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History of South India

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of South Asia and India

Stone age (70001300 BCE)[show] Iron age (120026 BCE)[show] Classical period (11279 CE)[show] Late medieval age (12061596 CE)[show] Early modern period (15261858 CE)[show] Regional states (11021947 CE)[show] Colonial period (15051961 CE)[show] Kingdoms of Sri Lanka (543 BCE1948 CE)[show] Nation histories[show] Regional histories[show] Specialised histories[show]

The history of South India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of known history of the region begins with the Iron age (1200 BC to 24 BC) period during which Chera, Chola, Pandya ruled the South Indian country until 14th century A.D. Inscriptions on Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple shows that once Pandyan kingdom ruled from Himalayas in North to Kanyakumari in the South. Other dynasties of Satavahana, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. These kingdoms constantly fought amongst each other and against external forces when Muslim armies invaded south India. Vijayanagara empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and covered the most of south India and acted as a bulwark against Mughal expansion into the

south. When the European powers arrived during the 16th century CE, the southern kingdoms were not powerful enough to resist the new threat and eventually succumbed to British occupation. The British created the Madras Presidency which covered most of south India directly administered by the British Raj, and divided the rest into a number of dependent princely states. After Indian independence South India was linguistically divided into the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.


1 Prehistory 2 Ancient history

2.1 Satavahanas 2.2 Pandyas 2.3 Cholas 2.4 Cheras 2.5 Pallavas 2.6 Kadambas of Banavasi 2.7 Gangas of Talkad 2.8 Chalukyas of Badami 2.9 Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta 2.10 Chalukyas of Kalyani ( Eastern Chalukyas ) 2.11 Hoysalas 2.12 Kakatiyas 2.13 Musunuri 3.1 Rise of Muslim kingdoms 3.2 Vijayanagara Empire 3.3 Nayak kingdoms 3.4 Rise of the Marathas 4.1 Colonial period 4.2 British South India 4.3 After Independence

3 Medieval history

4 Modern history

5 Appendix 6 See also

7 References

[edit] Prehistory
See also: Prehistoric India, Prehistoric_Tamil_Nadu#Pre-historic_period, History_of_Karnataka#Pre-history, History_of_Andhra_Pradesh#Introduction, and Pre-history of Kerala South India remains is in the Mesolithic until 2500 BC. Microlith production is attested for the period 6000 to 3000 BC. The Neolithic period lasts from 2500 BC to 1000 BC, followed by the Iron Age, characterized by megalithic burials.[1] Comparative excavations carried out in Adichanallur in Thirunelveli district and in Northern India have provided evidence of a southward migration of the Megalithic culture.[2] Early epigraphic evidence begins to appear from about the 5th century BC, in the form of Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions, reflecting the southward spread of Buddhism.

[edit] Ancient history

Main article: Ancient history of South India Further information: Tamil Sangams and Sangam literature Evidence in the forms of documents and inscriptions do not appear often in the history of ancient South India. Although there are signs that the history dates back to several centuries BCE, we only have any authentic archeological evidence from the early centuries of the common era. The Kingdom of Pratipalapura (5th century BCE), identified with Bhattiprolu, in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh appears to be the earliest known kingdom in South India. We also have an inscriptional evidence to show that king Kubera was ruling over Bhattiprolu around 230 BC followed by Sala Kings. The script of Bhattiprolu inscriptions was the progentor of Brahmi Lipi that diversified later into modern Telugu and Tamil scripts.[citation needed] During the reign of Ashoka (304232 BCE) the three Tamil dynasties of Chola, Chera and Pandya were running in the south. These kingdoms, while not part of Ashoka's empire, were in friendly terms with the Maurya Empire. The area of these kingdoms was known as Tamilakam "Land of Tamils".

[edit] Satavahanas
Main article: Satavahanas

Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha, Amaravati, 3rd century CE. Andhra Pradesh (Tokyo National Museum)

Royal earrings of the Satavahanas, Andhra Pradesh, 1st Century BCE. The Stavhana Empire started out as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire but declared independence soon after the death of Ashoka (232 BC). They were the first Indic rulers to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed and are known for their patronage of Buddhism resulting in Buddhist monuments from Ellora to Amaravati. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade and the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Gangetic plains to the southern tip of India. The Satavahanas had to compete with the Sunga and the Kanva dynasty of the Mauryan Empire to establish first their independence then to expand their rule. Later they had to contend in protecting their domain from the incursions of Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with the Western Kshatrapas weakened them and the kingdom split into smaller states.

[edit] Pandyas
Main article: Pandyan Empire The Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from pre-historic times until end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Pandyas are mentioned in Sangam Literature (c. 100 200 CE) as well as by Greek and Roman sources during this period. The early Pandyan dynasty of the Sangam literature went into obscurity during the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Keralas in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. 1251) expanded their empire in to the Telugu country and invaded Sri Lanka to conquer the northern half of the island. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. During their history Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate in the 16th century. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced one of the finest pearls known in the ancient world.

