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Rec. ITU-R P.

1411-4

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RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1411-4 Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of short-range outdoor radiocommunication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz
(Question ITU-R 211/3) (1999-2001-2003-2005-2007)
Scope This Recommendation provides guidance on outdoor short-range propagation over the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz. Information is given on path loss models for line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) environments, building entry loss, multipath models for both environments of street canyon and over roof-tops, number of signal components, polarization characteristics and fading characteristics.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that many new short-range (operating range less than 1 km) mobile and personal communication applications are being developed; b) that there is a high demand for radio local area networks (RLANs) and wireless local loop systems; c) that short-range systems using very low power have many advantages for providing services in the mobile and wireless local loop environment; d) that knowledge of the propagation characteristics and the interference arising from multiple users in the same area is critical to the efficient design of systems; e) that there is a need both for general (i.e. site-independent) models and advice for initial system planning and interference assessment, and for deterministic (or site-specific) models for some detailed evaluations, noting a) that Recommendation ITU-R P.1238 provides guidance on indoor propagation over the frequency range 900 MHz to 100 GHz, and should be consulted for those situations where both indoor and outdoor conditions exist; b) that Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 provides guidance on propagation for systems that operate over distances of 1 km and greater, and over the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 GHz, recommends 1 that the information and methods in Annex 1 should be adopted for the assessment of the propagation characteristics of short-range outdoor radio systems between 300 MHz and 100 GHz where applicable.

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Rec. ITU-R P.1411-4

Annex 1
1 Introduction

Propagation over paths of length less than 1 km is affected primarily by buildings and trees, rather than by variations in ground elevation. The effect of buildings is predominant, since most short-path radio links are found in urban and suburban areas. The mobile terminal is most likely to be held by a pedestrian or located in a vehicle. This Recommendation defines categories for short propagation paths, and provides methods for estimating path loss and delay spread over these paths. 2 Physical operating environments and definition of cell types

Environments described in this Recommendation are categorized solely from the radio propagation perspective. Radiowave propagation is influenced by the environment, i.e. building structures and heights, the usage of the mobile terminal (pedestrian/vehicular) and the positions of the antennas. Four different environments are identified, considered to be the most typical. Hilly areas, for example, are not considered, as they are less typical in metropolitan areas. Table 1 lists the four environments. Recognizing that there is a wide variety of environments within each category, it is not intended to model every possible case but to give propagation models that are representative of environments frequently encountered. TABLE 1 Physical operating environments – Propagation impairments
Environment Urban high-rise Description and propagation impairments of concern – Urban canyon, characterized by streets lined with tall buildings of several floors each – Building height makes significant contributions from propagation over roof-tops unlikely – Rows of tall buildings provide the possibility of long path delays – Large numbers of moving vehicles in the area act as reflectors adding Doppler shift to the reflected waves Urban/suburban low-rise – Typified by wide streets – Building heights are generally less than three stories making diffraction over roof-top likely – Reflections and shadowing from moving vehicles can sometimes occur – Primary effects are long delays and small Doppler shifts Residential – Single and double storey dwellings – Roads are generally two lanes wide with cars parked along sides – Heavy to light foliage possible – Motor traffic usually light Rural – Small houses surrounded by large gardens – Influence of terrain height (topography) – Heavy to light foliage possible – Motor traffic sometimes high

) 3 3. mounted above average roof-top level. heights of some surrounding buildings may be above base station antenna height Outdoor. this case is called NLoS1.1 Path categories Definition of propagation situations Four situations of base station (BS) and mobile station (MS) geometries are depicted in Fig. In the following. Table 2 shows typical velocities for these scenarios. both ends of the link can be assumed to be below roof-top level. TABLE 3 Definition of cell types Cell type Micro-cell Dense urban micro-cell Pico-cell Cell radius 0.5 1. and the models relating to BS2 may be used. Propagation from this BS is mainly over the roof-tops.Rec.5 Velocity for vehicular users Typical downtown speeds around 50 km/h (14 m/s) Around 50 km/h (14 m/s) Expressways up to 100 km/h (28 m/s) Around 40 km/h (11 m/s) 80-100 km/h (22-28 m/s) The type of propagation mechanism that dominates depends also on the height of the base station antenna relative to the surrounding buildings.05 to 0. Base station BS1 is mounted above roof-top level. For mobile-to-mobile links. Therefore the users are subdivided into pedestrian and vehicular users. propagation is mainly within street canyons. 1) is described by Fig. For these two applications the velocity of the mobile is quite different yielding different Doppler shifts. Base station BS2 is mounted below roof-top level and defines a dense urban micro.1 Propagation over rooftops. Table 3 lists the typical cell types relevant for outdoor short-path propagation. 3.5 1.5 km Up to 50 m Typical position of base station antenna Outdoor. 2.5 1.05 to 1 km 0. 1. The corresponding cell is amicro-cell. In these cell types. mounted below average roof-top level Indoor or outdoor (mounted below roof-top level) (Note that “dense urban micro-cell” is not explicitly defined in Radiocommunication Study Group 8 Recommendation. ITU-R P. .1. non-line-of-sight (NLoS) The typical NLoS case (link BS1-MS1 in Fig. TABLE 2 Physical operating environments – Typical mobile velocity Environment Urban high-rise Urban/suburban low-rise Residential Rural Velocity for pedestrian users (m/s) 1.or pico-cellular environment.1411-4 3 For each of the four different environments two possible scenarios for the mobile are considered.

