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EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A
EM- BASED D ESIGN S OFTWARE FOR S PIRAL I NDUCTORS AND T RANSFORMERS A

EM-BASED DESIGN SOFTWARE FOR SPIRAL INDUCTORS AND TRANSFORMERS

A spiral is a very important form of planar or multilayer inductor or transformer. Previous designs of spiral components,

however, have relied heavily on approximate quasi-static models and verification using elec- tromagnetic field solvers. Recently, an applica- tion-specific graphical user interface has been created for use with the IE3D high perfor-

mance EM Simulation and Optimization software to facilitate the design of spiral cir- cuit components. SpiralSyn is a spiral analysis and synthesis module integrated with the IE3D Library. It

performs electromagnetic analysis and synthe- sis using the IE3D field solver, with a graphi- cal user interface. SpiralSyn creates spiral ob- jects and exports them to IE3D. It can also be invoked from a spiral component layout. SpiralSyn currently handles seven spiral structures from inductors to transformers, as well as interdigital and metal-insulator- metal (MIM) capacitors. The list of induc- tors and transformers includes single-ended rectangular and differential rectangular spi- ral inductors, single-ended octagonal and differential octagonal spiral inductors, double-layer rectangular spiral induc-

tors, partly bifilar rectangular spiral transformers, and entirely bifilar rec-

Fig. 1 Simulated and measured response of a rectangular spiral inductor.

I E3D |S 11 | Measu red | S 11 | I E3D |S 2
I
E3D |S 11 |
Measu red | S 11 |
I
E3D |S 2 1 |
Measu red | S 2 1 |
0
4
8
−12
0
0 .5
1. 0
1.5
2. 0
2.5
F REQUENCY (G Hz)
|
S 1 1 | , | S 21 | ( d B )

tangular spiral transformers.

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION SpiralSyn was used to analyze several

spiral structures that had available mea-

sured data to verify its accuracy. Figure 1 shows the layout and comparison of

simulated and measured S-parameters 1

of a rectangular spiral inductor. Figure

ZELAND SOFTWARE INC.

Fremont, CA

Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL ® from the April 2005 issue. © 2005 Horizon House Publications, Inc.

P RODUCT F EATURE

I E3D | S 22 | Measu red | S 22 | I E3D |
I E3D | S 22 |
Measu red | S 22 |
I E3D | S 4 2 |
Measu red | S 42 |
0
5
10
−15
2
4
6
8
10
F REQUENCY (G Hz)
|
S 2 2 |, | S 4 2 | ( d B)

Fig. 2 Simulated and measured response of a rectangular spiral transformer.

and measured response of a rectangular spiral transformer. References ▲ Fig. 3 SpiralSyn analysis of a
and measured response of a rectangular spiral transformer. References ▲ Fig. 3 SpiralSyn analysis of a

References

Fig. 3 SpiralSyn analysis of a spiral inductor on silicon.

Fig. 3 SpiralSyn analysis of a spiral inductor on silicon. 2 shows the physical layout and

2 shows the physical layout and com- pares simulated S-parameters with mea- sured data 2 of a rectangular spiral trans- former. It can easily be seen that the SpiralSyn simulations are in excellent agreement with the corresponding mea- surements in the two examples.

A DESIGN EXAMPLE A design example of a rectangular spi-

ral inductor using SpiralSyn is presented to demonstrate the software’s usefulness.

The case for analysis is a 6.875-turn spiral

on 4.5 µm thick SiO 2 on a 500 µm thick silicon substrate. The graphical user in- terface of SpiralSyn is so simple that en- tering the dimensions and parameters of the spiral, selecting the options and start- ing the simulation is all that is necessary to perform the analysis. In this case, Spi- ralSyn completed the analysis in approxi- mately one minute using a 2.5 GHz Pen-

tium 4 machine. The analysis results are shown in Figure 3. The synthesis example uses the same layer structure and trace parameters, although the synthesis target is a 5 nH inductance at 1.5 GHz. SpiralSyn determined it to be a 5.75-turn spiral with an inductance value of 5.01 nH. Figure 4 shows the results of that synthesis.

CONCLUSION An IE3D Library module for spirals has been de- scribed and verified through comparisons with measure- ments. SpiralSyn performs spiral synthesis based on accu- rate electromagnetic simulation and is a useful tool in RFIC design.

1. D.M. Krafcsik and D.E. Dawson, “A Closed-form Expression for Rep- resenting the Distributed Nature of Spiral Inductors,” IEEE Mi- crowave and Millimeter-wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium Digest, Baltimore, MD, June 4–5, 1986, pp. 87–92. 2. E. Frlan, et al., “Computer-aided Design of Square Spiral Trans- formers and Inductors,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium Digest, Long Beach, CA, June 13–15, 1989, pp. 661–664.

Zeland Software Inc., Fremont, CA (510) 623-7162, www.zeland.com.

Fig. 4 SpiralSyn synthesis of a spiral inductor on silicon.