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Li ni u.........................................................................................................................3 Chng I: Tng quan v a ch IPv4 v IPv6..............................................................4 1.1. 1.2. Thc trng ti nguyn a ch IP ton cu.................................................4 a ch IPv4 v nhng hn ch ca IPv4....................................................5 Tng quan v a ch IPv4......................................................................5 1.2.1.1. a ch IPv4.........................................................................................6 1.2.1.2. Cc lp a ch IPv4.............................................................................6 1.2.2. Nhng hn ch ca IPv4........................................................................7 1.2.2.1. Thiu a ch IP....................................................................................7 1.2.2.2. Qu nhiu cc rounting entry (bn ghi nh tuyn).............................7 1.2.2.3. An ninh ca mng.................................................................................8 1.2.2.4. Nhu cu vn m bo cht lng dch v QoS...............................8 1.2.3. Gii php khc phc v cc c im ni tri ca IPv6 so vi IPv4. . .8 1.2.3.1. Gii php khc phc............................................................................8 1.2.3.2. c im ni tri ca IPv6 so vi IPv4...............................................8 1.2.3.2.1. nh dng tiu mi...................................................................9 1.2.3.2.2. Khng gian a ch ln...................................................................9 1.2.3.2.3. Kh nng t ng cu hnh (Plug and Play)..................................9 1.2.3.2.4. Kh nng bo mt tt...................................................................10 1.2.3.2.5. Qun l nh tuyn tt hn..........................................................10 1.2.3.2.6. D dng thc hin multicast v h tr tt hn cho di ng.........11 1.2.3.2.7. H tr cho qun l cht lng mng...........................................12 1.3. Tng quan v a ch IPv6..........................................................................12 Khng gian a ch IPv6.......................................................................12 Cch biu din v cu trc a ch IPv6..............................................13 1.3.1. 1.3.2.

1.2.1.

1.3.2.1. Cch biu din a ch IPv6..............................................................13 1.3.2.2. Cu trc a ch IPv6........................................................................15 1.3.3. Cc loi a ch IPv6.............................................................................15 1.3.3.1. Multicast.............................................................................................15 1.3.3.2. Anycast...............................................................................................17 1.3.3.3. Unicast...............................................................................................17

1.3.3.3.1. Global..........................................................................................18 1.3.3.3.2. Link - Local Address (LLA)........................................................19 1.3.3.3.3. Site - Local Address (SLA).........................................................19 1.3.3.3.4. Unique - Local.............................................................................20 1.3.4. Cu trc gi tin IPv6.............................................................................21 1.3.4.1. Header IPv6.......................................................................................22 1.3.4.2. So snh header gia IPv4 v IPv6.....................................................24 Chng II: Cng ngh chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6.................................................25 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. Gii thiu......................................................................................................25 Cc loi node................................................................................................26 Cc cng ngh chuyn i..........................................................................27 S dng c hai IPv4 v IPv6................................................................27 2.3.1.1. Dual IP layer architecture.................................................................28 2.3.1.2. Dual stack architecture......................................................................29 2.3.2. ng hm (Tunneling)......................................................................30 2.3.2.1. Hot ng ca tunneling....................................................................30 2.3.2.2. Phn loi cng ngh ng hm.......................................................31 2.3.2.2.1. Tunnel Broker..............................................................................32 2.3.2.2.2. Intra -Site Automatic Tunnel Adressing Protocol ISATAP.....33 2.3.2.2.3. 6to4..............................................................................................35 2.3.3. Cng ngh bin dch NAT-PT (Network Address Translation)..........37 Kt lun v hng pht trin.......................................................................................41

2.3.1.

Li ni u

Ngy nay, khoa hc k thut ang din ra rt mnh m trn ton th gii thc y con ngi bc sang mt k nguyn mi, k nguyn ca cch mng khoa hc k thut. Trong , vin thng v cng ngh thng tin l nhng ngnh then cht quyt nh n s thnh cng ca mi quc gia, l ng lc ch cht cho mt x hi tng lai, mt x hi Cng vi s pht trin , mng Internet v cc mng s dng giao thc IP cng tr nn rt quan trng trong cuc sng x hi.Ngay t khi ra i, giao thc IP th hin c nhng u im nhm p ng c nhu cu kt ni v truyn ti thng tin ca ngi s dng.V iu ny lm cho s lng thit b s dng giao thc IP ngy cng gia tng.Tuy nhin, vi tc tng qu nhanh lm cho giao thc IPv4 vi khng gian a ch 32 bit khng th p ng c v trong tng lai khng lu th s lng a ch IPv4 ny cn kit. Do i hi cc nh nghin cu phi thit k mt giao thc mi p ng c s pht trin ca Internet, v giao thc IPv6 l phin bn mi ca giao thc IPv4 c thit k nhm khc phc c nhng hn ch ny. Vn t ra l cn phi qu trnh chuyn i t giao thc IPv4 ngy nay sang giao thc IPv6. Do em chn Chuyn i giao thc IPv4 sang IPv6 lm ti nghin cu trong n tt nghip ca mnh.

Chng I: Tng quan v a ch IPv4 v IPv6 1.1. Thc trng ti nguyn a ch IP ton cu
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a ch IP (Internet Protocol) l a ch ca mt my tnh khi tham gia vo mng nhm gip cho cc my tnh c th nhn din v lin lc vi nhau trn mng my tnh bng cch s dng giao thc Internet a ch IP l duy nht trong cng mt cp mng Giao thc Internet phin bn 4 (IPv4 - Internet Protocol version 4) l phin bn th t trong qu trnh pht trin ca cc giao thc Internet, c chnh thc cng b vo thng 9 nm 1981. y l phin bn u tin ca IP c s dng rng ri. Hin ti, IPv4 vn l giao thc c trin khai rng ri nht trong b giao thc ca lp Internet a ch IPv4 c chiu di 32 bit, s a ch ti a c th s dng l (khong 4 t a ch). Vi s pht trin khng ngng ca mng Internet, nguy c thiu ht a ch c d bo, tuy nhin, nh cng ngh NAT (Network Address Translation - Chuyn dch a ch mng) to nn 2 vng mng ring bit: Mng ring v Mng cng cng, a ch mng s dng mng ring c th dng li mng cng cng m khng h xung t, qua tm thi tr hon c vn thiu ht a ch Mt trong nhng nguyn nhn dn ti vic "IPv4 c th cn kit nhanh hn" hin nay l cc nc c xu hng xin nhiu a ch ln v tch tr; ri trc tnh hnh thu bao Intemet bng rng bng n nh ADSL, kt ni internet qua truyn hnh cp, nhng yu cu xin cm a ch IPv4 cho dch v di ng (3G) bt u xut hin, tiu tn nhanh chng khng gian cn li ca a ch IPv4.Thm vo mt s quc gia ng dn nh n hin nay s hu mt s lng khng ln a ch IPv4. Nu quc gia ny cng bt u yu cu ti nguyn nh Trung Quc, th lng a ch cn li cn tiu th nhanh hn na.iu ny khin cho vic s dng khng gian a ch IPv4 ton cu v thi im cn kit a ch IPv4 dng nh n gn hn v tr thnh ch nng c bn tho nhiu ti cc hi tho quc t v gia cc t chc qun l ti nguyn Internet.

