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Martes, Aug 09, 2011

La Ingeniera Hidrulica: Aplicaciones no convencionales en reas no convencionales, avances en mtodos experimentales, mediciones de campo y modelamiento matemtico

Jorge D. Abad
Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)
http://www.pitt.edu/~jabad/
Assistant Professor Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science (GPS) Center for Simulation and Modeling (SAM) Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) : http://www.engr.pitt.edu/Civil/ : http://www.geology.pitt.edu/ : http://www.sam.pitt.edu/ : http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/clas/

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)


Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF) University of Pittsburgh

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)


-Exceso/dficit de estudiantes de doctorado Apliquen a maestras y doctorados, hace falta buenos estudiantes English, English, English necesidad!!! Busquen informacin (Fulbright, paginas de las universidades) Pregunten a sus profesores, colegas, CONEIC expositores!!! Perseverancia, perseverancia, perseverancia Decisin por extraar las cosas lindas de Per

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

The Modern Amazon Basin

From Coleman and Mapes, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

Tertiary

Millions of Years
University of Pittsburgh

Experimentos, mediciones de campo y modelamiento


El rio Ucayali cerca a la ciudad de Pucallpa
Colaboradores: Capt. Fragata Hugo Montoro, Ing. Jorge Paredes, Teniente Bruno Peralta y tcnicos: Direccin de Hidrografa y Navegacin de la Marina de Guerra del Per

El rio Amazonas cerca a la ciudad de Iquitos (breve)


Colaboradores: Capt. Fragata Hugo Montoro, Ing. Jorge Paredes, Teniente Bruno Peralta y tcnicos: Direccin de Hidrografa y Navegacin de la Marina de Guerra del Per

Canales submarinos en el fondo ocenico del Atlntico


Colaboradores: Gary Parker, Marcelo H. Garcia University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA Octavio Sequeiros, Carlos Pirmez SHELL Exploration Benoit Spinewine, Fonds National de Recherche Scientifique, Belgium

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

[1] Monitoreo Hidrogrfico del Rio Ucayali en la Inmediaciones de la Ciudad de Pucallpa

Hugo Montoro
Capitn de Fragata Jefe del Servicio de Hidrografa y Navegacin de la Amazonia Marina de Guerra del Per

Jorge D. Abad
Profesor Asistente Departamento de Ing. Civil y Ambiental Universidad de Pittsburgh

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

TEORIA DE RIOS MEANDRICOS

Flujo secundario

Flow and bed equilibrium conditions


Depth-averaged velocities

~ld

Inner bank

Outer bank

~S2

B n
Cc ( s) 1 ( s) cte Rc ( s) s

~S4 s

~S6

Freely-meandering channels: The Ucayali and Aguaytia Rivers near Pucallpa city, PERU

UCAYALI RIVER

Evolution of meandering channels


Lancaster, 2002

2sz

2sz

~Se

2se

2se

Ucayali river near Pucallpa city


10/04/1975 05/16/2010

INTERPRETACION DE LA EVOLUCION DEL RIO UCAYALI

Conceptual model for a bend migration Se: equilibrium slope

B A
DAB DAB +DBC

SAB <Se SBC <Se


~Se

Elev

Conceptual model for a cutoff


Li

Se: equilibrium slope B


Lf

SAB >Se
Li-Lf ~Se SAB Elev

A
n s

B u1 d1 d2 d3 d5

10/04/1975
u2 u3 d4 u4 u5

06/12/1985 B

08/13/1990

SinUcayali ~ 1.70
Pucallpa

Pucallpa

u3

d3 d5 u5 A

d4 u4

Pucallpa

d5 u5 A

A B

07/12/1996

08/24/2000 B

05/16/2010
Z1

Pucallpa

d5 u5 Z2 A A A

MEDICIONES EN CAMPO 2011 Instrumentos

Field equipment
[1] Geodesic GPS double frequency, Trimble 5700, [2] Total station Leica TCA 1103, [3] Stage rulers

[1] AEH-177 Boat (1 unit) [2] Mulibeam Reson Seabat 7101 [3] Hypack software

[1] Stainless steel Boat (2 units) [2] ADCP workhorse Rio Grande 600 KHz, RD Instruments [3] Single beam digital echo sounder SYQWEST BATHY-500
Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF) University of Pittsburgh

