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Nghin cu nh gi kt qu ng dng h thng thng tin v tinh dng trm mt t c Antenna c nh (VSAT) cho vng su vng xa ti Vit Nam : Lun vn ThS / Hong Vn Din ; Nghd. : TS. Chu Vn V . - H. : HCN, 2006 . - 101 tr. + CDROM

MC LC
Nghin cu nh gi kt qu ng dng h thng thng tin v tinh dng trm mt t c Antenna c nh (VSAT) cho vng su vng xa ti Vit Nam : Lun vn ThS / Hong Vn Din ; Nghd. : TS. Chu Vn V . - H. : HCN, 2006 . 101 tr. + CD-ROM ..................................................................................................1 MC LC................................................................................................................1 DANH MC CC THUT NG VIT TT......................................................4 DANH MC CC HNH V, BNG BIU ........................................................8 M U................................................................................................................11 CHNG 1 .......................................................................................................13 TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN V TINH .................................13 V CC YU T NH HNG.......................................................................13 1.2. Phn khng gian ...........................................................................................16 1.2.1. Cu trc ......................................................................................................16 1.2.2. Vai tr ca trm iu khin ......................................................................17 1.2.3. Phn h thng tin ca v tinh .....................................................................18 1.3. Phn mt t ..................................................................................................21 1.5. Cc di tn s s dng trong thng tin v tinh.............................................23 1.6. Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng tuyn thng tin v tinh [2] [10]......24 1.6.1. Gii thiu.....................................................................................................24 1.6.2. Trm mt t v cc yu t lin quan..........................................................24 1.6.3. Cc yu t lin quan ng xung v trm thu mt t...............................27 1.6.4. Tham s ca b pht p h thng v tinh nh hng n tuyn truyn ....33 CHNG 2............................................................................................................36 MNG VSAT DAMA TI VIT NAM..............................................................36

2.1. c im chung ca mng VSAT [1]............................................................36 2.2. Trm HUB.......................................................................................................39 2.2.1. Phn cng ...................................................................................................39 2.2.2. Phn mm....................................................................................................40 2.3. Trm thu bao xa............................................................................................42 2.4. Nguyn l hot ng v phng thc truy cp ...........................................47 2.4.1. Knh v tinh ...............................................................................................47 2.4.2. S dng bng tn.........................................................................................53 2.4.3. c tnh tng i ca mng VSAT .............................................................54 CHNG 3 ...........................................................................................................58 H THNG THNG TIN V TINH .............................................................58 BNG THNG RNG IP - STAR......................................................................58 3.1. IP qua v tinh..................................................................................................58 3.2. H thng VSAT IP v cc dch v trn mng VSAT IP bng thng rng .58 3.2.1. V tinh IPSTAR..........................................................................................59 3.2.2. Trm cng [7][8].........................................................................................61 3.2.3. Giao tip khng gian...................................................................................63 3.2.4. Thit b pha thu bao (UT).........................................................................69 3.2.5. Cc ng dng ca h thng VSAT IPSTAR [9]..........................................70 CHNG 4 ..........................................................................................................85 NH GI H THNG.....................................................................................85 4.1. u nhc im ca h thng VSAT IPSTAR..............................................85 4.1.1 u im ca h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng IPSTAR........................85 4.1.2. Nhc im ca h thng............................................................................86 4.2. Cc c tnh ca ng truyn v tinh nh hng ti cht lng ca kt ni s dng giao thc TCP ..................................................................................86 4.2.1. nh hng ca tr ti cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn ...................87 4.2.2. nh hng ca tch s BDP ln .................................................................91 4.2.3. nh hng ca t l li ln ti kt ni TCP qua v tinh .............................92 4.3. Cc gii php ci tin giao thc TCP ...........................................................93 4.3.1. Gii php tng kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn ...............................93 4.3.2. Gii php TCP vi tu chn SACK ............................................................97 4.3.3. Cc gii php thng bo mt gi do li ....................................................102

4.4. D bo nhu cu dch v qua h thng VSAT bng rng...........................103 KT LUN..........................................................................................................106 TI LIU THAM KHO...................................................................................108

DANH MC CC THUT NG VIT TT

Vit tt ACK

Ting Anh Acknowledgement

Ting Vit Gi tin ACK c pht i t pha thu xc nhn nhn c gi tin c s th t c ch r trong ni dung gi ACK ny Tch s gia rng bng tn v tr. Gi tr ny biu th lng d liu trong mng. T s li bt B x l tn hiu bng c s rng bng tn. Mch o tn bng C Thng bo r li tch lu khi truyn ti

BDP BER BSP BW CCM CETEN

Codec CoS CU DAMA DEM DEMUX DIU Eb/No ECM EIRP FDMA FIM FIN

Bandwidth Delay Product Bit Error Rate Baseband Signal Processor Bandwidth C-Band Converter Module Cumulative Error Transport Explicit Notification Coder/Decoder Class of Service Channel Unit Demand Assigned Multiple Access Demodulater Demultiplexer Digital Interface Unit Energy Per Bit To Noise Density Ratio Echo Canceller Module Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power Frequency Division Multiple Access Facsimile Interface Module Finish

B m ho/B gii m Lp dch v Khi knh a truy nhp phn chia theo yu cu B gii iu ch B tch knh Khi giao din s T s nng lng bit/Mt tp m Khi kh ting vng Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s Mch giao din fax Gi tin FIN c pha pht TCP s dng thng bo kt thc kt ni.

FLP FTP GEO

Forward Link Processor File Transfer Protocol Geostationary Earth Orbit Header ChecKsum

B x l tuyn t trm ch n trm con Giao thc truyn File Qu o a tnh. V tinh qu o ny c chu k quay xung quanh bng chu k t quay ca tri t. Tu chn tng tiu , bng tu chn ny pha thu c th thng bo c chnh xc tiu ca gi tin b li B khuych i cng sut cao Giao thc truyn dn siu vn bn Knh kim sot vo Mch chuyn i giao din Giao thc bn tin iu khin Internet Khi ngoi tri Tn s trung gian Giao thc qun l nhm Internet. Giao thc Internet S th t khi to-gi tr ny c pha pht TCP to ra v gn cho gi tin u tin ca kt ni Kch thc ca s khi u Mch o tn bng Ku Qu o thp B khuych i tp m thp Kim tra cht lng ng truyn M ho tc thp Khi knh gim st Qu o trung bnh B iu ch B iu ch /Gii iu ch

HACK

HPA HTTP ICC ICM ICMP IDU IF IGMP IP ISN

High Powered Amplifier HyperText Transfer Protocol Inbound Control Channel Interface Converter Module Internet Control MessageProtocol In Door Unit Intermediate Frequency Internet Group Management Protocol Internet Protocol Initial Sequence Number

IW KCM

Initial Window Ku-Band Converter Module LEO Low Earth Orbit LNA Low Noise Amplifier LQT Link Quality Test LRE Low Rate Encoding MCU Monitor Channel Unit MEO Medium Earth Orbit MOD Modulater MODEM Modulater/Demodulate r

MTU NCS NM OCC ODU OFDM QoS RG RRM RTO RTT

Maximum Transfer Unit Network Control System Network Management Outbound Control Channel Out Door Unit Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Quality of Service Receive Groundstation Radio Resources Management Retransmission Timeout Round Trip Time

n v truyn dn c kch thc ln nht H thng iu hnh mng Qun l mng Knh kim sot ra Khi trong nh

Cht lng ca dch v Pha mt t pha thu Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn Khong thi gian ch truyn li, tnh da trn RTT v mt s bin khc Thi gian tr vng, c tnh bng khong thi gian t thi im bit cui cng ca gi tin ri khi pha pht cho ti thi im pha pht nhn c bit u tin ca gi tin xc nhn trong iu kin mng khng c tc nghn Xc nhn c la chn, khi s dng tu chn ny pha thu c th xc nhn c nhiu hn mt gi tin ti ch n knh trn sng mang Giao thc truyn ti iu khin lung Pha mt t pha pht Giao tip STAR Giao thc truyn th in t n gin Giao thc qun l mng n gin B iu khin theo chng trnh 3 k thut truy nhp Slotted Aloha, Aloha,

SACK

Selective Acknowlegement Single Channel Per Carrier Stream Control TransportProtocol Sender Groundstation STAR Interface Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Store Programed Control SCPC TDMA Aloha

SCPC SCTP SG SI SMTP SNMP SPC STAR

Return Link

TDMA dng cho hng truyn t trm con v trm ch

SYN

Synchronize

TCP TCPA TDM TDMA TES TI TOLL

TRIA TSN UDP

VCU VSAT

Gi tin ng b. Gi tin ny c gi thi im khi to kt ni ng b gia pha pht v pha thu Transport Protocol Giao thc truyn ti. Giao thc ny truyn ti cc gi tin ti ch mt cch tin cy TCP Accelerator B ti u TCP qua knh v tinh Time Division Ghp knh phn chia thi gian Multiplex Time Division Multiple a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian Access Telephony Earth Trm in thoi mt t Station TOLL Interface Giao tip TOLL TPC Orthogonal Hng t trm ch n trm con dng frequency division phng php ghp knh phn chia tn s multiplexed L- code trc giao m ho TPC Link Transmit Receive Khi giao din thu pht Interface Assembly Transmision Sequence S th t truyn ti Number User Datagram Giao thc truyn ti n v d liu ngi Protocol dng. Giao thc ny truyn d liu mt cch khng tin cy Voice Channel Unit Khi knh thoi Very Small Aperture Trm mt t dung lng nh Terminal

DANH MC CC HNH V, BNG BIU


Trang Hnh 1.1. Hnh 1.2. Hnh 1.3. Hnh 1.4. Hnh 1.5. Hnh 1.6 Hnh 1.7 Hnh 1.8 Cu trc mt h thng thng tin v tinh Ca s gi trm i vi v tinh a tnh Phn h thng tin ca v tinh Cu trc c bn ca mt trm mt t Phn cc Ellipse Anten v hng Anten trn thc t Can nhiu gia cc h thng thng tin v tinh 16 18 19 22 23 25 25 32

Hnh 2.1. Hnh 2.2. Hnh 2.3. Hnh 2.4. Hnh 2.5. Hnh 2.6. Hnh 2.7. Hnh 2.8. Hnh 3.1. Hnh 3.2. Hnh 3.3. Hnh 3.4. Hnh 3.5. Hnh 3.6. Hnh 3.7. Hnh 3.8. Hnh 3.9. Hnh 3.10 Hnh 3.11. Hnh 3.12. Hnh 3.13. Hnh 3.14. Hnh 3.15.

Tng quan h thng B tr trm trung tm (HUB) ca VSAT S cu hnh trm HUB Tng qut trm VSAT Cu hnh trm thu bao Giao din trm thu bao S khi CU M phng thit lp cuc gi Vng ph sng ca v tinh IPSTAR Vng ph sng ca v tinh IPSTAR ti Vit Nam S khi chc nng trm cng IPSTAR Cu trc khung M phng OFDM n gin Cc kiu knh Star Link Cu trc khung ca Star Link cho loi 8 knh Cu hnh trm thu bao Cu hnh dch v thoi VoIP Cu hnh truy cp Internet bng rng Cu hnh cung cp dch v Hotspot Cu hnh dch v thu knh ring IP v mng ring VPN Cu hnh dch v GSM Trunking Cu hnh cung cp dch v truyn hnh hi ngh Cu hnh cung cp dch v o to t xa

38 39 41 42 43 44 45 54 59 60 60 64 65 66 66 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

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Hnh 3.16 Hnh 4.1 Hnh 4.2 Hnh 4.3 Hnh 4.4 Hnh 4.5 Hnh 4.6 Hnh 4.7 Hnh 4.8 Hnh 4.9 Hnh 4.10 Hnh 4.11 Hnh 4.12 Hnh 4.13 Hnh 4.14 Hnh 4.15 Hnh 4.16 Bng 1 Bng 2

Cu hnh dch v v IP2TV S ph thuc lng byte truyn dn vo thi gian pha khi u chm S ph thuc lng byte truyn dn vo thi gian pha trnh tt nghn S ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng vo RTT (knh 2048 kbps) S ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng voRTT (knh 256 kbps) Thi gian ti cc trang web c kch thc khc nhau (knh 2048 kbps) Thi gian ti cc trang web c kch thc khc nhau (knh 256 kbps) Thng lng hiu dng ph thuc BER S ci thin thng lung ca kt ni TCP khi khng c tc nghn S ci thin thng lng ca kt ni TCP khi c tc nghn S lng gi tin phi c pht li mng c t l mt gi cao Cu hnh ca thit b m phng SACK M hnh thc nghim dng v tinh a tnh Thng lng t c khi truyn cc file 100 kB trong trng hp no curruption Thng lng t uc khi truyn cc file 1MB,10MB trong cc trng hp no curruption Thng lng khi truyn file c kch thc 1MB v 10MB t l mt gi 1% Thng lng khi truyn dn cc file 10 MB, t l mt gi l 2% v 5%. D bo nhu cu s dng cc dch v qua VSAT D bo pht trin cc thu bao thoi s dng qua h thng thng tin v tinh trn ton quc

77 80 81 82 83 83 84 85 87 88 89 91 91 92 92 93 94 97 98

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M U 1. C s khoa hc v thc tin ca ti

Na cui th k 20, cng vi s pht trin mnh m cc cng ngh vin thng, vic ra i v ln mnh ca thng tin v tinh l tt yu thay th cho cc h thng v tuyn chuyn tip tip mt t. H thng thng tin v tinh c nhiu u im ni bt so vi cc h thng v tuyn chuyn tip mt t, th hin gi thnh, kh nng qung b v linh hot cao. K thut thng tin v tinh bao gm nhng cng ngh rt phc tp bi c im truyn dn ca v tinh l c ng truyn rt xa v tr ln. iu ny cng ng ngha vi vic h thng v tinh s phi chu tn hao mi trng, tp m, can nhiu. Cc k thut thng tin v tinh thng dng nht nh x l bng gc, iu ch, khuch i cng sut, a truy nhp, b tn hao, chng li, H thng VSAT (Verry Small Aperture Terminal) l mt h thng thng tin v tinh vi cc trm u cui c khu nh, cung cp cc ng truyn s liu v in thoi s qua v tinh ch cn s dng cc anten c ng knh tng i nh. S xut hin ca n khng nh hng ti cc mng hin c m cn h tr tng

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tnh linh hot cho mng. N cung cp cc tnh nng u vit cho cc khch hng s dng. Vit Nam, cng ngh thng tin v tinh c ng dng t nm 1980 (i v tinh Hoa Sen 1), n nay sau hn 20 nm i mi pht trin, ngnh Vin thng Vit Nam thit lp mng vin thng quc gia rng ln trong ton quc nhng vn cn nhiu vng su vng xa c a hnh him tr cha c kt ni vo mng vin thng cng cng quc gia. Xu th a dch v trong vin thng ang pht trin vi tc cao, nht l pht trin cc ng dng trn nn IP ngy cng pht trin ph hp xu th hi t cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng. p ng cc yu cu thng tin cho cc vng su vng xa, Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (trc y l Tng cng ty Bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam) t cch y 10 nm thit lp h thng thng tin VSAT (vi nhiu u im hn hn cc h thng thng tin mt t) n hng chc tnh min ni, cc hi o, a dch v in thoi n 100% x trong ton quc. Ngy nay, dch v a dng trn c s hi t cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng l xu th tt yu ca th gii v Vit Nam ang c ng dng rng ri, vic dng mt h thng VSAT mi a dch v cho cc vng su, vng xa v phc v an ninh quc phng cng nh cc nhu cu s dng c bit l rt cn thit. Do vic nghin cu nhng vn l thuyt, thc nghim v mng VSAT v cc ng dng trong iu kin Vit Nam hin nay c ngha quan trng i vi s pht trin ca ngnh Bu chnh Vin thng ni ring v pht trin kinh t x hi Vit Nam ni chung. Trc yu cu , ti Nghin cu nh gi kt qu ng dng h thng thng tin v tinh dng trm mt t c antenna c nh (VSAT) cho vng su vng xa ti Vit Nam c la chn nghin cu va c ngha v mt l lun, va c ngha v mt thc tin cao. 2. Ni dung ca ti, cc vn cn gii quyt Ngoi li ni u, kt lun, mc lc, ph lc v ti liu tham kho, ti c kt cu thnh 4 chng: Chng 1: Tng quan v h thng thng tin v tinh v cc yu t nh hng Trnh by tng quan v h thng thng tin chuyn tip bng v tinh a tnh bao gm cu trc trm mt t v b pht p trn v tinh, cc yu t bn ngoi nh hng n cht lng ng truyn qua v tinh, xu th cng ngh. Chng 2: Mng VSAT DAMA ti Vit Nam

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Trnh by tng quan v h thng thng tin VSAT DAMA v cc vn lin quan n trin khai ti vng su vng xa xi, vng hi o ti Vit Nam Chng 3 : H thng thng tin v tinh bng thng rng IP-STAR Trnh by tng quan v h thng thng tin VSAT IP-STAR bng rng a dch v cc vn lin quan n trin khai ti vng su vng xa xi, vng hi o ti Vit Nam. Chng 4: nh gi h thng Chng ny dnh phn tch cc u nhc im ca hai h thng trn bng cc lun c khoa hc v cc mt : dch v, tin cy thng tin, khc phc cc yu t nh hng, kh nng ph cp v tnh ng dng ca h thng.

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN V TINH V CC YU T NH HNG 1.1 . Gii thiu chung
Thng tin v tuyn (Radio Communication) bng v tinh ra i nhm mc ch ci thin cc nhc im ca mng v tuyn mt t, t c dung lng cao hn, bng tn rng hn, em li cho khch hng nhiu dch v mi v thun tin vi chi ph thp. Ni ti mt h thng thng tin v tinh, chng ta phi k n ba u im ni bt ca n m cc mng mt t khng c hoc khng hiu qu bng l: - Kh nng qung b rng ln. - C di thng rng. - Nhanh chng v d dng cu hnh li khi cn thit (v d khi b sung trm mi hoc thay i thng s trm c,...). Ta bit i vi mng thng tin v tuyn mt t hai trm mun thng tin cho nhau th cc antenna ca chng phi nhn thy nhau. gi l thng tin v tuyn trong tm nhn thng (Line Of Sight - LOS). Tuy nhin do tri t c dng

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hnh cu cho nn khong cch gia hai trm s b hn ch m bo cho cc antenna cn trng thy nhau. i vi kh nng qung b cng vy, cc khu vc trn mt t khng cn nhn thy anttena ca i pht s khng th thu c tn hiu na. Trong trng hp bt buc phi truyn tin i xa, ngi ta c th dng phng php nng cao ct antenna, truyn sng phn x tng in ly hoc xy dng cc trm chuyn tip. Trn thc t ngi ta thy rng c 3 phng php trn u c nhiu nhc im. Vic nng cao ca ct antenna gp rt nhiu kh khn v kinh ph v k thut m hiu qu th khng bao nhiu (v d nu ct antenna c cao c n 1km th n cng khng th qung b qu 200 km trn mt t). Nu truyn sng phn x tng in ly th cn c cng sut pht rt ln v b nh hng rt mnh ca mi trng truyn dn nn cht lng tuyn khng cao. Vic xy dng cc trm chuyn tip gia hai trm u cui s ci thin c cht lng tuyn, nng cao tin cy nhng chi ph lp t cc trm trung chuyn li qu cao v rt khng thch hp khi c nhu cu m thm tuyn mi. Tm li, c th truyn tin i xa ngi ta mong mun xy dng c cc antenna rt cao nhng li phi n nh v vng chc. S ra i ca v tinh chnh l tho mn nhu cu . Vi v tinh, ngui ta c th truyn sng i rt xa v d dng thng tin trn ton cu hn bt c mt h thng mng no khc. Thng qua v tinh INTELSAT, ln u tin hai trm i din trn hai b i Ty Dng thng tin c cho nhau. Do c kh nng ph sng rng ln cho nn v tinh rt thch hp cho cc phng thc truyn tin a im n a im, im n a im (cho dch v qung b) hay a im n mt im trung tm HUB (cho dch v thu thp s liu). [1] Bn cnh kh nng ph sng rng ln, bng tn rng ca cc h thng v tinh rt thch hp vi cc dch v qung b hin i nh truyn hnh s phn gii cao (High Definition TV - HDTV), pht thanh s hay cc dch v ISDN thng qua mt mng mt t (Terrestrial Network) hoc trc tip n thu bao (Direct to Home - DTH) thng qua mng VSAT. Cui cng do s dng phng tin truyn dn qua giao din v tuyn cho nn mt h thng thng tin v tinh l rt l tng cho kh nng cu hnh li nu cn. Cc cng vic trin khai trm mi, loi b trm c hoc thay i tuyn u c th thc hin d dng, nhanh chng vi chi ph thc hin ti thiu. Tuy nhin, v tinh cng c nhng nhc im quan trng l: - Khong cch truyn dn xa nn suy hao ln, nh hng ca tp m ln. - Gi thnh lp t h thng cao, chi ph cho trm mt t tn km.