Trc thc trng i hi phi c mt phng php xc nh a ch mng mi cho cc thit b kt ni vo mng ton cu, nu khng Internet v cc dch v trn n khng th pht trin c. IPv6 - th h tip theo ca IPv4 - vi nhng u im vt tri l mt s thay th kh hon ho trong tnh trng a ch IPv4 ngy cng cn kit hin nay. 1.2.
1.2.1.

a ch IPv4 v nhng hn ch ca IPv4 Tng quan v a ch IPv4 a ch IPv4 c 32 bit c chia thnh 4 Octet (mi Octet c 8 bit,

1.2.1.1. a ch IPv4 tng ng 1 byte) cch m t tri qua phi bit 1 cho n bit 32, cc Octet tch bit nhau bng du chm . Mt a ch IP c phn bit bi hai phn, phn u gi l Network ID (a ch mng) v phn sau l Host ID a ch Internet c th biu din dng bit nh phn

Hnh 1.1: a ch IPv4 dng bit nh phn 1.2.1.2. Cc lp a ch IPv4 a ch IPv4 chia ra 5 lp A, B, C, D, E. Hin ti dng ht lp A, B v gn ht lp C, cn lp D, E t chc Internet ang dnh cho mc ch khc, nn chng ta ch nghin cu 3 lp u:

Bng 1.1: Cc lp a ch IPv4 V d: i vi lp A (c a ch t 0.0.0.0 n 127.0.0.0), bit th nht l bit nhn dng lp A=0, 7 bit cn li trong Octet th nht dnh cho a ch mng, 3 Octet cn li c 24 bit dnh cho a ch ca my ch. Do vy, trn lp A, c th phn cho 126 mng khc nhau, v mi mng c th ti a 16777214 my host. 1.2.2. Nhng hn ch ca IPv4 K t khi chnh thc c a vo s dng v c nh ngha trong kin ngh RFC 791 nm 1981 n nay, IPv4 chng minh c kh nng d trin khai, d phi hp v hot ng to ra s pht trin bng n ca cc mng my tnh. Tuy nhin n thi im hin ti, chnh vic pht trin t cc ng dng v cng ngh cng nh cc thit b di ng khc lm bc l nhng yu im ca IPv4

1.2.2.1. Thiu a ch IP Nhng thp k va qua, do tc pht trin mnh m ca Internet, khng gian a ch IPv4 khng p ng nhu cu hin ti.Nhng t chc qun l a ch quc t t mc tiu s dng hiu qu ln hng u.Nhng cng ngh gp phn gim nhu cu a ch IP nh NAT (cng ngh bin dch c th s dng a ch IP private), DHCP (cp a ch tm thi) c s dng rng ri. Nhng cc phng php trn cha thc s l gii php lu di 1.2.2.2. Qu nhiu cc rounting entry (bn ghi nh tuyn) S pht trin ca Internet v kh nng ca cc b nh tuyn ng trc Internet duy tr cc bng nh tuyn ln Tnh hnh hin ti, cch m a ch IPv4 v ang c giao, thng xuyn c hn 85.000 cc bn ghi nh tuyn ca thit b nh tuyn ng trc Internet. Vic ny lm chm qu trnh x l ca cc router, lm gim tc ca mng 1.2.2.3. An ninh ca mng Vi IPv4, c nhiu gii php khc phc nhc im ny nh IPSec, DES, 3DES nhng cc gii php ny u phi ci t thm v c nhiu phng thc khc nhau i vi mi loi sn phm ch khng c h tr mc bn thn ca giao thc 1.2.2.4. Nhu cu vn m bo cht lng dch v QoS Trong khi tiu chun cho QoS tn ti vi IPv4, h tr thi gian da trn cc loi dch v (TOS) lnh vc v xc nh cc ti trng, thng s dng mt cng UDP hoc TCP. Tht khng may, cc lnh vc IPv4 TOS hn ch chc nng v theo thi gian. Ngoi ra, ti trng xc nh bng cch s dng cng giao thc TCP v UDP l khng th khi gi ti trng IPv4 c m ha 1.2.3. Gii php khc phc v cc c im ni tri ca IPv6 so vi IPv4
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1.2.3.1. Gii php khc phc Vi mt con s ln ti 4 t th ngi sng ch hon ton c th yn tm v kh nng s dng rng ri ca IPv4. Nhng cho n thi i hin nay khi m cng ngh thng tin ang bng n, khng ch my tnh m ngay c cc thit b dn dng khc cng c nhu cu kt ni vo mng Internet th con s 4 t r rang l khng cn p ng nhu cu c rt nhiu c gng khc phc s thiu ht ny, in hnh l cng ngh NAT Network Address Translation cho php hang ngn host truy cp vo Internet ch vi mt vi IP hp l tn dng tt hn khng gian a ch IPv4. Tuy nhin IPv6 mi thc s l gii php lu di 1.2.3.2. c im ni tri ca IPv6 so vi IPv4 gii quyt cc hn ch ca IPv4, Engineering Task Force Internet (IETE) pht trin mt b cc giao thc v cc tiu chun c bit n nh l phin bn IPv6. Khi nim IPv6 chnh thc c nhc n trong vn bn RFC2460 pht hnh vo thng 12 nm 1998. Mc dch chnh ca IPv6 l khc phc s cn kit a ch mng cng nh hn ch ca IPv4 1.2.3.2.1. nh dng tiu mi Cc tiu IPv6 c mt nh dng mi c thit k gi cho chi ph tiu n mc ti thiu. iu ny t c bng cch di chuyn c hai lnh vc khng cn thit v cc lnh vc ty chn m rng ti cc tiu c t sau tiu IPv6. Cc tiu IPv6 sp xp hp l l x l hiu qu hn ti cc router trung gian. Tiu IPv4 v IPv6 khng tng thch. Mt my ch hoc router phi s dng mt thc hin ca c IPv4 v IPv6 nhn ra v x l c hai dng tiu

1.2.3.2.2. Khng gian a ch ln


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IPv6 c chiu di 128 bit, gp 4 ln chiu di ca a ch IPv4 nn m rng khng gian a ch t khong 4 t a ch ln ti mt con s khng l l 2128 = 3,4 x 1038 a ch. iu ny c ngha l chng ta s gii quyt c vn cn kit a ch trong mt thi gian rt di 1.2.3.2.3. Kh nng t ng cu hnh (Plug and Play) mt thit b IPv4 c th kt ni vo Internet, ngi qun tr mng phi cu hnh bng tay cc thng s phc v cho vic kt ni mng nh a ch IP, a ch gateway, a ch tn min my ch. Vic ny c th khng phc tp i vi my tnh song vi cc thit b nh camera, sensor, thit b gia dng l vn phc tp IPv6 c thit k cho php thit b IPv6 c th t ng cu hnh cc thng s trn khi kt ni vo mng, t rt linh hot v gim thiu cu hnh nhn cng 1.2.3.2.4. Kh nng bo mt tt Theo thit k, IPv4 khng h tr tnh nng bo mt ti tng IP. Do vy rt kh thc hin bo mt kt ni t thit b gi n thit b nhn. Hnh thc bo mt ph bin trn mng IPv4 l bo mt kt ni gia hai mng

Hnh1.2: Thc hin bo mt kt ni gia hai mng trong IPv4 a ch IPv6 c thit k h tr bo mt ti tng IP nn c th d dng thc hin bo mt t thit b gi n thit b nhn (u cui - u cui)

