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V s , nu nguyn l hot ng, ngha cc khi trong h thn WDM im im n hng,song hng ? (hc theo file word t va gi) 2. Cc tham s h thng WDM ? ( cu ny hc sau ch my dng thi) 3. c im, nguyn l ca b ghp/tch knh quang OMUX/ODMUX?(hc sau) 4. Li , bng ? 5. Nu cu trc v nguyn l hot ng ca b khuyech i EDFA bm thun, bm ngc, bm 2 chiu?(hc theo file word t va gi) 6. Nu ng dng ca EDFA?( hc theo file word t va gi) 7. Nu b tn sc? Cc k thut gim b tn sc ( k thut in : b trc, b sau. K thut quang: s dng si b tn sc,b lc quang,cch t Bragg,pha quang)?(ci ny ti ko c ti liu gi, tham kho bi ging ca c). Cu 1. B khuch i quang si pha tp Erbium (EDFA) 1.1. Cu trc EDFA

Hnh 1. Cu trc tng quan ca mt b khuch i EDFA Cu trc ca 1 b khuch i si pha trn Erbium EDFAn c mimh ha trn hnh 1. Trong bao gm:

Si quang pha ion t him erbium EDF l ni xy ra qt khuch i (vng tch cc) ca EDFA. Cu to ca si quang pha ion c minh ha nh trn hnh 2.

Hnh 2: Mt ct ngang ca mt loi si pha ion Erbium Trong , vng li trung tm (c ng knh t 3 6 m) ca EDF c pha trn ion l ni c cng sng bm v tn

hiu cao nht. Vic pha cc ion trong vng ny nhm to ra s chng ln ca nng lng bm v tn hiu vi cc ion erbium ln nht dn ti kh nng khch i tt hn. Lp bc silica (c ng knh 125m) c chit sut thp hn bao quanh vng li. Lp v bo v bao quanh si quang to bn knh si quang tng l 250 m. Lp v ny c chit sut ln hn so vi lp bc dng loi b bt k nh sng khng mong mun no lan truyn trong si quang. Nu khng k n cht pha erbium, cu trc EDF ging nh si n mode chun trong vin thng. Ngoi ra, EDF cn c ch to bng cc loi vt liu khc nh si thy tinh fluoride hoc si quang thy tinh a vt liu. Laser bm cung cp nng lng nh sng to ra trng thi nghch o nng trong cng tch cc. Laser bm pht nh sng c bc sng 980nm hoc 1480nm. WDM coupler ghp tn hiu quang cn khuch i v nh sng t laser bm vo trong si quang. Loi coupler c s dng l WDM coupler cho php ghp cc tn hiu c bc sng 980/1550nm hoc 1480/1550nm. B cch ly quang ngn khng cho tn hiu quang c khch i phn x ngc v pha u pht hoc cc tn hiu quang trn ng truyn phn x ngc v EDFA. 1.2. Nguyn l hot ng ca EDFA Nguyn l khuch i ca EDFA c da trn hin tng pht x kch thch Qu trnh khuch i tn hiu quang trong EDFA c th c thc hin theo cc bc nh sau (xem hnh 3): Khi s dng ngun bm laser 980nm, cc ion vng nn s hp th nng lng t cc photon (c nng lng E photon = 1.27eV) v chuyn ln trng thi nng lng cao hn vng bm (pumping band) (1) Ti vng bm, cc ion phn r khng bc x rt nhanh (khong 1s) v chuyn xung vng gi bn (2)

Khi s dng ngun bm laser 1480nm, cc ion vng nn s hp th nng lng t cc photon (c nng lng Ephoton = 0.841eV) v chuyn sang trng thi nng lng cao hn nh vng gi bn (3).

Hnh 3: Qt khuch i tn hiu xy ra trong EDFA vi hai bc sng bm 980nm v 1480nm Cc ion trong vng gi bn lun c khuynh hng chuyn xung vng nng lng thp (vng c mt in t cao) (4) Sau khong thi gian sng (khong 10ms), nu khng c kch thch bi cc photon c nng lng thch hp (pht x kch thch) cc ion s chuyn sang trng thi nng lng thp hn vng nn v pht x ra photon (pht x t pht) (5) Khi cho cc tn hiu nh sng i vo EDFA, s xy ra ng thi 2 hin tng sau: Cc photon tn hiu b hp th bi cc ion vng nn (6). Tn hiu nh sng b suy hao,

