ngh ng hm l mt phng php s dng c s h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 thc hin cc kt ni IPv6 bng cch s dng cc thit b mng c kh nng hot ng dual-stack ti hai im u v cui nht nh. Cc thit b ny bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin c tiu IPv4 v truyn ti i trong mng IPv4 ti im u v g b tiu IPv4, nhn li gi tin IPv6 ban u ti im ch cui ng truyn IPv4.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 31

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6 -

ng hm t ng:

Nu trm nhn s dng a ch tng thch IPv6, ng hm xy ra t ng m khng cn cu hnh a ch IPv4 ca cc b nh tuyn bin. bn gi, gi IPv6 n khu vc IPv4 s c b nh tuyn bin ng gi IPv4. a ch IPv4 c suy ra t a ch ngun v ch ca gi tin IPv6. B nh tuyn bn nhn s dng chng giao thc kp, nhn gi IPv4 vi a ch IPv4 ca n, c phn tiu nhn thy trong gi ny ang mang gi IPv6. Sau chuyn ti phn mm IPv6 x l. Cng ngh ng hm Tunnel 6to4 l mt cng ngh t ng, cho php nhng min IPv6 6to4 tch bit c th kt ni qua mng IPv4 ti nhng min IPv6 6to4 khc. ng hm 6to4 l dng kt ni im - a im

- ng hm cu hnh:
y l hnh thc to ng hm c p dng gia hai mng IPv6, c kt ni IPv4 thng qua hai b nh tuyn bin. My gi gi gi IPv6 vi a ch IPv6 khng tng thch ca my nhn. B nh tuyn bin bn gi, ng gi tin IPv4 vi a ch ngun l a ch IPv4 ca n v a ch ch l a ch IPv4 ca b nh tuyn kia. Hai b nh tuyn ti bin ca khu vc IPv4 c cu hnh bng tay ca ngi qun tr. B nh tuyn bin bn ch nhn gi, m gi ly gi IPv6 v chuyn gi ti ch. Ngoi ra, ng hm cu hnh bng tay gia my tnh v b nh tuyn c p dng trong cng ngh Tunnel Broker, trong mt t chc ng ra lm trung gian, cung cp kt ni ti Internet IPv6 cho nhng thnh vin ng k s dng dch v Tunnel Broker do t chc cung cp. 2.3.3 Cng Ngh Bin Dch Tiu : Thc cht l mt dng cng ngh NAT(Network Address Translation), thc hin bin dch a ch v dng thc ca tiu , cho php thit b ch h tr IPv6 giao tip vi thit b ch h tr IPv4. My gi mun s dng IPv6, nhng trm nhn khng hiu IPv6. ng hm khng hot ng trong trng hp ny v gi phi nh dng IPv4 trm nhn c th hiu c. Tiu IPv6 c chuyn i thnh tiu IPv4. Bin dch tiu s dng mt s lut: a ch nh x IPv6 c chuyn thnh a ch IPv4 bng cch trch 32 bit pha bn phi. Gi tr trng u tin IPv6 c b i. t trng loi dch v trong IPv4 l 0, Tnh m tng kim tra cho gi IPv4 v in vo trng tng ng.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 32

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

B qua nhn lung ca IPv6.Cc tiu m rng tng thch c chuyn thnh cc ty chn v c a vo phn tiu IPv4. di tiu IPv4 c tnh v c a vo trng tng ng. di tng ca IPv4 c tnh v c a vo trng tng ng