Hnh1.3: Thc hin bo mt kt ni t thit b gi n thit b nhn trong IPv6 1.2.3.2.5. Qun l nh tuyn tt hn S gia tng ca cc mng trn Internet v vic s dng ngy cng nhiu a ch IPv4 khin cho kch thc bng nh tuyn ton cu ngy cng gia tng, gy qu ti, vt qu kh nng x l ca cc thit b nh tuyn tng cao. Mt phn l do ca vic gia tng bng nh tuyn l do IPv4 khng c thit k phn cp ngay t u a ch IPv6 c thit k c cu trc nh a ch v phn cp nh tuyn thng nht. Phn cp nh tuyn ton cu da trn mt s mc c bn i vi cc nh cung cp dch v. Cu trc nh tuyn phn cp gip cho a ch IPv6 trnh khi nguy c qu ti bng thng tin nh tuyn ton cu khi chiu di a ch ln ti 128 bit 1.2.3.2.6. D dng thc hin multicast v h tr tt hn cho di ng Cc kt ni gia my tnh ti my tnh trn Internet cung cp cho ngi s dng cc dch v mng hin ti hu ht l kt ni unicast. Unicast l kt ni gia mt my tnh ngun v mt my tnh ch. cung cp dch v cho nhiu khch hng, my ch s phi m nhiu kt ni ti cc my tinh khch hng

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Hnh 1.4: Kt ni Unicast Nhm tng hiu nng mng, tit kim bng thng, gim ti cho my ch, cng ngh multicast c thit k mt my tnh ngun c th kt ni ng thi n nhiu ch

Hnh 1.5: Kt ni Multicast Kt ni multicast c nhiu li ch kinh t. Do khng b lp thng tin, bng thng ca mng s gim ng k. c bit vi cc ng dng truyn ti thng tin rt ln nh truyn hnh (IPTV), truyn hnh hi ngh (video conference), ng dng a phng tin (multimedia). My ch khng phi m nhiu kt ni ti nhiu my khch nn s phc v c lng khch hng rt ln Tuy c nhiu li ch, song multicast hu nh cha c trin khai trong mng IPv4. Nguyn nhn do cu hnh trin khai multicast vi IPv4 rt kh khn phc tp D dng thc hin multicast l mt u im c nhc n rt nhiu ca a ch IPv6. S dng a ch IPv6, cc ng dng nh IPTV, video conference, multimedia s d dng trin khai vi cng ngh multicast

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Thc t th nghim ti nhiu nc cng cho thy iu ny. a ch IPv6 cng h tr tt hn cho cc mng di ng. Do vy, IPv6 c ng dng trong cc mng di ng mi, nh th h 3G 1.2.3.2.7. H tr cho qun l cht lng mng Nhng ci tin trong thit k ca IPv6 nh: khng phn mnh, nh tuyn phn cp, gi tin IPv6 c thit k vi mc ch x l tht hiu qu ti thit b nh tuyn to ra kh nng h tr tt hn cho cht lng dch v QoS 1.3. Tng quan v a ch IPv6 Tnh nng phn bit r rng nht ca IPv6 l s dng cc a ch ln. Kch thc ca mt a ch tron IPv6 l 128 bit, gp 4 ln so vi mt a ch IPv4. Mt khng gian a ch 128 bit cung cp 3.4x1038 a ch Trong cui nhng nm 1970 khi khng gian a ch IPv4 c thit k, n khng th tng tng rng n c th b cn kit do khng d on c s bng n gn y ca cc host trn Internet, khng gian a ch IPv4 ngy cng cn kit v mt s thay th s l cn thit Vi IPv6, n thm ch cn kh khn hn nhn thc rng khng gian a ch IPv6 s c tiu th. gip con s ny trong quan im, mt khng gian a ch 128 bit cung cp 6.5x1023 a ch cho mi mt vung ca b mt Tri t iu quan trng l phi nh rng quyt nh lm cho a ch IPv6 128 bit chiu di khng v th m mi mt vung ca Tri t c th c 6.5x1023 a ch. Thay vo , kch thc tng i ln ca a ch IPv6 c thit k c chia thnh cc lnh vc phn cp nh tuyn phn nh cu trc lin kt ca Internet hin i Vic s dng 128 bit cho php nhiu cp ca h thng phn cp v nh tuyn m hin ti ang thiu trn Internet IPv4 1.3.2. Cch biu din v cu trc a ch IPv6
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1.3.1. Khng gian a ch IPv6

1.3.2.1. Cch biu din a ch IPv6 a ch IPv6 khng biu din di dng s thp phn. a ch IPv6 c vit theo 128 bit thp phn hoc thnh mt dy s Hexa. Tuy nhin, nu vit mt dy s 128 bit nh phn qu l khng thun tin, v nh chng l mt iu kh khn. Do vy, a ch IPv6 c biu din di dng mt dy s Hexa biu din 128 bit nh phn IPv6 thnh dy ch s Hexa, ngi ta chia 128 bit ny thnh cc nhm 4 bit, chuyn i tng nhm 4 bit thnh s Hexa tng ng v nhm 4 s Hexa thnh mt nhm phn cch bi du :. Kt qu, mt a ch IPv6 c biu din thnh mt dy s gm 8 nhm s Hexa cch nhau bng du :, mi nhm gm 4 ch s Hexa V d:

Bn ang xem xt a ch v d trn v ngh rng vic nh mt a ch IPv6 phi rt mt thi gian? Nhng khng phi nh vy, a ch IPv6 c th c vit vn tt bng vic gim thiu cc s 0 cc bit u V d: [1088:0000:0000:0000:0008:200C:463A] Chng ta c th vit 0 thay v phi vit 0000, vit 8 thay v phi vit 0008, vit 800 thay v phi vit 0800 Ta s c a ch sau khi rt gn: [1088:0:0:0:8:800:200C:463A]

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a ch IPv6 cn c mt nguyn tc na l nu c cc nhm s 0 lin tip chng ta c th nhm cc s 0 li thnh 2 du hai chm ::, nh vy a ch trn ta c th vit li nh sau: [1088::8:800:200C:463A] C mt nguyn tc m chng ta phi ch , trong IPv6 chng ta ch c th s dng 2 du hai chm mt ln vi a ch V d: [::AB65:8952::] l khng hp l v nu vit nh th s gy nhm ln khi dch ra y C mt trng hp c bit cn lu . i vi loi a ch IPv4embedded IPv6 c hnh thnh bng cch gn 96 bit 0 vo trc mt a ch IPv4. hn ch kh nng nhm ln trong vic chuyn i gia k hiu chm thp phn trong IPv4 vi chm thp lc phn trong IPv6. Cc nh thit k IPv6 cng thit lp mt c ch gii quyt vn ny V d: vi mt a ch IPv4 10.0.0.1 a ch IPv4 embedded IPv6 dng [0:0:0:0:0:0:A00:1] ta vn c th gi nguyn chm thp phn ca phn cui. Trong trng hp ny, vit a ch li di dng [::10.0.0.1] 1.3.2.2. Cu trc a ch IPv6 Cu trc chung ca mt a ch IPv6 thng thy nh sau (mt s dng a ch IPv6 c th khng tun theo cu trc ny):