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- Tui th thp hn cc h thng mt t, kh bo dng, sa cha v nng cp. Cc v tinh bay trong khng gian cch xa mt t, nng lng ch yu dng cho cc ng c phn lc iu khin l cc loi nhin liu lng hoc rn c v tinh mang theo trn boong. Lng nhin liu d tr ny khng th qu ln v kh nng ca cc tn la y c gii hn, ng thi n s lm cho kch thc v tinh tng ln ng k do phi tng th tch ca thng cha. Nu nh v tinh dng ht lng nhin liu ny th chng ta khng th iu khin v tinh c na tc l khng cn duy tr c n nh ca tuyn. Khi v tinh coi nh hng v nh th ni chung tui th ca v tinh thng thp hn cc thit b thng tin mt t khc. lm cho v tinh hot ng tr li, ngi ta cn thu hi li v tinh sa cha v tip thm nhin liu. Sau ngi ta phi phng li n ln qu o. Vic khi phc cc v tinh ht tui th ny ht sc tn km v phc tp nn trong thc t, ni chung ngi ta thng dng phng php thay th bng mt v tinh hon ton mi v loi b v tinh c i. Mt h thng v tinh c th cung cp rt nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau v ngy cng c pht trin a dng hn. Tuy nhin nhn chung thng tin v tinh em li ba lp dch v nh sau: - Trung chuyn cc knh thoi v cc chng trnh truyn hnh. y l s p ng cho cc dch v c bn nht i vi ngi s dng. N thu thp cc lung s liu v phn phi ti cc mng mt t vi mt t l hp l. V d cho lp dch v ny l cc h thng INTELSAT v EUTELSAT. Cc trm mt t ca chng thng c trang b antenna ng knh t 15 30m. - Cung cp kh nng a dch v, thoi, s liu cho nhng nhm ngi s dng phn tch nhau v mt a l. Cc nhm s chia s mt trm mt t v truy nhp n n thng qua mng. V d cho lp dch v ny l cc h thng v tinh TELECOM 1, SBS, EUTELSAT 1, TELE - X v INTELSAT (cho mng IBS). Cc trm mt t y c trang b antenna ng knh t 3 10m. - Kt ni cc thit b u cui c gc m rt nh (VSAT) nhm truyn dn cc lung s liu dung lng thp v qung b cc chng trnh truyn hnh, truyn thanh s. Thng thng ngi dng s kt ni trc tip vi trm mt t c trang b antenna ng knh t 0.6 2.4m. Cc thu bao di ng cng nm trong lp dch v ny. Tiu biu cho loi hnh ny l cc h thng EQUATORIAL,

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INTELNET hoc INTELSAT, v.v... Cc dch v ca VSAT hin rt phong ph m ta c th k n nh cp v t ng qun l th tn dng, thu thp v phn tch s liu, cung cp dch v thoi mt tha, hi ngh truyn hnh,..... Hnh di y th hin cu trc tng qut ca mt h thng thng tin v tinh trong thc t [2]. N c th chia thnh hai thnh phn chnh l phn khng gian (Space Segment) v phn mt t (Ground Segment).

phn kh ng gian

Tuy ln n
Tr m iu khin (t t &c )

Tuy xung n

C c m y ph t

C c m y t hu

Phn m t t

Hnh 1.1: Cu trc mt h thng thng tin v tinh

1.2. Phn khng gian


1.2.1. Cu trc Phn khng gian l khi nim ch mt phn ca h thng bao gm v tinh v tt c cc thit b tr gip cho hot ng ca n nh cc trm iu khin v trung tm gim st v tinh. Ti cc trung tm ny cc hot ng bm st, o lng t xa v iu khin (TT&C - Tracking Telemetry and Command) s c thc hin nhm mc ch gi cho v tinh c nh, ng thi kim tra c cc thng s hot ng ca n nh nhit antenna, ngun in acquy, nhin liu...

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Tuyn m sng v tuyn c pht t cc trm mt t n antenna thu ca v tinh c gi l tuyn ln (Uplink). Ngc li tuyn m v tinh pht tin cho cc trm mt t s c gi l tuyn xung (Downlink). nh gi cht lng ca tuyn ngi ta hay dng i lng C/N l t s gia cng sut sng mang v cng sut tp m nh hng n sng mang. T s ny trn ton tuyn c quyt nh bi cht lng ca c tuyn ln v tuyn xung, tng ng vi cc iu kin truyn dn ring mi tuyn (nh mi trng trung gian, kiu iu ch, kiu m ha, tnh cht ca thit b thu, v.v...). V tinh bao gm mt phn ti hu ch (Payload) v mt phn nn (Platform). Phn Payload gm antenna v cc thit b in t phc v cho truyn dn thng tin. Phn Platform cha cc thit b bo m cho hot ng ca phn Payload nh l gi , cung cp ngun in, iu khin nhit , iu khin hng v qu o, cc thit b y phn lc, thng cha nhin liu v cc thit b TT&C. Ta thy rng trong qu trnh hot ng v tinh s nh dn i do phi tiu tn nhin liu cho vic iu khin. cho v tinh khng b mt trng tm th qu trnh gim trng lng phi lun phn b u trn ton b th tch ca n. Do bao gi ngi ta cng thit k sao cho cc thng cha nhin liu i xng vi nhau qua trng tm ca v tinh. Thc t nhng thng cha nhin liu nm trong phn Platform chim phn ln khi lng v th tch ca cc v tinh [2]. tin cy ca phn khng gian l mt nhn t quan trng nh gi kh nng hot ng ca c h thng. tin cy ca v tinh ph thuc vo cht lng tt c cc thit b ca n. Khi mt v tinh b hng th khng ch c ngha l cc thit b ca n b hng m c th l do v tinh ht tui th. Mt h thng c tin cy cao khi n c cc bin php d phng tt. Trong cc h thng cao cp, c mt v tinh hot ng th c mt v tinh d phng sn sng trn qu o v mt v tinh d phng di mt t (trong kho). 1.2.2. Vai tr ca trm iu khin Trn l thuyt, cc v tinh chuyn ng vi cc qu o c hnh dng l ng trn hoc ng Ellipse nhng trong thc t cc qu o ny khng c hon ton nh l thuyt do v tinh cn phi chu tc ng ca rt nhiu yu t khch quan nh s thay i ngu nhin lc ht ca tri t, lc hp dn ca cc hnh tinh ln cn,... V vy ngay i vi v tinh a tnh th vn lun c s dao ng

18

xung quanh v tr cn bng ca n. Thm na qu o ca chng cn b nghing (Inclined Orbit). iu ny dn n trong h thng phi c cc trm iu khin v trong cc trm mt t phi c h thng bm.
75km tr t vtinh: B Nam (NS) c 0.05 ng T (EW) y l t : 0.001 ch m

Tri t

0.1
ng X o ch

85km 75km

Qu danh ca vtinh t o nh nh a

Hnh 1.2 : Ca s gi trm i vi v tinh a tnh S dao ng ca v tinh a tnh xung quanh v tr tng i r rng s lm cho thi gian truyn dn gia trm v v tinh lun b thay i. ng thi n cn gy ra hiu ng Doppler i vi sng mang. Tt c nhng nh hng ny u gy nn nhng kh khn cho qu trnh truyn dn v ng b ca h thng, nht l trong cc h thng truyn dn s (Digital Transmission). Ngoi ra trm iu khin cn c chc nng gi antenna thu pht ca v tinh lun hng v vng ph sng trn mt t. Hot ng ca trm iu khin da trn c s cc thng tin o c nhn t rt nhiu b cm bin (sensor) t trn v tinh [2]. 1.2.3. Phn h thng tin ca v tinh Trn mt v tinh thng c hai phn h, l phn h thng tin gm tt c cc thit b phc v cho vic truyn dn tin tc v phn h iu khin c nhim v o lng cc thng s lm vic v iu chnh li cc thng s ny khi c lnh t mt t. Cu trc ca phn h thng tin c th c biu din tng quan bng s khi sau y (Hnh 1.3) 1.2.3.1. B khuch i tp m thp LNA Trong s trn LNA l b khuch i tp m thp (Low Noise Amplifier) c t ngay sau antenna thu ARx c nhim v khuch i bin in p tn hiu

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thu vi mc tp m k sinh rt nh. B LNA ca v tinh thng l kiu c lm lnh bng Nitrogen lng hoc hiu ng nhit in Peltier. B LNA ca v tinh cng ging vi b LNA ca cc ES.

1 FC FU
LN A M IX pPA H YBRID

Tra sp d r n on e M F UX

FLO
O SC

A Rx

n Vtin h

Tra sp d r n on e

Tx

Hnh 1.3: Phn h thng tin ca v tinh 1.2.3.2. B i tn FC (Frequency Converter )

Sau khi c khuch i v bin , tn hiu thu tuyn ln s c trn vi mt tn s chun FLO c to ra bi b dao ng (OSC -Ocsillator) t ngay trn v tinh. Tn s sinh ra ng sau b trn (MIX) l t hp gia tn s tn hiu tuyn ln FU v tn s ngoi sai FLO. Do tn s sng mang ca tuyn ln bao gi cng cao hn tuyn xung cho nn b i tn ca v tinh thng l b i tn xung (Down Convertor). Nguyn tc ca vic trn tn l da vo c tnh truyn t khng tuyn tnh ca cc thit b bn dn, v d nh mt Diode, sinh ra cc t hp tn s mi t hai tn s u vo (FU v FLO). Nguyn tc ny c th gii thch mt cch n gin nh sau [10]: - Gi s tn hiu u vo c dng: v tn hiu ngoi sai c dng: I (t)= Acos[(2 FUt) + U] LO(t) = Bcos[(2 FLOt) + ]
U LO

- Sau khi qua b trn tn hiu u ra s l O(t) = I(t)LO(t). Do : O(t) = ABcos[(2 FUt) + U] cos[(2 FLOt) + O(t) = (AB/2){cos[2 (FU + FLO)t +
LO U LO

LO

] + cos[2 (FU - FLO)t +

]}

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Nh vy ti u ra ca b trn ta c tn hiu O(t) vi bin AB/2 bao gm hai thnh phn tn s l FU + FLO v | FU - FLO |. Bng cc b lc u ra ca b i tn ta c th chn ly mt thnh phn tn s m ta mong mun. Trong thng tin v tinh thng ngi ta chn thnh phn tn s hiu v FLO ln hn FU. Do ta c FD=FLO - FU. V d i vi bng C th FU=6GHz nn FLO phi bng 10GHz FD=4GHz. Ta cng nhn thy rng khi chn pha
LO

ca LO(t)= 0 th pha ca

tn hiu sau khi qua b i tn s khng i v bng U nn n khng gy tr ngi cho cc qu trnh x l pha sau c bit l vic gii iu ch dch mc pha (PSK Phase Shift Keying). Tm li nu gi s thnh phn tn hiu u vo I(t) v thnh phn tn hiu ngoi sai LO(t) c dng nh trn th ti u ra ca b i tn ta s c tn hiu O(t) l: O(t) = Kcos[2 (FLO - FU)t + U] (vi
LO

=0 v K=AB/2)

1.2.3.3. B khuch i tin cng sut PPA v b phn chia HIBRID B khuch i tin cng sut PPA (Prior Power Amplifier) c chc nng khuch i s b cng sut tn hiu i ra t b i tn ti mc ln c th phn chia cho cc Transponder. Vic phn chia ny c thc hin nh b HIBRID gm c n u ra tng ng vi s Transponder ca v tinh. Cng sut ti mi u ra ca b HIBRID do nh hn n ln so vi cng sut ti u vo ca n. 1.2.3.4. Cc b pht p (Transponder) Bng tn rt rng ca v tinh c chia lm cc bng nh hn (v d rng khong 40 MHz). Mi bng ny c phn phi cho mi b pht p ca n cn gi l knh v tinh (Satellite Channel). Mi mt knh v tinh li c th mang rt nhiu knh s liu v knh thoi t nhng ngi s dng. Trn thc t do phi c khong bo v gia cc b pht p cho nn di tn thc t m cc b pht p s dng thng nh hn (36MHz). Cc b pht p c vai tr nh l cc knh chuyn tip thng tin. Chng lm vic trong nhng di tn ring nh cc b lc thng di BPF t ngay ti u vo. Sau khi x l b nh b tr, b tn s... tn hiu trong mi b pht p s c a qua b khuch i cng sut cao HPA u ra khuch i ln trc khi pht li hng xung. B HPA ca mi knh v tinh thng l loi n sng chy TWTA vi d phng 5:1 v hin nay bt u s dng loi HPA bn dn SSPA. D nhn thy rng trong trng hp h thng dng k thut s dng li tn s (Reuse) th s hnh 3 mi ch l mt na phn h thng tin ca v tinh dnh cho mt phn cc. Na cn li ca phn cc kia c s tng t.

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1.2.3.5. B ghp cng sut (MUX): Trc khi ra antenna pht ATx tn hiu ca cc Transponder cc bng tn con khc nhau phi c ghp li vi nhau. Yu cu ghp phi m bo lm sao cho s can nhiu gia cc knh v tinh l thp nht v mc cng sut ca chng ng u nhau trong tn hiu tng hp. C nhiu k thut c ng dng cho b MUX m trong c th k n mt thit b thng dng l b CIRCULATOR.

1.3. Phn mt t
Phn mt t bao gm tt c cc trm mt t (ES - Earth Station) ca h thng. Thng thng chng c ni vi thit b u cui ca ngi s dng thng qua mt mng mt t c dy hoc khng dy. Trong mt s trng hp chng ni trc tip vi thit b ca ngi s dng (VSAT). Cc ES ni vi ngi s dng qua mng thng l cc trm ln c dung lng cao phc v nhiu khch hng mt lc. Ngc li, cc trm VSAT li l cc trm nh dung lng thp v ch phc v mt s lng hn ch ngi dng. Hin nay, cc dch v VSAT ang rt ph bin v pht trin nn cc trm mt t VSAT c rt nhiu quan tm nghin cu. Cc trm mt t c th phn bit theo kch c ca chng. Kch c ny ph thuc vo dung lng truyn ti v kiu tin tc ca mi trm (thoi, truyn hnh hay s liu). Cc trm ln nht c trang b antenna ng knh 30m nh cc ES tiu chun A ca h thng INTELSAT th h c. Cc trm nh nht antenna ch c 0.6 m v d nh cc trm thu truyn hnh trc tip t v tinh. Nhn chung do k thut ngy cng pht trin nn kch c ca cc ES ngy cng nh li. V d hin nay trm chun A ca INTELSAT ch cn c antenna ng knh t 15 n 18m. Cc trm mt t thng c c my pht v my thu trao i tin tc vi v tinh. Mt s trm khc ch c my thu nh trong trng hp trm khai thc cc dch v qung b t v tinh hoc l trm phn phi cc dch v truyn hnh v s liu ti khch hng. Hnh 1.4 cho ta thy cu trc tng quan ca mt trm mt t thng dng. K thut v trm mt t c bit quan trng cho nhng ngi khai thc h thng thng tin v tinh bi v n gn lin vi h. Cc thng s ca trm mt t, cc tnh cht tn hiu v cc qu trnh x l tn hiu ti trm mt t nh l ghp knh, gy mo trc, gii mo trc, nn gin, m ho, chng li, phn tn cng sut, bo mt (encryption),... [2]

22

E
Cp n u g n b m st DP E E I L XR l n o g & i k i n u h

HA P

K i uch h i tru g t n n

Tnh u i Bn gc g

(T n d g) g i n

L A N

K i g i u h i i ch tru g t ( T i n d n ) n n g i g

Hnh 1.4: Cu trc c bn ca mt trm mt t

1.4. Phn cc ca sng mang trn tuyn thng tin v tinh


Sng in t bao gi cng c mt thnh phn in trng v mt thnh phn t trng c hng vung gc nhau v vung gc vi phng truyn sng. Theo quy c, phn cc ca sng c nh ngha bi hng ca vector cng in trng. Ni chung hng ca in trng khng c nh v bin ca n cng khng phi l hng s. Khi truyn sng in t, u mt ca vector cng in trng thng vch ra mt hnh ellipse do gi l phn cc ellipse [2]. Phn cc ca sng in t c 3 thng s c bn sau: - Hng quay vector cng in trng: theo tay phi hoc theo tay tri (tc l cng hoc ngc chiu kim ng h - Clockwise or Counter Clockwise). - T s trc AR (Axial Ratio): AR=EMAX/EMIN l t s gia trc ln v trc nh ca ellipse phn cc. Khi AR=1 hay 0dB th ng ellipse tr thnh ng trn v phn cc c gi l phn cc trn. Khi AR= th ng ellipse tr thnh mt ng thng v phn cc c gi l phn cc thng. - Khi dng cng ngh truyn dn s dng li tn s (Reuse) th ngi ta phi dng n hai sng mang c phn cc vung gc nhau v lc khng th phn bit sng mang qua tn s. Hai sng in t c gi l vung gc nhau khi chng c cc ellipse phn cc vung gc nhau hay nghing ca 2 ellipse lch nhau 90.

23

Nhiu khi nhng tuyn gy xuyn cc ln ngi ta phi s dng thm s phn bit v chiu quay vector cng in trng. Mt sng mang quay theo tay phi cn sng mang vung gc vi n quay theo tay tri. c bit khi s dng phn cc trn th ch c th phn bit v chiu quay ca vector phn cc. Khi sng mang c vector E quay theo tay phi gi l Y RHCP (Right Hand Circular Polarisation) v sng mang c vector E quay theo tay tri gi EMAX E l LHCP (Left Hand Circular Polarisation). Cc phn cc trn LHCP v RHCP hin X ang c dng rt ph bin trong thng tin H ng v tinh, c bit trong cc h thng dng li EMIN truy sng n tn s. Hai phn cc thng gi l vung gc H 1.5: Ph cc Ellips nh n e nhau khi c mt phn cc hng theo chiu thng ng (Vertical), phn cc kia hng theo chiu nm ngang (Horizontal) trong mt h quy chiu no .

1.5. Cc di tn s s dng trong thng tin v tinh


phn phi tn s ngi ta chia th gii ra lm ba khu vc nh sau: - Khu vc 1: bao gm Chu u, Chu Phi vng Trung ng v Nga - Khu vc 2: bao gm cc nc Chu M - Khu vc 3: bao gm cc nc Chu tr vng Trung ng, Nga v Chu i Dng. Tn s phn phi cho mt dch v no c th ph thuc vo khu vc. Trong mt khu vc mt dch v c th c dng ton b bng tn ca khu vc ny hoc phi chia s vi cc dch v khc. Cc dch v c nh s dng cc bng tn sau: - Khong 6GHz cho tuyn ln v 4GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng 6/4 GHz hay bng C. Bng tn ny c cc h thng c s dng, v d nh h thng INTELSAT, cc h thng ni a ca M,... v hin nay c xu hng bo ha. - Khong 8GHz cho tuyn ln v 7 GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng 8/7 GHz hay bng X. Bng tn ny c dnh ring cho chnh ph s dng.

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- Khong 14GHz cho tuyn ln v 11 hoc 12GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng 14/12GHz - 14/11GHz hay bng Ku. Bng tn ny c cc h thng mi hin nay s dng v d nh h thng EUTELSAT, TELECOM I v II, v.v... - Khong 30GHz cho tuyn ln v 20 KHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng 30/20GHz hay bng Ka. Bng tn ny hin nay mi ch s dng cho cc h thng cao cp, cc cuc th nghim v dnh cho tng lai. - Cc bng tn cao hn 30GHz hin ang c nghin cu v chc chn s c dng rt ph bin trong tng lai. Cc dch v di ng dng v tinh s dng bng tn khong 1.6GHz cho tuyn ln v 1.5GHz cho tuyn xung. Bng tn ny c gi l bng 1.6/1.5 GHz hay bng L. Cc dch v qung b qua v tinh ch c tuyn xung v s dng bng tn vo khong 12GHz.

1.6. Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng tuyn thng tin v tinh [2] [10]
1.6.1. Gii thiu Mc ch ca phn tch h thng ng truyn thng tin l nhm t c kt qu cao ca mt tn hiu khi n c truyn t mt trm ny n mt trm khc. Bi v mt ng truyn v tinh tn hiu s b suy yu trong qu trnh truyn do nh hng ca khng kh, nhit , tng in ly v nhiu gia cung on tri mt t v v tinh. Tuy nhin nhn chung thng s ng ln, xung v tinh l nhng nh hng chnh. Chng ta xt ng truyn v tinh c bn c chia lm ba phn: - Trm pht mt t v cc yu t lin quan vi ng ln. - H thng v tinh. - Cc yu t lin quan vi ung xung v trm thu mt t. 1.6.2. Trm mt t v cc yu t lin quan 1.6.2.1. H s tng ch anten Anten c nhim v nh hng tn hiu t my pht ti v tinh vi hiu xut cao nht, sau tn hiu c khuych i ri pht li ti nhng trm thu khc. Nu ngun ny khng nh hng th n s bc x phn tn. nh hng tn hiu, anten c h s tng ch c tnh nh sau: GdBi = 10*log + 20*log + 20*log D + 20.4dB H s tng ch 1m2 anten vi hiu sut 100% l: G1mdBi = 20*log + 21.4dB. Trong : l hiu sut anten D l ng knh anten (1) (2)

25

l tn s hot ng. 20.4dB l hng s tnh t 10log[(1*109* )/c ]. Phng trnh trn cho thy G ph thuc vo ng knh anten v tn s hot ng. 1.6.2.2. Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (EIRP) Ngun cng xut cao tn bc x trn mt n v gc c nh ca anten v hng c tnh bng: PT / 4 (W) i vi anten nh hng, gi tr tng ch ca anten pht l GT th cng sut pht x trn mt n v gc c tnh: PT GT / 4 (W) H s tng ch anten (GT )l tham s chnh, nh hng n hiu qu ca vic s dng ngun nng lng cao tn (RF) t my pht. Tch PT GT c gi l cng xut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP). Do vy EIRP c hiu nh l hm ca h s tng ch anten pht GT v cng sut pht PT ca anten pht. EIRP = PT*GT (3) Trong : PT l cng sut pht tnh bng W GT l h s tng ch pht. EIRP phi c iu chnh tht chnh xc bi v EIRP cao s gy nhiu sng mang ph cn, cn nu EIRP thp s cho cht lng tn hiu km i.
GT=1

Hnh 1.6: Anten v hng

Cng xut bc x trn mt n v gc c nh (unit solid angle): PT/4

Khong cch R

H s bc x ti vng din tch A khong cch R: A/R2 Hnh 1.7: Anten trn thc t
Cng sut bc x trn n v gc c nh: (PT/4 )GT Cng sut thu trn vng din tch A: (PT/4 )GT (A/R2) = [(PTGT)/ 4 R2] A = A

26

nh hng ln mt n v in tch A ca b mt anten thu t cch anten pht mt khong cch R, h s bc x l A/R2. Cng sut thu c l: Pr= (PT*GT/4 )(A/R2)= A (W) i lng = (PT*GT/4 R2) c gi l mt ph cng sut c tnh bng n v W/m2 1.6.2.3. Suy hao truyn dn v suy hao khng gian t do Nu mt anten ng hng pht x cng sut PT , ngun tn hiu s phn b theo hnh cu trong anten l tm. Mt cng xut bc x khong cch R so vi im truyn dn c xc nh theo phng trnh sau: W = PT/ 4 R2 thnh: W = ( GT*PT )/ 4 R2 (W/m2) (5) (6) WdB = EIRP - 20*logR - 71dB Trong : GT*PT l EIRP W Cng bc x ti khong cch R. R Khong cch ti cc im trong khng gian t do 71dB c tnh t 10log(4 * 106) Khi anten thu nhn tn hiu, s lng tn hiu nhn c s ph thuc vo kch c ca anten. Cng sut u thu s l: PR = W*Ae (7) Trong : Ae Din tch hiu dng ca anten Ae = GR/(4 / 2) (m2) T : PR = [GT*PT/4 R2] *[( 2/4 ) GR]. (W) (8) (9) PR = [GT*PT]*[ /4 R]2*GR PR = [GT*PT]*(1/ L0) *GR Tnh theo n v dB: L0 = 20logR + 20log + 92.5 dB . Trong : l tn s hot ng tnh bng Ghz. 92.5dB l hng s tnh t 20log[(4 *109*103)] Phng trnh (9) c biu th theo dB: (10) (4) Khi anten pht tp trung c nng lng (c h s tng ch) phng trnh s

Biu thc (4 R/ )2 c xem nh l suy hao trong khng gian t do L0.