1411-4 FIGURE 2 Definition of parameters for the NLoS1 case . ITU-R P.4 Rec.

2 Propagation along street canyons. The determination of all parameters for the NLoS2 case requires a two-dimensional analysis of the area around the mobile.1411-4 The relevant parameters for this situation are: hr : average height of buildings (m) w : street width (m) b : average building separation (m) ϕ: hb : hm : l: d: street orientation with respect to the direct path (degrees) BS antenna height (m) MS antenna height (m) length of the path covered by buildings (m) distance from BS to MS. In the following. The relevant parameters for this situation are: w1 : street width at the position of the BS (m) w2 : street width at the position of the MS (m) x1 : distance BS to street crossing (m) x2 : distance MS to street crossing (m) α: is the corner angle (rad).Rec. NLoS Figure 3 depicts the situation for a typical dense urban micro-cellular NLoS-case (link BS2-MS3 in Fig. Note that l is not necessarily normal to the building orientation. 1). The parameters hr. NLoS2 is the predominant path type in urban high-rise environments for all cell-types and occurs frequently in dense urban micro. 5 The NLoS1 case frequently occurs in residential/rural environments for all cell-types and is predominant for micro-cells in urban/suburban low-rise environments. However.1.and pico-cells in urban low-rise environments. b and l can be derived from building data along the line between the antennas. . 3. the determination of w and ϕ requires a two-dimensional analysis of the area around the mobile. ITU-R P. this case is called NLoS2.

4 Path loss models For typical scenarios in urban areas some closed-form algorithms can be applied. urban. Different models have to be applied for UHF propagation and for mm-wave propagation. different types of data can be used. etc. In mm-wave propagation LoS is considered only. In the UHF frequency range LoS and NLoS situations are considered. as defined by Recommendation ITU-R P. Data formats can be both raster and vector. ITU-R P.6 3. If no high-resolution data are available.l = Lbp + # ! !40 log10 ! " * d ( ( Rbp ) * d ( ( Rbp ) ' % % & ' % % & for d ≤ Rbp (1) for d > Rbp where Rbp is the breakpoint distance and is given by: Rbp ≈ 4 hb hm λ (2) where λ is the wavelength (m). The location accuracy of the vector data should be of the order of 1 to 2 m. These data can be used in conjunction with street vector information in order to extract street orientation angles. 3.) the required parameters can be assigned to these land-use classes.1. . suburban. The same models can be applied for both types of LoS path. basic transmission loss. 4. can be characterized by two slopes and a single breakpoint. Depending on the definition of land-use classes (dense urban.1411-4 The paths BS1-MS2 and BS2-MS4 in Fig.1 LoS situations within street canyons UHF propagation In the UHF frequency range.3 Line-of-sight (LoS) paths Rec. The type of the model depends also on the frequency range.341. The most accurate information can be derived from high-resolution data where information consists of: – building structures.1. The corresponding propagation situations are defined in § 3. – relative and absolute building heights. The recommended resolution for the raster data is 1 to 10 m. An approximate lower bound is given by: $ !20 log10 ! ! LLoS. These propagation models can be used both for site-specific and site-general calculations. 1 are examples of LoS situations.2 Data requirements For site-specific calculations in urban areas. Additional attenuation by oxygen and hydrometeors has to be considered in the latter frequency range. – vegetation information. low-resolution land-use data (50 m resolution) are recommended. The height accuracy for both data formats should be of the order of 1 to 2 m.

No breakpoint exists. respectively.5% of the roadway and less than 0.4 (1) The breakpoint is beyond 1 km.u = Lbp + 20 + # ! !40 log10 ! " * d ( ( Rbp ) * d ( ( Rbp ) ' % % & ' % % & for d ≤ Rbp 7 (3) for d > Rbp Lbp is a value for the basic transmission loss at the break point.75 (1) (2) hs (m) hm = 1.6 (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) 4 8 4 8 4 8 1.2-1% of the footpath occupied by pedestrians.1-0. including 6 m wide footpaths on either side. ITU-R P.3 1. The roadway was 27 m wide.7 3. defined as: ' * λ2 % Lbp = 20 log10 ( ( 8 π hb hm % & ) (4) SHF propagation up to 15 GHz At SHF. and 0. This distance. .45 15. The hs values given in Tables 4 and 5 are derived from daytime and night-time measurements.35 8. Rbp. road traffic will influence the effective road height and will thus affect the breakpoint distance.6 1. is estimated by: Rbp = 4 (hb − hs ) (hm − hs ) λ (5) where hs is the effective road height due to such objects as vehicles on the road and pedestrians near the roadway.1411-4 An approximate upper bound is given by: $ !25 log10 ! ! LLoS.6 1. Heavy traffic corresponds to 10-20% of the roadway covered with vehicles. Light traffic was 0. for path lengths up to about 1 km. corresponding to heavy and light traffic conditions. Hence hs depends on the traffic on the road.001% of the footpath occupied. TABLE 4 The effective height of the road. hs (heavy traffic) Frequency (GHz) hb (m) hm = 2.Rec.6 1.