Cc photon tn hiu kch thch cc ion cng gi bn (7). Hin tng pht x kch thch xy ra. Khi , cc ion b kch thch s chuyn trng thi nng lng t mc nng lng cao vng gi bn xung mc nng lng thp vng nn v pht x ra photon mi c cng hng truyn, cng phn cc, cng pha v cng bc sng. Tn hiu nh sng c khuch i. rng gia vng gi bn v vng nn cho php s pht x kch thch (khuch i) xy ra trong khong bc sng 1530nm 1565nm. y cng l vng bc sng hot ng ca EDFA. li khuch i gim nhanh chng ti cc bc sng ln hn 1565nm v bng 0 dB ti bc sng 1616nm. 1.3. u nhc im ca EDFA u im: Ngun laser bm bn dn c tin cy cao, gn v cng sut cao. Cu hnh n gin: h gi thnh ca h thng. Cu trc nh gn: c th lp t nhiu EDFA trong cng mt trm, d vn chuyn v thay th. Cng sut ngun nui nh: thun li khi p dng cho cc tuyn TTQ vt bin. Khng c nhiu xuyn knh khi khuch i cc tn hiu WDM nh b khuch i quang bn dn. Hu nh khng ph thuc vo phn cc ca tn hiu. Khuyt im: Ph li ca EDFA khng bng phng Bng tn hin nay b gii hn trong bng C v bng L Nhiu c tch ly qua nhiu chng khuch i gy hn ch c ly truyn dn. Cu 2. M hnh h thng n hng, song hng

Hnh 4. H thng ghp n hng v song hng H thng WDM v c bn chia lm 2 loi: h thng n hng v song hng nh minh ha trn hnh 4. H thng n hng ch truyn theo 1 chiu gia 2 im cn 2 si quang. Do vy, truyn thng tin gia 2 im cn 2 si quang. H thng WDM song hng, ngc li, truyn 2 chiu trn mt si quang nn ch cn 1 si quang c th trao i thng tin gia 2 im. C 2 h thng u gm 3 phn chnh: Khi pht gm N b pht quang tng ng vi N bc sng v 1 b ghp knh quang theo bc sng. u ra khi pht quang l N bc sng c ghp li c th ghp ln ng truyn quang. Phn truyn dn bao gm cc on si quang v cc b khuch i ng truyn. Cc b khuch i c t dc theo ng truyn quang ti cc khong cch hp l nhm m bo b suy hao cho tn hiu n c pha u thu. Si quang c dng trong cc h thng WDM ch yu l si n mode tiu chun c lp t cho cc h thng n knh trc . Tuy nhin, nu 1 h.thng WDM c lp t mi, loi si quang c dng c th l si n mode dch tn sc khc khng hoc si c din tch hiu dng li si ln. Khi thu quang gm mt b tch knh bc sng v N b thu quang thu c N knh bc sng ring bit C 2 h.thng u c nhng u im ring bit. Gi s rng cng ngh hin ti ch cho php truyn N bc sng trn 1 si quang, so snh 2 h.thng ta thy: Xt v dung lng, h.thng n hng c kh nng cung cp dung lng cao gp i so vs h.thng song hng. Ngc li, s si quang cn dng gp i so vs h.thng song hng. Khi s c t cp xy ra, h.thng song hng khng cn n c ch chuyn mch bo v tuej ng APS v c 2 u ca lin kt u c k/nng nhn bit s c 1 cch tc thi. H thng song hng kh thit k hn v cn phi xt thm cc y.t nh: vn xuyn nhiu do c nhiu bc sng hn trn 1 si quang, m bo nh tuyn v phn b bc sng sao cho 2 chiu trn si quang ko dng chung 1 bc sng.

Cc b K trong h.thng song hng thng c cu trc phc tp hn trong h.thng n hng. Tuy nhin, do s bc sng K trong h.thng song hng gim theo mi chiu nn h.thng song hng, cc b K s cho c/s quang ng ra ln hn so vs h.thng n hng

Cu 3. Li bc sng, bng sng 1. Li bc sng Trong khuyn ngh ITU-G.692 cc knh cch nhau mt khong 50GHz (tng ng vi khong cch bc sng l 0.4nm) vi tn s trung tm danh nh l 193.1 THz (1552.52 nm). Tn s ny gia di thng ca si quang 1.55m v b khuch i quang si EDFA (xem hnh 5). Khong cch ny ph hp vi kh nng phn gii ca cc b MUX/DEMUX hin nay, n nh tn s ca cc b laser, MUX/DEMUX,... Khi cng ngh hon thin hn khong cch ny s gim i. Mt vn khc kh khn hn l chn la mt b bc sng tiu chun m bo cho cc h thng 4, 8, 16 v 32 bc sng hot ng tng thch vs nhau bi v cc nh sx u c cc cu hnh knh ti u ring v cc k hoch nng cp h thng t t knh ln nhiu knh khc nhau. ITU chun ha (ITU G.959) b 16 bc sng bt u t 192.1 THz, rng 200GHz mi bn cho giao din a knh gia cc thit b WDM. Cui cng, l phi lu ko ch m bo cc tn s trung tm m cn phi bo m lch tn s ti a cho php. i vi f 200GHz, ITU q lch tn s ko vt qu f/5 GHz. Vi f = 50 GHz v f = 100GHz th n thi im ny ITU vn cha chun ha.