27

PR dBW = EIRP - L0 + G R (11) phng trnh ny nu GR l h s tng ch cho 1m2 anten vi hiu sut 100%. PR s tr thnh cng bc x trn 1 n v, v vy cng bc x trong phng trnh (6) c bin i l: WdBW/m2 = EIRP - L0 + G1m2 (12) 1.6.2.4. Khong cch t v tinh ti trm mt t Khong cch R t v tinh ti trm mt t c th tnh : R = [r2 + S2 - 2rS(Cos C )]1/2. (13) Trong : r: Bn knh qu o tri t (6,378.14km) S: Bn knh v tinh qu o ng b a tnh (42,164.57km) 1: L v tuyn trm mt t
S1

: L kinh tuyn v tinh

e: L kinh tuyn trm mt t 1.6.2.5. Cc suy hao ph Sng in t s dng trong thng tin v tinh chu nh hng ca cc tc ng nh: tiu hao hp th do tng in ly, kh quyn v ma cng nh tp m gy ra t bn ngoi bi tng in li, kh quyn, ma v mt t. N trc tip lm suy hao sng n hay sng i vi c ly ng truyn xa. Do vy ngoi suy hao trong khng gian t do L 0 sng in t cn ph thuc cc yu t khc nh nh hng ca khng kh, ma v s hp th hay phn x ca tng in li. Vi tn s trong khong 1Ghz n 10Ghz th khong suy hao kt hp gia ma v tng in li l khng ng k. Tn s cng cao (ln hn10Ghz) th s suy hao do ma cng ln. 1.6.3. Cc yu t lin quan ng xung v trm thu mt t 1.6.3.1. Tr s G/T ( c trng nhy my thu) Trong cc h thng truyn dn, nhiu l nh hng ln nht i vi cht lng ca ng truyn. G/T dB/K c xem nh l phm cht cho h thng thu. V tinh thng tin yu cu gi tr G/T c th cho cc tiu chun trm mt t c a ra trong tiu chun IESS. iu ny cng c ngha l cc trm khng gian cn cung cp nhng thng s G/T cn thit cho trm mt t. V tinh thng tin s cung cp y yu cu k thut p ng nhng c tnh ca mi dch v.

28

1.6.3.2. Nhit tp m L tp m do chuyn ng hn lon ca cc in tch gy ra. Mc d tp m trong thng tin v tinh do nhiu ngun to ra nhng cng sut ca n rt nh. Nhit tp m dng lm n v thun tin biu th cng sut nhit tp m T theo cng thc: Pn = KTB (W) (14) Trong : Pn: Cng xut tap m K: Hng s Bolzman(1.374*10-23J/K) T : Nhit nhiu tuyt i B: rng bng (Hz) Mt anten c tr khng Za s l ngun nhiu cho my thu. Nhng bn thn trm thu l mt b phn hot ng ca h thng s trc tip to nhiu ti n. Do tng nhiu s c ti u ra ni thu l: Nt = (KTB)* G + N. (15) Trong : (KTB)*G : nhiu u vo trm thu, nhiu b phn qua h s tng ch ni nhn v c iu chnh u ra ni thu. N: nhiu u ra ni thu N = KTeB. Te: L nhit tp tng ng ni thu Te = (F-1)T0 (16) F: s nhiu trong 1 n v T0: Nhit tuyt i (290 Kelvin) 1.6.3.3. Nhit h thng Nhit tp m h thng ca mt trm mt t bao gm: Nhit tp m u thu, nhit tp m ca anten (Tant), k c feed, ng dn sng v nhiu bu tri u tc dng n h thng thu ca anten. Tsystem = Tant /L + (1 - 1/L)*T0 + Te (17) Trong : L: H s suy hao feed Tant: Nhit tp m anten pht Phng trnh ny cho thy feed v ng dn sng c nh hng rt ln n h thng nhit tp m. 1.6.3.4. Tnh t s G/T Sau tt c tnh ton trn cho thy d dng tnh c: G/T dB/K = GdBi - 10logTsystem (18)

29

Khi h s tng ch anten l tn s c lp th G/T phi n gin ho tn s bit (thng l 4 hoc 11 Ghz) bng cch p dng phng trnh (18). 20*logf/f0 (f 0 l 4 hoc 11 Ghz) y f l tn s o bng Ghz. 1.6.3.5.T s sng mang trn nhiu Mt trong nhng thng s tnh ton mt ng truyn l cng sut sng mang thu c trn cng sut tng nhiu u thu (C/N) c nh ngha l: C/N = PR/Pn (19) Vi PRv Pn c nh ngha phng trnh (6) v (14) c th: C/N = (EIRP*GR)/(KTsystemB).L0 (20) Tnh theo n v dB: C/N dB = EIRPdb L0 dB + G/T dB/K 10logK 10logB (21) (-10logK = +228.6dBW/K) Trong : rng bng tn sng mang (i vi sng mang s t l truyn dn B=0.6). rng bng tn u thu (B) thng ph thuc vo sng mang iu ch. Thng thng tch thng s nng lng ng truyn bng cch gin ho s ph thuc bng tn. Mi quan h mi s l t s sng mang trn nhiu (C/N0). C/N0 dBHz = EIRPdB L0 dB +G/TdB/K 10logK. (22) n gin ho c th tnh cho sng mang trn nhit tp m. C/TdB/K = EIRPdB L0 + G/TdB/K (23) Vi cng bc x truyn dn W c th c tnh: C/TdB/K = WdBW/m2 + G/T dB/K G1m2 (24) 1.6.3.6. Phn b nhiu khc (Other noise contribution) tnh c tng nhiu ca ng truyn v t c th tnh c cht lng ng truyn Th tt c phn b nhiu cc ngun khc nhau phi c tnh n. V d nhiu xuyn iu ch (Intermodulation noise) HPA(C/THPAIM) ca trm mt t, khuych i u ra ca v tinh (C/TSATIM), nhiu do phn cc ho tn hiu trong cc mng ging nhau (C/TCo) v nhiu do v tinh (C/Tup) cng nh nhiu do ng xung trm thu (C/TDOWN). Thng tin v tinh c a ra t bng IESS410 v nhng thng tin ny c i sang C/T bng cc cch: - nhiu xuyn iu ch (Intermodulation noise) trong b khuych i cng sut v tinh:

30

Thng tin trong bng IESS410 cho mi bc x v tinh. gi tr ny c a dB/4Khz, chuyn i sang C/T chng ta c dng cng thc: C/TSATIM = EIRPSAT - (gi tr SATIM) + 10log4Khz - 228.6 dBW/K (25) Trong : EIRPSAT = EIRP sng mang gi tr SATIM: l gi tr nhiu xuyn iu ch to ra b pht p v tinh - Nhiu xuyn u ch t cc tn hiu phn cc trc giao: Thng tin v nhiu hp knh c a ra bng IESS410 cho mi bc x v tinh. Gi tr ny a ra t s sng mang trn nhiu (C/I) dB. Do chuyn i sang C/T ta phi s dng: C/TCo = C/IdB + 10log (BW chim trong sng mang) - 228.6 db (26) y BW chim trong sng mang xc nh sng mang cn tnh ton. - Nhiu xuyn u ch trong HPA trm mt t. Gi tr ny c chuyn i nu li HPA thp hn 7dB trong b hot ng a sng mang (multicarrier operation). y tiu chun IESS phi p ng: EIRPIM 4Khz = EIRPIM - 10log(IM bng tn 4Khz) (27) C/TIM E/S = EIRP(sng mang kim tra)- EIRPIM4Khz + 10log4Khz -228.6dB (28) Trong : EIRPIM l EIRP nhiu xuyn iu ch iu chnh u ra HPA EIRPIM4Khz : EIRP nhiu xuyn iu ch c i sang rng bng tn 4Khz. V d: tnh EIRP IM: Vi EIRP sng mang = 63.9 dBW Mc IM cao = 38.9dBW bng tn 2MHz. S dng phng trnh (27) ta c: EIRPIM 4Khz= 38.9 dBW - 10log(2M/4Khz) = 38.9 dBW - 27.0 dB S dng phng trnh (28) ta c: C/TIM E/S = 63.9dBW - 11.9dBW/4Khz + 36dB - 228.6dB C/TIM E/S = - 140.6 dBW/K. a. Can nhiu vi ng thng tin viba trn mt t C hai trng hp mt ng thng tin viba trn mt t can nhiu vi mt h thng thng tin v tinh. Trng hp 1: ng thng tin viba mt t c cng tn s lm vic vi ng ln ca h thng thng tin v tinh, bi vy tn hiu viba mt t c trn vi tn hiu u vo my thu v tinh.

31

Trng hp 2: Hai ng thng tin mt t c tn s bng tn s ng xung ca h thng thng tin v tinh, bi vy u vo my thu trm mt t cng b trn vi tn hiu ca ng thng tin viba mt t. Trong trng hp u anten ca ng thng tin mt t c iu khin sao cho khng hng vo qu o v tinh a tnh, nh vy can nhiu c gim nh. trng hp sau, c th c kh nng pht sinh can nhiu mnh ln h thng thng tin v tinh, ph thuc vo v tr cc trm mt t. trn cp n can nhiu ca ng thng tin viba mt t vi h thng thng tin v tinh. Ngc li, can nhiu gia h thng thng tin v tinh vi ng viba trn mt t cng l mt vn . c bit l khi my pht ca trm mt t lm vic cng tn s vi ng thng tin viba mt t, c kh nng mt tn hiu can nhiu mnh s trn ln vi tn hiu ng thng tin mt t. b. S can nhiu vi v tinh bn cnh: Hnh v di y cho ta thy can nhiu xy ra gia cc h thng thng tin v tinh. Nu chng ta xem xt tn hiu can nhiu t h thng v tinh 1 ln h thng v tinh 2, can nhiu xy ra nu bc x cch trc chnh t trm mt t 2 chiu vo v tinh 1 v anten thu ca v tinh 1 cng nhy cm vi hng trm mt t 2 trn ng ln. Trong khi ng xung can nhiu xy ra khi anten pht ca v tinh 2 cng chiu vo trm mt t 1 v anten thu ca trm mt t 1 cng thu c hng ca v tinh 2. Cng sut ca sng can nhiu gim khi gc tng v h s tng ch ca anten trm mt t gim. T s cng sut ca sng hu ch trn sng can nhiu gia cc h thng thng tin v tinh trong thc t c th t 30dB (1000ln) hoc ln hn khi hai v tinh t cch nhau khong 20 trn qu o, ngay c nu cc anten ca chng cng chiu vo mt v tr [2].

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V tinh 2 V tinh 1 Qu o a tnh ng tn hiu mong mun ng tn hiu can nhiu th bc x Trm mt t 1 Trm mt t 2

Hnh 1.8: Can nhiu gia cc h thng thng tin v tinh. c. Tp m Tp m c hiu l tn hiu khng mong mun c trong lung tn hiu thu v, tp m lm gim cht lng thng tin, v d nh tp m lm gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu S/N, hoc lm gim t s sng mang trn tp m, tng tn hiu li bt ng truyn. Trn thc t i vi cc h thng tin khc th tp m thng rt nh so vi tn hiu hu ch, nhng trn tuyn thng tin v tinh, tn hiu hu ch thu c thng rt nh, trong khi tp m th li rt ln do khong cch truyn ca thng tin rt di (khong cch 37000km). Tp m cn c gp nht bi anten t mi trng truyn sng, suy hao do ma. Tn hiu thu v xem nh b chm trong tp m. V th nghin cu tp m l mt vn rt quan trng khng th thiu trong thng tin v tinh. - Tp m v tr: Tp m v tr hnh thnh do nhiu bc x cao tn t cc di ngn h, pht x ca mt trng, tc ng mnh di tn di 10GHz. - Tp m kh quyn: xy, ni t, hi nc, sng m, c trong kh quyn hp th nng lng sng in t c tn s xp x bng tn s dao ng ca cc phn t kh ni trn khi sng in t truyn qua n, chnh s hp th ny lm cho sng in

33

t b suy yu i v tp m cng sinh ra t . Trong thng tin v tinh di tn t 1 n 10Ghz khi gc ngng ca anten di 5o th mc suy hao do nh hng tng i lu s nh hn 1,5dB. Suy hao do my m vo khong 1dB trong di tn 4-6Ghz (bng C) v suy hao khong 3dB trong di tn 7Ghz v nh hn 6dB di tn 10Ghz. - Tp m do ma: Sng in t khng nhng b suy hao do ma m cn cng thm tp m sinh ra do cc bc x siu cao ca ma, thm vo nhit nc ma cng l ngun tp m nhit. C th ni trong cc ngun tp m trong thng tin v tinh th tp m do ma sinh ra cn phi lu nht. Do trong tnh ton tuyn truyn thng tin v tinh, m bo cht lng thng tin ngi ta phi c tnh ton n s d tr cho ma v y cng l mt bi ton rt phc tp. - Tp m tri t: Mt t phn x sng in t i vi cc bp sng ph ca anten trm mt t, cc bp sng ph ny gy ra tp m nh hng trc tip t mt t v tp m kh quyn t phn x t mt t. Nhit tp m do nh hng ca tri t trong khong t 3-25K. - Tp m nhit: Tp m sinh ra do hot ng ngu nhin ca cc in t t do ca cc vt dn in, khi chuyn ng cc in t ny va chm vi cc nguyn t v sinh ra tp m nhit, Mc d khi cc vt dn h mch, cc in t chuyn ng hn lon vn sinh ra tp m nhit. 1.6.4. Tham s ca b pht p h thng v tinh nh hng n tuyn truyn Khi phn tch ng truyn cho v tinh ta phi tnh ng truyn cho tuyn ln, tuyn xung v ti h thng v tinh. Tnh ton ng truyn ti h thng v tinh ch yu l b pht p, thu nhn ng truyn tuyn ln ri pht p xung trm thu bng phng tin ng xung. B pht p v tinh thc hin chc nng pht li tn hiu in t. Chng nhn tn hiu t trm pht sau khuych i, i tn ri truyn li trm thu mt t. Ngun t v tinh c chia ra nhiu trm mt t vi nhng chun khc nhau (A, B, C, D, E v F) v theo l nhng v tinh khc nhau. Vi rng bng tn 51.2 Khz (cho sng mang 64kbit/s vi 3/4 FEC) cho mt b pht p. Theo rng bng tn, cc thng s c chia ra l: A. Mt bo ho (dBW/m2) B. T s G/T nhn C. EIRP bo ho (dB/ K) ( dBW)

34

Mt bo ho l tng mt pht ra ngun chuyn ti v tinh t trm pht mt t, ni pht ra EIRP bo ho ti v tinh. 1.6.4.1. im hot ng ca b pht p V khuych i cng sut u ra b pht p phi l b tuyn tnh. N phi c hot ng nh im bo ho trnh bin dng phi tuyn. Do vy u vo v li u ra (input and output back off) phi t c im. y l mt s lng ph ngun c sn trong TWTA chnh. Hai phng php s dng ti thiu ho ngun lng ph do li u vo (back off). Phng php mt l s dng SSPA nh l khuych i ngun ra. Phng php hai l khi p dng ngun cao cn phi s dng cc TWTA. Nhng khi s dng TWTA th cn phi s dng n hiu chnh ng nt. C hai u tng c trng h pht p IM. li u vo IBO (input backoff) l t s ca mt thng lng hot ng ca sng mang a n. li u ra OBO (output backoff) l t s ca EIRP bo ho trn EIRP hot ng ca sng mang a n. li u ra bo ho c tnh theo: OBO = IBO - X (29) Trong : X l t s nn h s tng ch gia li u ra v u vo. Gi tr ny khc vi mt sng mang n v a sng mang hot ng. Gi tr ny ly chun IESS410. V d: X= 5.5 dB cho 1 TWTA trong INTELSAT VI HEMI/HEMI X= 1.8 dB cho 1 SSPA trong INTELSAT VII HEM/ZONE (v trong mt s trng hp ca INTELSAT VI) X= 1.7 dB cho 1 LTWTA trong INTELSAT VII-A ku sport 1.6.4.2. EIRP hot ng ca b pht p EIRP v tinh hot ng (EIRPop) c tnh theo phng trnh (30): EIRPop = EIRPbo ho - OBO (30) TWTA transfer characteristic 1.6.4.3. Mt thng lng cng sut v tinh b mt tri t Th nhiu to ra bi mt v tinh pht v hn ch ti a ho mt thng lng cng sut a ra mt s v tinh ti b mt tri t. Vic hn ch vng ny s thay i c chc nng ca gc m. Bng di y cho thy mt thng lng cng sut (PAD) gii hn b mt tri t nh l hm ca gc m v c xt rng bng tn 4Khz.

35

mi trng hp c th nh gi c bng cch p dng cng thc: PAD4Khz = W - 10log(B/4 Khz) (31) Trong : W: Cng bc x tnh cho ng xung B: rng bng tn chim trong sng mang. Bng tn (Ghz) 3.4 - 7.75 8.025 - 11.7 12.2 - 12.75 Mt thng lng cng sut ti a (dBW/m2) 0< < 5 5< < 25 25< < 90 Bng chun -125 -142 4Khz -150+0.5( - 150 - 148 5) -150+0.5( 5) -148+0.5( 5) -140 -138 4Khz 4Khz

Kt lun: Vic thit lp tuyn thng tin v tinh cn phi xem xt n cc yu t nh hng, nhng vn lin quan n cht lng, bng thng v iu kin lm vic. H thng VSAT (Verry Small Apecture Terminal) l mt h thng thng tin v tinh vi cc trm u cui c khu nh, cung cp cc ng truyn s liu v in thoi s qua v tinh ch cn s dng cc ng ten c ng knh tng i nh. Tt c cc nc cng nghip pht trin u coi v tinh l mt mi nhn ca ngnh Vin thng v nc ta khng nm ngoi xu th ny. Mng thng tin v tinh VSAT c trin khai Vit Nam t nm 1996, l mng VSAT DAMA, p ng c nhu cu thng tin nhiu a hnh kh khn him tr, s dng trong nhng tnh hung khn cp, khc phc hu qu thin tai. Chng tip theo s trnh by v h thng thng tin v tinh VSAT ti Vit Nam.