[edit] Cholas
Main article: Chola Empire See also: Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and Later Cholas

The Brihadeeswarar temple at Thanjavur is one of the largest monolithic temple complexes in the world - a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Cholas were one the three main dynasties to rule south India from ancient times. Karikala Chola was the famous king during the early centuries of the common era and managed to gain ascendency over the Pandyas and Cheras. The Chola dynasty however went into a period of decline from c. fourth century CE. This period coincided with the ascendency of Kalabhras who moved down from the northern Tamil country displacing the established kingdoms and ruled over most of south India for almost 300 years. Vijayalaya Chola revived the Chola dynasty in 850 CE by conquering Thanjavur and made it his capital. His son Aditya I defeated the Pallava king Aparajita and extended the Chola territories to Tondaimandalam. The centers of the Chola Kingdom were at Kanchi (Kanchipuram) and Thanjavur. One of the most powerful rulers of the Chola kingdom was Raja Raja Chola. He ruled from 985 to 1014 CE. His army conquered the Navy of the Cheras at Thiruvananthapuram, and annexed Anuradhapura and the northern province of Ceylon. Rajendra Chola I completed the conquest of Sri Lanka, invaded Bengal, and undertook a great naval campaign that occupied parts of Malaya, Burma, and Sumatra. The Chola dynasty began declining by the 13th century and ended in 1279. Cholas were great builders and have left some of the most beautiful examples of early Dravidian temple architecture. Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur is a fine example and has been listed as one of the United Nations' World Heritage sites.

[edit] Cheras
Main article: Chera Empire The Chera kingdom were one of the Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the twelfth century CE. The term Chera is usually divided between three related dynasties, Early Cheras, Later Cheras and Venad Cheras. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Throughout the reign of the Early Cheras, trade continued to bring prosperity to their territories, with spices, ivory, timber, pearls and gems being exported to the Middle East and to southern Europe. Evidence of extensive foreign trade from ancient times can be seen throughout the Malabar coast (Muziris), Karur and Coimbatore districts.

[edit] Pallavas
Main article: Pallava Empire

The Shore Temple in Mahabalipuram built by the Pallavas - a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Pallavas were a great south Indian dynasty who ruled between the third century CE until their final decline in the ninth century CE. Their capital was Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. Their origins are not clearly known. However, it is surmised that they were yadavas and they probably were feudatories of Satavahanas. Pallavas started their rule from Krishna river valley, known today as Palnadu, and subsequently spread to southern Andhra Pradesh and north Tamil Nadu. Mahendravarman I was a prominent Pallava king who began work on the rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram. His son Narasimhavarman I came to throne in 630 CE. He defeated the Chalukya king Pulakesi II in 632 CE and burned the Chalukyan capital Vatapi. Pallavas and Pandyas dominmated the souther regions of South India between the sixth and the ninth centuries CE.

[edit] Kadambas of Banavasi

Main article: Kadambas

Panchakuta Basadi, 9th. cen. Jain, Kambadahalli, Mandya District, Karnataka Kadambas ruled during 345525 CE. Their kingdom spanned the present day Karnataka state. Banavasi was their capital. They expanded their territories to cover Goa, Hanagal. The dynasty was founded by Mayura Sharma c. 345 CE. They built fine temples in Banavasi, Belgaum, Halsi and Goa. Kadambas were the first rulers to use Kannada as an administrative language as proven by the Halmidi inscription (450 CE) and Banavasi copper coin. With the rise of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami, the Kadambas ruled as their feudatory from 525 CE for another five hundred years.

[edit] Gangas of Talkad

Main article: Western Gangas

The Western Ganga Dynasty ruled southern Karnataka region during 350550 CE. They continued to rule until the 10th century as feudatories of Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas. They rose from the region after the fall of the Satavahana empire and created a kingdom for themselves in Gangavadi (south Karnataka) while the Kadambas, their contemporaries, did the same in north Karnataka. The area they controlled was called Gangavadi which included the present day districts of Mysore, Chamrajanagar, Tumkur, Kolar, Mandya and Bangalore. They continued to rule until the 10th century as feudatories of Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas. Gangas initially had their capital at Kolar, before moving it to Talakad near Mysore. They made a significant contribution to Kannada literature with such noted writers as King Durvinita, King Shivamara II and Chavundaraya. The famous Jain monuments at Shravanabelagola were built by them.

[edit] Chalukyas of Badami

Main article: Chalukya Empire

Badami Chalukya Architecture, Virupaksha Temple, Badami, Karnataka. One of the first kings of the Chalukyan dynasty was Pulakesi I. He ruled from Badami, the present day Bijapur, Karnataka, in Karnataka. His son Pulakesi II became the king of the Chalukyan empire in 610 CE and ruled until 642 CE. Pulakesi II is most remembered for the battle he fought and won against Emperor Harshavardhana in 637 CE. He also defeated the Pallava king Mahendravarman I. The Chalukya empire existed from 543757 CE and an area stretching from Kaveri to Narmada rivers. The Chalukyas created the Chalukyan style of architecture. Great monuments were built in Pattadakal, Aihole and Badami. These temples exhibit evolution of the Vesara style of architecture. The Chalukyas of Vengi, also known as the Eastern Chalukyas, who were related to the Badami Chalukyas ruled along the east coast of South India around the present-day Vijayawada. The Eastern Chalukya dynasty was created by Kubja Vishnuvardhana, a brother of Pulakesi II. The Eastern Chalukyas continued to rule for over five hundred years and were in close alliance with the Cholas.