Hnh 1.6: Cu trc a ch IPv6 Trong 128 bit a ch IPv6, c mt s bit thc hin chc nng xc nh: Bit tin t - Prefix (bit xc nh loi a ch IPv6): Nh cp, a ch IPv6 c nhiu loi khc nhau, mi loi a ch c chc nng nht nh
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trong phc v giao tip. phn loi a ch, mt s bit u trong a ch IPv6 c dnh ring xc nh dng a ch, c gi l cc bit tin t (Prefix). Cc bit tin t ny s quyt nh a ch thuc loi no v s lng a ch trong khng gian chung IPv6 V d: 8 bit tin t 1111 1111 tc FF xc nh dng a ch multicast, l dng a ch s dng khi mt node mun giao tip ng thi vi nhiu node khc. a ch multicast chim 1/256 khng gian a ch IPv6. Ba bit tin t 001 xc nh dng a ch unicast (dng a ch cho giao tip mt - mt) nh danh ton cu, tng ng nh a ch IPv4 cng cng chng ta vn s dng hin nay 1.3.3. Cc loi a ch IPv6 1.3.3.1. Multicast Trong IPv6, multicast hot ng ging nh trong IPv4. T t cc node IPv6 c th lng nghe lu lng multicast trn mt a ch multicast IPv6 ty . Cc node IPv6 c th nghe nhiu a ch multicast cng mt lc. Cc node c th tham gia hoc li mt nhm multicast bt k thi im no a ch multicast c 8 bit u tin thit lp 1111 1111. Mt a ch IPv6 l d dng phn bit loi multicast bi v n lun bt u vi FF a ch multicast khng c th c s dng nh a ch ngun hoc l cc im n trung gian trong mt tiu m rng tuyn Cu trc a ch dng multicast:

Hnh 1.7: Cu trc a ch dng Multicast

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Cc trng trong a ch multicast l:

Flags (C) - ch ra nhng c trn a ch multicast. Kch thc ca Th t bit thp u tin l c Transient (T): Khi thit lp l 0, c T ch ra rng a ch multicast l mt a ch

trng ny l 4 bit

multicast vnh vin c phn cng, c phn b bi IANA Khi thit lp l 1, c T ch ra rng a ch multicast l mt a ch thong qua (khng thng xuyn c giao) Bit thp th hai l cho c tin t Prefix (P): cho bit a ch multicast c da trn mt a ch tin t a ch unicast Bit thp th ba l a ch c Rendezvous (R): cho bit cc a ch multicast c cha mt a ch im nhng

Scope (Phm vi) - ch ra phm vi lin mng IPv6, cho lu lng truy

cp multicast l d nh. Kch thc ca trng ny l 4 bit. Ngoi thng tin c cung cp bi cc giao thc nh tuyn multicast, router s dng phm vi multicast xc nh xem lu lng multicast c th c chuyn tip

Group ID (Nhm ID) - xc nh cc nhm multicast l duy nht

trong phm vi. Kch thc ca trng ny l 112 bit, nhm ID c phn cng l vnh vin, c lp v phm vi. Nhm ID thong qua ch lin quan n mt phm vi c th. a ch multicast FF01:: thng qua FF0F:: c dnh cho a ch ni ting 1.1.1.1. Anycast Mt a ch Anycast c giao cho nhiu giao din. Cc gi tin n mt a ch anycast c chuyn tip bi c s h tng nh tuyn giao din gn nht m cc a ch anycast c giao. to iu kin giao tip, c s h tng nh tuyn phi c nhn thc ca cc giao din c giao a ch anycast v khong cch v s liu nh tuyn

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Hin nay, cc a ch anycast c s dng nh a ch ch v ch c giao cho cc router. a ch anycast c giao ca khng gian a ch unicast v phm vi ca mt a ch anycast l phm vi ca cc loi a ch unicast m t cc a ch anycast c giao Cu trc a ch dng anycast

Hnh 1.8: Cu trc a ch dng Anycast 1.1.1.2. Unicast a ch Unicast bao gm cc loi a ch sau: Global Link - Local Address (LLA) Site - Local Address (SLA) Unique - Local a ch Global tng ng vi a ch IPv4 cng cng. N c th nh tuyn chung trn ton cu v c th truy cp trn tng phn IPv6 Internet. Khng ging nh IPv4 hin ti, m l mt hn hp ca c hai nh tuyn bng phng v phn cp, mng Internet IPv6 da trn thit k t nn tng ca n h tr hiu qu, phn cp a ch v nh tuyn Cu trc a ch Global:

1.1.1.1.1. Global

Hnh 1.9: Cu trc a ch dng Global


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Cc trng trong a ch Global nh sau: C nh phn thit lp 001- Cc a ch tin t cho a ch Global Global Routing Prefix (tin t nh tuyn ton cu) - Ch tin t nh hin ang c giao l 2000::/3 tuyn ton cu cho site ca mt t chc c th. S kt hp ca 3 bit c nh v tin t nh tuyn ton cu 45 bit c s dng to ra mt tin t site 48 bit, c giao cho mt site c nhn ca mt t chc. Sau khi c giao, cc b nh tuyn trn mng Internet IPv6 chuyn tip giao vn IPv6 ph hp vi tin t 48 bit cho cc b nh tuyn ca site ca t chc Subnet ID - c s dng trong site ca mt t chc xc nh mng con. Kch thc ca trng ny l 16 bit. Site ca t chc c th s dng 16 bit bn trong site ca mnh to ra 65.536 mng con hoc nhiu cp ca vic gii quyt h thng phn cp v nh tuyn c s h tng hiu qu Interface ID - Ch ra giao din trn mt subnet c th trong site. Kch thc ca trng ny l 64 bit 1.1.1.1.1. Link - Local Address (LLA) a ch Link - Local c s dng bi cc node khi giao tip vi cc node ln cn trn cng mt lin kt. V d, trn mt mng li lin kt duy nht m khng c b nh tuyn, a ch Link - Local c s dng gioa tip gia cc host trn cc lin kt. a ch Link - Local IPv6 tng ng vi a ch Link - Local IPv4 c nh ngha trong RFC3927 s dng tin t 169.254.0.0/16. Mt a ch Link - Local l cn thit cho qu trnh pht hin cc im ln cn v lun lun t ng cu hnh, ngay c trong s vng mt ca tt c cc a ch unicast khc

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Hnh 1.10: Cu trc a ch dng Link - Local a ch Link - Local lun bt u FE80::/64. Mt b nh tuyn IPv6 khng bao gi chuyn tip lu lng truy cp Link - Local ngoi lin kt 1.1.1.1.2. Site - Local Address (SLA) a ch Site - Local l tng ng vi khng gian a ch ring IPv4 (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, 192.168.0.0/16). V d, mng ni b t nhn m khng c mt kt ni trc tip chuyn n Internet IPv6 c th s dng a ch Site - Local m khng c mu thun vi cc a ch ton cu. a ch Site - Local khng th truy cp t cc trang web khc, v cc b nh tuyn khng phi chuyn tip lu lng truy cp Site - Local bn ngoi trang web Khng ging nh cc a ch Link - Local, a ch Site - Local khng t ng cu hnh v phi c ch nh hoc thng qua cc qu trnh cu hnh a ch stateless hoc stateful