36

CHNG 2 MNG VSAT DAMA TI VIT NAM 2.1. c im chung ca mng VSAT [1]
H thng VSAT c cc trm u cui cung cp cc ng truyn s liu v in thoi s qua v tinh s dng cc anten c ng knh tng i nh. S xut hin ca n khng nh hng ti cc mng hin c m n cn h tr tng tnh linh hot cho mng. N cung cp cc tnh nng u vit cho cc khch hng s dng. Mt mng VSAT bao gm: Mt v tinh thng tin, mt trm trung tm (HUB) vi anten khong t 4,5m n 11m v mt mng gm nhiu trm u cui VSAT (cc trm Remote) vi cc anten nh (thng t 0,9 n 2,4m). Mng VSAT DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access: a truy cp n nh theo yu cu) ti Vit Nam bao gm 01 trm ch c t ti Si Gn, c ng knh ng ten 7.2m Trm ch (HUB) kim sot, iu khin cc trm thu bao + Trm con c 1 ti 4 cc knh CU (Channel Unit), m trch cc phng thc truyn tin. + nh dng tn s pht - thu cho my, phng thc iu ch QPSK hay BPSK tc d liu cho cc loi thu bao khc nhau, nh mc pht, mc thu cao tn ln v tinh. Kim sot ton b mc tn s, bng tn sng mang, ph hp vi nhng qui nh khai thc v tinh ca h thng. Lm iu bi phn mm iu khin v qun l mng (NCS: Network Control System) t trm ch.Ti y sau khi ci t tt c cc yu cu k thut vo b vi x l vo cc thoi th c hiu l knh thoi (VCU: Voice Channel Unit) hay vo cc s liu th c hiu l knh s liu (DCU:Data Channel Unit). Tm li mt cc hot ng nh th no l do vic ci t ti trm ch. - kim sot t xa cc trm con, theo mt chu k thi gian ngn qui nh trm ch cp nhp tnh trng trm con ca mnh, pht hin cc vn s c v trao i thng tin vi nhau. C th t th ni vng v (loopback) t xa kim tra mi thng s k thut. Cc s kin ang xy ra v xy ra ca thit b trm con u c thng tin y . - Vic iu khin cung cp tn s pht v thu qua v tinh i vi hng trm trm con nh vy kh phc tp. H thng NCS kim sot mng s ch cho pht ln v tinh khi hai trm con c yu cu kt ni thng tin v ngt sng mang pht ln

37

hai trm khi mt trong hai trm c yu cu ngng kt ni. Nh vy mi m bo p ng c nhiu trm con. H thng VSAT DAMA c thit lp nhm cung cp dch v thoi cng nh phi thoi. i vi cc ng dng thoi (voice) n hot ng nh mt tng i in thoi: thc hin cc chc nng cung cp ng truyn, chuyn mch, ghi nhn v tnh cc. Hn th na h thng VSAT cn c th s dng cung cp cc ng truyn s liu vi cc t 9.6kbps n 64kbps. im khc bit so vi cc h thng VSAT khc ang s dng ti Vit Nam l ng truyn trong h thng VSAT DAMA c cc sng mang v tinh truyn theo phng thc SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier): mi mt sng mang mang thng tin c s ho (Digital Signal) trn mt knh t thu bao ny n thu bao kia. - H thng iu khin NCS c th trao i thng tin vi cc trm Remote bng hai knh iu khin:Outbound Channel (OCC) truyn d liu t NCS n Remote v Inbound Channel(ICC) t trm Remote n NCS. - Mi cc knh (CU) u ging nhau v mt cu trc in vt l tu thuc vo vic lp trnh phn mm ti NCS, NCS s qui nh tng cc hot ng vi nhiu cu hnh khc nhau thc hin cc chc nng khc nhau: CCU (Control Channel Unit) cho knh iu khin, VCU cho mch thoi, DCU cho mch truyn s liu. + Mt trm con ch c mt chassis, mi chassis c th c ti a 4 cc CU. Mi CU (card) c cc giao tip: (i) Giao tip hai dy cho cc my l. (ii) Giao tip E&M vi tng i. (iii) Giao tip RS 232 thit lp cu hnh, iu khin. Bng thng (Bandwidth) ca mt knh ph thuc vo cc yu t tc d liu, phng thc sa li FEC v cc kiu iu ch. Cc mch c cng mt ch lm vic (tc d liu (bit rate), FEC, v phng thc iu ch ) c tp trung trong mt tp hp cc cp tn s c xc nh trc. Bng qu trnh thc hin s phi ghp kh nng bo hiu v kt ni theo yu cu gia cc u cui thu bao xa (Remote Terminal: RT), nh gn cc tn s hoc cc khe thi gian ti cc RT tng ng), NCS s xc nh v ch nh tn s cho cc cc knh thu bao xa (Remote CU). Sau khi xc nh c tn s lm vic, cc Remote CU s thc hin truyn n thng tin ca khch hng. Khi cuc gi kt

38

thc, CU s thng bo vi NCS gii to cp tn s dnh cho cc khch hng khc s dng.

V tinh
Mng thoi
u cui v tuyn Thit b trong nh (IDU) Chuyn mch trm trung tm

cng cng

u cui v tuyn (ODU)

Thoi

Thit b bn tronng (IDU) Trm REMOTE u cui v tuyn

cui

v tuyn Khi iu khin knh (Truyn vo) Khi iu khin knh (Truyn vo) Khi iu khin knh (Truyn ra) B s l iu khin mng (NCP)

Thoi
My tnh

Thit b bn trong Trm REMOTE

Bn iu khin mng

Khi s l DAMA (DPU )

Thoi Thoi Thoi FAX

2W u cui v
tuyn

4W

Thit b trong nh

Tng i PABX

Trm REMOTE

H thng iu khin, qun l mng

My ch

Hnh 2.1: Tng quan h thng

COMMERCIAL PABX

39

2.2. Trm HUB


2.2.1. Phn cng

My tnh ch

Cc b x l ch

Cc b gii iu ch Cc b iu ch

Thit b RF

My tnh (nms) Thit b khch hng Thit b trung tm

Hnh 2.2 B tr trm trung tm(HUB) ca VSAT Trm trung tm gm 3 phn chnh [1]: RFT (u cui tn s v tuyn) thit b bng c s ca trm trung tm v giao din khch hng. Phn RFT bao gm 1 anten parabol kch thc 7,2m v thit b in t tn s cao (RF) thng c c trng cho cc trm mt t ln (b chuyn i ln, b chuyn i xung, b khuch i tp m thp LNA, v b khuych i cng sut cao HPA ). Thit b bng c s trung tm bao gm cc b iu ch cn thit truyn thng vi cc trm thu bao u xa cng nh giao thc phi ghp ca mng: s liu cn gi i c m ho cung cp c ch sa sai trc tip v c iu ch cho php truyn thng trn mt tn s v tinh n nh trc. Sau ti u thu thng tin c gii iu ch.

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2.2.2. Phn mm. S iu khin v qun l mng ca h thng VSAT DAMA thc hin c nh cc chc nng khai bo trong cc cc lp t ti cc trm thu bao xa m trong qu trnh khai thc c lin quan ti h thng iu khin NCS t trm HUB. NCS phi c cu hnh sao cho n c th cung cp cc chc nng sau: - Chc nng x l DAMA: vic cung cp mt mch v tinh (cc knh SCPC) lin lc gia mt cp CU bt k no trong h thng c thc hin trc s iu khin ca b s l DAMA ca NCS. - Chc nng lu tr d liu ca ton mng: NCS cung cp phng tin lu tr chi tit v khai thc nh cc s c xy ra trong ton mng, thng s tnh cc, cc d liu thng k khc. - Chc nng cung cp giao tip cho ngi khai thc mng - Chc nng cu hnh h thng cho php ngi khai thc khai bo cu hnh h thng. - Chc nng iu khin g ri mng: Thng qua mng my tnh, NCS phi hp cc chc nng thc hin cc yu cu v kim tra, chun on v iu khin cc thnh phn trong mng li. - iu khin NCS: Thng qua giao tip mng, ngi khai thc c th kim tra ti ch cc chc nng khc ca NCS nh lu tr nhng tp thng tin d liu, kim sot cc c s d liu, iu khin v cu hnh cc b x l ca NCS. Phn mm x l iu khin mng: l trng tm ca NCS, n l c s d liu v cu hnh h thng, iu khin cp nht cc thng s ca c s d liu ny, ti phn mm xung cc trm u cui, lu cc d liu c to ra trong mng. Ni chung iu khin v kim tra cc thnh phn khc ca h thng nh NCS ch c duy nht mt NCP. B x l DAMA (DPU): thc hin vic cung cp cc knh thoi DAMA v tinh v bin dch cc s c quay tng ng vi nhu cu thit lp cuc gi m n nhn c t trm u cui v chuyn tip ti NCS x l. Mi NCS ch c duy nht mt DPU, hoc trong cng mt thit b vi NCS hoc tch ra trong b x l cc dch v ca my (NSP). Cc knh iu khin: c bit c dng truyn thng ip kt ni cuc gi v nhng thng ip qun l gia NCS v cc trm thit b u cui, c hai loi knh iu khin c dng trong h thng: Knh iu khin ra OCC (Outbound Control Channel): l nhng knh SCPS c dng truyn d liu t NCS n

41

cc trm u cui. H thng c th lm vic vi mt OCC khi h thng m rng, nhiu knh OCC c th c s dng. Knh iu khin vo ICC (Inbound Control Channel) mi ICC l mt knh SCPC c dng truyn cc data n cc trm u cui NCS: C t nht l hai knh ICC c dng trn mng li. Khi mng m rng c th c nhiu knh ICC.
HDC 14 Slot HDC 14 Slot
Extention cable

Extention cable

RF Divider

D/C

IF Divider

HDC 14 Slot

IF Combiner

U/C

HDC 14 Slot

IF Divider

D/C

Test 4 Slot

2 CCU+

4BPX 2 CCU+ 2PBX 2 CCU+ 2PBX 2PBX

RF Combiner

DEC Divider

NCS

I F combiner

U/C

Hnh 2.3: S cu hnh trm HUB

Test 4 Slot

Ttest 4 Slot

HPA

Test 4 Slot

Extention cable

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2.3. Trm thu bao xa


Mt trm VSAT DAMA thu bao xa bao gm phn bn ngoi RFT (Radio Frequence Terminal) v phn bn trong IDU (khi Indoor Unit). Phn bn trong cung cp cc giao tip n ngi s dng. Phn RFT bao gm cc thit b trm mt t (i tn, cng sut pht, b thu tp m thp, anten). Giao tip thng tin gia RFT v phn bn trong l trung tn (IF) hoc cao tn (RF). - Phn trong nh gm mt Chassis vi 1 n 4 CU (Channel Unit: satellite modem). Chassis s cung mt trung tn IF chung cho tt c cc CU trong v RFT. Giao tip RFT c ni trc tip vi chassis [1].
Thit b khch hng Anten ng trung tn ti RF

Chassis trm Khi bn trong Khi bn ngoi

Hnh 2.4 Tng qut trm VSAT Mt trm con ch c mt Chassis cha mt n bn cc (CU) t cho t mt n bn khch hng. Mt trm VSAT u cui c bit c giao tip gia phn bn trong v phn bn ngoi l cao tn ch dng mt dy cp ng trc. S chi tit trm mt t Trm Remote s dng anten kch thc 1,8m n 2,4m hoc 3,8m anten lm vic phn cc thng, xuyn cc: pht ng, thu ngang. - Thit b bn ngoi (ODE -Outdoor Equipment) ODE bao gm b khuych i cng sut 5W, bng tn C, b bin i tn ln, b i tn xung v b khuych i tp m thp LNA. Chc nng ca n: + i tn ln (ln 2) t tn s 180 Mhz n tn s pht 6Ghz.

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Do mt trm VSAT u cui c bit c giao tip gia phn bn trong v phn bn ngoi l cao tn, ch s dng mt dy cp ng trc. Chassis ngoi bn khe dnh cho bn CU, cn c mt khe dnh cho cc RFM (Radio Frequency Module) c nhim v i tn ln v xung ln th nht (i tn t 70Mhz ln 180Mhz, i tn ln t L-band xung 70Mhz). Sau phn ODU bn ngoi s i tn ln hai bng tn lm vic l bng C(6Ghz/4Ghz )

anten Ngun d phng Khi knh Chassis Module RF IFL Bng cm

ODU

Ngun s cp

Hnh 2.5: Cu hnh trm thu bao + i tn xung (ln mt) t tn s 4Ghz n tn s L-band (1Ghz). + Khuych di cng sut 5W. + Kim tra v iu khin cng sut pht. + Kim tra v iu khin ODE qua b vi iu khin ni b. + Trong nhng ng dng bng tn C yu cu cng sut n 20w cn c thm b cng sut tng cng. B cng sut ny i hi ngun nui ngoi. - Cc RFM RFM nhn tn hiu trung tn 70 Mhz t b phn phi IF trong Chassis v c chc nng: + Bin i tn s 70 Mhz ln 180Mhz v tn s L-Band xung 70 Mhz . + Cung cp b dao ng chun chung cho RFM v b bin i tn ODE. + Cung cp ng M&C n cc CU qua bus iu khin v n ODE qua IFL . + Cp ngun cho ODE qua IFL. - Cc khi knh CU (Channel Unit).

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Cc trm remote hot ng trong s gim st cht ch ca NCS. Trm remote bao gm cc thnh phn chnh c m t trong hnh di y. Ngoi ra cn mt s thnh phn cng thm h tr cho ISDN v cc trung k s E1/T1. CU c t trong mi khe ca chassis. CU c th c nh cu hnh bng lnh t b x l iu khin thc hin bt k cu hnh khc no. Nhng cu hnh c s dng chung nht l: + VCU (Voice Channel Unit) s dng cho nhng ng dng thoi v cho giao tip trung k E&M 4 dy. Giao tip hai dy u vng (2 wire loop) c p ng nh cc con ICM (Interface Conversion Module) hoc b bin i ngoi. + DCU (Data Channel Unit) s dng cho nhng d liu. + CCU (Control Channel Unit) cung cp truy xut n v tinh cho cc thit b knh iu khin. Mi CCU c i hi cho mi OCC (Outbound Control Channel) v ICC (Inbound Control Channel).

RS 232/V.35/RS-449 CU Cng ni d liu RS 232

Knh s liu

2- Dy u vng

CU

Knh thoi Knh Thoi

CU Cng ni Telco 2-Dy hoc 4 dy E&M/SF

ng truyn

Hnh 2.6 : Giao din trm thu bao Ngoi ra cn c nhng cu hnh vi nhng mc ch c bit khc: + MCU (Monitor CU): Dng trong nhng lc cn kim sot M&C trong khi nhng CUs v DCU ang hot ng. + LCU (Looback CU): Dng trong kim tra u ni vng trong bt k 3 ch : Thoi, d liu ng b v d liu d b. Sau khi kim tra, CU c nh cu hnh li nh VCU hoc DCU hot ng bnh thng.

Phn b IF

Knh s CU liu Thit b bn trong

Anten

Thit b bn ngoi

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+ Hai cu hnh CU c dng trong cuc gi hi ngh: ACU dng cho hi ngh thoi v BCM dng cho hi ngh d liu v thng tin i chng. Cu hnh ca ACU v BCU c dng nh mt cu hnh ph, chng hn mt s thnh vin ca hi ngh thoi c th hot ng bnh thng nh l VCU, nhng khi hi ngh tin hnh chng c th t ng c nh cu hnh li l ACU. Khi hi ngh kt thc th chng li t ng phc hi li vai tr VCU ca mnh.
Chassis & slot ID

Control Precessor

Channel coding

If out Modem Dsp demod

Data Interface Icm Fim Baseband signal processor

If in

E/4 - wire

Telco interface

To all blocks

Timing generator

Hnh 2.7: S khi CU Ngi s dng truy xut h thng bi nhng cc ring l CU hoc bi nhng cc ghp knh/phn knh hoc bi nhm cc knh CU. Cc CU ring l dng truyn ti tn hiu thoi v d liu. Khi s dng trn cc card lm chc nng ghp v phn knh (multiplexing and demultiplexing) th cc nhm CU c th kt ni n cc u dy thu bao c ghp knh s l cc PAC (primary rate access card) h tr cho cc trung k s. Cc cc PAC giao tip vi cc trung k E1 hay T1. ng dy trung k ni trc tip vo cc PAC trong chassis HDC (high density chassis) c mt bus TDMA bn trong n. Cc PAC lm chc nng phn knh cc trung k s thnh cc knh 64 Kbps v nh tuyn chng n cc CU ring l qua ng bus bn trong n.

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MCU c th c nh cu hnh phc v cho mt nhm cc CU thit b u cui MCU cung cp cho vic kim sot v gim st lin tc cc cc CU ngay c khi chng ang b chim bi mt cuc gi no . Tht ra MCU cng l mt CU nhng c ci mt phn mm c bit cho ph hp vi chc nng ca M&C. Khng ging nh VCU v DCU, MCU lun lun iu hng n nhng knh kim sot v qun l ca M&C. MCU chuyn ti nhng thng tin v trng thi v kim sot nhng CU trong nhm n qun l n NCS n thng xuyn dng phn phi xung ng h chun t NCS n trm u cui. Kt ni lin hon (Multi-drop): Kt ni gia MCU v cc CU trong nhm n qun l, c thc hin qua kt ni lin hon. Thng ip c nhn bi MCU v gi n cc CU trong vng m MCU qun l c gi i qua kt ni lin hon. Bt c p ng ca cc thng ip trn c gi tr li n MCU cng qua kt ni lin hon ny v c gi i n NCS, ni dung thng ip th c x l MCU. - Rack v Chassis: Nhng CU c t trong chassis v nhng chassis c t vo rack. Cc chassis dng chung b phn phn phi IF (Divider v Combiner). CU, chassis v rack c xem l nhng thit b bn trong (Indoor equipment)v c t gn thit b cao tn RFT(RF Terminal). - RF Terminal: RFT gm cc thit b trm mt t (i tn, khuych i cng xut pht, b thu tp m thp, anten) n chuyn i tn hiu trung tn pht t CU ra tn s cao tn v pht tn hiu qua v tinh. Nhng tn hiu v tinh thu c v c chuyn i t RF thnh IF. ng dy in thoi c ni n cng Telco ca CU ng dy d liu c ni ti cng d liu trong c hai trng hp trn, mt card CU cung cp ton b nhng chc nng i hi chuyn i tn hiu thoi hoc d liu sang tn s trung tn c iu ch v chnh l phn giao din vi phn RF. c tnh giao tip gm: + Giao tip thoi: Giao tip c s dng ni vi thit b thoi vi cc loi giao tip 4 dy E&M hoc bo hiu ng dy SF. Khi c gn thm cc ICM, giao tip thoi s giao tip 2 dy u vng. + Giao tip s liu: Giao tip s liu chun RS -232 c s dng cho nhng ng dng ny. H thng TES cung cp thng tin s liu nh phn ni tip ng b v khng ng b ti cng s liu. Vic truyn dn s liu ni tip ng b v khng ng b c cung cp vi giao tip s liu EIA RS -232 ca thit b s liu u cui

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(DCE). Nhng giao tip khc nh RS 442 v V35 c cung cp qua b chuyn i bn ngoi nu cn. + Giao tip gim st v iu khin: tn ny bao gm cc giao tip kiu Rle (thng qua cc im Rle ny cc trng thi cnh bo c th c ni vi pannel cnh bo trung tm). + Giao tip v tinh: giao tip v tinh bao gm giao tip IF gia thit b trong nh v RFT, giao tip RFT gia cc RFT v v tinh.

2.4. Nguyn l hot ng v phng thc truy cp


2.4.1. Knh v tinh Mc ch v cc c tnh ca knh v tinh l chuyn ti lu lng ca ngi s dng v qun l mng ni b trong h thng. - Cc knh lu lng: Mt knh lu lng l mt knh SCPC lm chc nng chuyn ti thoi v d liu gia cc CU. Mt mch lu lng thng bao gm hai knh lu lng trong mi hng. - Cc knh kim sot: Cc knh kim sot c bit c dng truyn nhng thng ip kt ni cuc gi v nhng thng ip qun l gia NCS v cc trm thit b u cui c hai loi knh kim sot c dng trong h thng: - Knh kim sot vo ra (OCC - Outbound Control Channel): Knh kim sot OCC l nhng knh SCPC dng trong truyn data t NCS n cc trm u cui. H thng c th lm vic vi mt OCC. Khi h thng m rng, th nhiu knh OCC c th c s dng. - Knh kim sot vo (ICC - Inbound Control Channel): C t nht l hai knh ICC c dng trong mng li. Khi mng m rng c th dng nhiu ICC. Mi knh ICC l mt knh SCPS c dng truyn d liu t trm u cui n NCS. - Ch nh knh: Thng thng, mt CU b chim trong mt khong thi gian cho cuc gi v tr v trng thi rnh (Idle) cho n khi cuc gi tip theo xy ra. Trong lc rnh, CU iu hng n cc knh kim sot truyn nhng thng ip v tnh trng kim sot gia NCS v cc CU. CU qun l s gim st v v bo hiu a ch gia n v thit b in thoi c gn vi n. CU nh dng mt thng ip i hi cuc gi bao gm s in thoi mun gi, s nhn dng mng ca n, nhng thng tin trng thi khc v truyn thng ip i hi cuc gi n NCS thng qua knh ICC. NCS nhn bit i hi cuc gi

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v xc nh xem CU b gi c c s dng c hay khng. Nu c n s chuyn mt thng ip kt ni cuc gi n c hai cc CU qua knh OCC, thng ip kt ni cuc gi ny cung cp tn s thu v pht cho c hai CU. CU b gi cng nhn c s in thoi b gi t thng ip. C hai u hng n tn s c ch nh v trao i thng ip xc nhn cuc gi xc nhn mt kt ni ng n qua mt lnh lu lng. CU b gi s thc hin s gim st v nhng chc nng bo hiu a ch vi thit b thu bao b gi. Mt khi thu bao b gi tr li th mt ng thoi thit lp gia hai CU. Lc hon thnh cuc gi, nhng thng ip kt thc cuc gi c chuyn gia cc CU. Sau c hai u hng tr li cc knh kim sot v CU gi s gi mt thng ip hon thnh cuc gi n NCS. NCS nhn bit c thng ip hon thnh cuc gi qua OCC n c hai CU v to ra mt bn tnh cc thoi v thi gian ngh. Kim sot cng sut trn tng cuc gi: Trong cc mng truyn thng v tinh hnh li, ngi ta yu cu cng sut ng Uplink phi t c mc ch Link Buget. Cng sut ny thay i trn c s tng cuc gi mt. S d nh vy l v tnh t nhin khng ng nht ca cc mng hnh li. Cc thng s di y c nh hng n yu cu v cng sut Uplink. + Kch thc anten. + Tc bit ca knh. + V tr ca trm mt t trong vng ph sng ca v tinh. + Cc yu cu v BER i vi cuc gi. VSAT s dng mt thut ton c lng LINK duy nht trn c s tng cuc gi mt xc nh cng sut ti u gia hai trm mt t ch v ngun, sau h thng t iu chnh cng sut theo tng cuc gi, do tit kim cng sut ti v tinh v trm mt t. Khai bo bng thng: + Mch trung k E&M: Qu trnh thit lp cuc gi ging nh nhng VCU c kt ni n nhng trung k s qua cc cng nh nhng VCU c kt ni n nhng ng dy thoi tng t (Analog) ring l trong h thng thoi SS5, nhng tn hiu chung trong bng SF c dng trong bo hiu c chuyn i t tng t sang s trong h thng thoi R1, bo hiu c thc hin bi nhng s thay i in th trn nhng

49

chn E v M. Nhng bit bo hiu th c qun l khc nhau tu thuc theo E1 hay T1. + Nhng mch truyn s liu thit lp thng xuyn: Cc mch truyn s liu thit lp thng xuyn khc vi cc mch thoi phng php thit lp cho mt mch thng tin v tinh. Mt mch truyn s liu thit lp thng xuyn th c nh trc (do ngi khai thc mng thng bo) cho mi kt ni s liu v cc DCU s iu hng n tn s c ch nh sau khi c np cu hnh. Do , mch truyn s liu thit lp thng xuyn c thit lp khng ph thuc vo thit b kt ni vo cng. Nhng mch truyn s liu ng b lun lun phi c thit lp thng xuyn trong khi nhng mch bt ng b c th phi c nh cu hnh theo dng thit lp thng xuyn hay DAMA. Cn lu rng tn s SCPC cho nhng mch truyn s liu ng b c ch nh thng xuyn khc vi cc mch thoi l n lun lun c lin tc bt k thit b truyn s liu u cui c hot ng hay khng. + Bng thng ln lt s dng chung (Bandwidth pools): Khi mt CU yu cu thit lp mt knh, n s c ch nh mt mch trong mt bandwidth pools m n c nh cu hnh. Nu khng c mch rnh s dng c thi im i hi th yu cu cuc gi ca ngi s dng s b t chi. S CU c nh cu hnh cho mt pool cho php ngi khai thc xc nh c xc sut c c mt mch. Bng cch khai bo nhng bandwdith pool khc nhau, h thng c kh nng cung cp cho ngi s dng nhiu dch v khc nhau. Nhng bandwidth pool cn phi khc bit vi nhau: thoi, data, hi ngh, thoi v thng tin i chng. + Lp a ch ca mng: Phn ny din t cc k t s c s dng tm ng cc cuc gi nh th no trong mng VSAT. + Cc php gn a ch: H thng tm ng cho cc cuc gi in thoi da trn cc k t s c quay v c chuyn ti CU bn gi (CU gc). Cc k t s ny sau c x l bi mt chng trnh Dialsoftware c xung CU. CU bn gi gi tip cc k t s ny ti NCS trong thng ip yu cu cuc gi. Mt c s d liu ti NCS cha php nh x gia cc k t s quay v cc CU. Khi NCS nhn c mt yu cu cuc gi, n nh x cc k t s quay ln trn mt CU m n c chn nh l CU ch (CU bn b gi) cho cuc gi .