[edit] Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta

Main article: Rashtrakuta Empire

Rashtrakuta architecture, Kailasanatha Temple, in Ellora Caves, Maharashtra. The Rashtrakuta Empire ruled from Manyaketha in Gulbarga from 735 CE until 982 CE and reached its peak under Amoghavarsha I (814878 CE), considered Ashoka of South India. The Rashtrakutas came to power at the decline of the Badami Chalukyas and were involved in a three-way power struggle for control of the Gangetic plains with the Prathihara of Gujarat and Palas of Bengal. The Rashtrakutas were responsible for building some of the beautiful rock-cut temples of Ellora including the Kailasa temple. Kannada language literature flourished during this period of Adikavi Pampa, Sri Ponna and Shivakotiacharya. King Amoghavarsha I wrote the earliest extant Kannada classic Kavirajamarga.

[edit] Chalukyas of Kalyani ( Eastern Chalukyas )

Main article: Western Chalukya Empire

Mahadeva Temple at Itagi in the Koppal district, 1112 CE, an example of dravida articulation with a nagara superstructure The Western Chalukya Empire was created by the descendants of the Badami Chalukya clan and ruled from 973 1195 CE. Their capital was Kalyani, present day Basava Kalyana in Karnataka. They came to power at the decline of the Rashtrakutas. They ruled from the Kaveri in the South to Gujarath in the north. The empire reached its peak under Vikramaditya VI. The Kalyani Chalukyas promoted the Gadag style of architecture, excellent examples of which are present in Gadag, Dharwad, Koppal and Haveri districts of Karnataka. They patronised great Kannada poets such as Ranna and Nagavarma II and is considered as a golden age of Kannada literature. The Vachana Sahitya style of native Kannada poetry flourished during these times.

[edit] Hoysalas
Main article: Hoysala Empire

Keshava temple, Somanathapura, Karnataka. Hoysalas began their rule as subordinates of the Chalukyas of Kalyani and gradually established their own empire. Nripa Kama Hoysala who ruled in the western region of Gangavadi, founded the Hoysala dynasty. His later successor Ballala I reigned from his capital at Belur. Vishnuvardhana Hoysala (11061152 CE) conquered the Nolamba region earning the title Nolambavadi Gonda. Some of the most magnificent specimens of South Indian temples are those attributed to the Hoysala dynasty of Karnataka. Vesara style reached its peak in their period. Hoysalas period is remembered today as one of the brightest periods in the history of Karnataka. They ruled Karnataka for over three centuries from c. 1000 to 1342 CE. The most famous kings among the Hoysalas were Vishnuvardhana, Veera Ballala II and Veera Ballala III. Jainism flourished during the Hoysala period. Ramanuja the founder of Shri Vaishnavism, came to Hoysala kingdom to spread his religion. Hoysalas encouraged both Kannada and Sanskrit literature and earned a great name as builders of temples at Belur, Halebidu, Somanathapura, Belavadi and Amrithapura. Such famous poets as Rudrabhatta, Janna, Raghavanka and Harihara wrote many classics in Kannada during this time.

[edit] Kakatiyas
Main article: Kakatiyas

Ramappa temple in Andhra Pradesh The Kakatiya dynasty rose to prominence in the eleventh century with the decline of the Chalukyas. By the early 12th century, the Kakatiya Durjaya clan declared independence and began expanding their kingdom.[3] By the end of the century, their kingdom had reached the Bay of Bengal and it stretched between the Godavari and the Krishna rivers. The empire reached its zenith under Ganapatideva who was its greatest ruler. At its largest, the empire included most of modern day Andhra Pradesh and parts of Orissa, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh and Karnataka. Ganapatideva was succeeded by his daughter Rudramamba. The Kakatiya dynasty lasted for three centuries.

Warangal was their capital. By the early 14th century, the Kakatiya dynasty attracted the attention of the Delhi Sultanate under Allauddin Khilji. It paid tribute to Delhi for a few years, but was eventually conquered by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

[edit] Musunuri
Main article: Musunuri Nayaks After the downfall of Kakatiya empire, two cousins known as Musunuri Nayaks rebelled against Delhi Sultanate and recaptured Warangal and brought the whole of Telugu-speaking areas under their control. Although short lived (50 years), the Nayak rule is considered a watershed in the history of South India. Their rule inspired the establishment of Vijayanagar empire to defend Hindu dharma for the next five centuries.

[edit] Medieval history

[edit] Rise of Muslim kingdoms

Vijayanagara architecture, Stone chariot in Vittala temple, Hampi, Karnataka The early medieval period saw the rise of Muslim power in South India. The defeat of the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal by the forces of the Delhi Sultanate in 1323 CE. and the defeat of the Hoysalas in 1333 CE. heralded a new chapter in South Indian history. The grand struggle of the period was between the Bahmani Sultanate based in Gulbarga and the Vijayanagara Empire with its capital in Vijayanagara in modern Hampi. By the early sixteenth century, the Bahmani empire fragmented into five different kingdoms based in Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapur and Golconda, together called the Deccan Sultanates. Whereas on the South-Western Coast of South India, a new local economical and political power arose into the vacuum created by the disintegration of Chera power. The Zamorins of Calicut, with the help of the Muslim-Arab merchants, dominated the maritime trade on Malabar Coast for the next few centuries.