Hnh 1.11: Cu trc a ch dng Site - Local


1.1.1.1.3. Unique

- Local

a ch Site - Local cung cp mt a ch ring lun phin bng cch s dng a ch ton cu cho lu lng truy cp mng ni b. Tuy nhin, bi v tin t a ch Site - Local c th c s dng gii quyt nhiu site trong mt t chc, mt a ch tin t a ch Site - Local c th c nhn i S m h ca cc a ch Site - Local trong mt t chc cho bit thm s phc tp v kh khn cho cc ng dng, thit b nh tuyn, v cc nh qun l mng

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a ch Unique - Local ra i m bo trnh vic b trng lp cc a ch ring trong cng mt t chc

Hnh 1.12: Cu trc a ch dng Unique - Local By bit u tin c gi tr c nh 1111110. Tt c cc a ch Unique - Local c a ch tin t FC00::/7. C Local (L) c thit lp 1 ch mt a ch Local. Gi tr c L l 0 cha c xc nh. Do , a ch Unique - Local vi c L thit lp 1 c a ch tin t ca FD00/8 So snh tng quan gia IPv4 v IPv6

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Bng 1.2: So snh khc nhau gia IPv4 v IPv6 1.1.2. Cu trc gi tin IPv6 Cu trc gi tin IPv6 gm 3 phn: IPv6 Header, Extension Headers v Upper Layer Protocol Data Unit

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Hnh 1.13: Cu trc gi tin IPv6 IPv4 Header - y l thnh phn lun phi c trong 1 gi tin IPv6 v Extension Headers - Trng Header m rng c th c hoc khng chim c nh 40 bytes vi di khng c nh. Trng Next Header trong Header ca 1 gi tin IPv6 s ch ra phn Header m rng tip theo

Upper Layer Protocol Data Unit (PDU) - Thng bao gm header Payload ca 1 gi tin IPv6 thng l s kt hp ca cc header m

ca giao thc tng cao v di ca n rng v PDU. Thng thng n c th ln ti 65.535 byte. Vi cc gi tin nng hn 65.535 byte th c th dng ty chn Jumbo Payload gi thng qua phng thc Hop-by-Hop 1.1.1.1. Header IPv6 Cu trc header ca gi tin IPv6

Hnh 1.14: Header IPv6 Cc trng trong header ca gi tin IPv6:

Version - Chim 4 bit, vn lm nhim v ch ra phin bn IP c s Traffic Class - Ging trng To Strong IPv4, chim 8 bit

dng nhng c mc nh l 6

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Flow Label - Nhn lu lng l mt trng 3 byte c thit k

cung cp s iu khin c bit i vi nhng lu lng c bit ca d liu

Payload Length - Ch ra di payload ca gi tin IPv6. Trng ny

chim 16 bit. Trng ny bao gm di ca cc header m rng v PDU. Vi 16 bit di payload c th ln ti 65.535 byte. Vi cc gi tin nng hn 65.535 byte th c th dng ty chn Jumbo Payload gi thng qua phng thc Hop-by-Hop ca header m rng Next Header - Hoc ch ra header m rng u tin hoc giao thc tng cao PDU. Trng ny chim 8 bit. Khi ch ra giao thc PDU th trng ny dng cc gi tr nh trong IPv4 Bng gi tr ca cc trng Next Header: Gi tr thp phn 0 6 17 41 43 44 46 50 51 58 59 60 Header k tip Ty chn Hop-by-Hop TCP UDP Header IPv6 c ng gi nh tuyn Phn mnh Giao thc d phng ti nguyn Bo mt ng gi Payload Chng thc ICMPv6 Trng Ty chn ch

Bng 1.3: Bng gi tr cc trng ca Next Header Hop Limit - Chim 8 bit. Trng ny tng t vi trng TTL trong IPv4. Khi gi tr Hop Limit gim v 0 th 1 thng ip ICMPv6 Time Exceeded c gi n a ch ngun thng bo v gi tin b loi b
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Source Address - Chim 128 bit. Lu gi a ch ngun ca gi tin Destination Address - Chim 128 bit. Lu gi a ch ch ca gi

tin. Trong hu ht trng hp a ch ny l a ch cui cng cn n ca gi tin. Nhng nu trong header m rng c trng Routing th a ch ny c th c t thnh a ch ca router tip theo 1.1.1.1. So snh header gia IPv4 v IPv6 So snh gia gi header ca gi tin IPv4 v IPv6: IPv4 Field Version Header IPv6 Header Field

Gi tr mc nh l 6 thay v 4 nh trong IPv4 Internet Header B loi b trong IPv6 v Length header ca gi tin IPv6 lun c ln c nh l 40 byte. Cc header m rng hoc c ln c nh hoc t ch nh ln Type of Service Thay bi trng Traffic Class Total Length Thay bi trng Payload Length v ch ch ra ln payload. Identification B loi b trong IPv6. Thng Fragmentation tin phn mnh khng c bao Flags gm trong cc header ca gi Fragment Offset tin IPv6 m trong header m rng Fragment. Time to Live Thay bi trng Hop Limit. Protocol Thay bi trng Next Header. Header B loi b trong IPv6. Trong Checksum IPv6, pht hin li mc bit cho ton b gi tin IPv6 c thc hin tng link layer. Source Address Ging nh IPv4 nhng c di 128 bit. Destination Ging nh IPv4 nhng c di Address 128 bit. Options B loi b trong IPv6. Cc ty chn nh trong IPv4 c thay bi cc header m rng IPv6. Bng 1.4: So snh header gia IPv4 v IPv6 Chng II: Cng ngh chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6
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2.1.

Gii thiu Chuyn i giao thc khng phi l d dng v qu trnh chuyn i

t IPv4 sang IPv6 cng khng l ngoi l. Qu trnh chuyn i giao thc thng c trin khai bng cch ci t v cu hnh giao thc mi v tt c cc nt trong mng v xc minh rng tt c cc hot ng ca nt v b nh tuyn lm vic thnh cng. Mc d iu ny c th c trong mt t chc nh hoc trung bnh, nhng thch thc ca mt qu trnh chuyn i giao thc trong mt t chc ln l rt kh khn. Ngoi ra, vi phm vi ca Internet, chuyn i giao thc nhanh chng t IPv4 sang IPv6 l mt nhim v khng th. Cc nh thit k IPv6 nhn ra rng, qu trnh chuyn i t IPv4 sang IPv6 s phi mt nhiu nm v c th l t chc hoc my ch trong cc t chc s tip tc s dng IPv4 v thi hn. V vy, trong khi vic chuyn i l mc tiu di hn, xem xt bnh ng phi c trao cho cng tn ti tm thi ca cc nt IPv4 v IPv6. Cc nh thit k ca IPv6 trong " The Recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol " ban u c im k thut (RFC 1752) nh ngha tiu chun qu trnh chuyn i sau y:

Hin ti host IPv4 c th c nng cp ti bt k thi im no, c Cc host mi, ch s dng IPv6, c th c thm vo bt c lc

lp ca vic nng cp cc my ch khc hoc router.

no, m khng ph thuc vo cc my ch khc hoc c s h tng nh tuyn.

Hin ti host IPv4, vi ci t IPv6, c th tip tc s dng IPv4 a Chun b l yu cu hoc nng cp cc node IPv4 hin ti hoc trin

ch v khng cn a ch b sung.

khai cc nt IPv6 mi.