50

C s d liu ti NCS cho php cc k t thay th trong phn m t k s quay, iu ny cho php tt c cc cuc gi c cc k s u tin ging nhau c hng ti cng mt CU. V d: nu mt CU c ni ti mt tng i PABX c kh nng quay s vo trc tip v c s dng 4 k s lm phn m rng ti PABX, th ta c th nh ngha a ch ca CU c 4 k s sau cng l cc k t thay th. Do tt c cc cuc gi c phn m rng bt k s c chuyn ti CU ng. i vi mt CU cho, ta c th gn cho n nhiu hn mt a ch, iu ny cho php cc cuc gi c cc chui quay s khc nhau u c a ti cng mt CU. + Hunt groups: Hunt groups l mt chui cc CU c cu thnh nh l mt b tng hp. Khi mt a ch c quay s ti mt hunt group, n v x l DAMA ti NCS chn mt CU ri trong group trong v tin hnh thit lp cuc gi. + Tm ng u tin: Cc hng i l cc nhm ca cc hunt group c s dng to ra php tm ng thay th khi php tm ng thch hp hn khng c kh nng. Trong mt ng dng in hnh cc hunt group dnh cho mt quc gia c ci t c u tin th nht, cc hunt group trong cc nc lng ging c u tin thp hn Khi cc CU trng thi ri, cc cuc gi c tm ng trc tip ti quc gia cn gi; khi cc CU b bn cc cuc gi ny tm ng ti quc gia khc, cui cng i bng cp ti thu bao b gi. Cc hng i cng cung cp mt c cu cp pht s phn trm cuc gi gia cc hunt group khc nhau, iu ny gip ngn s qu ti trn cc hng i th cp v cng c th l hu ch trong vic phn chia lu lng gia cc sng mang. + Dialsoftware: Tt c cc VCU v ADDCU cha dialsoftware. Phn mm ny cung cp kh nng cho cc CU x l cc k s c quay. c im ny cho php x l s c thc hin bi cc ch dn t NCS ti cc CU. Dialsoftware cha mt chui cc ch dn x l ch dn cc k s c quay, bao gm cc lnh thm vo, xo v cc lnh phn nhnh c bn. Dialsoftware cung cp cho h thng mt s c im rt mnh m gip cho rt nhiu cho vic kt hp ca h thng vi thit b chuyn mch. Cc chc nng ca dialsoftware bao gm: (i) Xc nh khi no s quay s kt thc thit lp cuc gi nhanh chng. (ii) Thc hin ly cc k s sao cho ch c cc k s cn thit c a ti thit b bn ngoi. V d, trong mt mng PABX, ti CU b gi b nhn dng PABX

51

loi b cc k s sao cho cc k s ch c cc k s m rng ca PABX c chuyn ti, cho php kt ni ti thu bao m khng cn s xen vo ca operator. (iii) Kho cuc gi: Trong mt h thng c k hoch nh s c cu trc tt, Dialsoftware c th s dng cho cc k hoch kho cc cuc gi n gin. (iv)Tm ng c bit: Ngi ta c th dung dialsoftware to ra cc ng dy nng, ngha l quay s mt cch t ng mt s nh trc ngay khi nhc my. Ngi ta cng c th dng dialsoftware cho cc php tm ng cuc gi mc nh m cc cuc gi ny phi i qua tng i chuyn mch hay yu cu s gip ca operator. (v) Thng dch cc m quc gia v cc k s thng tin trong cc trung k s C5. + Cc nhm user mng: Ngi ta c th phn chia cc mng VSAT thnh cc mng c lp dng cc k hoch nh s khc nhau thng qua s s dng nhm user mng (NUG). Theo mc nh mi CU l mt thnh vin, SuperNUG, nhm user ton h thng. Ni mt cch khc, ngi ta c th t mt vi CU vo trong cc NUG to thnh cc mng c nhn. Mi nt trong mt h thng cung cp s lin kt mt thit, tt c cc cuc gi khi u v kt thc trong nhm CU . Khi ng h thng: Phn ny m t h thng VSAT hot ng nh th no khi c bt my. Giai on bt my bao gm vic software h thng v d liu cu hnh ln tt c cc trm remote v cc CU, CCU ti trm ch. Giai on khi ng my ny ch c khi ng khi thit b ti cc trm v NCS u hot ng. S s dng vic firmware, software v cc thng s cu hnh to ra mt s mm do rt ln. Bi chnh software xung iu khin ch hot ng ca mt CU, hn na khng c mt s nng cp software no hay mt s thay i chc nng ca CU yu cu nhng thay i phn cng ca CU. V d: thay i mt CU t mt CCU thnh mt DCU, lm vic ny ta ch n gin thay i thng tin cu hnh v CU ti NCS. Sau khi thay i, CU c load software mi ny (cu hnh mi ny) v CU s nm gi vai tr mi nh mt DCU. Bng cch ny ta cng c th nng cp software ngay ti NCS m khng cn gi ngi ti cc trm remote. Mt CU s vn trong ch khi ng cho n khi n c m hot ng v d liu cu hnh ca n. Sau n chuyn sang ch hot ng. Mt b m khi ng nm sn bn trong EFROM v l b m chung cho tt c cc CU. M ny cho php card bt u load software ca n. Cc thng s c th

52

c cu hnh rt nh, cn cho m khi ng v cho tt c cc CU, c lu gi trong EEPROM, do ngi ta c th ci t cc CU bt k ni no m khng cn cu hnh li. Ngi ta s dng cc thng s EEPROM cho php CU xc nh v tr OCC v thu nhn thng tin t n. i vi mt h thng ngi ta thng c nh cc thng s ny. Cc thng s c th nh cu hnh ca EEPROM l: + Tc download ca OCC. i vi cc trm remote y l tc d liu v tinh ca OCC. i vi CCU y l tc truyn t cng d liu n NCS. + Tc m ho FEC, phng php iu ch v tn s Downlink ca OCC. + Cc mc cng sut i vi giao tip IF/RF v i vi s truyn dn ti NCS. ID ca slot v chassis: Mi CU c mt s ID duy nht, NCS da trn s ID ni chuyn vi cc CU. ID l mt s kt hp ca a ch Chassis (a ch ca Chassis c t mt sau ca n) v v tr slot ca CU trong Chassis . Khi ng CU: Vic load firmware v d liu cu hnh cho mt CU Remote l mt qu trnh c nhiu giai on nh sau: + Khi ng ban u sau khi bt ngun. + S thu nhn tn s. + Download m boot. + Firm ware download. + Download cu hnh. + Download m hot ng. + Download phn chp v thm vo. Ngi ta thit k h thng download ny cho php mt mc mm do cao v cho php cc ln nng cp trong tng lai c kt hp d dng m khng cn cc yu cu thay i cc EEPROM trong cc CU. (1) Khi ng ban u: Khi bt ngun, CU s thc hin cc chun on seltest v, nu thnh cng, bt u chy software OCC EEPROM. Khi s dng cc thng s c lu gi trong EEPROM, b gii m tn s s thu nhn tn s trn OCC. (2) Thu nhn tn s: Bi v rng ca knh v tinh i vi VSAT c th nh hn lch tn s v tinh, do tt kh khn trong vic nh v knh v tinh thu mong mun. b vo lch tn s v tinh, th cn c s d tm ban u ca b gii iu ch nh sau:

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+ Ngi ta lp trnh cc b tng tn s RX vi gi tr tn s OCC danh nh c lu gi trong EEPROM trong cc CU. + B gii iu ch c cu hnh thu c OCC. + Nu b gii iu ch kho v NCS nhn c mt thng bo khi ng h thng , th qu trnh kim sot hon tt. + Nu b gii iu ch khng th kho, hoc nu b gii iu ch kho nhng NCS khng thu c thng bo khi ng th cc b tng hp tn s c thc hin cc bc tip theo. + Nu cc b tng hp tn s vn trong mc tm kim hp l th qu trnh c lp li t bc hai. + Nu cc b tng hp tn s bn ngoi phm vi tm kim hp l th chng c reset mc danh nh, v qu trnh c lp li mc hai. (3) Np phn mm: Ni chung cc CU c np phn mm ch khi lp t ln u tin hoc khi c mt phin bn phn mm mi ti NCS hay khi cc chc nng ca chng c cu hnh li (chng hn t mt VCU thnh mt DCU). Sau khi np phn mm, cc CU s khi ng li. 2.4.2. S dng bng tn Trong bng tn c php s dng IF t 85,76Mhz dn 88Mhz tng ng vi bng tn s dng trn b pht p. rng bng tn rng hn th kinh ph phi tr do s dng v tinh ln hn. Nh vy, vn quan trng l khi lp t trm con cho khch hng phi s dng bng tn nh th no t hiu qu cao, cht lng thng tin tt v tit kim bng tn nht thu ht nhiu khch hng nhm em li hiu qu trong kinh doanh. Bng tn rng 2,24Mhz t 85,76Mhz n 88Mhz cha hai phn chnh. Phn u bng dng cho lu lng v phn cui bng dng cho kim sot h thng do NCS iu hnh. Trong phn kim sot c ba phn: - OCC (Outbound Control Channel) l tn s lun pht trn ph tn n cc trm con dng lin kt hay khng lin kt gia cc trm con. - ICC (Inbound Control Channel): cc trm con pht tn s ny ln yu cu NCS kt ni v ngt kt ni .Nh vy ICC ch c pht ln v tinh khi trm con c yu cu kt ni hay ngng kt ni.

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- Knh kim tra (Test Channel): c NCS pht i v cc trm con thu li so snh v sa li mc pht ca trm con cho ph hp yu cu ca v tinh v h thng. 2.4.3. c tnh tng i ca mng VSAT Nu so snh vi mng in thoi cng cng, h thng VSAT DAMA c th hnh dung nh mt tng i in thoi, ch khc l cc thu bao in thoi ca VSAT nm rt xa nh hi o, min ni, gin khoan, cc vng ho lnh. Tt c cc thu bao in thoi ca VSAT u c s in thoi gm c su ch s.

Khi qut DAMA CSC B pht p 1 4 VSAT A 3 CH4 ... CHN ... ...

NEC

CH1 CH2 CH3

VSAT C

VSAT B 1. A c yu cu thng tin vi D. 2. HUB c th nh c knh cho A-D . 3. HUB cho bit A-D c th thng tin . 4. A-D bt u trao i thng tin
CH 1 2 3 4 ... N

VSAT D

HUB

2
Trng thi Bn Bn Ch Bn Ch

PDC

iu khin knh thoi CSC: Knh tn hiu chung. PDC : B diu khin DAMA

Hnh 2.8: M phng thit lp cuc gi

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Nh vy: - Gi ni b gia cc in thoi ca VSAT vi nhau c su ch s. - Gi t VSAT ra ngoi, gi O-MV-ST (MV: m vng, ST: s in thoi, O: m gi ng di ) - Gi t VSAT i quc t: OO-MQG-ST. (OO: m gi quc t, MQG: m quc gia ). - Gi t ngoi mng cng cng vo h thng VSAT. Gi s 0.99xxxxxx tc l gi s 099 v su s ca VSAT.V cc s in thoi ca VSAT khi lin lc u thng qua v tinh, h thng kim sot mng NCS s tnh thi gian m thoi v tnh c gi cc mt cch chnh xc. Da vo c im HUNT GROOP ca h thng VSAT, ta c th t mt tng i ni b hai chiu cho mt vng ho lnh. Th d nu o Ph Quc t trm VSAT con thu bao ba knh in thoi nhng mun ba knh ny thnh trung k cho mt tng i ni b c khong 30 thu bao nh t ri rc khp o. Nu 1 trong 30 khch hng nh gi H Ni hay thnh ph H Ch Minh dng mt s n thoi ca VSAT lm trung k thc hin d dng bi c tnh ca tng i ni b. Mch thoi DAMA: Phn mm thit lp cuc gi trong NCS cung cp nhng kh nng DAMA gia cc knh thoi VCU cng nh gia cc knh d liu d b ADDCU. Thng tin NCS v cc CU thc hin qua ICC v OCC. Tin trnh thit lp cuc gi DAMA nh sau: + Thit b gi chim ng y n VCU. + VCU tr li tn hiu nhn bit b chim ng dy v chun b nhn chui xung quay s. S ch s m VCU ch nhn da vo k hoch nh s v nhng thng s cu hnh ca VCU. + Khi VCU nhn n s cui cng, n nh dng mt thng ip i hi cuc gi Call Request (thng ip ny cha nhng s gi) v sau gi thng ip n NCS. + NCS lp tc gi mt thng ip nhn bit Aloha (Aloha Acknowledgement) n VCU gi. + NCS x l nhng s c gi vo trong a ch ca VCU b gi v m bo rng VCU ny ang ch s dng c. Nu ng nh vy, mt mch thoi rnh s c la chn, VCU gi v VCU b gi c nh du l trng thi bn (do , n khng c ch nh cho nhng cuc gi khc).

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+ Sau NCS s gi mt thng ip ch nh cuc gi (all assignment) cho c CU gi v CU b gi. Thng ip ny ch r ai ang gi v tn s c dng cho cuc gi. Bng theo di cuc gi c to ra lm c s tnh cc. + C hai CU gi v CU b gi b iu hng n mch thoi c ch nh v xc nhn rng chng c kt ni. VCU b gi cng s chim ng dy n thit b gi. + Thit b b gi s tr li tn hiu nhn bit chim mch: Khi no c chim mch, VCU s gi i nhng s b gi n thit b. + Thit b b gi s kt ni ngi gi n thit b cui cng sau khi nhn c cc s b gi. Tin trnh gii phng mt cuc gi: + Thit b gi xc nhn rng iu kin gc my (on - hook) sau khi ngi gi gc my. + VCU gi nhn bit ti ch iu kin gc my v gi mt thng ip cho bit xo (clear indication) n VCU b gi (qua mch thoi ang c ch nh). + VCU b gi s nhn bit thng ip nhn bit yu cu cho bit xo (qua mch thoi ang c dng) v cho bit iu kin gc my n thit b gi. + Sau khi nhn c thng ip nhn bit yu cu cho bit xo (clear indication acknowledge), VCU gi s iu hng n tn s OCC v gi i mt thng ip hon tt cuc gi (Call completion) n NCS. NCS tr li bng mt thng ip nhn bit Aloha (Aloha acknowledge ). + VCU b gi s nhn s xc nhn gc my t thit b b gi, iu hng tn s li n tn s OCC v gi thng ip hon tt cuc gi (Call completion). + NCS s b ch nh cp tn s c ch nh trc , nh du VCU gi v b gi trng thi c th s dng c, v gi c hai thng ip hon tt cuc gi n c hai VCU. + Bng lu gi cuc gi cho cuc gi ny s c ng li v lu trong a ca NCS. Kt lun: Trn y l cu hnh v nguyn l lm vic ca mng VSAT DAMA Vit Nam, hin ti mng VSAT DAMA c trn 80 trm 1 knh v 30 trm 4 knh TES, c lp t ti cc khu vc vng su, vng xa v cc gin khoan. H thng VSAT DAMA lm vic bng tn C, t chu nh hng bi thi tit hn so vi h thng VSAT IP lm vic bng tn Ku/Ka.

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Tuy nhin, hin nay thit b mng VSAT DAMA gi ci v ang xung cp, hot ng khng n nh, rt kh khn trong vic p ng tc m rng thu bao hin ti v tng lai. Nng lc mng VSAT DAMA khng p ng c yu cu v tc kt ni, chng loi dch v ca khch hng. Cc trm VSAT thu bao c kch thc ln (ng ten t 1,8m n 2,4 m), gi thnh cao, trin khai lp t, bo dng phc tp, gi cc dch v cao, kh khn trong vic pht trin khch hng s dng dch v. Trc yu cu v nhim v chnh tr, chin lc cung cp dch v cho khch hng, p ng bng thng cao v gi thnh gim, t nm 2005 VNPT/VTI xy dng mng VSAT bng thng rng a dch v, c kh nng thay th mng hin ti nu trn. Trong chng tip theo s trnh by tng quan v h thng thng tin v tinh VSAT IP bng rng a dch v, cc vn lin quan n trin khai dch v ti Vit Nam.

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CHNG 3 H THNG THNG TIN V TINH BNG THNG RNG IP - STAR 3.1. IP qua v tinh
Mc d thc t c mt s vn v s lan truyn v t l li bt i vi kt ni v tinh, giao thc Internet qua v tinh a ra mt gii php rt hay cung cp kt ni Internet nhng khu vc m cc mng mt t bng rng c nh khng c kh nng. Theo cc s liu thng k ca Global Reach tnh n thng 3 nm 2004, c hn 720 triu ngi s dng Internet v s my tnh c ni mng ang ngy cng tng nhanh. Mc d Internet thng c xem l mt mng ton cu nhng vn c mt s khu vc v thm ch nhiu quc gia khng c kh nng s dng cc kt ni bng rng nh mng cp quang, ADSL v modem cp v nhng ni xy dng v bo tr cc mng mt t l kh tn km. Nhng ngi sng khu vc c mt dn c thp hoc a hnh kh khn thng mong ch cng ngh v tinh. Cc t chc v tinh u tin nh COMSAT v INTELSAT c thnh lp t u nhng nm 1960 gm nhiu quc gia khc nhau vi mc tiu ban u l pht cc knh pht thanh, truyn hnh v cung cp cc knh thng tin v tuyn cho hng khng, quc phng v cc d n v tr. Trong 10 nm qua t l bng thng ngy cng cao dnh cho lu lng Internet v nhiu nh khai thc s hu h thng ring tham gia th trng ton cu.

3.2. H thng VSAT IP v cc dch v trn mng VSAT IP bng thng rng
IPSTAR l h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng c cu trc mng hnh sao s dng k ngh chuyn mch gi bng rng. H thng bao gm 3 thnh phn c bn l trm cng (Gateway), v tinh IPSTAR v cc trm v tinh thu bao (User Terminal -UT). Cc gi d liu t trm Gateway gi ti trm UT theo phng thc ghp knh phn chia thi gian (TDM) kt hp vi k thut ghp knh trc giao phn chia theo tn s (OFDM). t c hiu sut truyn dn cao cc knh ny c m ho TPC (Tubo product codes) iu ch L- Codes. Hng ngc li t UT n Gateway, cc knh s dng tc thp s dng cng phng php truyn dn kt hp k thut a truy nhp da trn nhu cu s dng ca khch hng [8]

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3.2.1. V tinh IPSTAR H thng VSAT-IP lin lc qua v tinh IPSTAR-1 (Thaicom 4), l v tinh bng rng u tin trong khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng do tp on Shin Satellite Plc ca Thi Lan vn hnh v khai thc [8]. V tinh ny c ch to bi Space Systems/Loral c 114 b pht p vi tng dung lng ln ti 45Gbps, tui th hot ng l 12 nm, v tinh mi c phng vo ngy 11/8/2005 v tr qu o 120 ng [8]. V tinh IPSTAR s dng cng ngh ph sng nhiu bp hp (spot beams) tng kh nng ti s dng tn s, cho php m rng ph tn lm vic ln hn rt nhiu so vi cc v tinh thng thng, ng thi nng cao c cng sut cho tng spot beam (mc EIRP c th t ti 60dBW) cho php gim kch thc anten trm u cui v tng tc cht lng ng truyn. Ngoi ra, v tinh IPSTAR cn s dng k thut iu khin cng sut linh hot (DLA - Dynamic Link Allocation) cho tng beam ph hp vi cc iu kin thi tit khc nhau tng vng, m bo khng lm gin on lin lc ngay c iu kin thi tit xu nht, y cng l k thut khng c p dng nhng v tinh thng thng [8].