[edit] Vijayanagara Empire

Main article: Vijayanagara Empire The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in the early 14th century with the purpose of stemming the tide of Muslim power overrunning South India, lasted for almost 200 years. It was visited and recorded by the Persian scholar Abdur Razzaq (traveller). The empire reached its zenith of its power and prosperity during the reign of Tuluva king, Krishnadevaraya. Krishnadevaraya was a great patron of art, music, dance and literature and an accomplished poet himself in Telugu. The empire maintained active trade relations with the Portuguese. Domingo Paes, the Portuguese trader who lived in the capital in the 1520s wrote of its prosperity, splendor and bazaars full of with precious stones. Vijayanagara was conquered by the combined forces of the Deccan sultanates in 1565 in the Battle of Tallikota. The

Hampi ruins are scattered today over an area of fourteen square miles. Telugu literature peaked during this time. The Kannada Haridasa movement and Sahitya (literature) fostered strong Hindu traditions. With the fall of Vijayanagara and the breakup of the Bahmani Sultanate, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda and Hyderabad became the dominant power in the region. Qutb Shahi dominance of the region continued until the middle of the 17th century, when the Mughals under Aurangzeb made determined inroads into the Deccan. Golconda was conquered in 1687.

[edit] Nayak kingdoms

Main articles: Nayaks of Madurai, Nayaks of Tanjore, Nayakas of Chitradurga, and Keladi Nayaka

Aghoreshwara temple, mantapa in Keladi Nayaka art Shimoga District, Karnataka. Vijayangara empire had established military and administrative governors called Nayakas to rule in the various territories of the empire. After the demise of the Vijayanagara empire, the local governors declared their independence and started their rule. The Nayak of Madurai, Nayaks of Tanjore, Keladi Nayakas of Shimoga, Nayakas of Chitradurga and Kingdom of Mysore were the most prominent of them. Raghunatha Nayak (16001645) was the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks. Raghunatha Nayak encouraged trade and permitted a Danish settlement in 1620 at Danesborg at Tarangambadi. This laid the foundation of future European involvement in the affairs of the country. The success of the Dutch inspired the English to seek trade with Thanjavur, which was to lead to farreaching repercussions. Vijaya Raghava (16311675 CE) was the last of the Thanjavur Nayaks. Nayaks reconstructed some of the oldest temples in the country and their contributions can be seen even today. Nayaks expanded the existing temples with large pillared halls, and tall gateway towers was a striking feature in the religious architecture of this period. Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar and Tipu Sultan from the Kingdom of Mysore, Madhukari Nayaka of Chitradurga Nayaka clan and Venkatappa Nayaka of Keladi dynasty are the most famous among the post Vijayanagar rulers from Kannada country. In Madurai, Thirumalai Nayak was the most famous Nayak ruler. He patronised art and architecture creating new structures and expanding the existing landmarks in and around Madurai. His landmark buildings are the Meenakshi Temple Gopurams and Thirumalai Nayak Palace in Madurai. On Thirumalai Nayak's death in 1659 CE, other notable ruler was Rani Mangammal. Shivaji Bhonsle, the great Maratha Ruler, invaded the south, as did Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore and other Muslim Rulers, resulting in chaos and instability and the Madurai Nayak Kingdom collapsed in 1736 following internal strife. The Tanjavur Nayaks ruled till late 17th century until their dynasty was put to an end by Madurai Rulers, and the Marathas grabbing the opportunity to install their ruler. The Tanjavur Nayak kings were notable for their contribution to Arts and Telugu literature.

[edit] Rise of the Marathas

Main article: Maratha Empire

Mysore Palace in Mysore, Karnataka. The rise of Maratha military power under Shivaji and his heirs in the immediate north of what is today considered South India had a profound influence on the political situation of South India, with Maratha control quickly extending as far east as Ganjam and as far south as Thanjavur. Following the death of Aurangzeb, Mughal power withered, and South Indian rulers gained autonomy from Delhi. The Wodeyar kingdom of Mysore, which was originally in tribute to Vijayanagara and gained in strength over the next few decades, subsequently emerging as the dominant power in the southern part of South India. The Asaf Jahis of Hyderabad controlled the territory north and east of Mysore, while the Marathas controlled portions of what is today Karnataka. By the close of the "medieval" period, most of South India was either ruled directly from, or under tribute to Nayak dynasty or Wodeyars.

[edit] Modern history

[edit] Colonial period

1800 James Rennell map of Southern Indian and Ceylon, showing color coded political territories, military campaigns of the British East India Company, and the acquisitions of the company through the 1792 Treaty of Seringapatam

In the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British East India company initiated a protracted struggle for military control of South India. The period was marked by shifting alliances between the two East India companies and the local powers, mercenary armies employed by all sides, and general anarchy in South India. Cities and forts changed hands many times, and soldiers were primarily remunerated through loot. The four Anglo-Mysore Wars and the three Anglo-Maratha Wars saw Mysore, the Marathas and Hyderabad aligning themselves in turns with either the British or the French. Eventually, British power in alliance with Hyderabad prevailed and Mysore was absorbed as a princely state within British India. The Nizam of Hyderabad sought to retain his autonomy through diplomacy rather than open war with the British. The Maratha Empire that stretched across large swathes of central and northern India was broken up, with most of it annexed by the British.

[edit] British South India

South India during the British colonial rule was divided into the Madras Presidency and Hyderabad, Mysore, Thiruvithamcoore (also known as Travancore), Cochin, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states. The Madras Presidency was ruled directly by the British, while the rulers of the princely states enjoyed considerable internal autonomy. British Residents were stationed in the capitals of the important states to supervise and report on the activities of the rulers. British troops were stationed in cantonments near the capitals to curb the potential of rebellion. The rulers of these states accepted the principle of paramountcy of the British Crown. The larger princely states issued their own currency and built their own railroadswith non-standard gauges which would be incompatible with their neighbors. The cultivation of coffee and tea was introduced to the mountainous regions of South India during the British period, and both remain important cash crops.