The area near the BS (d < Rs) has a basic propagation loss similar to that of the UHF range.74 (1) No measurements taken. when hm ≤ hs no breakpoint exists. Hence the power distance decay-rate will nearly follow the free-space law with a path-loss exponent of about 2.2.43 (1) 0. Attenuation by atmospheric gases and by rain must also be considered. The breakpoint is beyond 1 km. the approximate lower bound for d ≥ Rs is given by: * d LLoS . u = Ls + 20 + 30 log10 ( (R ) s (8) The basic propagation loss Ls is defined as: * λ Ls = 20 log10 ( ( 2πR s ) ' % % & (9) Rs in equations (7) to (9) has been experimentally determined to be 20 m. with Lbp given by: $ λ2 ! ! Lbp = 20 log10 # . ITU-R P. Millimetre-wave propagation At frequencies above about 10 GHz.8 Rec.75 (1) (2) hs (m) hm = 1.23 (1) 4 8 4 8 4 8 0.1411-4 TABLE 5 The effective height of the road.35 8. but the area distant from the BS has propagation characteristics in which the attenuation coefficient is cubed.59 (1) (2) (2) (2) (2) 0.7 3. This means that no fourth-power law is expected in this frequency band.45 15. ! 8π(hb − hs ) (hm − hs ) ! " + (6) On the other hand. .6 0. the approximate values of the upper and lower bounds of basic transmission loss for the SHF frequency band can be calculated using equations (1) and (3). hs (light traffic) Frequency (GHz) hb (m) hm = 2. Therefore. l = Ls + 30 log10 ( (R ) s ' % % & ' % % & (7) The approximate upper bound for d ≥ Rs is given by: * d LLoS . the breakpoint distance Rbp in equation (2) is far beyond the expected maximum cell radius (500 m). When hm > hs.

4.526.1411-4 9 Gaseous attenuation can be calculated from Recommendation ITU-R P. the roof-top height to use in the model is the average roof-top height. this Recommendation is intended for distances only up to 1 km. 2). For NLoS situations. ITU-R P. (Note that although the model is valid up to 5 km.) Millimetre-wave propagation Millimetre-wave signal coverage is considered only for LoS situations because of the large diffraction losses experienced when obstacles cause the propagation path to become NLoS. as described in Recommendation ITU-R P.2.1 Propagation over roof-tops for urban area The multi-screen diffraction model given below is valid if the roof-tops are all about the same height.1. to replace the multi-screen model. multipath reflections and scattering will be the most likely signal propagation method. If the roof-top heights vary by much more than the first Fresnel-zone radius. The model is valid for: hr: ∆hb: ∆hm: hb : hm: f: w: d: any height m 1 to 100 m 4 to 10 (less than hr) m hr + ∆hb m hr ! ∆hm m 0.676.1.Rec. Propagation for urban area Models are defined for the two situations described in § 3. this Recommendation is intended for distances only up to 1 km.8 to 20 GHz 10 to 25 m 10 to 5 000 m (Note that although the model is valid up to 5 km. Assuming the roof-top heights differ only by an amount less than the first Fresnel-zone radius over a path of length l (see Fig. The models are valid for: hb: hm: f: d: 4 to 50 m 1 to 3 m 800 to 5 000 MHz 2 to 16 GHz for hb < hr and w2 < 10 m (or sidewalk) 20 to 5 000 m.) Propagation for suburban area Model is defined for the situation of hb > hr described in § 3. a preferred method is to use the highest buildings along the path in a knife-edge diffraction calculation.2 Models for NLoS situations NLoS signals can arrive at the BS or MS by diffraction mechanisms or by multipath which may be a combination of diffraction and reflection mechanisms. and rain attenuation from Recommendation ITU-R P. This section develops models that relate to diffraction mechanisms. .530. 4.

. The multiple screen diffraction loss from the BS due to propagation past rows of buildings depends on the BS antenna height relative to the building heights and on the incidence angle. ds is compared to the distance l over which the buildings extend. A criterion for grazing incidence is the “settled field distance”. Lmsd. The term Lrts describes the coupling of the wave propagating along the multiple-screen path into the street where the mobile station is located.075(ϕ – 35) !4. 2): ∆hb = hb – hr (16) λd 2 2 ∆hb (15) For the calculation of Lmsd. the loss between isotropic antennas is expressed as the sum of free-space loss. which takes into account the effect of roof-top-tostreet diffraction into streets that are not perpendicular to the direction of propagation (see Fig. below or above building heights. Lbf.354ϕ ! Lori = #2.0 – 0. It takes into account the width of the street and its orientation. ds: ds = where (see Fig. $ Lbf + Lrts + Lmsd LNLoS1 = # " Lbf The free-space loss is given by: for Lrts + Lmsd > 0 for Lrts + Lmsd ≤ 0 (10) Lbf = 32. while Lmsd is dependent on whether the base station antenna is at. 2). the diffraction loss from roof-top to street Lrts and the reduction due to multiple screen diffraction past rows of buildings. The calculation for Lmsd uses the following procedure to remove any discontinuity between the different models used when the length of buildings is greater or less than the “settled field distance”. In this model Lbf and Lrts are independent of the BS antenna height.114(ϕ – 55) " for 0° ≤ ϕ < 35° for 35° ≤ ϕ < 55° for 55° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° (12) (13) where: ∆ hm = hr – hm (14) Lori is the street orientation correction factor. Lrts = – 8.1411-4 In the model for transmission loss in the NLoS1-case (see Fig.10 Rec. ITU-R P.2 – 10 log10 ( w) + 10 log10 ( f ) + 20 log10 (∆hm ) + Lori $ – 10 + 0.5 + 0. 2) for roof-tops of similar height.4 + 20 log10 (d / 1 000) + 20 log10 ( f ) (11) where: d: f: path length (m) frequency (MHz).

