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Introduction

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is one oI the key protocols to use to achieve Internet connection
redundancy. When you connect your network to two diIIerent Internet service providers (ISPs),
it is called multihoming. Multihoming provides redundancy and network optimization. It selects
the ISP which oIIers the best path to a resource. When you are running BGP with more than one
service provider, you run the risk that your autonomous system (AS) will become a transit AS.
This causes Internet traIIic to pass through your AS and potentially consume all oI the bandwidth
and resources on the CPU oI your router. This document addresses this issue, with appropriate
conIiguration examples.
BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is a protocol Ior exchanging routing inIormation between
gateway hosts (each with its own router) in a network oI autonomous systems. BGP is oIten the
protocol used between gateway hosts on the Internet. The routing table contains a list oI known
routers, the addresses they can reach, and a cost metric associated with the path to each router so
that the best available route is chosen.


The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol backing the core routing decisions on the
Internet. It maintains a table oI IP networks or 'preIixes' which designate network reachability
among autonomous systems (AS). It is described as a path vector protocol. BGP does not use
traditional Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metrics, but makes routing decisions based on path,
network policies and/or rulesets. For this reason, it is more appropriately termed a reachability
protocol rather than routing protocol.
BGP was created to replace the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) protocol to allow Iully
decentralized routing in order to transition Irom the core ARPAnet model to a decentralized
system that included the NSFNET backbone and its associated regional networks. This allowed
the Internet to become a truly decentralized system. Since 1994, version Iour oI the BGP has
been in use on the Internet. All previous versions are now obsolete. The major enhancement in
version 4 was support oI Classless Inter-Domain Routing and use oI route aggregation to
decrease the size oI routing tables. Since January 2006, version 4 is codiIied in RFC 4271, which
went through more than 20 draIts based on the earlier RFC 1771 version 4. RFC 4271 version
corrected a number oI errors, clariIied ambiguities and brought the RFC much closer to industry
practices.
Most Internet service providers must use BGP to establish routing between one another
(especially iI they are multihomed). ThereIore, even though most Internet users do not use it
directly, BGP is one oI the most important protocols oI the Internet. Compare this with Signaling
System 7 (SS7), which is the inter-provider core call setup protocol on the PSTN. Very large
private IP networks use BGP internally. An example would be the joining oI a number oI large
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) networks where OSPF by itselI would not scale to size. Another
reason to use BGP is multihoming a network Ior better redundancy either to multiple access
points oI a single ISP (RFC 1998) or to multiple ISPs.

\Wration
BGP neighbors, peers are established by manual conIiguration between routers to create a TCP
session on port 179. A BGP speaker will periodically send 19-byte keep-alive messages to
maintain the connection (every 60 seconds by deIault). Among routing protocols, BGP is unique
in using TCP as its transport protocol.

ntWrior CatWcay Routing Protocol
lrom Wlklpedla Lhe free encyclopedla
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector interior routing protocol (IGP)
invented by Cisco. It is used by routers to exchange routing data within an autonomous system.
IGRP is a proprietary protocol. IGRP was created in part to overcome the limitations oI RIP
(maximum hop count oI only 15, and a single routing metric) when used within large networks.
IGRP supports multiple metrics Ior each route, including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and
reliability; to compare two routes these metrics are combined together into a single metric, using
a Iormula which can be adjusted through the use oI pre-set constants. The maximum hop count
oI IGRP-routed packets is 255 (deIault 100), and routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds
(by deIault).
|1|