[edit] After Independence

On August 15, 1947, the former British India achieved independence as the new dominions of India and Pakistan. The rulers of India's princely states acceded to the government of India between 1947 and 1950, and South India was organized into a number of new states. Most of South India was included in Madras state, which included the territory of the former Madras Presidency together with the princely states of Banganapalle, Pudukkottai, and Sandur. The other states in South India were Coorg (the erstwhile Coorg province of British India), Mysore State (the former princely state of Mysore) and Travancore-Cochin, formed from the merger of the princely states of Travancore and Cochin. The former princely state of Hyderabad became Hyderabad State, and erstwhile Bombay Presidency became Bombay State. In 1953, the Nehru government yielded to intense pressure from the northern Telugu-speaking districts of Madras State, and allowed them to vote to create India's first linguistic state. Andhra State was created on October 1, 1953 from the northern districts of Madras State, with its capital in Kurnool. Increasing demands for reorganisation of the patchwork of India's states resulted in the formation of a national States Reorganisation Commission. Based on the commission's recommendations, Parliament of India enacted the States Reorganisation Act of 1956, which reorganized the boundaries of India's states along linguistic lines. Andhra State was renamed Andhra Pradesh, and enlarged by the addition of Telugu-speaking region of Telingana, formerly part of Hyderabad State. Mysore State was enlarged by the addition of Coorg and the Kannada-speaking districts of southwestern Hyderabad State and southern Bombay State. The new Malayalam-speaking state of Kerala was created by the merger of TravancoreCochin with Malabar and Kasargod districts of Madras State. Madras State, which after 1956 included the Tamilmajority regions of South India, changed its name to Tamil Nadu in 1968, and Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1972. Portuguese India, which included Goa, was annexed by India in 1961, and Goa became a state in 1987. The enclaves of French India were ceded to India in the 1950s, and the southern four were organised into the union territory of Pondicherry.

Dravidian architecture
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A typical Dravidian gate pyramid called Gopuram-Thiruvannamalai temple-Tamil Nadu Dravidian architecture was a style of architecture that emerged thousands of years ago in Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. They consist primarily of pyramid shaped temples called Koils which are dependent on intricate carved stone in order to create a step design consisting of many statues of deities, warriors, kings, and dancers. The majority of the existing buildings are located in the Southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Karnataka. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyan, Chera, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara Empire amongst the many others have made a substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture through the ages. Dravidian styled architecture can also be found in parts of Northeastern Sri Lanka, Maldives, and various parts of Southeast Asia.


1 Composition and structure 2 Influence from different periods

2.1 Sangam period 2.2 Pallavas

2.3 Pandya 2.4 Cholas 2.5 Badami Chalukyas 2.6 Rashtrakutas 2.7 Western Chalukyas 2.8 Hoysalas 2.9 Vijayanagar

3 External links 4 References

[edit] Composition and structure

The Annamalaiyar Temple in Thiruvannaamalai, India Dravidian style temples consist almost invariably of the four following parts, arranged in differing manners, but differing in themselves only according to the age in which they were executed:[1]
1. The principal part, the temple itself, is called the Vimanam. It is always square in plan and surmounted by a

pyramidal roof of one or more stories; it contains the cell where the image of the god or his emblem is placed.
2. The porches or Mantapams, which always cover and precede the door leading to the cell. 3. Gate-pyramids, Gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the

more notable temples.

4. Pillard halls (Chaultris or Chawadis) are used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of

these temples. Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water to be used for sacred purposes or the convenience of the priests dwellings for all the grades of the priesthood are attached to it, and other buildings for state or convenience.[1]

[edit] Influence from different periods

In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times.:

[edit] Sangam period

The Subrahmanya Murugan temple of Saluvankuppam, in Saluvankuppam near Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu. The brick shrine dates to the Sangam period and is one of the oldest Hindu temples to be unearthed From 1000BCE-300CE, the greatest accomplishments of the kingdoms of the early Chola, Chera and the Pandyan kingdoms included brick shrines to deities Murugan, Shiva, Amman and Thirumal (Vishnu) of the Tamil pantheon. Some were built Several of these have been unearthed near Adichanallur, Kaveripoompuharpattinam and Mahabalipuram, and the construction plans of these sites of worship were shared to some detail in various poems of Sangam literature. One such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed in 2005, consists of three layers. The lowest layer, consisting of a brick shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India, and is the oldest shrine found dedicated to Murukan. It is one of only two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Vishnu. The dynasties of early medieval Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines. Sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple, Chidambaram Thillai Nataraja Temple and the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period.

[edit] Pallavas

The Rathas in Mahabalipuram-Tamilnadu The Pallavas ruled from AD (600900) and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuram, now located in Tamilnadu.

Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecture. The earliest examples of temples in the Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 690 CE and structural temples between 690 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rockcut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple also called Rajasimha Pallaveswaram in Kanchipuram built by Narasimhavarman II also known as Rajasimha is a fine example of the Pallava style temple. Mention must be made here of the Shore Temple constructed by Narasimhavarman II near Mahabalipuram which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Contrary to popular impression about the succeeding empire of the Cholas pioneering in building large temple complexes, it was the Pallavas who actually pioneered not only in making large temples after starting construction of rock cut temples without using mortar, bricks etc.(**) The shining examples of such temples are the Thiruppadagam and Thiruooragam temples that have 28 and 35 feet (11 m) high images of Lord Vishnu in his manifestation as Pandavadhoothar and Trivikraman forms of himself. In comparison the Siva Lingams in the Royal Temples of the Cholas at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapurams are 17 and 18 feet (5.5 m) high. Considering that the Kanchi Kailasanatha Temple built by Rajasimha Pallava was the inspiration for Raja Raja Chola's Brihadeeswara at Thanjavur, it can be safely concluded that the Pallavas were among the first emperors in India to build both large temple complexes and very large deities and idols(**) Many Siva and Vishnu temples at Kanchi built by the great Pallava emperors and indeed their incomparable Rathas and the Arjuna's penance Bas Relief (also called descent of the Ganga) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The continuous Chola, Pallava and Pandiyan belt temples (along with those of the Adigaimans near Karur and Namakkal), as well as the Sethupathy temple group between Pudukottai and Rameswaram uniformly represent the pinnacle of the South Indian Style of Architecture that surpasses any other form of architecture prevalent between the Deccan Plateau and Kanniyakumari(**). Needless to add that in the Telugu country the style was more or less uniformly conforming to the South Indian or Dravidian idiom of architecture.(**)

[edit] Pandya

Srivilliputtur Andal Temple is the official symbol of the Government of Tamilnadu. It is said to have been built by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he won in debates held in the palace of Pandya King Vallabhadeva. The primary landmark of Srivilliputtur is 12-tiered tower structure dedicated to the Lord of Srivilliputtur, known as Vatapatrasayee. The tower of this temple rises 192 feet (59 m) high and is the official symbol of the Government of Tamil Nadu. It is said to have been built by Periyaazhvar, the father-in-law of the Lord, with a purse of gold that he

won in debates held in the palace of Pandya King Vallabhadeva. The Government of Tamil Nadu uses this temple tower as part of its symbol.

[edit] Cholas

Detail of the main vimanam (tower) of the Thanjavur Temple-Tamilnadu The Chola kings ruled from AD (8481280) and included Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola who built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva )Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three among the above four temples are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first king Vijayalaya Chola after whom the eclectic chain of Vijayalaya Chozhisvaram temple near Narttamalai exists. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. Temple building received great impetus from the conquests and the genius of Aditya I Parantaka I, Sundara Chola, Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola I. The maturity and grandeur to which the Chola architecture had evolved found expression in the two temples of Tanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram. In a small portion of the Kaveri belt between Tiruchy-Tanjore-Kumbakonam, at the height of their power, the Cholas have left over 2300 temples, with the Tiruchy-Thanjavur belt itself boasting of more than 1500 temples. The magnificent Siva temple of Thanjavur built by Raja Raja I in 1009 as well as the Brihadisvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, completed around 1030, are both fitting memorials to the material and military achievements of the time of the two Chola emperors. The largest and tallest of all Indian temples of its time, the Tanjore Brihadisvara is at the apex of South Indian architecture.[2] In fact, two succeeding Chola kings Raja Raja II and Kulothunga III built the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram and the Kampahareswarar Siva Temple at Tribhuvanam respectively, both temples being on the outskirts

of Kumbakonam around AD 1160 and AD 1200. All the four temples were built over a period of nearly 200 years reflecting the glory, prosperity and stability under the Chola emperors. Contrary to popular impression, the Chola emperors patronized and promoted construction of a large number of temples that were spread over most parts of the Chola empire. These include 40 of the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desams out of which 77 are found spread most of South India and others in Andhra and North India(**). In fact, the Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam, which is the biggest temple in India (**) and the Chidambaram Natarajar Temple (though originally built by the Pallavas but possibly seized from the Cholas of the pre-Christian era when they ruled from Kanchi) (**) were two of the most important temples patronized and expanded by the Cholas and from the times of the second Chola King Aditya I, these two temples have been hailed in inscriptions as the tutelary deities of the Chola Kings (**). Of course, the two Brihadisvara Temples at Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram as well as the other two Siva temples, namely the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and the Sarabeswara (Shiva ) Temple which is also popular as the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam, both on the outskirts of Kumbakonam were the royal temples of the Cholas to commemorate their innumerable conquests and subjugation of their rivals from other parts of South India, Deccan Ilangai or Sri Lanka and the Narmada-Mahanadi-Gangetic belts(**). But the Chola emperors underlined their non-partisan approach to religious iconography and faith by treating the presiding deities of their other two peerless creations, namely the Ranganathaswamy Temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu at Srirangam and the Nataraja Temple at Chidambaram which actually is home to the twin deities of Siva and Vishnu (as the reclining Govindarajar) to be their 'Kuladheivams' or tutelary (or family) deities(**). The Cholas also preferred to call only these two temples which home their tutelary or family deities as Koil or the 'Temple', which denotes the most important places of worship for them, underlining their eq. The above-named temples are being proposed to be included among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites, which will elevate them to the exacting and exalting standards of the Great Living Chola Temples(**). The temple of Gangaikondacholapuram, the creation of Rajendra Chola I, was intended to exceed its predecessor in every way. Completed around 1030, only two decades after the temple at Thanjavur and in much the same style, the greater elaboration in its appearance attests the more affluent state of the Chola Empire under Rajendra.[3] This temple has a larger Siva linga than the one at Thanjavur but the Vimana of this temple is smaller in height than the Thanjavur vimana. The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes all over the world. Among the existing specimens in museums around the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, such as Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, and the Siva saints. Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptors worked with great freedom in the 11th and the 12th centuries to achieve a classic grace and grandeur. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer.[4]