ITU-R P.) L1msd (d ) = Lbsh + k a + k d log10 (d / 1000) + k f log10 ( f ) − 9 log10 (b) (24) where: $ – 18 log10 (1 + ∆hb ) Lbsh = # "0 for hb > hr for hb ≤ hr (25) .Rec.1411-4 11 The overall multiple screen diffraction model loss is given by: $ * log(d ) − log d bp ' % ⋅ (L1msd (d ) − Lmid ) + Lmid !− tanh ( for l > d s and dhbp > 0 ( % χ ! ) & ! ! ! * log(d ) − log d bp ' % ⋅ (L 2 msd (d ) − Lmid ) + Lmid !tanh( for l ≤ d s and dhbp > 0 ( % χ ! ) & ! = # L 2 msd (d ) for dhbp = 0 ! ! L1 (d ) − tanh* log(d ) − log d bp ' ⋅ L − L ( % upp mid − Lupp + Lmid for l > d s and dhbp < 0 ( % ! msd ζ ) & ! ! ! * log(d ) − log d bp ' ! ( % ⋅ (Lmid − Llow ) + Lmid − Llow for l ≤ d s and dhbp < 0 ! L 2 msd (d ) + tanh( % ζ ) & " ( ) ( ) Lmsd ( ) ( ( ) (17) ) where: dhbp = Lupp − Llow ζ = ( Lupp − Llow ) ⋅ υ (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) Lmid = ( Lupp + Llow ) 2 Lupp = L1msd dbp ( ) Llow = L2msd (d bp ) d bp = ∆hb l λ and (23) υ = [0. L1msd(d) and L2msd(d). are defined as follows: Calculation of L1msd for l > ds (Note this calculation becomes more accurate when l >> ds.1] where the individual model losses.0417] χ = [0.

1827b − 9.2.1411-4 is a loss term that depends on the BS height: $71.4978 (log( f ))2. 2.6∆h d / 1000 ! b ka = # 54 ! !54 − 0.5( f / 925 – 1) " Calculation of L2msd for l < ds for f > 2 000 MHz for medium sized city and suburban centres with medium tree density and f ≤ 2 000 MHz for metropolitan centres and f ≤ 2 000 MHz (28) In this case a further distinction has to be made according to the relative heights of the BS and the roof-tops: 2 L 2 msd (d ) = –10 log10 QM ( ) (29) where: 0.938 + 0.6∆hb d / 1000 " $18 ! ∆h kd = # 18 – 15 b ! hr " for hb > hr for hb ≤ hr for for for for for for hb > hr and f > 2 000 MHz hb ≤ hr .00023b 2 − 0.06923 4.8∆hb !54 − 1.9 $ * ∆hb b ' !2.35 % & ) ) & = 10 (31) (32) and δhu δhl = (33) (34) 0. f ≤ 2 000 MHz and d < 500 m (26) (27) $− 8 ! ! kf = #− 4 + 0.4 !73 − 0.12 Rec.8∆hb !73 − 1.2 Propagation over roof-tops for suburban area A propagation model for the NLoS1-Case based on geometrical optics (GO) is shown in Fig. f > 2 000 MHz and d ≥ 500 m hb ≤ hr .35 ( % ( d ! λ% ) & !b ! QM = # !d 1 ' λ *1 ! b ( – ( θ 2π + θ % % ! 2πd ρ ) & ! " for hb > hr + δhu for hb ≤ hr + δhu and hb ≥ hr + δhl for hb < hr + δhl (30) and * ∆h ' θ = arctan ( b % ) b & 2 ρ = ∆hb + b 2 * b ' log (d ) 10 * b ' % −log( ( λ % − 9 + 9 log( 2. f > 2 000 MHz and d < 500 m hb > hr and f ≤ 2 000 MHz hb ≤ hr .7( f / 925 – 1) ! !− 4 + 1. ITU-R P. A direct wave can arrive at the MS only when the BS-MS distance is very short. . f ≤ 2 000 MHz and d ≥ 500 m hb ≤ hr . This figure indicates that the composition of the arriving waves at the MS changes according to the BS-MS distance.000781b + 0.