IGRP is considered a classIul routing protocol. Because the protocol has no Iield Ior a subnet
mask, the router assumes that all subnetwork addresses within the same Class A, Class B, or
Class C network have the same subnet mask as the subnet mask conIigured Ior the interIaces in
question. This contrasts with classless routing protocols that can use variable length subnet
masks. ClassIul protocols have become less popular as they are wasteIul oI IP address space.
dvancWWnt
In order to address the issues oI address space and other Iactors, Cisco created EIGRP (Enhanced
Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). EIGRP adds support Ior VLSM (variable length subnet
mask) and adds the DiIIusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) in order to improve routing and
provide a loopless environment. EIGRP has completely replaced IGRP, making IGRP an
obsolete routing protocol. In Cisco IOS versions 12.3 and greater, IGRP is completely
unsupported. In the new Cisco CCNA curriculum (version 4), IGRP is mentioned only brieIly, as
an "obsolete protocol".
Introduction
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an interior gateway protocol suited Ior
many diIIerent topologies and media. In a well designed network, EIGRP scales well and
provides extremely quick convergence times with minimal network traIIic.
EICRP TbWory of \Wration
Some oI the many advantages oI EIGRP are:
O very low usage oI network resources during normal operation; only hello packets are
transmitted on a stable network
O when a change occurs, only routing table changes are propagated, not the entire routing
table; this reduces the load the routing protocol itselI places on the network
O rapid convergence times Ior changes in the network topology (in some situations
convergence can be almost instantaneous)
O EIGRP is an enhanced distance vector protocol, relying on the DiIIused Update
Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path to a destination within a network.
a|or RWvisions of tbW Protocol
There are two major revisions oI EIGRP, versions 0 and 1. Cisco IOS versions earlier than
10.3(11), 11.0(8), and 11.1(3) run the earlier version oI EIGRP; some explanations in this paper
may not apply to that earlier version. We highly recommend using the later version oI EIGRP, as
it includes many perIormance and stability enhancements.
Basic TbWory
ty\ical distancW vWctor \rotocol savWs tbW follocing inforation cbWn co\uting tbW bWst
\atb to a dWstination: tbW distancW {total Wtric or distancW sucb as bo\ count] and tbW
vWctor {tbW nWt bo\]. For instancW all tbW routWrs in tbW nWtcork in FigurW arW running
Routing Inforation Protocol {RIP]. RoutWr Tco cboosWs tbW \atb to NWtcork by
Waining tbW bo\ count tbrougb Wacb availablW \atb.
Since the path through Router Three is three hops, and the path through Router One is two hops,
Router Two chooses the path through One and discards the inIormation it learned through Three.
II the path between Router One and Network A goes down, Router Two loses all connectivity
with this destination until it times out the route oI its routing table (three update periods, or 90
seconds), and Router Three re-advertises the route (which occurs every 30 seconds in RIP). Not
including any hold-down time, it will take between 90 and 120 seconds Ior Router Two to switch
the path Irom Router One to Router Three.
EIGRP, instead oI counting on Iull periodic updates to re-converge, builds a topology table Irom
each oI its neighbor's advertisements (rather than discarding the data), and converges by either
looking Ior a likely loop-Iree route in the topology table, or, iI it knows oI no other route, by
querying its neighbors. Router Two saves the inIormation it received Irom both Routers One and
Three. It chooses the path through One as its best path (the successor) and the path through Three
as a loop-Iree path (a Ieasible successor). When the path through Router One becomes
unavailable, Router Two examines its topology table and, Iinding a Ieasible successor, begins
using the path through Three immediately.
Types oI backup
The Backup utility supports Iive methods oI backing up data on your computer or network.
Copy backup
A copy backup copies all selected Iiles but does not mark each Iile as having been backed up (in
other words, the archive attribute is not cleared). Copying is useIul iI you want to back up Iiles
between normal and incremental backups because copying does not aIIect these other backup
operations.
Daily backup
A daily backup copies all selected Iiles that have been modiIied the day the daily backup is
perIormed. The backed-up Iiles are not marked as having been backed up (in other words, the
archive attribute is not cleared).
DiIIerential backup
A diIIerential backup copies Iiles created or changed since the last normal or incremental
backup. It does not mark Iiles as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is
not cleared). II you are perIorming a combination oI normal and diIIerential backups, restoring
Iiles and Iolders requires that you have the last normal as well as the last diIIerential backup.
Incremental backup
An incremental backup backs up only those Iiles created or changed since the last normal or
incremental backup. It marks Iiles as having been backed up (in other words, the archive
attribute is cleared). II you use a combination oI normal and incremental backups, you will need
to have the last normal backup set as well as all incremental backup sets in order to restore your
data.
Normal backup
A normal backup copies all selected Iiles and marks each Iile as having been backed up (in other
words, the archive attribute is cleared). With normal backups, you need only the most recent
copy oI the backup Iile or tape to restore all oI the Iiles. You usually perIorm a normal backup
the Iirst time you create a backup set.
Backing up your data using a combination oI normal backups and incremental backups requires
the least amount oI storage space and is the quickest backup method. However, recovering Iiles
can be time-consuming and diIIicult because the backup set can be stored on several disks or
tapes.
Backing up your data using a combination oI normal backups and diIIerential backups is more
time-consuming, especially iI your data changes Irequently, but it is easier to restore the data
because the backup set is usually stored on only a Iew disks or tape
FSMO Roles Explained
Within Active Directory not all Domain Controllers are equal some have certain roles assigned
to them, these roles need to be perIormed by a single Domain Controller. These roles are called
the FSMO roles (Flexible Single Master Operations). There are 5 roles 2 oI which are Iorest
wide and the other 3 are domain wide roles.
The 5 roles are as Iollows:
cbWa astWr {forWst cidW]:
The Schema Master controls all updates to the Schema within the Iorest.
Doain Naing astWr {forWst cidW]:
The Domain Naming Master role is responsible Ior the creation and deletion oI domains in the
Iorest.
PDC Eulator {doain cidW]:
The PDC emulator role provides backwards compatability Ior Windows NT backup domain
controllers (BDCs), the PDC emulator advertises itselI as the primary domain controller Ior the
domain. It also acts as the domain master browser and maintains the latest password Ior all users
within the domain.
InfrastructurW astWr {doain cidW]:
The InIrastructure Manager role is responsible Ior updating reIerences Irom objects within its
domain with objects in other domains.
RID Master (domain wide):
The RID Master manages the Security IdentiIier (SID) Ior every object within the domain.