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Vic thiu vn c ph thuc gia cc my ch IPv4 v IPv6, c s h tng nh tuyn IPv4, v c s h tng nh tuyn IPv6 i hi mt s c ch cho php cng tn ti lin mch. 2.1.

Cc loi node RFC 2893 nh ngha cc loi nt sau y: Node ch IPv4: Mt nt m ch thc hin IPv4 (ch c a ch IPv4)

v khng h tr IPv6. Hu ht cc my ch v thit b nh tuyn c ci t hin nay l cc nt ch IPv4

Node ch IPv6: Mt nt m ch thc hin IPv6 (ch c a ch IPv6)

v khng h tr IPv4. Nt ny ch c th giao tip vi cc nt v cc ng dng IPv6. y l loi nt khng phi l ph bin hin nay, nhng c th tr nn ph bin nh cc thit b nh nh in thoi di ng v cc thit b in ton cm tay bao gm cc giao thc IPv6.

Node IPv6/IPv4: Mt nt m thc hin c IPv4 v IPv6. Node IPv4: Mt nt m thc hin Ipv4. Mt nt c th l 1 nt ch Node IPv6: Mt nt m thc hin IPv6. Mt nt c th l 1 nt ch Cho s cng tn ti xy ra, s lng ln nht ca cc nt (IPv4 hoc

IPv4 hoc mt nt IPv6/IPv4 IPv6 hoc mt nt IPv6/IPv4. IPv6) c th giao tip bng cch s dng c s h tng IPv4, c s h tng IPv6, hoc mt c s h tng l s kt hp ca IPv4 v IPv6.Chuyn i thc s t c, khi tt c cc nt IPv4 c chuyn i thnh cc nt ch IPv6. Tuy nhin, trong tng lai gn, di chuyn thc t t c khi cng nhiu cc nt ch IPv4 c th c chuyn i cc nt IPv6/IPv4. Cc nt ch IPv4 c th giao tip vi cc nt ch IPv6 ch khi s dng mt proxy hoc gateway IPv4-Ipv6 2.1. Cc cng ngh chuyn i

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cng tn ti vi mt c s h tng IPv4 v cung cp mt qu trnh chuyn i cui cng n mt c s h tng IPv6 ch, cc c ch sau y c s dng: S dng c hai IPv4 v IPv6 ng hm Cng ngh bin dch a ch IPv6 c pht trin khi IPv4 c s dng rng ri, mng li IPv4 Internet hon thin v hot ng n nh. Trong qu trnh trin khai th h a ch IPv6 trn mng Internet, khng th c mt thi im nht nh no m a ch IPv4 b hy b, IPv6 v IPv4 s phi cng tn ti trong mt thi gian rt di. Trong qu trnh pht trin ca mnh, cc kt ni IPv6 s tn dng c s h tng sn c ca IPv4. Do vy cn c nhng cng ngh phc v cho vic chuyn i t a ch IPv4 sang a ch IPv6 Trong thi gian c s h tng nh tuyn chuyn t IPv4 ch IPv4 v IPv6, v cui cng ch IPv6, my ch phi c kh nng tip cn cc im n bng cch s dng mt trong hai IPv4 hoc IPv6. V d, trong qu trnh chuyn i, mt s dch v my ch s c truy cp trn IPv6. Tuy nhin, mt s dch v, m cha c cp nht h tr c IPv4 v IPv6, ch c th truy cp so vi IPv4. V vy, my ch phi c kh nng s dng c hai IPv4 v IPv6. s dng c hai lp Internet IPv4 v IPv6 trn cng mt my ch, IPv6/IPv4 my ch c th c cc kin trc sau y:

2.1.1. S dng c hai IPv4 v IPv6

Dual IP layer architecture Dual stack architecture

2.1.1.1. Dual IP layer architecture Kin trc s dng song song 2 tng IP cha c tng IPv4 v IPv6 vi cng mt tng giao vn (Transport layer) nh TCP hoc UDP
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M hnh kin trc:

Hnh 2.1: M hnh Dual IP layer architecture Vi mt cu trc giao thc duy nht c cha c IPv4 v IPv6, mt my ch chy Windows Server 2008 hay Windows Vista c th to ra cc loi sau y ca cc gi tin: Gi tin IPv4 Gi tin IPv6 Gi tin IPv6 da trn IPv4 (l nhng gi tin IPv6 c ng gi vi header ca IPv4) Hnh sau cho thy cc loi thng tin lin lc vi mt kin trc hai lp IP

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Hnh 2.2: Cc loi giao tip vi mt Dual IP layer architecture 2.1.1.1. Dual stack architecture Ging vi kin trc IP song song nhng kin trc ny dng 2 tng giao vn ring bit. Loi kin trc ny c t trong Windows Server 2003 v Windows XP Do hot ng vi c hai giao thc, nt mng kiu ny cn t nht mt a ch IPv4 v mt a ch IPv6. a ch IPv4 c th c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua c ch DHCP. a ch IPv6 c cu hnh trc tip hoc thng qua kh nng t cu hnh a ch Nt mng h tr cc ng dng vi c hai giao thc. Chng trnh tra cu tn min c th tra cu ng thi c cc truy vn kiu A ln kiu AAAA (A6). Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi kiu A, ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv4. Nu kt qu tr v l bn ghi AAAA (A6), ng dng s s dng giao thc IPv6. Nu c hai kt qu tr v, chng trnh s la chn tr v cho ng dng mt trong hai kiu a ch hoc c hai M hnh kin trc

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Hnh 2.3: Dual stack architecture Cc cch lin lc trong Dual stack architecture:

Hnh 2.4: Cc loi giao tip vi mt Dual stack architecture 2.1.2. ng hm (Tunneling) 2.1.2.1. Hot ng ca tunneling a ch IPv6 pht trin khi Internet IPv4 s dng rng ri v c mt mng li ton cu. Trong thi im rt di ban u, cc mng IPv6 s ch l nhng c o, thm ch l nhng host ring bit trn c mt mng li IPv4 rng ln. Lm th no nhng mng IPv6, hay thm ch nhng host IPv6 ring bit ny c th kt ni vi nhau, hoc kt ni vi mng
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Internet IPv6 khi chng ch c ng kt ni IPv4. S dng chnh c s h tng mng IPv4 kt ni IPv6 l mc tiu ca cng ngh ng hm Cng ngh ng hm l mt phng php s dng c s h tng sn c ca mng IPv4 thc hin cc kt ni IPv6 bng cch s dng cc thit b mng c kh nng hot ng dual stack ti hai im u v cui nht nh. Cc thit b ny bc gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 v truyn ti i trong mng IPv4 ti im u v g b gi tin IPv4, nhn li gi tin IPv6 ban u ti im ch cui ng truyn IPv4 Ni chung, cng ngh ng hm gi gi tin IPv6 trong gi tin IPv4 truyn i c trn c s h tng mng IPv4. Tc thit lp mt ng kt ni o (Tunneling) ca IPv6 trn c s h tng mng IPv4

Hnh 2.5: Cng ngh ng hm 2.1.2.2. Phn loi cng ngh ng hm ng hm bng tay (manual tunnel): ng hm c cu hnh bng tay ti cc thit b im u v im cui ng hm. Phng thc ny c th c p dng vi cc mng c it phn mng hoc cho mt s lng hn ch cc kt ni t xa. Tng t nh trng hp nh tuyn tnh trong cng ngh nh tuyn, linh ng v