Hnh 3.1 : Vng ph sng ca v tinh IPSTAR

V tinh IPSTAR c 4 bp ph hp bao ph ton b lnh th Vit Nam (Hnh 3.2) v 1 bp ph qung b, hot ng bng tn Ka v Ku vi dung lng thit k khong 2 Gbps (cho c 2 chiu ln, xung). Dung lng c th c phn b nh sau:

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Spot Beam:

Broadcast Beam:

Broadcast Beam # 2

205 206 210 211

Hnh 3.2: Vng ph sng v tinh IPSTAR ti Vit Nam

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3.2.2. Trm cng [7][8] 3.2.2.1. Chc nng trm cng Chc nng ca Gateway nh hnh 3.3
PSTN

SGGW
TI
TCPA (NettGain)

TOLL Tx

Diversity GW antenna

ISP

Core Router

RF
SI STAR Rx

FLP Server

GW antenna
NM/ RRM

Accounting Server

Hnh 3.3:S khi chc nng trm cng IPSTAR Trm Gateway lm vic bng tn Ka, c thit k hot ng theo cu hnh d phng (1+1) cho phn cao tn, anten chnh v d phng c phn tp theo khng gian, cch nhau t 40 n 60 km, trnh nh hng ca thi tit ln ng thi ti hai a im. Trm Gateway chnh t ti Qu Dng - H Ty v trm d phng ti Hoa Sen - H Nam. H thng cao tn ti hai a im c kt ni trc tip vi nhau bng cp quang. - Antenna : ng knh 8,1m cho c trm chnh v trm d phng. - Khi thit b cao tn: bao gm cc thit b my pht HPA, Up converter, LNA, Down converter, Khi iu khin hot ng ca trm Gateway chnh v d phng cng cc thit b ph tr cao tn khc thu pht cao tn; - Core IP Router (IPR): Thc hin trn mt Router ring bit c nng lc chuyn mch v nh tuyn mnh, Router ny c nhim v nh tuyn cc gi tin IP vo v ra gia cc thit b trong mng IPSTAR v cc mng bn ngoi. - TCP Accelerator (TCPA): Ti u ha tc truyn dn TCP qua v tinh bng vic gim thiu cc tr v suy gim cht lng vn c ca giao thc TCP/IP qua v tinh. - Forward Link Processor (FLP): lc v sp xp cc gi tin IP theo th t u tin theo cht lng dch v (QoS) v phn loi dch v (CoS) trc khi gi ti TOLL Interface (TI). Ngoi ra FLP cn c chc nng gim st hot ng, li, tng

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tc vi thit b qun l ti nguyn (RRM) cho mc ch phn b ti nguyn ng truyn cho cc trm UT. Bn tin cc t TI v SI cng s c hp nht ti y v chuyn ti NMS v my ch tnh cc. - Radio Resource Management (RRM): qun l cc ngun ti nguyn ng truyn v tinh, phn b hay gii phng dung lng cho cc trm u cui mi khi cc trm log-on hay log-off khi mng v iu khin cc chc nng thc hin trn TI, SI. - Toll Interface (TI): gm c thit b phn cng v phn mm giao tip vi thit b pht TOLL (TOLL Tx). TI nhn cc gi tin gi t FLP, sau sp xp v ng gi, di s iu khin ca RRM, theo nh dng khung ca TOLL (TOLL Format) trc khi gi ti TOLL-Tx (TOLL Transmitter). Mi TI lm vic vi 1 TOLL-Tx. - TOLL-Tx : nhn lung bit c nh dng t TI, m ho TPC, iu ch, ghp knh OFDM v chuyn i ti tn s trung tm 135MHz, sau chuyn i ln L-band (950-1450Mhz) v Ka-band pht ln v tinh. Mi trm Gateway c ti a ti 12 khi TOLL-Tx lm vic v 2 khi d phng. Mi khi TOLL-Tx c th cho php ti 20.000 Terminal kt ni ng thi, v c dung lng truyn dn ln ti 186Mbps. - STAR-Rx (STAR Receiver) : nhn tn hiu bng Ka t v tinh, chuyn i ti di tn 950 -1450 MHz sau thc hin tch knh, gii iu ch, v gii m tn hiu. Mi khi STAR-Rx c dung lng truyn dn ti 8Mbps. - STAR Interface (SI): Nhn cc gi tin t STAR-Rx, sau x l v sp xp thnh cc gi tin IP ri gi ti IPR theo s iu khin ca RRM. Ngoi ra SI cn c cc chc nng khc nh l x l cc bn tin bo hiu gia trm cng v trm u cui, gim st s hot ng ca knh kp thi bo co cho RRM a ra s iu chnh ph hp.. Mi SI lm vic c vi 10 STAR-Rx. Mi Gateway c ti a ti 10 SI. Mi SI c th cho php ti 20.000 Terminal kt ni ng thi.

- Network Management (NM) : thc hin cc chc nng v qun tr mng


chung nh : Qun l li, pht hin v a ra cc cnh bo mi khi c s c v phn cng hay phn mm ; Qun l cu hnh, cp nht theo di cc thay i v cu hnh hot ng ca cc thit b ; Qun l truy nhp mng, cp tn, passwords v quyn truy nhp cho tng ngi s dng ; Qun l h thng tnh cc

- Acounting server/Call Record server nhn d liu t NMS v lu tr ti


c s d liu ni b phc v cho mc ch tnh cc.

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Tu thuc vo ng dng cung cp m trm Gateway c trang b thm: + Cc ng truyn kt ni bng rng vi mng Internet, tr s khch hng cho cc mc ch cung cp ngi s dng u cui truy cp mng Internet bng rng, mng dng ring... + Content Server, VoD Server...: cho ng dng cung cp thng tin, chng trnh TV theo yu cu. + + CallManager Server: cho ng dng thoi, fax. Video Conferencing Server: cho truyn hnh hi ngh

H thng trm mt t c kt ni vi cc mng vin thng hin ti ca Tng Cng ty Bu chnh vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT) cung cp cc dch v truy nhp Internet bng rng, dch v thoi, dch v Intranet/VPN, dch v mng thu ring v dch v mobile GSM trunking.

3.2.2.2. Hot ng ca trm gatewway


Trm gateway lm vic vi bng tn Ka, trm gateway thc hin chc chuyn mch v nh tuyn lu lng gia cc phn t mng, hi t cc tiu chun ca mt mng IP nh HTTP, FTP cho cc ng dng dch v bng rng WEB, FTP v cc ng dng truyn thng a phng tin. Cc tiu chun H323, NetMeeting cung cp ng dng dch v VoIP v gii php mng dng ring VPN . Hng truyn dn t Gateway n UT c gi l TOLL Link, thng qua thit b TOLL trm gateway c kh nng cung cp knh truyn dn cho cc trm UT vi tc rt ln. Mt TOLL Link dung lng tng ng dung lng mt b pht p v tinh ty theo nhu cu dung lng, cu hnh trm gateway c 1 hoc nhiu chiu TOLL. Mi mt TOLL c phn chia linh hot thnh nhiu knh, cc knh c cc khe thi gian ti a l 16 knh/ TOLL, 256 timeslot/knh. Hng truyn t UT n gateway c gi l STAR Link, trm gateway tip nhn d liu t cc UT thng qua thit b D STAR (Tip nhn 2 STAR ng thi). C nhiu D-STAR trong mt mt trm gateway ng thi. Dung lng bng tn DSTAR Link chim 4Mhz cng nh TOLL Link, STAR Link c phn chia thnh nhiu knh mt cch linh hot. 3.2.3. Giao tip khng gian

3.2.3.1. ng ln (t trm ch n trm thu bao)


- S dng phng php ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao m ho TPC (TPC Orthogonal- Frequency- division- multiplexed L-code Link: TOLL), l mt

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lung bng thng rng, sng mang kt hp iu ch OFDM 54 MHz, tc d liu ca ngi s dng c rng bng thng t 8 Kbps n 8 Mbps, tc d liu t trm ch ln n 139Mbps. - c im c bn ca ng ln: Cc dng m ho v iu ch ng ph hp nht vi hiu xut tuyn ca cc thit b u cui xt theo C/N, s dng ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (cc khe) v OFDM. ng b nh thi v sng mang c thc hin trn knh trung tm (knh s 0), c gii php hiu sut cng sut v bng tn, TOLL cho php cc tc d liu khc nhau trn 1 khch hng qua vic kt hp iu ch, m ho, v phn nh khe s dng. Thit b u cui khch hng c th thy i phng thc iu ch, m ho lp i lp li m khng cn ng b li. Mi bng TOLL (TOLL band) gm nhiu knh TOLL (TOLL channel) c sp xp chng ln theo kiu ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao (OFDM). Mi knh c tc mu c nh l 3,375Mbps. - Cu trc khung ca ng ln: Trong mi knh 3,375Mbps c cu trc khung c xc nh l 2 20 (1048576) mu trn khung. Chu k lp li cu trc khung tng ng 3,11 giy. Vi bng TOLL 54 MHz, cc knh c nh s 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 c tn s t thp n cao. Mt knh trong mi khung c 256 khe, trong 252 khe c s dng cho lu lng ca ngi s dng, 4 khe s dng cho h thng. - Phn nh knh ng ln: Cc thit b u cui khc nhau trong cng knh TOLL trong cng khung c th s dng phng thc iu ch, m ho khc nhau. M ho/iu ch cho 1 UT c th c thay i qua khung bn cnh. Gi s h thng c thit k c 8 knh TOLL, n nh s knh s l 12, 13, 14, 15, 0, 1, 2, 3. Trnh t knh m RRM phn nh cho thit b u cui l t knh trung tm ra. V d: ln lt l 0,15,1,14,2,13,3,12.

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Guard band

54 MHz

CH8 0 3.375 MHz SYNC Slot 0 RAC Slot 1 FDS Slot 2 FDS slot 3 User Slot 4

CH9

Guard band

CH10

CH7

256 khe trn khung trn knh

SYNC Slot 0 RAC Slot 1 FDS Slot 2 FDS slot 3 User Slot 4

SYNC Slot 0 RAC Slot 1 FDS Slot 2 FDS slot 3 User Slot 4

SYNC Slot 0 RAC Slot 1 FDS Slot 2 FDS slot 3 User Slot 4

Tn s

Chu k khung 311 ms

Thi gian

User Slot 255

User Slot 255

User Slot 255

User Slot 255

Hnh 3.4: Cu trc khung/ khe

O
- 1 8 d B

F D ( U

M n

fC
Hnh 3.5: M phng OFDM n gin - S sp xp nh s knh v nh dng sng OFDM cn c vo tn s trung tm ca FC
C H C8 H C9 H C1 0H C1 1H C1 2H C1 3H C1 4H

fC
1C 5 H

. 6

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- Tn s trung tm ca CH#0 (fCH0) c xc nh nh ng b knh TOLL - Tn s trung tm ca sng mang TOLL c t gia CH#15 v CH#0 ti fC=fCH0 -1,6875MHz . - rng bp chnh thng l 50,625MHz, tnh t im 0 bn ny qua im 0 bn kia ca bng thng l 57,375MHz. - Bp ph th nht xp x -18dB t bp sng chnh. - Trn thc t TOLL c lc gii hn cc bp ph. - S la chn vic iu ch, m ho, tng ch linh ng m bo cht lng ng truyn kp thi. 3.2.3.2. ng v (t trm thu bao n trm ch) Cc thit b u cui n trm ch s dng cc phng php truyn dn hiu sut cao gm k thut iu ch TPC i hi cao hn v FDM vi k thut tri TDM (SCPC TDMA Aloha Return Link: STAR). L cc sng mang a tn bng thng hp, tc d liu ngi s dng t 1,8 Kbps n 4 Mbps. ng truyn dn t UT n Gateway gi l STAR Link - Slotted TDMA Aloha Return Link, ch 3 k thut truy nhp Slotted Aloha, Aloha, TDMA dng cho hng truyn ny. Mi mt phng thc truy nhp c s dng linh hot thng qua iu khin ca RRM ph hp cho loi dch v hay lu lng gn cho mi UT. Mt di tn 500MHz chia thnh 237 bng con, mi bng c rng 2.11MHz (gi l STAR band), mi STAR band c th c chia thnh mt trong nm loi knh (sng mang) tu vo c tnh lu lng v kiu truy nhp: 16 knh 132Khz ; 8 knh 264 KHz ; 4 knh 528KHz ; 2 knh 1.026MHz ; hoc 1 knh 2.11 MHz.

Hnh 3.6: Cc kiu knh STAR Link

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Mi mt sng mang li c phn theo cc nh dng khung (TDM) khc nhau, trong mi khung c th c phn thnh 256, 128, 64, 32 hoc 16 time slots tu thuc c tnh lin lc ca UT. ng b, khong thi gian cho mt khung ca STAR Link cng ging TOLL Link l 0.311sec, v do tc STAR Link c thit k bng na tc TOLL Link nn mi khung STAR cho c tng cng l 524288 symbols. Sau y l mt v d v cu trc khung ca STAR Link cho loi 8 knh, 64 slot, iu ch QPSK:

Hnh 3.7: Cu trc khung ca STAR Link cho loi 8 knh

- Kch thc ca cc khe ph thuc vo loi m ho TPC


Loi truy cp Aloha SA - Small SA - Large TDMA - Small TDMA - Large TDMA - 8Ary T l m (Code Rate) 0.66015625 0.66015625 0.793212891 0.66015625 0.793212891 0.81640625

- Ch loi 16 knh trn 1 bng STAR cung cp loi gi nh - nh s knh STAR vi knh 0 ti tn s thp nht ca bng tn - Mi tuyn truyn ca ngi s dng s c b thi gian bi mt lng kt hp vi tr di tuyn.

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- GW xc nh b nh thi t gi truy nhp Aloha v yu cu mi trm u cui hiu chnh b nh thi ca n. Sau b thu STAR s bit mi d liu ca ngi s dng n vi mu b nh thi ng. - GW lin tc gim st cc li nh thi ca mi trm u cui. Nu cn thit, GW s yu cu cc trm u cui thc hin b nh thi trong phm vi ca s xc nh trc, GW s yu cu trm u cui hiu chnh b nh thi ca n. - C 3 loi truy nhp lung t trm u cui n trm ch l: ALOHA, Slotted ALOHA, v TDMA + ALOHA cho gi ng nhp trm u cui ban u. N khng yu cu ng b thi gian vi trm ch + Slotted ALOHA ph hp cho d liu cm hoc cc trm ri, nh trnh duyt Web + TDMA cho d liu ngi s dng lin tc, ti ln dung lng va v ln, nh FTP, VoIP, Video Streaming - Mc ch chnh ca knh ALOHA l cung cp cc trm u cui kh nng truy nhp vo h thng IPSTAR trong ln thit lp u tin. - Mt s cc knh 131,84KHz s c thit k lm cc knh ALOHA - Cc knh ny s c c nh v dng cho tt c ngi s dng - Li nh thi gia trm u cui ngi s dng v trm ch c th c o v hiu chnh. - Khi GW n nh knh Slotted ALOHA, n cung cp cho trm u cui thng tin v iu ch, m ho, knh v b ng b. - S khc nhau gia ALOHA v Slotted ALOHA l c mt ng b khung ca ngi s dng vi b thu GW trong Slotted ALOHA. - Mt phng php nh du c s dng duy tr vic s dng bnh qun ca Slotted ALOHA cho mi ngi s dng. - Trong IPSTAR, trm u cui c php pht mt s gi trc khi yu cu xc nhn - Khng c s chng ln trong loi TDMA: mi khe c n nh c th n 1 trm u cui. - GW n nh di knh TDMA vi thng tin iu ch, m ho, mt n khe pht v b ng b - Trm u cui ch c php pht trong cc khe xc nh bi mt n khe pht c n nh

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3.2.4. Thit b pha thu bao (UT) Cc trm UT bao gm khi ODU v IDU

3.2.4.1

. Khi ODU bao gm anten v cc thit b cao tn nh BUC, LNB,

feedhorn: - BUC l khi o tn ln, thng dng loi cng sut 1 W hoc 2 W, tn s pht t 13,75 n 14,5 GHz - LNB l khi khuch i tp m thp, tn s thu t 10,7 n 12,75GHz 3.2.4.2. Khi IDU (Modem) - Tc download ti a: 4Mbps - Tc upload ti a: 2Mbps - S dng cng sut pht v bng thng linh hot cho php phn b bng thng hp l da trn c im lu lng tng khch hng. - S dng k thut iu ch QPSK, phng thc truy nhp SCPC, TDMA, Slotted ALOHA. - Giao din mng RJ45, USB - Ngun in cung cp 100-240 VAC v 24DC - Cng sut tiu th:70W

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Hnh 3.8: Cu hnh trm thu bao Thit b ODU v IDU c kt ni bng cp RG6 hoc RG11, khong cch dng cp RG6 cho php nh hn 35m, s dng cp RG11 khong cch cho php t ti 100m. Tn s IF thu t LNB n Modem t 1550 n 2050MHz hoc t 1650 n 2150 MHz, tn s IF pht t Modem n ODU t 950 n 1450 MHz. Cc trm thu bao cung cp cc dch v tch hp theu yu cu c th ca khch hng. Cc loi ng dng v c im m t dch v c th hin phn sau. 3.2.5. Cc ng dng ca h thng VSAT IPSTAR [9] 3.2.5.1. Dch v thoi in thoi IP (VoIP) l dch v ngy cng c s dng rng ri do tnh thun tin v gi cc r. Dch v VoIP qua v tinh li rt thun tin v ph hp vi nhng vng xa xi ho lnh hay cc cng ty t chc c mng li c cc chi nhnh khp t nc Gii php ca IPSTAR gm 3 thnh phn c bn Voice gateway, Callmanager v ATA (thit b bin i thoi IP sang analog) - Voice gateway thc hin chc nng giao tip gia mng IP v PSTN. - Callmanager thc hin chc nng iu khin nh tuyn cuc gi ni b mng v lin mng v chc nng CDR lu gi thng tin chi tit cuc gi phc v cho mc ch tnh cc. - Thit b ATA cung cp giao din kt ni vi my in thoi thng thng hoc kt ni vi tng i PBX. Bng thng yu cu cho cc cuc gi l 24Kbps cho chun G729; 22Kbps cho chun G723; v 80Kbps i vi G711 [9]

RT

RT IPSTAR Gateway

IPSTAR Network Box (Voice Series)

Telephone

Tg To n ll i

AS5x00 GK ATA RT CallManager RT


1 2 4 5 7 8 * 8 3 6 9 #

Telephone

T To n ll g i

AS5x00

NMS

AS5x00
Tg To n ll i

IPSTAR Network Box (Prof. Series)

IP Phone

GK M n VoIP Quc g g ia ATA Telephone

PBX

Telephone

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Hnh 3.9: Cu hnh dch v thoi VoIP Gii php ng dng thoiIPSTAR cho vng nng thn: Sn phm hp thoi iPSTAR c thit k cho s dng ti trong mi trng vng su vng xa. N c th chu ng li mi trng khc nghit. Khi so snh vi in thoi vng su vng xa m c s dng SCPC DAMA, th VoIP s vt tri hn nh:

- Chi ph thit b cui thp hn - Kh nng cung cp nhng ng dng khc trn mng IP - S hiu qu bng thng tt hn, do vy chi ph bng thng thphn (v d
nh vi IP, mt knh thoi 9.6 kbps ch yu cu 24kbps ca gi IP bao gm ng gi IP, s dng khong 30Khz trn bng thng v tinh so vi 48Khz ca SCPC DAMA). 3.2.5.2. Dch v truy cp Internet bng rng a. Truy nhp bng rng: Thng qua UT cc nh khai thc cung cp cho ngi s dng cc dch v vi kh nng kt ni mng tc cao [9]. Trong nhiu trng hp c nhiu ngi s dng chung mt trm u cui nh trong khch sn, chung c... th h thng VSAT IPSTAR s trang b thm thit b h tr cho php cung cp thm nhiu account truy nhp cho mt trm u cui. Cng ging nh ADSL h thng IPSTAR cung cp ng truyn bng thng rng cho khch hng vi tc download ti 4 Mbps v upload ti 2Mbps.

RT

RT IPSTAR Gateway

IPSTAR Network Box

PC

Mng Internet Quc gia

NMS

ng trc Internet

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Hnh 3.10: Cu hnh truy cp Internet bng rng b. Truy cp bng rng cho cc im cng cng: Dch v truy cp WLAN cng cng (hay cn gi l Hotspot) l dch v cho php ngi s dng c th truy cp internet t nhng im truy cp cng cng. Dch v hotspot mang li cho ngi s dng nhiu thun tin, ch bng mt accout ring khch hng c th truy cp dch v t bt k mt Hotspot no nm trong vng ph sng ca v tinh. Vi mt roaming account th khch hng c th truy cp c internet ti nh, vn phng, sn bay, bnh vin, qun cafe... Cu hnh cung cp dch v bao gm trm Gateway, UT, Radius server, im truy cp. Radius server c lp t ti trm Gateway thc hin chc nng lu tr

RT

RT IPSTAR Gateway

Mng Internet Quc gia

AAA Radius Server

NMS

ng trc Internet

chi tit cuc gi (CDR) phc v mc ch tnh cc. Ngoi ra Radius server cn phc v mc ch cp nht thng tin yu cu Roaming ca khch hng. im truy cp thc hin chc nng qun l quyn truy nhp s dng dch v ca khch hng. Hnh 3.11: Cu hnh cung cp dch v Hotspot c. ng dng truy cp bng rng: Li th thng tin lin lc qua v tinh l vng ph sng rng, trin khai cc im lin lc nhanh do vy vic thit lp cc im lin lc bng rng tm thi qua VSAT IP phc v cng vic t xut. Chng ta c th s dng h thng VSAT IP lm trung k truyn tn hiu TV nh video clip, hay tn hiu MPEG-4.