F RolWs
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flve lSMC roles are
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Lhe schema 1o updaLe Lhe schema of a foresL you musL have access Lo Lhe schema masLer
1here can be only one schema masLer ln Lhe whole foresL
O omaln namlng masLer 1he domaln namlng masLer domaln conLroller conLrols Lhe addlLlon or
removal of domalns ln Lhe foresL 1here can be only one domaln namlng masLer ln Lhe whole
foresL
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lLs domaln Lo ob[ecLs ln oLher domalns AL any one Llme Lhere can be only one domaln
conLroller acLlng as Lhe lnfrasLrucLure masLer ln each domaln
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domaln conLrollers ln a parLlcular domaln AL any one Llme Lhere can be only one domaln
conLroller acLlng as Lhe l masLer ln Lhe domaln
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domaln conLroller (9% Lo worksLaLlons member servers and domaln conLrollers LhaL are
runnlng earller verslons of Wlndows lor example lf Lhe domaln conLalns compuLers LhaL are
noL runnlng MlcrosofL Wlndows x9 9rofesslonal or MlcrosofL Wlndows 2000 cllenL sofLware or
lf lL conLalns MlcrosofL Wlndows n1 backup domaln conLrollers Lhe 9 emulaLor masLer acLs
as a Wlndows n1 9 lL ls also Lhe omaln MasLer 8rowser and lL handles password
dlscrepancles AL any one Llme Lhere can be only one domaln conLroller acLlng as Lhe 9
emulaLor masLer ln each domaln ln Lhe foresL
?ou can Lransfer lSMC roles by uslng Lhe nLdsuLllexe commandllne uLlllLy or by uslng an MM snapln
Lool ependlng on Lhe lSMC role LhaL you wanL Lo Lransfer you can use one of Lhe followlng Lhree
MM snapln Lools
AcLlve lrecLory Schema snapln
AcLlve lrecLory omalns and 1rusLs snapln
AcLlve lrecLory users and ompuLers snapln
lf a compuLer no longer exlsLs Lhe role musL be selzed 1o selze a role use Lhe nLdsuLllexe uLlllLy