The loss in each region is expressed as follows based on GO. or three-time) reflected waves. reflected wave. arrive at the MS. the several-time reflected waves cannot arrive and only many-time reflected waves. $ * 4πd ' ! 20 ⋅ log( λ % & ) ! ! ! ! L0n ! ! LNLoS1 = # ! ! !32.8 GHz ≤ f < 5 GHz ) (5 GHz ≤ f < 20 GHz ) where: $ (k = 0. When the BS-MS separation is long. ITU-R P. and diffracted wave dominant regions.1⋅ log* d ' + L ( % d (d % n ! ) n& ! ! ! " for d < d0 (Direct wave dominant region) for d 0 < d ≤ d n (Reflected wave dominant region) (35) for d > d n (Diffracted wave dominant region) $2 n=# "3 (0. can arrive at the MS when the BS-MS separation is relatively short.1411-4 13 The several-time (one-. n −1) !when d k < d ≤ d k +1 ! L0n = # ! L + Ld k +1 − Ld k ⋅ (d − d ) k ! dk d k +1 − d k " dk = $2 n=# "3 (36) 1 ⋅ Bk 2 + (hb − hm )2 sin ϕ (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) $ 4πd kp Ld k = 20 ⋅ log # k .4 ⋅ λ + d kp = 1 ⋅ Ak 2 + (hb − hm )2 sin ϕk Ak = Bk = w ⋅ (hb − hm )⋅ (2k +1) 2 ⋅ (hr − hm ) w ⋅ (hb − hm )⋅ (2k +1) − k ⋅w 2 ⋅ (hr − hm ) *B ' ϕk = tan −1( k ⋅ tan ϕ % (A % ) k & (42) . Based on these propagation mechanisms.!. These are the direct wave.8 GHz ≤ f < 5 GHz ) (5 GHz ≤ f < 20 GHz ) (0. the loss due to the distance between isotropic antennas can be divided into three regions in terms of the dominant arrival waves at the MS.Rec. which have weak level beside that of diffracted waves from building roofs. two-. " 0. which have a relatively strong level.

LNLoS 2 = −10 log10 10 − Lr /10 + 10 − Ld /10 where: Lr : reflection path loss defined by: Lr = 20 log10 ( x1 + x2 ) + x1x2 f (α ) * 4π ' + 20 log10 ( % w1w2 ) λ & ( ) dB (43) dB (44) where: f (α ) = 3. The corner loss region extends for dcorner from the point which is 1 m down the edge of the LoS street into the NLoS street.14 4. The NLoS region lies beyond the corner loss region. diffracted and reflected waves at the corners of the street crossings have to be considered (see Fig. ITU-R P. The corner loss (Lcorner) is expressed as the additional attenuation over the distance dcorner.2.6 < α [rad] < π.4 dB (46) dB (47) Propagation within street canyons for frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz The propagation model for the NLoS2 situations as described in § 3. as shown in Fig. Lcorner is given as 20 dB in an urban environment and 30 dB in a residential environment. 3. Ld : diffraction path loss defined by: 180 ' * * 4π ' Ld =10 log10 [x1x2 ( x1 + x2 )]+ 2 Da − 0. In equation (50).2 with the corner angle α = π/2 rad is derived based on measurements at a frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz.2.3 Rec.86 α 3. 4. β is given by 6 and dcorner is 30 m in both environments. In equation (49). and w1. 3). . The path loss characteristics can be divided into two parts: the corner loss region and the NLoS region.5 dB (45) where 0.1.1411-4 Propagation within street canyons for frequency range from 800 to 2 000 MHz For NLoS2 situations where both antennas are below roof-top level. where a coefficient parameter (β) applies. where hb < hr and w2 is up to 10 m (or sidewalk).1. This is illustrated by the typical curve shown in Fig.1( 90 − α % + 20 log10 ( % π & ) ) λ & *x ' * x ' π0 * 40 ' 3 Da = ( % 1arctan( 2 % + arctan( 1 % – . as calculated in § 4. (w % (w % 2 ) 2π & 2 ) 2& ) 1& / 4. the overall path loss (LNLoS2) beyond the corner region (x2 > w1/2 + 1) is found using: LNLoS 2 = LLos + Lc + Latt Lcorner $ {1 − log10 (x2 − w1 2)} ! Lc = #1 − log10 (1 + d corner ) !L " corner Latt $ * x1 + x2 !10β log10 ( ( x +w 2+d =# 1 corner ) 1 !0 " ' % % & (48) x2 ≤ w1 2 + 1 + d corner x2 > w1 2 + 1 + d corner (50) (49) x2 > w1 2 + 1 + d corner x2 ≤ w1 2 + 1 + d corner where LLoS is the path loss in the LoS street for x1 (> 20 m). Using x1. x2.

Figure 5 illustrates the LoS. the path loss does not increase monotonically with distance. and provides a statistical model for the corner distance between the LoS and NLoS regions.3 Propagation between terminals located below roof-top height at UHF The model described below is intended for calculating the basic transmission loss between two terminals of low height in urban environments. the effects of diffraction over roof-tops are more significant. and models the rapid decrease in signal level noted at the corner between the LoS and NLoS regions. owing to the presence of alleys and gaps between the houses. . Consequently. 4. With a high base station antenna in the small macro-cell. and the statistical variability predicted by the model. The model includes the statistics of location variability in the LoS and NLoS regions.1411-4 FIGURE 4 Typical trend of propagation along street canyons with low base station height for frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz 15 In a residential environment. ITU-R P. NLoS and corner regions. and thus the coefficient parameter may be lower than the value in an urban environment. the propagation characteristics do not depend on the corner loss.Rec. It includes both LoS and NLoS regions.