Hnh 5. Li bc sng theo ITU 2. Bng sng Cc di bng tn h trong WDM bao gm:

Bng O c gi tr bc sng t 1260nm n 1360nm Bng E l vng ph bc sng t 1360nm n 1460nm. Vng bc sng ny ph chm ln vng bc sng 1390nm-l nh hp th OH trong si quang thng thng Bng S c gi tr bc sng t 1460nm n1530nm Bng C c g.tr bc sng t 1530nm n 1625nm Bng L gi tr bc sng ca bng L t 1565nm n 1625nm Bng U l bng tn quang ph vng bc sng t 1625nm n 1675nm

Cu 5: Nu cc ng dng ca EDFA trong thng tin quang. Cc b k quang EDFA c th c lp t ti nhiu v tr khc nhau trog h thg truyn dn. Tu vo tng v tr m EDFA c cc ng dng khc nhau nh: B k cng sut (Power Amplifier) k tn hiu ft t laser fa my ft. B tin k (PreAmplifier) tng nhy fa my thu. B k trn tuyn (In-line Amplifier) b suy hao b mt mt trn g truyn * K cng sut:

K cng sut tng cng csut quag vo g truyn. Trong trg hp ny, EDFA c csut bo ho cao v c t ngay sau ngun ft nhm k csut tn hiu truyn i. B k ny c s dng trong trng hp ngun quag ft i b hn ch v mt csut. Ta c th t c csut ft quang ln d dng nh cc b EDFA. Tuy nhin, trog trg hp EDFA c h s k ln th c th dn ti hiu ng fi tuyn si lm mt mt csut h thg. c tnh fi tuyn si tr thnh vn ng lu cho tt c cc h thng c dung lng cao v cc tuyn ko trm lp c ly xa. Cch b tr ny gim nh csut ft ca laser iu ch tn hiu. * Tin K:

B tin k thc hin k fa trc u thu. N k nhng tn hiu c cg sut nh ngay trc u thu quang nng cao nhy u thu. Tn hiu trc khi vo b k ny thng l yu v b suy hao trn ng truyn. Khi csut quang n u thu tn hiu qu yu di ngng hot ng ca u thu tn hiu, ngi ta cg dng k quang EDFA. Thc t, khi EDFA c thng mi trn th trng, ngi ta ng dng n c hiu qu cho cc tuyn thg tin tc cao nhiu Gigabite v c ly xa ko trm lp. Vi cc ng dng nh vy, h thg thg tin yu cu c csut ft ln v nhy u thu cao. i vi EDFA loi ny, chng ta ko cn quan tm n hin tng bo ho. Tuy nhin tn hiu trc khi a vo EDFA bao gm c tp m do bc x t ft c iu k (ASE) nn cn gim ti a csut tn hiu vo nhm m bo t s tn hiu trn tp m (SNR-Signal Noise Ratio) * K trn tuyn:

Vi g truyn tc thp nh hg ca tn sc ko ln, tham s cn quan tm i vi h thng truyn dn l suy hao ca si. Khi truyn dn thg tin trn nhg khong cch rt di, nu nh ch s dng b k csut hay b tin k s ko m bo. Trog trg hp ny ngi ta fi s dng cc b EDFA lm cc b k trn tuyn. Cc b k trn tuyn s c b tr thnh chui cch u nhau trn ton tuyn. Vi cc b k trn tuyn, cc xug as c th lan truyn m ko b bin dng, duy tr c mc csut ti thiu nhm khc phc nh hng ca cc hiu ng quang fi tuyn. V ASE sinh ra trog cc b EDFA v tham gia vo h s k nn ta cn duy tr ti u vo ca tng b EDFA 1 csut tn hiu ln. V mt l thuyt ta c th s dng cc b k trn tuyn ko di khong cch truyn dn ln n hng nghn km. Tuy nhin, nu ta s dng nhiu b k trn tuyn th cht lung truyn dn ca h thg s suy gim do tp m tch lu, do cc hiu ng fn cc, tn sc tch lu v cc hiu ng fi tuyn khc. Mt trog cc u im ca cc b k EDFA c s dng cho lp t trn tuyn l n c lp t d dng v rt d bo tr. Cc b k trn tuyn c th tnh tan t v tr thun tin trn tuyn thng tin, d iu khin hot g v cug cp ngun in. Mt s trng hp nh cp quang trong lng bin, ngi ta cg nghin cu bm cho EDFA t xa nh laser bc sg 1480 nm.