Batimetra multihaz y aDcp para las veocidades

Batimetra 2011

Inflection
Pucallpa

05/16/2010

SITUACIN ACTUAL
(a)
Contornos: Velocidad longitudinal (cm/s)

(b)

(c)

05/16/2010

Ro Ucayali

Velocidad promediada en la vertical (cm/s)

SITUACIN ACTUAL

(a)
Contornos: Velocidad longitudinal (cm/s)

(b)

(c)

05/16/2010

Velocidad promediada en la vertical (cm/s)

Ro Ucayali

SITUACIN ACTUAL
(a)
Contornos: Velocidad longitudinal (cm/s)

(b)

(c)

05/16/2010

Velocidad promediada en la vertical (cm/s)

Ro Ucayali

Modelamiento Preliminar 2D y 3D

MODELAMIENTO 2D

Usando alrededor de 200,000 celdas en un cluster en linux

MODELAMIENTO 2D

MODELAMIENTO 2D

3D modeling: Superimposition of ripples over dunes (Parsons et al. 2005)

flow

7 9 300 250 200

150

100

50

Dunes Ripples

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP (Fernandez et al. 2006)

Superimposition of ripples over dunes Using around


11 million of cells 1 second takes 2 hours in 64-core cluster

Superimposition of ripples over dunes

CONCLUSIONES DE [1]
Determinar los periodos de creacin de cortes de meandro y de incremento de la migracin de los mismos

CONCLUSIONES DE [1]
determinar la evolucin del canal principal y en cuanto tiempo se producira un corte de meandro natural en la ausencia de canales secundarios

05/16/2010

Ro Ucayali

CONCLUSIONES DE [1]
Estudiar la evolucin de los canales secundarios

05/16/2010

Ro Ucayali

CONCLUSIONES DE [1]
Desarrollar modelos predictivos de la dinmica del rio Ucayali combinando con mediciones de campo y modelos matemticos Monitoreo permanente
Ecosonda Morfologa del lecho aDcp Velocidades y caudales [2] Lidar Morfologa de las mrgenes Distribucin de suelos en la planicie de inundacin Clasificacin de sedimentos Clasificacin de cauces naturales existentes Involucrar otras disciplinas (Ecologa, Forestal, Ambiental, Social, etc)

[2] Monitoreo Hidrogrfico del Rio Amazonas en la Inmediaciones de la Ciudad de Iquitos

Hugo Montoro
Capitn de Fragata Jefe del Servicio de Hidrografa y Navegacin de la Amazonia Marina de Guerra del Per

Jorge D. Abad
Profesor Asistente Departamento de Ing. Civil y Ambiental Universidad de Pittsburgh

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

What types of rivers do we have in the Peruvian Amazonian lowlands?

Meandering structure
(Nanay River)

Anabranching structure
(Amazon River)

Iquitos city

Amazon river

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Occurrence of anabranching structures

l~ 30 km
Note: the periodicity may be an indicator of active/inactive regions

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Why the Peruvian Amazon River? Motivation


Low flow U (m/s) Qw (m3/s) Qs (Ton/day) B (m) H (m) High flow

1.5 5 000 150 000

2.2 55 000 4000 000

1 000
10

3 000
50

Club Caza y Pesca

Muelle de Bellavista

From Directorate of Hydrography and Navigation, Peruvian Navy Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Muyuy area 1973

1987

1993

1999

2005

2009

Notice: Individual secondary channels are behaving as meander bends, maybe the main channel will start to evolve more if other regions are turn off to be inactive
Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF) University of Pittsburgh

Field measurements: Campaigns May and August 2010

Iquitos city

Length ~160 km

Maraon River ~ 21280 m3/s


Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

Ucayali River ~ 12270 m3/s

Amazon River ~ 33550 m3/s ~ 12390 m3/s


University of Pittsburgh

SC are non-developed meandering channels

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Single beam measurements (Aug 2010) low flow

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

ADCP measurements

[3]

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

[3] Canales Meandrcos Submarinos


Jorge D. Abad1, Octavio Sequeiros2, Benoit Spinewine3, Carlos Pirmez4, Marcelo H. Garcia5, Gary Parker6
1Assistant

Professor, Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering, University of

Pittsburgh
2Shell

International Exploration and Production, The Netherlands National de Recherche Scientifique, Belgium

3Fonds 4Shell 5Ven

International Exploration & Production, Inc. USA

Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, Dept. of Civil & Env. Engineering,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