lor addlLlonal lnformaLlon abouL how Lo use Lhe nLdsuLllexe uLlllLy Lo selze lSMC roles cllck Lhe arLlcle
number below Lo vlew Lhe arLlcle ln Lhe MlcrosofL knowledge 8ase
233304 uslng nLdsuLllexe Lo Selze or 1ransfer Lhe lSMC oles Lo a omaln
TransfWr tbW cbWa astWr RolW
use Lhe AcLlve lrecLory Schema MasLer snapln Lo Lransfer Lhe schema masLer role 8efore you can use
Lhls snapln you musL reglsLer Lhe SchmmgmLdll flle


Register Schmmgmt.dll
llck Start and Lhen cllck kun
2 1ype regsvr32 schmmgmLdll ln Lhe Cpen box and Lhen cllck Ck
3 llck Ck when you recelve Lhe message LhaL Lhe operaLlon succeeded
%ransfer the Schema Master Role
llck Start cllck kun Lype mmc ln Lhe Cpen box and Lhen cllck Ck
2 Cn Lhe e menu cllck Add]kemove Snapn
3 llck Add
4 llck Actve Drectory Schema cllck Add cllck Cose and Lhen cllck Ck
3 ln Lhe console Lree rlghLcllck Actve Drectory Schema and Lhen cllck Change Doman
Controer
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and Lhen cllck Ck
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8 llck Change
9 llck Ck Lo conflrm LhaL you wanL Lo Lransfer Lhe role and Lhen cllck Cose
TransfWr tbW Doain Naing astWr RolW
llck Start polnL Lo Admnstratve 1oos and Lhen cllck Actve Drectory Domans and 1rusts
2 lghLcllck Actve Drectory Domans and 1rusts and Lhen cllck Connect to Doman Controer

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Lransfer Lhe role ?ou do noL have Lo perform Lhls sLep lf you are already connecLed Lo Lhe
domaln conLroller whose role you wanL Lo Lransfer
3 o one of Lhe followlng
4 ln Lhe Lnter the name o another doman controer box Lype Lhe name of Lhe domaln
conLroller LhaL wlll be Lhe new role holder and Lhen cllck Ck

or
4 ln Lhe Cr seect an avaabe doman controer llsL cllck Lhe domaln conLroller LhaL wlll
be Lhe new role holder and Lhen cllck Ck
4 ln Lhe console Lree rlghLcllck Actve Drectory Domans and 1rusts and Lhen cllck Cperatons
Master
3 llck Change
6 llck Ck Lo conflrm LhaL you wanL Lo Lransfer Lhe role and Lhen cllck Cose
TransfWr tbW RID astWr PDC Eulator and InfrastructurW astWr RolWs
llck Start polnL Lo Admnstratve 1oos and Lhen cllck Actve Drectory Users and Computers
2 lghLcllck Actve Drectory Users and Computers and Lhen cllck Connect to Doman Controer

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Lransfer Lhe role ?ou do noL have Lo perform Lhls sLep lf you are already connecLed Lo Lhe
domaln conLroller whose role you wanL Lo Lransfer
3 o one of Lhe followlng
4 ln Lhe Lnter the name o another doman controer box Lype Lhe name of Lhe domaln
conLroller LhaL wlll be Lhe new role holder and Lhen cllck Ck

or
4 ln Lhe Cr seect an avaabe doman controer llsL cllck Lhe domaln conLroller LhaL wlll
be Lhe new role holder and Lhen cllck Ck
4 ln Lhe console Lree rlghLcllck Actve Drectory Users and Computers polnL Lo A 1asks and
Lhen cllck Cperatons Master
3 llck Lhe approprlaLe Lab for Lhe role LhaL you wanL Lo Lransfer (kID DC or Inrastructure% and
Lhen cllck Change
6 llck Ck Lo conflrm LhaL you wanL Lo Lransfer Lhe role and Lhen cllck Cose