2.4 S Dng IPV6 Trong URL


Mc d cc my ch DNS c th truy cp vo mt website bng cch s dng tn min thay cho s dng mt a ch IP, nhng bn vn c th vo mt a ch IP thay cho mt phn ca mt URL. V d, mt website c nhn s dng URL l www.tenmien.com, tng ng vi n l a ch IP 123.26.85.16. Vi a ch IP nh vy, ti hon ton c th truy cp vo website bng cch nhp vo URL: http://123.26.85.16 Hu ht nhng ngi lt web thng khng s dng thi quen nhp vo a ch IP. Tuy vy, vic truy cp theo kiu ny vn tn ti. iu ny c bit ng vi cc ng dng web ring l. Khi khng lin quan n mt tn min, mt ng dng c kh nng trnh c ngi dng tri php d dm v nhy vo ng dng ca bn mt cch tnh c. Khi mt a ch IP c s dng thay th cho mt tn min, th s cng i lc c ch nh nh mt phn ca a ch. Nu bn ch n gin nhp vo sau HTTP:// sau l mt a ch th trnh duyt s tha nhn rng bn mun s dng cng 80. Mc d vy, bn c th ch nh bt k cng no truy cp n website, v d nu bn mun truy cp n website www.tenmien.com bng a ch IP v c th l cng 80 c s dng th lnh nn dng l http://123.26.85.16:80 Giao thc IPv6 cng vy, n cng c s dng nh mt phn ca mt URL. Nhng nu quan tm n nh dng IPv6 th bn nn lu rng mt a ch IPv6 gm c rt nhiu du :. iu ny ny sinh mt vn khi trnh duyt ca bn x l bt c nhng ci g pha sau du : nh mt s ch th ca cng. Trong trng hp , cc a ch IPv6 c phn bit bn trong du ngoc khi chng c s dng nh mt phn ca URL. V d: nu bn s dng a ch IPv6 mu trong mt URL th n s ging nh th ny: HTTP://[2001:0f68:0000:0000:0000:0000:1986:69af]/ Ging nh c th ch nh s ca cng vi a ch IPv4, bn cng c th ch nh s cng khi s dng a ch IPv6. S cng phi i sau cng mt nh dng bt buc nh khi s dng IPv4. V bn ngoi cc du ngoc. V d, nu bn mun truy cp vo website ti a ch IPv6 mu trn theo cng 80 th URL nhp vo s nh sau: HTTP://[2001:0f68:0000:0000:0000:0000:1986:69af]:80/ Lu rng s ca cng trong trng hp ny l 80, nm gia du ng ngoc v du s. Mt du : cng c s dng nh r s cng nh trong giao thc IPv4.
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 33

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

CHNG 3

XY DNG M HNH THC NGHIM

3.1 M Hnh Thc Nghim

Hnh 22 M Hnh Thc Nghim

3.2 Demo Chng Trnh nh Tuyn IPV6


3.2.1 Cu Hnh Cho Cc Router:

3.2.1.1 Router 0: Router# %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001::1/64 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface serial 0/3/0
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 34

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2002::1/64 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)# Kim tra vic ci t IPV6: Router#show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::202:16FF:FEC9:6601 2001::1 FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] Serial0/1/0 [administratively down/down] Serial0/3/0 [up/up] FE80::2D0:97FF:FEA1:538 2002::1 Vlan1 [administratively down/down] Router# Kim tra vic ci t IPV6: Router#show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down] FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] Serial0/1/0 [up/up] FE80::2D0:BCFF:FE60:24CD 2003::1 Serial0/3/0 [up/up] FE80::240:BFF:FEE7:6A4B 2002::2 Vlan1 [administratively down/down] 3.2.1.2 Router 1: Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#int Router(config)#interface se0/3/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2002::2/64 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config-if)#interface serial 0/1/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2003::1/64 Router(config-if)#no shutdown
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 35

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Router(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)# Kim tra vic ci t IPV6: Router#show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [administratively down/down] FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] Serial0/1/0 [up/up] FE80::2D0:BCFF:FE60:24CD 2003::1 Serial0/3/0 [up/up] FE80::240:BFF:FEE7:6A4B 2002::2 Vlan1 [administratively down/down]

3.2.1.3 Router 2: Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2004::1/64 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#interface serial 0/3/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 address 2003::2/64 Router(config-if)#no shutdown Router(config-if)#ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)# Kim tra vic ci t IPV6: Router#show ipv6 interface brief FastEthernet0/0 [up/up] FE80::260:3EFF:FEAB:EC01 2004::1 FastEthernet0/1 [administratively down/down] Serial0/1/0 [administratively down/down] Serial0/3/0 [up/up] FE80::2D0:D3FF:FE9E:B9D2 2003::2
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 36

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Vlan1

[administratively down/down

3.2.2 Cu hnh IPV6 cho cc PC: i vi clients chay WinXP, ci ipv6 bn vo Run lnh ipv6 install hoc dng cu lnh netsh interface ipv6 install . Sau khi hon tt bc 1 my tnh ca bn h tr ipv6 ri, v mc nh trn mi my tnh s c sn mt a ch ipv6 gi l Link-Local Address c dng Fe80::X:Y:Z%N (v d fe80::215:ff:fe43:1dd2%2). %2 ni l interface 2. bc 2 i a ch IPV6 khng theo mc nh bng lnh sau: Thit lp a ch site-local trn PC A: Netsh Interface Ipv6 Set Address local area connection 2001::2 Thit lp a ch site-local trn PC B: netsh interface ipv6 set address local area connection 2004::2 3.2.3 nh tuyn:

3.2.3.1 Router 0: Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#ipv6 router ospf 10 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 10.10.10.10 Router(config)#interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 10 area 0 Router(config)#interface serial 0/3/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 10 area 0 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#router ospf 1 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 1.1.1.1 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 Router(config-router)#exit Kim Tra nh Tuyn: Router#show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 7 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6 I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 37

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2 D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external C 2001::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2001::1/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 C 2002::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 L 2002::1/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 O 2003::/64 [110/781] via FE80::240:BFF:FEE7:6A4B, Serial0/3/0 O 2004::/64 [110/1562] via FE80::240:BFF:FEE7:6A4B, Serial0/3/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0 3.2.3.2 Router 1: Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#ipv6 router ospf 20 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 20.20.20.20 Router(config)#interface se0/3/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 20 area 0 Router(config)#interface serial 0/1/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 20 area 0 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#router ospf 2 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 2.2.2.2 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 Router(config-router)#exit Kim Tra nh Tuyn: Router#show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 7 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6 I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 38

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2 D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external O 2001::/64 [110/781] via FE80::2D0:97FF:FEA1:538, Serial0/3/0 C 2002::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 L 2002::2/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 C 2003::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/1/0 L 2003::1/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/1/0 O 2004::/64 [110/781] via FE80::2D0:D3FF:FE9E:B9D2, Serial0/1/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0 Router# 3.2.3.3 Router 2: Router#configure Configuring from terminal, memory, or network [terminal]? Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing Router(config)#ipv6 router ospf 30 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 30.30.30.30 Router(config)#interface se0/3/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 30 area 0 Router(config)#interface fa0/0 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 30 area 0 Router(config-if)#exit Router(config)#router ospf 3 Router(config-rtr)#router-id 3.3.3.3 Router(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.3 area 0 Router(config-router)#exit Kim Tra nh Tuyn: Router#show ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 7 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route, M - MIPv6 I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea, IS - ISIS summary
BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 39

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 OSPF ext 2 ON1 - OSPF NSSA ext 1, ON2 - OSPF NSSA ext 2 D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external O 2001::/64 [110/1562] via FE80::2D0:BCFF:FE60:24CD, Serial0/3/0 O 2002::/64 [110/781] via FE80::2D0:BCFF:FE60:24CD, Serial0/3/0 C 2003::/64 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 L 2003::2/128 [0/0] via ::, Serial0/3/0 C 2004::/64 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L 2004::1/128 [0/0] via ::, FastEthernet0/0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0
3.2.4 Kim Tra Kt Qu:

Hnh 23 Ping T PCB Sang PCA


BO CO TT NGHIP Trang 40

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

Hnh 24 Ping T PCA Sang PCB

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 41

NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI H THNG MNG IPV6

3.3 Kt Lun
Bi Lab ln l bc u tin trin khai IPV6 cho cc doanh nghip cung cp dch v mng v cc doanh nghip trong tnh trng cn kit a ch IPV4 nh hin nay. trin khai IPV6 th yu cu ti thiu ca h thng l PC s dng h iu hnh XP, win 2k3 tr ln, i vi cc router th phi s dng cc dng router c IOS ti thiu l 2700 mi h tr IPV6 Trong bi lab ny ch s dng giao thc nh tuyn l OSPFv3 nh tuyn IPV6 ngoi ra chng ta c th s dng cc giao thc khc nh RIP,EIGRP,nh tuyn tnh nh tuyn cho gi tin IPV6 trong h thng mng Tuy nhin, do thi gian c hn v kin thc thc tin cn hn ch nn em cha th tm hiu v trnh by k lng, xc ng vn lin quan. y mi ch l phn nh m ti c th cung cp trong bi cnh ccn kit IP nh hin nay. Trong tng lai em s tip tc tm hiu k hn v s trin khai IPV6 cho cc dch v nh DNS cho cc doanh nghip cung cp tn min nh VDC hay VNPT, VIETTEL .. cng nh trin khai IPV6 cho cc my ch l LINUX

3.4 Ti liu tham kho


Ti Liu T Internet

http://ipv6.com http://www.nhatnghe.com http://thegioimang.org Ti Liu Ting Anh

IPv6 Advanced Protocols Implementation


Cisco Press Deploying IPv6 Networks Ti Liu Ting Vit Nguyn Th Thu Thy: Gii thiu v th h a ch Internet mi IPv6 Nh xut bn Bu in 2006.

BO CO TT NGHIP

Trang 42