[edit] Badami Chalukyas

Main article: Badami Chalukya Architecture

Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, Karnataka built in 740 The Badami Chalukyas also called the Early Chalukyas, ruled from Badami, Karnataka in the period AD 543 753 and spawned the Vesara style called Badami Chalukya Architecture. The finest examples of their art are seen in Pattadakal, Aihole and Badami in northern Karnataka. Over 150 temples remain in the Malaprabha basin. The most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind. More than one hundred and fifty monuments attributed to the Badami Chalukya, and built between 450 and 700, remain in the Malaprabha basin in Karnataka.[5] The rock-cut temples of Pattadakal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Badami and Aihole are their most celebrated monuments. Two of the famous paintings at Ajanta cave no. 1, "The Temptation of the Buddha" and "The Persian Embassy" are attributed to them.[6][7] This is the beginning of Chalukya style of architecture and a consolidation of South Indian style.

[edit] Rashtrakutas

The view of the Kailash Temple from the top. The photo is taken at the cave temples clusters of Ellora, Maharastra, India. The Rashtrakutas who ruled the deccan from Manyakheta, Gulbarga district, Karnataka in the period AD 753 973 built some of the finest Dravidian monuments at Ellora (the Kailasanatha temple), in the rock cut architecture idiom. Some other fine monuments are the Jaina Narayana temple at Pattadakal and the Navalinga temples at Kuknur in Karnataka.

The Rashtrakutas contributed much to the culture of the Deccan. The Rashtrakuta contributions to art and architecture are reflected in the splendid rock-cut shrines at Ellora and Elephanta, situated in present day Maharashtra. It is said that they altogether constructed 34 rock-cut shrines, but most extensive and sumptuous of them all is the Kailasanatha temple at Ellora. The temple is a splendid achievement of Dravidian art. The walls of the temple have marvellous sculptures from Hindu mythology including Ravana, Shiva and Parvathi while the ceilings have paintings. The project was commissioned by King Krishna I after the Rashtrakuta rule had spread into South India from the Deccan. The architectural style used was dravidian. It does not contain any of the Shikharas common to the Nagara style and was built on the same lines as the Virupaksha temple at Pattadakal in Karnataka.[8]

[edit] Western Chalukyas

Main article: Western Chalukya architecture

Dodda Basappa temple, Dambal, Gadag district, Karnataka The Western Chalukyas also called the Kalyani Chalukyas or Later Chalukyas ruled the deccan from AD 973 1180 from their capital Kalyani in modern Karnataka and further refined the Chalukyan style, called the Western Chalukya architecture. Over 50 temples exist in the Krishna River-Tungabhadra doab in central Karnataka. The Kasi Vishveshvara at Lakkundi, Mallikarjuna at Kuruvatii, Kalleshwara temple at Bagali and Mahadeva at Itagi are the finest examples produced by the Later Chalukya architects. The reign of Western Chalukya dynasty was an important period in the development of architecture in the deccan. Their architectural developments acted as a conceptual link between the Badami Chalukya Architecture of the 8th century and the Hoysala architecture popularised in the 13th century.[9][10] The art of Western Chalukyas is sometimes called the "Gadag style" after the number of ornate temples they built in the Tungabhadra Krishna River doab region of present day Gadag district in Karnataka.[11] Their temple building reached its maturity and culmination in the 12th century, with over a hundred temples built across the deccan, more than half of them in present day Karnataka. Apart from temples they are also well known for ornate stepped wells (Pushkarni) which served as ritual bathing places, many of which are well preserved in Lakkundi. Their stepped well designs were later incorporated by the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara empire in the coming centuries.

[edit] Hoysalas

Symmetrical architecture on Jagati, Somanathapura, Karnataka Main article: Hoysala architecture The Hoysala kings ruled southern India during the period AD (11001343) from their capital Belur and later Halebidu in Karnataka and developed a unique idiom of architecture called the Hoysala architecture in Karnataka state. The finest examples of their architecture are the Chennakesava Temple in Belur, Hoysaleswara temple in Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple in Somanathapura. The modern interest in the Hoysalas is due to their patronage of art and architecture rather than their military conquests. The brisk temple building throughout the kingdom was accomplished despite constant threats from the Pandyas to the south and the Seunas Yadavas to the north. Their architectural style, an offshoot of the Western Chalukya style,[12] shows distinct Dravidian influences. The Hoysala architecture style is described as Karnata Dravida as distinguished from the traditional Dravida,[13] and is considered an independent architectural tradition with many unique features.[14][15]