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3.2.5.3. Dch v IPSTAR GRE VPN Mng ring IP c ng dng cho cc cng ty, t chc... mun thit lp mt mng li lin lc t tr s chnh vi cc chi nhnh qua cc knh ngm nh (tunel) m bo. Phng thc thit lp da trn c s m rng ng truyn mng LAN truyn thng, mi nt mng u chung mt kiu truy nhp vi cht lng nh nhau. Nh cung cp dch v c th qun l v phn b bng tn cho cc nt mng mt cch hiu qu. Yu cu bt buc cho ng dng ny l mt ng knh thu ring kt ni tr s chnh v Gateway Dch v IPSTAR GRE VPN [9] l mt dch v IP Tunneling VPN, s dng giao thc GRE Tunneling. Cng ngh ny h tr cc tnh nng phn knh ngm nh coi mi trng v tinh nh mt mng LAN. Tr s chnh s kt ni vi vi trm cng VSAT IP bng mt knh thu ring v kt ni vi cc chi nhnh thng qua ng truyn v tinh. IPSTAR cung cp dch v mng ring o theo m hnh im - a im. Trm Gateway kt ni vi Router khch hng qua knh thu ring.

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RT

Knh thu ring

RT IPSTAR Gateway

IPSTAR Network Box (Special Enterprise Series

Ch n n i h h c akh hh n c g

NMS

IPSTAR Network Box (Special Enterprise Series Server Server PC

Ch n n i h h c akh hh n c g

Trs c akh hh n c g

Hnh 3.12: Cu hnh dch v thu knh ring IP v mng ring VPN 3.2.5.4. Dch v IPSTAR Leased Circuit Nh li th thng tin v tinh nn dch v IPSTAR Leased Circuit c th kt ni bt k im lin lc no trong cng vng ph sng v tinh. mi v tr a l u c th lin lc thng qua v tinh. Vi ng dng ny cc chi nhnh c th kt ni vi tr s chnh tc cao ti 2Mbps upload v 4Mbps download. Dch v ny c th ng dng cho truyn file, Internet. 3.2.5.5. Dch v trung k di ng: (GSM Trunking) IPSTAR GSM Trunking [9] c ng dng cho cc cng ty thng tin di ng mun m rng vng ph sng ca mnh ti cc vng su xa nhanh chng v t tn km. Dch v GSM Trunking c th h tr cc thu bao di ng vn c th s dng cc dch v trn mng di ng GSM hin c nh Prepaid/Postpaid. Mt li th ca thng tin v tinh l trin khai lp t thit b nhanh khng gii hn v c ly khong cch tn dng li th ny IPSTAR cung cp gii php m rng mng thng tin di ng thit lp cc tuyn trung k ni ti cc im t BTS vng xa

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Cu hnh cung cp dch v bao gm trm Gateway, UT, IP MUX.Gateway s c ni vi thit b IPMUX t ti cc trm BSC thng qua knh thu ring. Cc trm UT s kt ni trc tip vi thit b IPMUX t ti trm BTS. Cc thit b IP MUX c chc nng bin i thoi TDM sang thoi IP m bo thi gian thc v c tnh dch v phng thc truy nhp v tinh s dng kiu truy nhp TDMA.

IP Abis - Interface IP

Abis - Inte ce rfa

RT

Knh thu rin g

IPSTAR Gateway

iPSTAR Ne twork Box (Spe l Ente cia rprise Se s ) rie

IP - MUX

IP - MUX

BSC
NMS

BTS 1

iPSTAR Ne twork Box (Spe l Ente cia rpriseSe s ) rie

IP - MUX

PS TN BTS 2 MSC

Hnh 3.13: Cu hnh dch v GSM Trunking 3.2.5.6. Dch v truyn hnh hi ngh (Video Conference) Dch v cung cp cho cc hi ngh im - im v im - a im. Tn hiu hnh nh v m thanh c truyn hnh trc tip bng giao thc IP. Ngi tham gia hi ngh c th bt k u trong vng ph sng v tinh v bng tn v tinh c th c s dng chung cho tt c cc im tham gia vo cuc hi ngh, y chnh l khc bit rt ln gia v tinh so vi cc phng tin truyn dn khc trn mt t.

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80

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t chc dch v cn trang b mt b MCU nhn tn hiu hnh nh, m thanh t tt c cc im tng hp li v gi ti cc im theo thi gian thc.

Ch n t n t ct p g rh r i m a i

G v n io i Tru gt mot n o

Ch n n i h h k c h n h h g

iP TAR S G twy ae a

iP TAR h k n t u ri g S oc h h n

Trs c ak c h n h h g

Hnh 3.14: Cu hnh cung cp dch v truyn hnh hi ngh 3.2.5.7. Dch v o to t xa (I-Learn) Gii php o to t xa qua IPSTAR l s kt hp gia truyn hnh hi ngh (VDC) v truyn hnh qung b. Gii php ny c th ng dng trong thng tin 2 chiu hay 1 chiu. Trong thng tin 2 chiu cc thu bao xa c th lin lc v trung tm qua vic s dng chung mt di bng tn v tinh tit kim chi ph bng tn. M hnh ny c th ng dng cho cc trung tm o to hay cc c s gio dc mun thit lp mt mng li o to rng khp cho php ging vin c th giao tip vi cc hc vin xa thng qua v tinh. Li ch ca cc hc vin tham gia kha o to l khng phi i xa tit kim c chi ph i li m vn c hc ging vin ni ting. Hnh nh ca gio vin v bi ging ca trung tm ging dy s c ghi li bi mt Camera. Tn hiu ny s c gi ti mt b m ha v my ch pht qung b ti cc phng hc t xa thng qua Gateway v v tinh. Ti cc phng hc xa s c trang b mn hnh v Camera chuyn dng. Hnh nh v bi ging ca gio vin hoc hnh nh v cc cu hi ca hc vin ti cc lp hc t xa s c iu khin hin th trn mn hnh khi c nhu cu.

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Cp q u a n g

Gio vin ti trung t ging dy m

Gateway

Hnh 3.15: Cu hnh cung cp dch v o to t xa 3.2.5.8. Dch v IP2TV y l dch v tch hp ng dng truy cp Internet v truyn hnh theo yu cu VoD (Video on demand) thng qua cc thit b gm mn hnh hin th, cc thit b ph tr, bn phm khng dy. Ngoi ra vi cc ng dng VoD th ngi s dng cn phi c thit b lu tr cc chng trnh ti v. H thng c kh nng pht a im ti mt nhm cc a ch IP nh ch s dng mt di bng tn v tinh chung. Hn na ngi s dng c th ti cc chng trnh vo ban m khi nhu cu s dng v chi ph bng tn thp lm tng tnh hiu qu trong vic s dng bng tn IP2TV l dch v truyn hnh qung b c pht trin da trn m hnh cung cp dch v MDU, thng tin gii tr cho khch hng. Vi dch v ny khch

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hng c th xem cc chng trnh truyn hnh trc tip, truyn hnh theo yu cu VOD (Video on demand). Vi khch hng l cc khch sn thit b VOD server s c trang b thm lp t ti khch hng tng hiu qu s dng ca bng tn v tinh. Thit b trin khai dch v bao gm Server cha ni dung ti trm Gateway lu tr cc ni dung chng trnh v phim nh.

t y n hn i ru h

Ph n Ph ng g

Ph n g

Ph ng

gt n rc In e e t rn t

Ph Ph ng g n

PhPh ng g n

Mn LAN m g r gt n t a n ro g n h My c h t IDC i

Tra gt i b t n t an n h t ro g h

VOD Server with Right Management

Hnh 3.16: Cu hnh dch v IP2TV Kt lun: Nhng ni khng c mng mt t c nh th t nhiu phi chn gii php kt ni qua v tinh, do c mt mng th trng cho cc doanh nghip IP v tinh. Mc d cng ngh v tinh c nhng gii hn nht nh nhng n cung cp bng thng kh cao v cc kh nng qung b tuyt vi to ra mt s la chn kh thi cho nhiu phn on th trng phc tp. Mng VSAT IP mi c trin khai v ng dng cc dch v ti Vit Nam, vic tm hiu h thng v dch v cung cp bc u cho thy c nhiu u vit so vi cc h thng VSAT khc trc y cng nh cc mng mt t hin c. Chng tip theo s phn tch cc u nhc im ca h thng bng cc lun c khoa hc v cc mt: tin cy thng tin, khc phc cc yu t nh hng, kh

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nng ph cp v tnh ng dng ca h thng, ng thi cng a ra hng nghin cu tip theo v cc kha cnh lin quan n lnh vc IP qua v tinh.

CHNG 4 NH GI H THNG 4.1. u nhc im ca h thng VSAT IPSTAR


Ngy nay cng ngh ang tri qua mt cuc cch mng cha tng c. Kh nng duy tr v ci tin cng ngh quyt nh s thnh cng lu di. H thng v tinh bng rng IPSTAR c thit k c kh nng cnh tranh ton din vi cc loi khc, trong khi vn c th lm tng li nhun t s ph cp a dch v n nhiu i tng. 4.1.1 u im ca h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng IPSTAR Vic thit k h thng v tinh bng rng iPSTAR c cc u im m khng th thc hin c vi v tinh thng thng hoc vi cc h thng bng rng khc, hoc vi mng mt t [7]. (1) Phn b dung lng ng (DCA): - iu chnh dung lng ng theo yu cu ca thit b u cui. - Chia s bng thng u khi ti nguyn khng (2) iu chnh knh ng (DLA): - Ti u v cn bng gia tc bt v s thay i thi tit - iu khin s iu ch v m ho ng da theo vic o cht lng ng (3) Loi dch v (CoS)/ Cht lng dch v (QoS) - Cung cp thuc tnh theo tho thun mc dch v. - Chia s ti dung lng hp l gia cc trm u cui vi cc mc u tin khc nhau - Chia s dung lng hp l gia cc nt pha sau mt trm u cui (thc hin ch ti pha UT) - iu khin ng b, tng ch, m ho v iu ch i vi tng UT c th m bo hiu xut ti u v nhn c QoS. - Mc gi chun trn Mbps cho v tinh bng rng iPSTAR c mong i thp hn 1/3 so vi v tinh thng thng. - Trm mt t thu bao c ng ten kch thc nh (0,75m; 1,2m) cng sut thp (0,5 n 2W) gi thp hn 1.000 la cho kh nng chiu ln 2Mbps v kh nng chiu xung 4 Mbps.

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- Kh nng dch v y . - H tng khng thay i. - Khng ph thuc vo c ly, khong cch. 4.1.2. Nhc im ca h thng Nhc im c hu ca thng tin v tinh l chu nh hng tc ng ca thi tit v c bit nhy cm hn bng tn Ka, Ku. Thng tin c th b gin on vi lng ma >100mm/h. Thit b IPSTAR s dng a dng k thut iu ch, m ho cho php t ng phn b ng truyn linh hot l cng ngh c quyn, thc hin qun l khai thc cc phn t mng tp trung ti trm Gateway do cc thit b mt t s ph thuc hon ton vo nh cung cp thit b iPSTAR bao gm c trang thit b trm Gateway v cc UT.

4.2. Cc c tnh ca ng truyn v tinh nh hng ti cht lng ca kt ni s dng giao thc TCP
V tinh c c tnh rt khc bit vi cc h thng mt t, cc c tnh ny lm gim cht lng ca TCP s dng cho v tinh. Cc c tnh bao gm : tr ln: khong 500 ms cho c ng ln v ng xung. tr ny nh hng ti cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn ca TCP v nh hng ti hiu sut s dng bng thng ng truyn ca TCP. Tch BDP ln: y l h qu ca tr ln. Tch s BDP c tnh bng tch s ca rng bng tn v tr ng truyn. Gi tr BDP ch lng d liu ca giao thc m lng d liu ny cha c xc nhn l n ch, tc l lng d liu ny vn cn trong mng. Chnh v vy m pha pht phi gi li mt s lng ln cc gi tin c gi i nhng cha c xc nhn ti ch. T l li ln: Cc h thng v tinh thng c t l li ln hn cc h thng mng mt t, v d t s li ca cc h thng v tinh vo khong 10 -5-10-6 so vi 108 -10-9 cc h thng cp quang. Do xc sut mt gi tin ca h thng v tinh ln. Hin tng mt gi tin trong mng do hai nguyn nhn: tc nghn hoc do li, tuy nhin TCP coi rng nguyn nhn gy nn mi trng hp mt gi tin u do tc nghn v do gim tc pht trnh trng hp mng b tc nghn hon ton. Nh vy nu nguyn nhn ca s mt gi l do li th vic gim tc pht ca TCP l khng cn thit v lng ph rng bng tn ca knh truyn [4].

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4.2.1. nh hng ca tr ti cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn Vi cc kt ni TCP s dng v tinh, tr ln gy nh hng ti cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn (c bit l thut ton khi u chm v thut ton trnh tc nghn) v gim hiu sut s dng bng tn ca v tinh. 4.2.1.1. nh hng ca tr ti thut ton khi u chm Xt mt kt ni TCP c kch thc ca s thu bng W (gi tin), kch thc khi u ca ca s pht bng IW (gi tin) v RTT=R(s), thi gian cn thit pha pht hon thnh pha khi u chm l: Slow start time = R(log2W-log2IW) (4.1) Trong : Slow start time Thi gian hon pha khi u chm. Gi s kch thc mt gi tin bng 512 byte, kch thc ca s thu nhn gi tr cc i bng 128 gi tin, gi tr kch thc ca s khi u pha pht bng 1, tr ca ng truyn v tinh R=500 ms. Theo cng thc (4.1), ta suy ra kt ni TCP qua ng truyn v tinh cn 3,5s hon thnh pha khi u chm. Trong khi cc h thng mt t, tr vo khong 80ms, thi gian cn thit ca pha khi u chm bng 560ms. Nh vy s dng thut ton khi u chm qua v tinh lm chm thi gian hon thnh kt ni do gy lng ph rng bng tn.

Hnh 4.1: S ph thuc ca lng byte truyn dn vo thi gian pha khi u chm

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Trong : ng nm trn (ng s 1) biu th cho kt ni TCP qua v tinh, ng nm di (ng s 2) biu th cho kt ni TCP di mt t. C hai thc nghim vi kt ni TCP qua v tinh v kt ni TCP di mt t u khi u vi bin cwnd c gi tr bng 1 v s dng thut ton khi u chm tng gi tr cwnd. Theo , vi khong thi gian cn thit kt ni v tinh t c kch thc ca s cc i, kt ni TCP mt t c th gi c lng d liu nhiu hn 22 ln [6]. 4.2.1.2. nh hng ca tr ti thut ton trnh tc nghn TCP s dng thut ton trnh tc nghn thm d kh nng tng dung lng ca mng sau khi xy ra mt gi tin. Cc kt ni TCP qua ng truyn v tinh cn nhiu thi gian hn tng cwnd so vi cc kt ni mt t. V d, khi xy ra hin tng mt gi tin mt kt ni TCP vi kch thc ca s cc i (128 gi tin, mi gi tin 512 byte), gi tr cwnd gim xung cn mt na (64 gi tin), sau c mi khong RTT m khng c gi tin no b mt, gi tr ca cwnd c tng ln 1. Nh thut ton trnh tc nghn cn khong 5,12s tng gi tr ca s t 64 ln 128 cc mng mt t v 35,84s i vi mng v tinh. Hnh 4.2 biu din s ph thuc vo thi gian ca lng s liu c gi bi thut ton trnh tc nghn ca kt ni TCP cc mng mt t v mng v tinh [4].

Hnh 4.2. S ph thuc ca lng byte truyn dn vo thi gian pha trnh tc nghn

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Trong , ng nm trn (ng s 1) biu th cho kt ni TCP qua v tinh, ng nm di (ng s 2) biu th cho kt ni TCP di mt t. Cn c vo hnh 4.2, ta thy vi cc kt ni TCP di mt, t gi tr ca bin cwnd t ti gi tr cc i (128 gi tin, mi gi tin kch thc 512byte) nhanh hn cc kt ni TCP qua v tinh. Do trong cng mt thi gian, kt ni mt t, TCP c kh nng gi lng d liu nhiu hn 9 ln so vi kt ni v tinh. 4.2.1.3. nh hng ca tr ti hiu sut s dng bng tn v tin Trong trng hp khng xy ra tc nghn, giao thc TCP ch tng kch thc ca s tc nghn sau khi pha pht nhn c gi tin xc nhn t pha thu. Trong khi tr ng truyn v tinh ln, vo khong 500ms, iu ny dn n thng lng hiu dng ca kt ni TCP gim (Thng lng hiu dng ca mt kt ni TCP c xc nh bng kch thc file cn truyn tnh bng bit chia cho thi gian truyn xong file tnh theo giy). iu ny dn n hiu sut s dng bng thng ng truyn ca giao thc TCP thp. Hnh 4.3 v 4.4 di y ch ra s ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng vo tr ng truyn vi nhng kt ni TCP c kch thc ca s truyn dn khc nhau. Cc thc nghim ny c tin hnh vi hai ng truyn c tc l 2048 kbps v 256 kbps, kch thc gi tin bng 512 byte.

Hnh 4.3. S ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng vo RTT (knh 2048kbps).

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Hnh 4.4. S ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng vo RTT (knh 256kbps) Trong , cc nt ni khc nhau l cc kt ni TCP vi nhng kch thc ca s truyn dn khc nhau. Cn c vo hai hnh trn ta thy rng vi ng truyn tc cao, c th l 2048 kbps, kt ni TCP c tr 0,6s (tng ng tr ca ng truyn v tinh) ch t thng lng hiu dng khong 800kbps vi kch thc ca s ln nht bng 65536 byte, tc l kt ni TCP ny ch s dng ht 39% bng thng m lung E1 cung cp. Trong khi vi ng truyn tc thp hn, c th l 256 kbps, mt kt ni TCP vi cc thng s tng t trn t c thng lng hiu dng xp x 250 kbps. tr ln cn nh hng ti cc dch v Web, c th l lm cho thi gian ti mt trang Web v lu hn, minh ha trong hnh 4.5 v 4.6 :

Hnh 4.5.Thi gian ti cc trang Web c kch thc khc nhau (knh 2048kbps)

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Tr ng truyn (giy)

Hnh 4.6. Thi gian ti cc trang Web c kch thc khc nhau (knh 256kbps) Hnh 4.5 v 4.6 cho thy thi gian ti cc trang Web v tng theo tr ng truyn. Do cht lng cc dch v Web thi gian thc gim khi truyn qua ng truyn v tinh. 4.2.2. nh hng ca tch s BDP ln Nh trnh by trn, TCP s dng thut ton khi u chm v thut ton trnh tc nghn iu khin lung d liu Internet. i vi thut ton khi u chm, kch thc ca s ban u bng 1 (cwnd =1), sau khi pha pht nhn c bn tin xc nhn c ch s ACK khng cng ch s vi bn tin trc , cwnd c tng ln mt lng bng 1. Qu trnh ny c tip din cho n khi cwnd = ssthresh hoc xy ra s mt gi. Trong trng hp cwnd t n ngng ssthresh, thut ton trnh tc nghn c khi ng v cwnd tng chm hn, c th tng 1gi tin cho mi RTT. Trong trng hp xy ra mt gi tin, cc bin cwnd v ssthresh u b gim, thut ton khi phc nhanh c khi ng. TCP cho rng gi tr sau ca ssthresh phn nh dung lng ca mng mt cch chnh xc hn. Gi tr BDP ch lng d liu ca giao thc m lng d liu ny cha c xc nhn l n ch. i vi kt ni TCP s dng ng truyn v tinh tch s ny thng rt ln. V d, ng truyn v tinh c tc 2Mbps, tr 0,5s, khi ta tnh c BDP = 2x0,5 = 1(Mb). Khi dung lng nhng b m trong mng nh hn nhiu so vi BDP, xy ra hin tng trn b m sm v mt gi tin trong qu trnh thut ton khi u chm, trc khi s dng ht bng tn. Trng hp pha pht pht vi tc cao trong qu trnh khi u chm (hai gi tin cho mt ln sau khi nhn c bn tin xc nhn), nu nh mng c nhng b m khng ln p ng c tc pht ny s xy ra hin tng trn b m sm. Kch thc ca s khi xy ra hin tng trn sm vn cn rt nh so vi dung lng thc ca mng,

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tuy nhin TCP coi y l ca s ln nht c th t c v t ng gim ssthresh do thng lng gim [6]. 4.2.3. nh hng ca t l li ln ti kt ni TCP qua v tinh Nh phn tch trn giao thc TCP khng th phn bit c mt gi do li hay mt gi do tc nghn. Khi nhn ra hin tng mt gi, giao thc TCP cho rng mng b tc nghn v do pha pht gim tc pht trnh tc nghn. Tuy nhin nu s mt gi ny do li bit th vic gim tc pht l khng cn thit v khi mng vn c kh nng tip nhn cc gi tin. iu ny lm gim thng lng hiu dng ca kt ni, c bit l trong nhng ng truyn c li ln nh ng truyn v tinh. Hnh 4.7 ch ra s ph thuc ca thng lng hiu dng vo t s li bit vi tng kt ni c gi tr kch thc ca s thu khc nhau.

Hnh 4.7: Thng lng hiu dng ph thuc BER Trong , cc ng cong khc nhau biu th cho cc kt ni vi kch thc ca s khc nhau. Vi t s li bit ln hn 10-7, thng lng hiu dng cc kt ni c kch thc ca s thu ln gim r rt. Cc kt ni c kch thc ca s thu nh t chu nh hng ca li hn. iu ny c gii thch nh sau: vi cng mt xc sut li bt, xc sut xy ra li bt cc kt ni kch thc ca s ln cao hn so vi xc sut xy ra li bit cc kt ni c kch thc ca s nh. Cc kt ni TCP qua v tinh thng c gi tr BER khong 10-6, cc h thng cp quang gi tr BER

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khong10-9, hnh 4.7 cho thy vi kt ni TCP c cng kch thc ca s thu thng lng ca kt ni v tinh ch bng 25% so vi cc h thng cp quang.