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yu cu cu hnh nhn cng l nhng hn ch c bn ca cng ngh ng hm cu hnh bng tay ng hm t ng (automatic tunnel): Trong cng ngh ng hm t ng, khng i hi cu hnh a ch IPv4 ca im bt u v kt thc ng hm bng tay. im bt u v im kt thc ng hm c quyt nh bi cu trc nh tuyn. Cng ngh ng hm t ng in hnh 6to4, s dng th tc 41 (protocol 41). a ch IPv4 ca im bt u v kt thc ng hm c suy ra t a ch ngun v a ch ch ca gi tin IPv6. Cng ngh 6to4 hin nay c s dng kh rng ri ng hm cu hnh (configured tunnel): ng hm cu hnh l cng ngh ng hm trong cc im kt thc ng hm c thc hin bng mt thit b gi l Tunnel Broker. ng hm cu hnh c tin cy, tnh n nh tt hn ng hm t ng, do vy c khuyn ngh s dng cho nhng mng ln, qun tr tt. c bit cho cc ISP cp a ch IPv6 v kt ni cc khch hng ch c ng kt ni IPv4 ti mng Internet IPv6 2.1.1.1.1. Tunnel Broker Hin nay, mng IPv6 s dng rt nhiu ng hm trn h tng IPv4. Tunnel Broker c a ra gim nh chi ph cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm ny C ch ny s dng mt tp cc server chuyn dng gi l Tunnel Broker cu hnh v duy tr cc ng hm. Chng c th xem nh cc ISP IPv6 o cho cc ngi dng kt ni vo Internet IPv4. C ch ny ph hp cho cc trm (hoc site) IPv6 c lp mun kt ni d dng vo mng IPv6 Cu trc ca Tunnel Broker bao gm:

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IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnel Tunnel end point Dual-stack node DN Tunnel Broker Server S (User)

Hnh 2.6: Cu trc ca Tunnel Broker Tunnel Broker: l ni ngi dng truy cp vo ng k v kch hot ng hm.Tunnel Broker s qun l khi to, thay i v xa i cc ng hm thay cho ngi dng. Tunnel Broker cng c th ng k a ch IPv6 cng nh tn ca ngi dng vo server DNS Tunnel Broker phi cho php giao thc IPv4 c th lin lc vi ngi dng Tunnel server: l nhng router c ci t c 2 giao thc IPv4/IPv6 kt ni n Internet. Ty thuc vo cu hnh yu cu c gi n t Server Tunnel Broker m Tunnel Server s khi to, chnh sa hoc xa i pha server ca ng hm. Tunnel Server c th lu gi nhng s liu c th cho tng ng hm c khi to

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2.1.1.1.1.

Intra -Site Automatic Tunnel Adressing Protocol ISATAP

ISATAP l mt thut ton chuyn i IPv6 dng chuyn nhng gi tin IPv6 gia cc node ci t c hai giao thc IPv4/IPv6 s dng c s h tng mng IPv4. Trong mng c ci t ISATAP, ng hm ny s t ng c kch hot mi khi a ch IPv4 c s dng. ISATAP nhn nhn mng IPv4 nh tng Link - Layer cho giao thc IPv6 Cch hot ng ca ng hm ISATAP v c bn ISATAP s nh ra mt phng php khi to cc IPv6 da vo cc IPv4 v mt c ch thc hin Neighbor Discovery trong mng IPv4 nh a ch Link - Local cho host s c xc nh bng cch kt hp prefix ISATAP cng vi 32 bit a ch IPv4 ca host M hnh ISATAP

Hnh 2.7: Cc thnh phn trong ISATAP a ch Link - Local c to ra t ISATAP cho php cc host trong cng mt subnet (mng IPv4) c th lin lc c vi nhau nhng khng lin lc c vi cc host IPv6 trn cc subnet IPv6 khc. c th lin lc c, cc host trong ISATAP phi gi gi tin qua ISATAP router

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ISATAP router l mt router ci t IPv6 v thc hin chc nng: Qung b prefix xc nh subnet m host ISATAP thuc v. Cc host ISATAP s s dng prefix c qung b t cu hnh a ch ISATAP Chuyn tip cc gi tin IPv6 gia cc host ISATAP trong subnet v cc host IPv6 khc trn cc subnet khc. Cc subnet khc c th l mng IPv4 khc hoc cng c th l mng IPv6 ng vai tr nh mt defaut router cho cc host ISATAP. Khi mt host ISATAP tip nhn mt thng tin qung b hp l t router ISATAP, host ISATAP s thm mt ng default router (::/0) s dng giao din ISATAP ca router ISATAP. Khi host ISATAP gi cc gi tin c im n l cc subnet ngoi, gi tin s c a n router ISATAP trn giao din IPv4 tng ng ca router v t y c chuyn tip sang cc subnet ngoi 2.1.1.1.1.6to4 6to4 l mt cng ngh ng hm t ng dng cung cp kt ni IPv6 gia cc subnet cng nh host da trn c s h tn IPv4 IANA phn b dnh ring mt prefix a ch cho cng ngh tunnel 6to4 ton cu. l 2002::/16. Prefix a ch ny kt hp vi 32 bit a ch IPv4 s to nn mt prefix a ch 6to4 kch c /48 ton cu duy nht s dng cho mt mng IPv6

Hnh 2.8: Cu trc a ch 6to4 Vng a ch /48 ny c th s dng phn b to nn mt mng IPv6 cho mt t chc. Mt subnet trong IPv6 c gn prefix /64. Vi vng a ch 6to4 /48, ta c 16 bit c th s dng nh s cc mng

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LAN 6to4 IPv6 trong site, v c th nh s ti 65.536 mng, mt con s rt ln v kh c th s dng ht vng a ch, ch t mt a ch IPv4 M hnh ng hm 6t04:

Hnh 2.9: M hnh ng hm 6to4 6to4 host: Tt c cc host trong mng c s dng cng ngh ng hm 6to4 u c gn mt a ch IPv6 dng 6to4 (vi prefix l 2002::/16). Cc host 6to4 khng cn bt c mt thit lp bng tay no v s t to a ch dng 6to4 bng cc thut ton t ng cu hnh

6to4 router: L mt router dual - stack h tr s dng giao din 6to4.