6Dept.

of Geology and Dept. of Civil & Env. Engineering, University of

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Secondary flow in subaerial meandering channels


Normally-directed secondary flow: near-bed transverse flow is toward the inner bank
Wabash river

Lateral Accretion
Secondary flow sediments are moved and then deposited at the inner bank

The basic principles of secondary flow


Streamwise velocity us(z) creates outer centrifugal force ~ us2 Superelevation creates inner pressure force ~ Dh
Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force wins near the surface, and Result: normally-directed secondary flow: inward near the bottom

The two forces balance in the mean, but

Pressure force

z
n
Pressure force wins near the bed.

inner

outer

What about submarine meandering channels?

46

Amazon Submarine Fan (Pirmez, 1995)

Complex planform shapes

Experimentos

3 sets: 8%, 10%, 12%

Water surface

Interface

ADV velocity measurements

and obtained near-bed normally-directed secondary flow


S17 S13

S16

S14 S15

(a)

(b)
inner bank

(d)

(c)

outer bank

(a) Plan view, (b) dye injected at S13, (c) Top view at S15, (d) dye injected at S16

s n

Contours Umag, Vectors Un and Uz components

The experiments by Sequeiros et al. (2010) allowed determination of these structure functions in a straight channel

css [gr/l]
0 8 7 6 5 velocity concentration 6 20 40 60 8

Frd
7

U gDh
14 12 10

cs [gr/l] s
0 20 40 60 80 100 14 velocity concentration 12 10 8

Frd = 1.87

z [cm]

z [cm]

4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30

4 3 2 1 0

8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20

Frd = 0.61

6 4 2 0

us [cm/s]

Saline currents

u [cm/s]

Theory was developed Does our theory apply to field cases?


(Mod. Frd)

(L~730 Km)
Supercritical

(L~67 Km)

Subcritical

Amazon Pirmez & Imran Cf = 0.005

Modern cases:

Amazon

~ 350 Km

Bengal

Mississippi
Mississippi

~ 280 Km

~ 50 Km

http://www.noc.soton.ac.uk/gg/gebco/gebco_maps.php

Application to the Amazon canyon-fan system

Supercritical

Subcritical

IMPLICATIONS FOR CHANNEL EVOLUTION

Meandering submarine channels must a some point go through a stage of migration and sinuosity increase. Normally-directed secondary flow helps promote this. Lateral Accretion Packages, Abreu et al. (2003)

Lower Miocene Green Channel Complex offshore Angola

Mensaje del da
Necesitamos mas investigacin sobre todo en la selva peruana Necesitamos especialistas en hidrulica fluvial sobre todo en la selva Necesitamos que la ingeniera hidrulica interactu con otras disciplinas Necesitamos INGENIEROS con vocacin ambientalista, hay que preservar el lugar donde vivimos

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)


Universidad de Pittsburgh Marina de Guerra del Per Servicio Nacional de Meteorologa e Hidrologa del Per

Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana


Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana

Universidad Cientfica del Per


Autoridad Portuaria Nacional
Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF) University of Pittsburgh

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)


June-July 2012: Exploring the Peruvian rainforest, a living experience on research and human-nature interaction
Geography and Climate, Precipitation in the Amazonian region Ecology I: Fauna in Amazonian region (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects) Engineering issues related to the Amazonian Region Social aspects of the Amazonian Region Ecology II: Flora in the Amazonian Region (e.g. plants) Health issues and languages in the Amazonian Region Navigation along the Amazon River SENHAMI Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (IIAP) UNAP Jorge D. Abad University of Pittsburgh Universidad Cientfica del Per (UCP) Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (IIAP) Peruvian Amazon Research Institute (IIAP) TBA Hugo Montoro Chief of the Directorate of Hydrography and Navigation, Peruvian Navy Luis Romani Chief of the National Authority of Ports, Iquitos Jorge D. Abad University of Pittsburgh UNAP

Economy and Ports along the Amazon River Anthropogenic issues in the Amazonian region

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)


National Park: Pacaya-Samiria:

The Peruvian Venice, Belen town:

Visit to Native Peruvian Community (Bora) Navigating along the Amazon River

National Park: Jenaro Herrera

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh

Center for Research and Education of the Amazonian Rainforest (CREAR)

Earth Processes & Environmental Flows (EPEF)

University of Pittsburgh