4.3. Cc gii php ci tin giao thc TCP


Cc gii php c cp y bao gm: - Tng kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn. - S dng giao thc TCP vi tu chn SACK. - Cc gii php thng bo mt gi do li. 4.3.1. Gii php tng kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn 4.3.1.1. Nguyn l thc hin Trong pha khi u chm ca giao thc TCP chun, thut ton khi u chm ch tng kch thc ca s truyn dn (lun c khi to gi tr bng 1 gi tin), sau gi tr ny c tng ln 1 mi khi c mt gi tin xc nhn ti ch. C ch ny c hai hn ch sau: (1) Phi mt nhiu thi gian kch thc ca s truyn dn pha pht c th tng n gi tr ca s pha thu, dn n thng lng hiu dng ca kt ni gim. (2) S lng cc gi tin c pht vo mng pha khi u chm t hn so vi kh nng p ng ca mng, tc l hiu sut s dng rng bng tn ca kt ni TCP thp. Gii php c a ra gii quyt hai vn trn l tng kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn. S thay i ca s khi u kt ni c bt u t khong thi gian RTT u tin sau th tc bt tay ba ng ca TCP. C hai gi tin SYN/ACK v gi tin xc nhn ACK trong th tc bt tay u khng th tng kch thc ca s khi u. Nu gi tin SYN hay SYN/ACK b mt, ca s khi u c s dng bi pha pht sau khi truyn li gi tin SYN phi c kch thc bng 1 gi tin [6]. Nh trn trnh by, TCP s dng thut ton khi u chm trong ba trng hp sau y: - Khi u mt kt ni (khi to ca s). - Truyn li sau khong thi gian di m kt ni khng truyn g c (khi to li ca s). - Truyn li sau khi ch RTO (mt gi tin). Trong ba trng hp trn, kch thc ca s khi u ln hn 1 ch c p dng trong trng hp 1. Trng hp 2, ca s khi to li c thit lp bng gi tr nh nht gia gi tr ca s khi

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u (trng hp 1) v gi tr hin ti ca bin cwnd. Trong trng hp 3, gi tr ca s khi u lun nhn bng 1, do lc ny TCP cho rng mng b tc nghn nn nu tng kch thc ca s truyn dn s lm cho mng tc nghn thm. Nh vy vic tng kch thc ca s khi u l mang tnh tu chn v ch c p dng pha khi u chm ca mt kt ni TCP mi c khi to. 4.3.1.2. Cc kt qu thc nghim vi ca s khi u kch thc ln Nhng thc nghim ny c thc hin trn h thng m phng h thng v tinh thng tin ca trng i hc tng hp Ohio. Cc thc nghim c tin hnh bng cch s dng giao thc FTP truyn nhng file c kch thc khc nhau qua thit b m phng. Thit b m phng c thit lp vi hai trng hp sau y: - Kch thc ca s thu nh khng xy ra tc nghn trong mng. - Kch thc ca s thu ln hn c th xy ra tc nghn trong mng. Hnh 4.8 m t s ci thin ca thng lng hiu dng ca cc kt ni vi kch thc ca s khi u ln so vi kt ni c kch thc ca s khi u bng 1 gi tin [5].

Hnh 4.8. S ci thin thng lng ca kt ni TCP khi khng c tc nghn Trong , cc nt gch khc nhau biu th cho cc file c kch thc khc nhau.

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Hnh 4.8 cho thy rng s tng kch thc ca s khi u lm tng thng lng ca kt ni, c bit l khi truyn nhng file c kch thc nh. C th, khi truyn mt file c kch thc 30kB, nu s dng ca s khi u c kch thc bng 32 gi tin, thng lng tng ln xp x 180% so vi ca s khi u kch thc bng 1 gi tin, nu s dng ca s khi u c kch thc bng 4 gi tin thng lng tng ln 27%. S tng thng lng vi trng hp truyn dn nhng file nh l do tit kim c thi gian truyn dn khi s dng ca s khi u c kch thc ln hn. i vi nhng trng hp truyn dn nhng file c kch thc ln, thng lng khng c ci thin nh trng hp nhng file nh. Nguyn nhn l do thi gian tit kim c khi s dng ca s khi u kch thc ln vo khong vi RTT rt nh so vi tng thi gian truyn dn. C th, khi truyn mt file c kch thc 5MB vi ca s khi u c kch thc bng 32 gi tin, thng lng ch ci thin c khong 3% so vi kch thc ca s khi u bng 1. Hnh 4.9 l kt qu ca thc nghim tng t nh trn nhng vi ca s thu c gi tr ln hn lm trn cc hng i ca cc router trung gian. iu ny lm cho thi gian tn ti cc kt ni lu hn, do gi tr kch thc ca s pht c th t ti c gi tr ca kch thc ca s thu trc khi kt ni kt thc.

Hnh 4.9: S ci thin thng lng ca kt ni TCP khi c tc nghn Trong , cc nt gch khc nhau biu th cho cc file c kch thc khc nhau.

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Cn c vo hnh 4.9 ta thy khi truyn nhng file trung bnh: 30kB, 100kB, 200kB, kt qu gn ging nh nhng thc nghim trn. iu ny cho thy pha pht pht xong cc gi tin trc khi bin cwnd ln lm trn cc hng i cc router trung gian. Khi truyn nhng file c kch thc ln 1MB hay 5MB thng lng thay i khng ng k vi nhng ca s khi u c gi tr khc nhau. Trong c hai trng hp thng lng khi truyn nhng file c kch thc ln 5MB l tng ng. Do vi nhng file c kch thc ln thi gian truyn dn di, trong khi mng c tc nghn xy ra nn khong thi gian m pha khi u chm tit kim c khng ng k so vi thi gian tn ti ca kt ni. Trong trng hp mng c t l mt gi cao, hnh 4.10 ch ra s tng s lng gi tin b mt trong mng mt kt ni khi s dng ca s khi u kch thc ln so vi ca s khi u kch thc bng 1 gi tin.

Hnh 4.10. S lng gi tin phi pht li mng c t l mt gi cao Cn c vo hnh 4.10 ta thy, khi kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn ln hn 5 gi tin, lng gi tin phi pht li trong mt kt ni tng tuyn tnh khi gi tr ca s khi u truyn dn tng. Nh vy, vic tng kch thc ca s khi u truyn dn ci thin c cht lng nhng kt ni TCP qua ng truyn vt l tc cao, lng d liu cn truyn nh. Tuy vy, trong trng hp mng c t l mt gi ln, s tng kch thc ca s truyn dn lm cho tng s lng gi tin cn phi pht li trong mt kt ni, do dn n cht lng ca kt ni TCP trong trng hp ny gim.

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4.3.2. Gii php TCP vi tu chn SACK C ch pht li ca giao thc TCP chun pht li cc gi tin b mt da trn hai du hiu sau y: - Qu thi gian truyn li m khng nhn c gi tin xc nhn t pha thu. - Pha pht nhn c ba gi tin xc nhn ACK c ch s ACK ging nhau. C ch ny c nhc im l: - Pha pht ch c th pht li c mt gi tin trong mt ca s truyn dn. - Pha pht c th pht li mt cch khng cn thit cc gi tin ti ch. Tht vy, gi s pha pht pht i 20 gi tin, gi tin th 11 v 12 b mt, cc gi tin 13, 14 v 15 ti ch. Trng hp th nht, nu qu thi gian RTO m pha pht khng nhn c gi tin xc nhn ACK cho gi tin th 11, pha pht gim kch thc ca s truyn dn xung cn 1 gi tin v khi ng thut ton khi u chm truyn li cc gi tin bt u t gi tin th 11, nh vy pha pht phi pht li cc gi tin 13, 14 v 15 mt cc khng cn thit. Trng hp th hai, mi khi cc gi tin 13, 14, 15 ti ch pha thu pht i mt gi tin xc nhn ACK trong trng ACK c gi tr bng 11. Nh vy pha pht ch c th pht li mt gi tin l gi tin th 11, cn gi tin th 12 khng c pht li c v pha pht khng nhn c bt c thng tin no v gi tin ny. Nguyn nhn ca hn ch ny l do gi tin xc nhn ACK t pha thu vi trng ACK ch mang thng tin v mt gi tin. TCP vi tu chn SACK (Selective Acknowlegedmen t- Xc nhn la chn) c th khc phc c nhc im trn bng cch s dng thm trng Option ca gi tin TCP mang thng tin xc nhn cho nhiu gi tin hn. TCP vi tu chn SACK ch s dng trng Option ca gi tin TCP, cc thut ton iu khin tc nghn ca TCP chun khng thay i c ch hot ng. thy r hiu qu ca TCP vi tu chn SACK, thc nghim c tin hnh vi hai thit b nh sau: - Thit b m phng ng truyn v tinh: Thit b ny c thit lp nhng tham s ging ht vi ng truyn v tinh. Thit b c u im l mm do trong vic thit lp cc tham s m phng ng truyn. Cu hnh thit b nh sau :

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Hnh 4.11. Cu hnh ca thit b m phng SACK Trong : Eror/Delay Box l thit b c tc dng lm tr gi, mt gi, gy ra li tng t nh ng truyn v tinh tht. - V tinh thng tin c qu o a tnh. M hnh nh sau:

Hnh 4.12. M hnh thc nghim dng v tinh a tnh Trong c hai trng hp, thit b ca khch hng v my ch thc nghim u c cu hnh l: b x l Pentium IV chy trn h iu hnh Linux. a. Kt qu thc nghim vi thit b m phng Thit b m phng c c im l c th thay i cc tham s m phng mt cch d dng, chnh v vy thc nghim c tin hnh nhiu ln trn thit b ny vi cc tham s c iu chnh khc nhau: - Thit b m phng c thit lp ch no corruption. Thit b m phng c cc thng s sau: RTT=510ms, tc ng truyn 10MBps, khng c li ng truyn. Cc file c ln khc nhau: 100KB, 1MB v 10MB c gi i t thit b u cui khch hng ti my ch. Ca s pht TCP c kch thc bin i t 32KB n 1024KB ( y dng giao thc TCP vi kch thc

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ca s ln bng cch s dng thm phn tu chn trong tiu gi tin TCP, gi tr trong phn tu chn ny l h s nhn. Kch thc ca s lc ny bng h s nhn vi kch thc ca s tiu chun l 216 byte. Gi tr ca h s nhn khng c vt qu 214). Kt qu [3] c biu th trn cc hnh 4.13 v 4.14.

Kch thc ca s (KB)

Hnh 4.13. Thng lng t c khi truyn cc file 100KB trong trng hp no corruption.

Kch thc ca s KB

Hnh 4.14. Thng lng t c khi truyn cc file 1MB, 10MB trng hp no corruption. Trong , cc nt ni khc nhau l cc trng hp giao thc TCP SACK v giao thc TCP chun (TCP NewReno) c s dng. T hnh 4.13 v hnh 4.14 ta thy:

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- Thng lng khi truyn cc file nh 100KB v 1MB thp hn thng lng khi truyn cc file ln 10MB. Nguyn nhn l do kch thc cc file 100KB v 1MB khng tn dng c kch thc ca s ln v tc ca ng truyn. - Trong mi trng thc nghim khng c li, s khc nhau gia TCP vi tu chn SACK v TCP chun l rt r rng, tr trng hp vi kch thc ca s ln. Do TCP vi tu chn SACK c kh nng x l nhng gi tin b mt bng cch s dng nhng khi tu chn SACK nn thng lng t c ln hn so vi TCP chun. Khi truyn cc file 10MB vi ca s c kch thc 1024 KB, thng lng c TCP chun v TCP vi tu chn SACK u gim, tuy nhin TCP chun gim nhiu hn. Gii thch nh sau: vi nhng ng truyn c bng tn 10MB v RTT=510ms, tch BDP bng 652,8KB, do vi nhng ca s c kch thc ca s ln hn gi tr ny s xy ra tc nghn v thng lng gim. Do nu c tng kch thc ca s th s nh hng xu n thng lng ngay c khi SACK c s dng. - Thit b m phng c t ch corruption. Thit b m phng c thit lp vi nhng thng s sau y: T l mt gi 1% tng ng vi BER = 0,9x10-6, RTT=510ms, tc ng truyn 10MBps. Cc file c kch thc bng 1MB v 10MB c truyn vi nhng ca s c kch thc khc nhau. Kt qu c cho trn hnh 4.15.

Kch thc ca s (KB)

Hnh 4.15. Thng lng khi truyn file c kch thc 1MB v 10MB, t l mt gi 1%. T hnh 4.15 ta thy TCP vi tu chn SACK c thng lng ln hn so vi TCP chun. Ging nh trng hp trc, thng lng gim khi kch thc ca s ln hn gi tr BDP=652,8KB do c s hin din ca tc nghn v mt gi do li bit. Khi truyn dn nhng file c kch thc 10MB, so vi trng hp trc th

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thng lng gim nhiu hn do t l mt gi. Thc nghim trn c lp li vi kch thc file 10MB, t l mt gi 2% v 0,5%. Kt qu c ch ra trn hnh 4.16:

Hnh 4.16. Thng lng khi truyn dn cc file 10MB, t l mt gi l 2% v 5%.

Thng lng trong cc trng hp truyn dn file 10MB vi kch thc ca s bng 1024MB, t l mt gi khc nhau c tm tt trong bng sau:
T l mt gi Thng lng TCP vi tu chn SACK Thng lng ca TCP chun Chnh lch

0,5% 1% 2%

37055 29509 18463

37653 29798 18684

598 289 221

Vi kch thc ca s ln (1024KB), t l mt gi ln th cht lng ca TCP vi tu chn SACK xp x so vi TCP chun. iu ny l do hai nguyn nhn: Th nht: trng tu chn SACK gii hn trong 4 khi d liu trong khi th c nhiu hn 4 khi d liu b mt do tc nghn v do mt gi. Do trng tu chn khng khng gian thng bo cho pha pht bit cc gi tin b mt. Th hai: v t l mt gi ln nn c nhng trng hp pha thu khng nhn c mt gi tin no c, do cng khng c gi tin xc nhn no c pht tr li pha pht. C hai trng hp ny u dn ti truyn li da trn RTO do vy thng lng gim. b. Kt qu thc nghim vi ng truyn v tinh

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Knh truyn v tinh c tc 2Mbps v RTT bng 510ms. Cc file c kch thc 1MB v 10MB c truyn t thit b u cui ca khch hng ti my ch. Kch thc ca s pht bng 64KB, 128KB v 256KB. Kt qu ghi trn bng sau c ly trung bnh cng ca thng lng qua

5 ln thc nghim.
Truyn file 1MB TCP chun 64KB 13 SACK 14 15 13 Truyn file 10MB TCP chun 16,5 16,5 15,75 SACK 17,6 18,5 17,75

128KB 13,75 256KB 12,5

Cc kt qu thu c cng tng ng nh kt qu thc nghim trn thit b m phng. Tt c cc trng hp SACK u cho kt qu tt hn TCP chun. Thng lng gim khi kch thc ca s tng c bit l khi kch thc ca s bng 256KB ln hn tch BDP ca ng truyn (2Mbpsx510ms=130,56KB). Qua cc kt qu thc nghim ta c nhn xt: - Qua ng truyn v tinh thng lng ca TCP vi ty chn SACK ln hn so vi TCP chun. - Trong trng hp li ln, kch thc ca s pht qu ln, c bit l khi kch thc ca s pht ln hn so vi tch s BDP ca ng truyn, thng lng ca TCP vi tu chn SACK khng ci thin c nhiu so vi TCP chun thm ch cn km hn. 4.3.3. Cc gii php thng bo mt gi do li Hin tng mt gi tin trong truyn dn s liu c th do mt trong hai nguyn nhn sau: (1) Do li trong qu trnh truyn dn gy nn (2) Do mng b tc nghn nn gi tin b hu nhng router trung gian. Mt trong nhng nhc im ca giao thc TCP chun l khng c kh nng xc nh chnh xc nguyn nhn ca s mt gi. Mi khi pha pht xc nh c s mt gi, giao thc TCP cho rng l du hiu ca s tc nghn mng v gim tc pht trnh khng cho mng ri vo tnh trng tc nghn hon ton. Trong trng hp s mt gi do li gy nn vic gim tc pht gy nn lng ph bng thng ng

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truyn v thc t mng khng b tc nghn v c th tip nhn nhiu gi tin hn. Do khi s dng giao thc TCP vo nhng ng truyn t l li bit ln nh ng truyn v tinh s lm gim thng lng ca cc kt ni TCP. Cc gii php thng bo mt gi do li cung cp cc c ch b sung cho giao thc TCP pha pht c th nhn ra c nguyn nhn ca s mt gi v t ra nhng quyt nh ph hp trnh s lng ph bng thng ng truyn. Cc gii php thng bo mt gi do li phn bit hai trng hp sau y: Trng hp c thng tin v gi tin b mt: Mt s thng tin trong phn tiu gi tin IP v TCP nh a ch IP ca pha pht, a ch IP ca pha thu, a ch cng TCP ca pha pht v a ch cng TCP ca pha thu, s th t ca gi tin TCP c th c khi phc li chnh xc t gi tin b li. Trng hp khng thng tin v gi tin b mt: Tt c cc thng tin ca phn tiu gi tin TCP v gi tin IP b li b hng, khng s dng c. Trn c s phn bit hai trng hp nh trn, gii php a ra tng c ch gii quyt cho mi trng hp. C th, gii php s dng tu chn HACK gii quyt trng hp c thng tin tiu ca gi tin li, gii php CETEN gii quyt trng hp khng c thng tin v gi tin b li [6].

4.4. D bo nhu cu dch v qua h thng VSAT bng rng


- Bng 1: D bo nhu cu s dng cc dch v qua VSAT - Bng 2: D bo pht trin cc thu bao thoi s dng qua h thng thng tin v tinh trn ton quc.

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105

106

KT LUN
Khi Vit Nam tin hnh cng nghip ho - hin i ho, vai tr ca ngnh Vin thng i vi s pht trin kinh t - x hi s ngy cng tr nn quan trng hn. Vic pht trin mt c s h tng vin thng mnh khng ch to iu kin thun li cho pht trin kinh t m cn gp phn m bo phn phi phc li mt cch cng bng trong x hi. Khi thng tin lin lc pht trin v cc dch v vin thng c cung cp rng khp trn ton quc, khng ch ngi dn thnh th m c nng thn s c hng nhng li ch v y t, gio dc v vn ho. Vic s dng cc dch v Vin thng s lm tng nng sut lao ng v ci thin cht lng sng ca ton dn. Do c im a hnh Vit Nam rt phc tp, c nhiu khu vc i ni him tr, ho lnh v cc o xa xi, rt kh khn cho vic thit lp cc tuyn thng tin tm thp truyn thng nh cp ng trc, cp quang, vi ba ....,vic trin khai mng thng tin v tinh VSAT c thc hin nc ta t nm 1996 mang li hiu qu rt cao v mt pht trin kinh t cng nh m bo phc v tt tnh hnh an ninh chnh tr v ch quyn lnh th quc gia. Sau mt thi gian tp trung nghin cu tm hiu, vi s gip tn tnh ca Gio vin hng dn, ti hon thnh lun vn Nghin cu nh gi kt qu ng dng h thng thng tin v tinh dng trm mt t c antenna c nh (VSAT) cho vng su vng xa ti Vit Nam. Lun vn trnh by nhng vn chung v thng tin v tinh, cc yu t nh hng n vic thit lp knh thng tin qua v tinh, ng thi nghin cu c th cu trc, c im v ng dng ca cc mng VSAT ti Vit Nam, lm r tnh u vit ca tng h thng mng VSAT i vi c th Vit Nam, nu ra mt s gii php k thut c s dng ci thin cht lng trong tuyn thng tin v tin VSAT bng rng s dng giao thc IP, ng thi a ra d bo v nhu cu s dng cc dch v qua mng VSAT ti Vit Nam. Tuy nhin trong khong thi gian hn ch, cc mng VSAT ti Vit Nam cng ang c nhng thay i v cng ngh, gii php cung cp dch v cho nn lun vn cn s gip t cc Thy c v cc bn c hon thin hn. Ti xin trn trng cm n Tin s Chu Vn V, cc Thy C gio v cc bn gip ti hon thnh lun vn ny.

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Hng nghin cu tip theo: Trn c s tm hiu, nghin cu mng VSAT ti Vit Nam, cng nh nguyn l v cc yu t k thut thng tin v tinh, khuynh hng mi ca cc m hnh kinh t c pht trin s gip cc nh thit k mng trong vic gp cc chc nng th hin kh quan khi thit k mng v tinh. Qua phn tch nh gi cc m hnh hin nay, s m rng cng vic ny c th to ra nhiu li ch hn, di y l nhng gi c th s nghin cu su hn: 1. Phn tch hiu sut ca cc giao thc IP v chuyn mch gi ATM lin quan n cht lng ca dch v vic ng dng thoi thi gian thc t vi cc knh c tr bng thng ln cng nh cc knh trong mng v tinh GEO. 2. Nghin cu v kh nng cung cp dch v v tinh qua v tinh VINASAT, phng n m rng hoc thit lp mi dch v v tinh VINASAT. 3. Nghin cu nh hng ca nn thoi trn lu lng cc mng in thoi v tinh s dng cc k thut truy cp khc nhau. 4. Nghin cu ci tin lu lng v tng tc giao thc ca mng thoi v tinh khi kt ni vi mng ni ht v tuyn i vi dch v thoi/d liu khng dy, t bo hoc cng ngh th h 3. 5. Nghin cu cng ngh v tinh v trm mt t cho bng tn Ka, V dng cc mng s v cc v tinh t x l. 6. Nghin cu nh gi nhu cu s dng cc dch v v phng n pht trin mng VSAT t hiu qu ng dng cao hn.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


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