90 and 99% are given in Table 6. 10.5624σ − 2 ln(1− p /100) −1. 10.0 m above ground. The model is based on measurements made in the UHF band with antenna heights between 1. It is reciprocal with respect to transmitter and receiver and is valid for frequencies in the range 300-3 000 MHz.45 + 20 log10 f + 20 log10 (d / 1 000) LoS Step 2: For the required location percentage. ITU-R P. Step 1: Calculate the median value of the line-of-sight loss: Lmedian (d ) = 32. Step 3: Add the LoS location correction to the median value of LoS loss: LLoS (d .16 Rec.3 dB for dense urban/high-rise. values of the LoS correction for p = 1. 50.1411-4 FIGURE 5 Curves of basic transmission loss not exceeded for 1. calculate the LoS location correction: ∆LLoS ( p ) =1. The parameters required are the frequency f (MHz) and the distance between the terminals d (m).9 and 3. 6. 90 and 99% of locations (frequency = 400 MHz. but are otherwise unspecified. p ) = Lmedian (d ) + ∆LLoS ( p ) LoS Step 4: Calculate the median value of the NLoS loss: Lmedian (d ) = 9.5 + 45 log10 f + 40 log10 (d / 1 000) + Lurban NLoS (54) (53) Lurban depends on the urban category and is 0 dB for suburban. and transmitter-receiver distances up to 3 000 m. suburban) This model is recommended for propagation between low-height terminals where both terminal antenna heights are near street level well below roof-top height. .1774 (51) ( ) with σ = 7 dB (52) Alternatively. p (%). 50.8 dB for urban and 2.

TABLE 6 Table of LoS and NLoS location variability corrections p (%) ∆LLoS (dB) –11. values of the NLoS location correction for p = 1. p): LLoS = LLoS (d LoS . p) c) Otherwise linearly interpolate between the values LLoS(dLoS. Step 6: Add the NLoS location correction to the median value of NLoS loss: LNLoS (d . p) = LNLoS(d. then L(d.3 –7.3 dLoS (m) 1 10 50 90 99 976 276 44 16 10 .1546. p) b) If d > dLoS + w. good for p between 1 and 99% is given by the location variability function Qi(x) of Recommendation ITU-R P. 90 and 99% are given in Table 6. p) LNLoS = LNLoS (d LoS + w.1411-4 17 Step 5: For the required location percentage. Alternatively.0 10.) is the inverse normal cumulative distribution function.9 0.0 16.3 ∆LNLoS (dB) –16. An approximation to this function. p) = Lmedian (d ) + ∆LNLoS ( p ) NLoS (56) Step 7: For the required location percentage. if the corner distance is known in a particular case. p) = LLoS + ( LNLoS − LLoS )(d − d LoS ) / w The width w is introduced to provide a transition region between the LoS and NLoS regions. then L(d. Alternatively. Step 8: The path loss at the distance d is then given as: a) If d < dLoS. p) L(d . The statistics were obtained from two cities in the United Kingdom and may be different in other countries. ITU-R P. 50.Rec.3 –9.1%. This model has not been tested for p < 0. p) and LNLoS(dLoS + w.0 9. 50. This transition region is seen in the data and typically has a width of w = 20 m.6 20. set dLoS(p) to this distance. 90 and 99% are given in Table 6.2 − 70( p / 100) if p < 45 otherwise (57) Values of dLoS for p = 1. calculate the distance dLoS for which the LoS fraction FLoS equals p: d LoS ( p) = 212[log10 ( p / 100)]2 − 64 log10 ( p / 100) d LoS ( p) = 79.0 0. p) = LLoS(d. p (%). 10. 10. add the NLoS location correction: ∆LNLoS ( p) = σ N −1 ( p /100) with σ = 7 dB (55) N−1(. p (%).

It is also important for considering interference problems between outdoor systems and indoor systems.5 Influence of vegetation The effects of propagation through vegetation (primarily trees) are important for outdoor short-path predictions.1238. (When the path length is less than about 10 m. This propagation mode can be modelled most simply by using an ideal knife-edge diffraction model (see Recommendation ITU-R P.4 Rec. For antenna locations close to the wall. It is believed that. Building entry loss should be considered when evaluating the radio coverage from an outdoor system to an indoor terminal. and that for a building of uniform construction the building entry loss is independent of height.833.526). 4. diffraction is the major propagation mode over the edges of the trees closest to the low antenna. Account must also be taken of the incident angle.2 GHz through an external building wall made of brick and concrete with glass windows. The wall thickness was 60 cm and the window-to-wall ratio was about 2:1. ITU-R P. typically. – propagation over trees. the specific attenuation in vegetation can be found in Recommendation ITU-R P. it may also be necessary to consider near-field effects.1411-4 Default parameters for site-general calculations If the data on the structure of buildings and roads are unknown (site-general situations). In situations where the propagation is over trees. Two major propagation mechanisms can be identified: – propagation through (not around or over) trees.18 4. 5 Building entry loss Building entry loss is the excess loss due to the presence of a building wall (including windows and other features). The experimental results shown in Table 7 were obtained at 5. a mechanism that may be modelled by radiative transfer theory.) Additional losses will occur for penetration within the building. the following default values are recommended: hr = 3 × (number of floors) + roof-height (m) roof-height = 3 m for pitched roofs = 0 m for flat roofs w = b/2 b = 20 to 50 m ϕ = 90°. . The attenuation is strongly affected by multipath scattering initiated by diffraction of the signal energy both over and through the tree structures. advice is given in Recommendation ITU-R P. although the knife-edge model may underestimate the field strength. the difference in free space loss due to the change in path length for the two measurements should be taken into account in determining the building entry loss. because it neglects multiple scattering by tree-tops. For propagation through trees. the dominant propagation mode is one in which signals enter a building approximately horizontally through the wall surface (including windows). while the latter predominates for geometries in which one antenna is elevated above the tree tops. It is defined as the difference between the signal levels outside and inside the building at the same height. The first mechanism predominates for geometries in which both antennas are below the tree tops and the distance through the trees is small.