Router ny s chuyn tip lu lng c gn a ch 6to gia nhng 6to4 host trong mt site v ti nhng router 6t04 khc hoc ti 6to4 relay router trong mng IPv4 Internet. Vic cu hnh router 6to4 cn phi c cu hnh bng tay 6to4 relay: 6to4 relay router l mt dual - stack router thc hin chuyn tip lu lng c a ch 6to4 ca nhng router 6to4 trn Internet v host trn IPv6 Internet (s dng a ch IPv6 chnh thc, cung cp bi t chc qun l a ch ton cu). 6to4 relay router l mt 6to4 router c cu hnh h tr chuyn tip nh tuyn gia a ch 6to4 v a ch IPv6 chnh thc (a ch IPv6 nh danh ton cu). 6to4 relay router s l
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gateway kt ni gia mng 6to4 v IPv6 Internet. Nh gip cho nhng mng IPv6 6to4 c th kt ni ti Internet IPv6 ng hm 6to4 thc hin nhng chc nng sau: Ch nh mt khng gian a ch IPv6 cho bt c mt host hoc mng no c a ch publich IPv4 ng gi cc gi tin IPv6 vo cc gi tin IPv4 chuyn qua mng IPv4 6to4 nhng cc gi tin IPv6 vo phn payload ca gi tin IPv4 vi trng protocol c t thnh 41, ch ra rng y l mt gi tin IPv6 c nhng trong IPv4. a ch ch IPv4 cho gi tin IPv6 c ng gi bng cch tch 32 bit tip theo ca host hoc router gi gi tin. Gi tin IPv4 c ng gi s c gi n a ch ch nh cc gi tin IPv4 thng thng

nh tuyn gia mng IPv6 v 6to4: relay router ra i cho php

host v mng s dng a ch IPv6 dng 6to4 c th lin lc vi cc host s dng a ch IPv6 thun (c cung cp bi ISP) Relay router s kt ni trc tip n mng IPv4 v IPv6. Gi tin 6to4 c gi n relay router thng qua giao din a ch IPv4 s c phn payload c chuyn sang mng IPv6, trong khi cc gi tin IPv6 thun s c gi n relay router qua giao din a ch IPv6 vi a ch IPv6 c prefix l 2002::/64 s c ng gi vo trong mt gi tin IPv4 v chuyn sang mng IPv4 2.1.1. Cng ngh bin dch NAT-PT (Network Address Translation) NAT-PT c pht trin trn c s c ch NAT trong IPv4 nhm cho php cc nt mng IPv4 v IPv6 kt ni vi nhau. C ch ny hot ng trn c s chuyn i cc khc bit gia cc gi tin IPv4 v IPv6 Khc bit v a ch: Dch a ch IPv4 - IPv6 Khc bit v phn m u header: Dch giao thc thay i header gi tin

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Thit b NAT-PT c ci t ti ranh gii gia mng IPv4 vi IPv6. C ch ny khng i hi cu hnh c bit ti cc my trm v s chuyn i gi tin ti thit b NAT-PT hon ton thng sut vi ngi dng Mi thit b NAT-PT duy tr mt tp cc a ch IPv4 dng nh x cc yu cu vi a ch IPv6 NAT-PT c th m rng thnh Network Address Port Translation Protocol Translation (NAPT-PT) cho php s dng mt a ch IPv4 cho nhiu phin lm vic khc nhau M hnh ca NAT-PT

Hnh 2.10: M hnh NAT-PT router c th dch a ch t IPv4 sang IPv6 hoc ngc li th trn thit b NAT-PT phi duy tr mt tp a ch IPv4 cng nh IPv6 nh x qua li

38

Ngoi ra c ch NAT-PT cn cn mt prefix nhn bit cc a ch cn c x l. Prefix ny cng vi mt a ch IPv4 s cu to nn mt a ch IPv6 hon chnh, do prefix ny s c di l /96 Da vo y ta s c c ch chuyn i nh sau Dch t header IPv4 sang header IPv6 a ch ngun: 32 bit ca a ch ngun cng vi 96 bit prefix s to nn mt a ch IPv6. a ch ny s c chuyn tip qua thit b NAT-PT a ch ch: thit b NAT-PT s lu gi mt bng nh x gia dng IPv4 v IPv6 ca a ch ch. Khi a ch ch dng IPv4 s c nh x tng ng sang dng IPv6 da vo bng nh x

Dch t header IPv6 sang header IPv4 a ch ngun: Tng t, thit b NAT-PT s lu tr mt bng nh

x gia dng IPv4 v IPv6 ca a ch ngun. a ch ngun dng IPv6 s c nh x sang IPv4 da vo bng nh x a ch ch: a ch IPv6 ny bao gm 32 bit cui l a ch ch dng IPv4. Da vo prefix thit b NAT-PT s tch a ch IPv4 ra khi a ch IPv6 ny u im Qun tr tp trung ti thit b NAT-PT C th trin khai nhiu thit b NAT-PT tng hiu nng hot ng Nhc im NAT-PT cng nh NAT trong IPv4, khng c kh nng hot ng vi cc gi tin c cha a ch trong phn ti tin. Do , NAT-PT thng i km vi c ch Application Level Gateway - ALG. C ch ny cho php x l cc gi tin ng vi tng dch v nht nh nh DNS hay FTP, Tuy nhin bn thn cc dch v ny u c kh nng pht trin nn tip tc cp nht ci t ALG l khng th trnh khi Ngay c khi c th gi cho c ch ALG lun c cp nht th c ch chuyn dch a ch vn c th hot ng tt nu khng c s m ha
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NAPT-PT c th gy ra nhng li v nh tuyn khi c qu nhiu

phin cng s dng chung mt port v khi y NAPT- PT s khng c c s xc nh chnh xc tng dch v V mt nhc im khc ca NAT-PT cng nh cc thut ton dch a ch khc l vn khng gii quyt c vn v bn ghi nh tuyn trn router trung gian Cc trin khai ca NAT-PT: NAT-PT c th nghim trn cc h iu hnh mng nh: Linux. Free BSD, Microsoft Windows 2000 Ngoi ra, n cng l mt phn ca h iu hnh Cisco IOS IPv6 bn beta vi hai phin bn da trn IOS v11.3 v IOS v12.0. Cc trin khai ny c cho nhiu loi router khc nhau

Kt lun v hng pht trin Kt lun


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Giao thc IPv6 c nhiu u im vt tri so vi IPv4, p ng c nhu cu pht trin ca mng Internet hin ti v trong tng lai. Do , giao thc IPv6 s thay th IPv4 l iu chc chn Tuy nhin, chuyn i ton b cc node mng IPv4 hin nay sang IPv6 trong mt thi gian ngn l khng th. Hn na, nhiu ng dng mng hin ti vn cn cha h tr IPv6 Theo d bo ca t chc ISOC, IPv6 s thay th IPv4 vo khong 2020 - 2030. V vy, cn c mt qu trnh chuyn i gia hai giao thc trnh hin tng tng t nh s c Y2K Cc c ch chuyn i phi m bo kh nng tng tc gia cc trm, cc ng dng IPv4 hin c vi cc trm v ng dng IPv6. Ngoi ra, cc c ch cng cho php chuyn tip cc lung thng tin IPv6 trn h tng nh tuyn hin c Hng pht trin c chnh thc cp pht t nm 2004, n nm 2006 a ch Internet th h mi IPv6 c chnh thc trin khai rng khp trn ton cu nhm thay th cho ngun ti nguyn a ch IPv4 ang cn kit. Theo k hoch ng dng, a IPv6 vo cc chin lc pht trin v cng ngh thng tin v mng Internet quc gia c trin khai nhiu nc. Nhiu nc thnh lp U ban thc y IPv6 (IPv6 Task Force) m nhim cng tc thc y trin khai mnh m a ch IPv6 trong quc gia mnh cng nh phi hp trn phm vi quc t. Ti Vit Nam, Ban Cng tc thc y IPv6 quc gia c thnh lp ngy 06/01/2009 thc hin cc nhim v trn. Bn k hoch hnh ng quc gia v IPv6 c ban hnh vo ng thi im th gii chnh thc bc vo giai on cn kit a ch IPv4, ngay khi m nhng vng a ch IPv4 cui cng va mi c t chc qun l a ch quc t (IANA) phn b cho 5 t chc qun l a ch cp khu vc (gm 5 t chc i din cho 5 chu lc).
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