75 GHz at distances from 50 to 400 m.1411-4 19 TABLE 7 Example of building entry loss Frequency Residential Office Commercial Mean 5. Cσ and γσ depend on the antenna height and propagation environment. ITU-R P. with two layers of 100 mm thick blocks and loose fill between.679 and may be appropriate for the evaluation of building entry for terrestrial systems. TABLE 8 Loss due to stone block wall at various incident angles Incident angle (degrees) Loss due to wall (dB) Standard deviation (dB) 0 28 4 15 32 3 30 32 3 45 38 5 60 45 6 75 50 5 Additional information on building entry loss. Table 9 lists some typical values of the coefficients for distances of 50-400 m based on measurements made in urban and residential areas.Rec.m. The wall was 400 mm thick. 6.1407. The r. 6 Multipath models A description of multipath propagation and definition of terms are provided in Recommendation ITU-R P. γa. can be found in Recommendation ITU-R P.1 Multipath models for street canyon environments Characteristics of multipath delay spread for the LoS case in an urban high-rise environment for dense urban micro-cells and pico-cells (as defined in Table 3) have been developed based on measured data at frequencies from 2.5 to 15. at incident angles from 0° to 75°.2 GHz through an external wall made of stone blocks.s. the loss due to the wall was extremely sensitive to the position of the receiver. Particularly at larger incident angles. intended primarily for satellite systems. delay spread S at distance of d m follows a normal distribution with the mean value given by: a s = Ca d γ a and the standard deviation given by: σ s = Cσ d γ σ ns (59) ns (58) where Ca.2 GHz Standard deviation Mean 12 dB Standard deviation 5 dB Mean Standard deviation Table 8 shows the results of measurements at 5. . as evidenced by the large standard deviation.

m. for an r.5 6.35-15.5 GHz.35 0.45 Residential 3.3.1 0.75 3.1411-4 TABLE 9 Typical coefficients for the distance characteristics of r. delay spread with 25 dB threshold.5 2.32 0.48 2. The energy arriving in the first 40 ns has a Rician distribution with a K-factor of about 6 to 9 dB.s. and L is path loss (dB).) 6.0 4. The median r.32 Cσ γσ 0.77 0. τ can be estimated as: peak power (dB) decay factor ( ) dB (60) τ = 4 S + 266 ns (61) A linear relationship between τ and S is only valid for the LoS case. and larger than 2 µs differences in delay interval using 15 dB threshold. From the measured data.26 0.0 4. delay spread Measurement conditions Area f (GHz) hb (m) hm (m) Ca as σs γa 0.s. the average shape of the delay profile was found to be: P (t ) = P0 + 50 e – t / τ – 1 where: P0 : τ: and t is in ns. ns (62) .5 Urban 3.0 2. B = 2.0 From the measured data at 2.s.53 0. delay spread S in this environment is given by: Su = exp( A ⋅ L + B ) where A = 0.35-8.1057 for definitions of probability distributions.m.1 5. while the energy arriving later has a Rayleigh or Rician distribution with a K-factor of up to about 3 dB. delay spread S.6 55 23 10 2.038. delay spread at different frequency bands (190 MHz apart) were compared at each location.m. (See Recommendation ITU-R P. the instantaneous properties of the delay profile have also been characterized. values of r.51 0.6 0. From the same measurement set.27 0.7 1.m.20 Rec. ITU-R P.35-15.54 2.0 3.s.9 12 5.s.39 0.75 6. More than 10% of locations showed larger than 300 ns differences in r.m.7 1.35 3. From the same measurement set.2 Multipath models for over-rooftops propagation environments Characteristics of multipath delay spread for both LoS and NLoS case in an urban high-rise environment for micro-cells (as defined in Table 3) have been developed based on measured data at 1 920-1 980 MHz and 2 110-2 170 MHz using omnidirectional antennas.

Rec.8 100-1 000 189 577 Threshold value of 30 dB was used for r.m.m. .m.s.s. delay spread for the 5. Table 10 lists the measured r. and MS antenna height of 2.2 20 2.s. a dominant component plus multipath components) arriving at the receiver.1411-4 21 The distributions of the multipath delay characteristics for the 5.s. 6. delay spread calculation. it is important to estimate the number of signal components (that is.2 GHz band for cases where the cumulative probability is 50% and 95%. delay spread (ns) 50% 95% Area Suburban * 5.2 GHz band in a suburban environment with a BS antenna height of 20 m. 7 Number of signal components For the design of high data rate systems with multipath separation and synthesis techniques.m. as shown in Fig. TABLE 10 Typical r. The number of signal components can be represented from the delay profile as the number of peaks whose amplitudes are within A dB of the highest peak and above the noise floor. ITU-R P. delay spread values* Measurement conditions Frequency (GHz) Antenna height hBS (m) hr (m) Range (m) r.8 m were derived from measurements.

7 1. TABLE 11 Maximum number of signal components Type of environment Time Frequency delay (GHz) resolution Antenna height (m) hb hm Range (m) Maximum number of components 3 dB 80% 95% 5 dB 80% 95% 10 dB 80% 95% Urban Suburban Urban 200 ns 175 ns 20 ns 1. the differential time delay window for the strongest 4 components with respect to the first arriving component and their relative amplitude is given in Table 13.2.6 2.7 1 1. .75 4 For the measurements described in § 6.8 8.45 4 12 40 12 4 55 Urban 20 ns 15. ITU-R P.9-2.7 2.7 1 2.22 Rec.1 2.6 2.5 3.35 46 12 4 55 1.7 1 1.67 5.1411-4 Table 11 shows the results for the number of signal components from measurements in different scenarios for different antenna heights.35 3.5 3. environments and for different frequencies.6 100-1 600 200-1 500 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 0-480 200-1 500 0-5 000 200-1 500 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 0-200 0-1 000 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 3 5 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 5 5 3 2 1 3 4 4 4 3 4 6 4 4 6 9 13 3 5 5 5 6 8 12 5 10 Residential Suburban Suburban Suburban Urban 20 ns 175 ns 50 ns 100 ns 20 ns 3.

1411-4 23 TABLE 12 Type of environment BS antenna Frequency (GHz) Antenna height (m) hb hm Range m A = 3 dB 80% 95% Maximum number of signal components A = 5 dB 80% 95% A = 10 dB 80% 95% Urban Urban Urban Urban Residential Suburban Low Low Low High Low High 3.75 3.6 1.Rec.98 !9 1.3 1.7 2.26 !9. ITU-R P.1 !7.7 2.43 0 1.35 3.35 8.1 3.8 Relative power with respect to strongest component (dB) .7 2.5 0 1.74 !8.9-2.67 4 4 4 55 55 4 40 1.7 0-200 0-1 000 0-200 0-1 000 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 150-590 0-480 0-5 000 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 5 5 4 4 4 6 3 3 2 3 6 9 6 8 5 10 13 12 3 5 TABLE 13 Differential time delay window for the strongest 4 components with respect to the first arriving component and their relative amplitude Type of environment Frequency Antenna Time (GHz) height delay (m) resolution hb hm Range (m) 1st Excess time delay (µs) 2nd 3rd 4th 80% 95% 80% 95% 80% 95% 80% 95% Urban 200 ns 1.7 100-1 600 0.45 3.35 8.6 2.6 1.93 !9.1 46 1.6 2.35 !9.5 2.45 15.

which is defined as the difference between the 50% value and the 1% value in the cumulative probability of received signal levels.24 8 Polarization characteristics Rec. The antenna heights of the transmitting mobile station and the receiving base station were 2. 10 Fading characteristics The fading depth. 8. and a standard deviation of 3 dB for LoS paths and 2 dB for NLoS paths at SHF. angular spread has an average value of 30° (standard deviation of 11°). respectively.45 GHz. ∆Lmax is the maximum difference in propagation path lengths between components whose level is larger than the threshold.s. These median values are compatible with the UHF values for open and urban areas. corresponding to a narrow-band fading region. the r. differs between LoS and NLoS areas in an SHF dense urban micro-cellular environment. the received signal levels in LoS and NLoS situations follow Rayleigh and Nakagami-Rice distributions. a in decibels is the power ratio of the direct to the sum of indirect waves.1407 in the azimuthal direction in a dense urban micro-cell or picocell environment in an urban area was obtained from the measurement made at a frequency of 8. where the fading depth becomes smaller and the received signal levels follow neither Rayleigh nor Nakagami-Rice distributions. When 2∆f∆Lmax is less than 10 MHz·m. the r. ITU-R P.s.m. 9 Characteristics of direction of arrival The r.s. respectively. In the NLoS situation. Measurements indicate a median XPD of 13 dB for LoS paths and 8 dB for NLoS paths.m.m.1411-4 Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD).310. angular spread has an average value of 41° (standard deviation of 18°). 7. in Recommendation ITU-R P. is expressed as a function of the product (2∆f∆Lmax MHz·m) of the received bandwidth 2∆f MHz and the maximum difference in propagation path lengths ∆Lmax m as shown in Fig. it corresponds to a wideband fading region. In this figure. which is 20 dB lower than the highest level of the indirect waves as shown in Fig. and a = !∞ dB represents a NLoS situation.7 m and 4. When it is larger than 10 MHz·m.1406. angular spread as defined in Recommendation ITU-R P. In the LoS situation. The receiving base station had a parabolic antenna with a half-power beamwidth of 4°. .4 m. as defined in Recommendation ITU-R P.

Rec.1411-4 25 . ITU-R P.