[edit] Vijayanagar

Virupaksha Temple at Hampi, Karnataka Main article: Vijayanagar Architecture The whole of South India was ruled by Vijayanagar Empire from AD (13431565), who built a number of temples and monuments in their hybrid style in their capital Vijayanagar in Karnataka. Their style was a combination of the styles developed in South India in the previous centuries. In addition, the Yali columns (pillar with charging horse), balustrades (parapets) and ornate pillared manatapa are their unique contribution. King Krishna Deva Raya and others built many famous temples all over South India in Vijayanagar Architecture style. Vijayanagara architecture is a vibrant combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles, idioms that prospered in previous centuries.[16][17] Its legacy of sculpture, architecture and painting influenced the development of the arts long after the empire came to an end. Its stylistic hallmark is the ornate pillared Kalyanamantapa (marriage hall), Vasanthamantapa (open pillared halls) and the Rayagopura (tower). Artisans used the locally available hard granite because of its durability since the kingdom was under constant threat of invasion. While the empire's monuments are spread over the whole of Southern India, nothing surpasses the vast open air theatre of monuments at its capital at Vijayanagara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[18] In the 14th century the kings continued to build Vesara or Deccan style monuments but later incorporated dravidastyle gopurams to meet their ritualistic needs. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and the Hazare Rama temple of Deva Raya I are examples of Deccan architecture.[19] The varied and intricate ornamentation of the pillars is a mark of their work.[20] At Hampi, though the Vitthala temple is the best example of their pillared Kalyanamantapa style, the Hazara Ramaswamy temple is a modest but perfectly finished example.[21] A visible aspect of their style is their return to the simplistic and serene art developed by the Chalukya dynasty.[22] A grand specimen of Vijayanagara art, the Vitthala temple, took several decades to complete during the reign of the Tuluva kings.[23]

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dravidian architecture

Various component parts of a South Indian Chola temple explained Dravidian Temple Architecture website

[edit] References
1. ^ a b Fergusson, James (1997) [1910]. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture (3rd ed.). New Delhi: Low

Price Publications. p. 309.

2. ^ See Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, pp 421 3. ^ Nagasamy R, Gangaikondacholapuram (1970) 4. ^ The bronze image of nataraja at the Nagesvara Temple in Kumbakonam is the largest image known. 5. ^ Over 125 temples exist in Aihole alone, Michael D. Gunther, 2002. "Monuments of India". Retrieved 2006-

6. ^ Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka Chalukyas of Badami". 1998-00 OurKarnataka.Com,Inc.

Retrieved 2006-11-10.
7. ^ The Badami Chalukya introduced in the western Deccan a glorious chapter alike in heroism in battle and

cultural magnificence in peace said art critic K.V. Sounderrajan. They have influenced the architecture in Vengi and Gujarat- Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p68
8. ^ Takeo Kamiya. "Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent, 20 September 1996". Gerard da Cunha-

Architecture Autonomous, Bardez, Goa, India. Retrieved 2006-11-10.

9. ^ An important period in the development of Indian art (Kamath 2001, p115) 10. ^ Arthikaje. "History of Karnataka Chalukyas of Kalyani". 19982000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved

11. ^ Kannikeswaran. "Temples of Karnataka, Kalyani Chalukyan temples".,1996

2006. Retrieved 2006-12-16.

12. ^ James Fergusson and Henry Cousens write that the Hoysala style has many features in common with that of

the Western Chalukya, Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire". 19982000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
13. ^ Adam Hardy. "Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation-The Karnata Dravida Tradition 7th

to 13th Centuries, 1995". Vedams Books from India, Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
14. ^ Percy Brown writes that the Hoysala style has negligible influences on the Indo-Aryan style and owing to

its many independent features, qualifies as an independent school of architecture, Suryanath U. Kamath, A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, 2001, Jupiter books, MCC, (Reprinted 2002), p134

15. ^ Havell, R. Narasimhachar, M. Sheshadri and S. Settar also claim their style is an independent tradition,

Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka-Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture in Hoysala Empire". 19982000 OurKarnataka.Com, Inc. Retrieved 2006-11-17.
16. ^ Art critic, Percy Brown calls Vijayanagar architecture a blossoming of Dravidian style, Kamath, p182 17. ^ Arthikaje Literary Activity} 18. ^ "So intimate are the rocks and the monuments they were used for make, it is was sometimes impossible to

say where nature ended and art began" (Art critic Percy Brown, quoted in Hampi, A Travel Guide, p64)
19. ^ Fritz & Mitchell, p9 20. ^ Nilakanta Sastri about the importance of pillars in the Vijayanagar style in Kamath (2001), p183 21. ^ "Drama in stone" wrote art critic Percy Brown, much of the beauty of Vijayanagara architecture came from

their pillars and piers and the styles of sculpting (Hampi, A Travel Guide, p77)
22. ^ About the sculptures in Vijayanagara style, see Kamath (2001), p184 23. ^ Several monuments are categorised as Tuluva art (Fritz & Mitchell 2001, p9)

Architecture of India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Taj Mahala UNESCO World Heritage Sitein Agra.

Konark Sun Temple, one of the most well renowned temples in India and is a World Heritage Site. The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.[1] Indian architecture progressed with time and assimilated the many influences that came as a result of India's global discourse with other regions of the world throughout its millennia-old past.[1] The architectural methods practiced in India are a result of examination and implementation of its established building traditions and outside cultural interactions.[1] Though old, this Eastern tradition has also incorporated modern values as India became a modern nation state.[1] The economic reforms of 1991 further bolstered the urban architecture of India as the country became more integrated with the world's economy.[1] Traditional Vastu Shastra remains influential in India's architecture during the contemporary era.[1]


1 Post Maha Janapadas period (1500 BCE200 CE) 2 Early Common EraHigh Middle Ages (200 CE1200 CE) 3 Late Middle Ages (1100 CE1526 CE) 4 Islamic influence and Mughal Era (1526 CE-1857 CE) 5 Colonial Era (1500 CE1947 CE) 6 Republic of India (1947 CEpresent) 7 Gallery 8 Architecture of India in detail 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

[edit] Post Maha Janapadas period (1500 BCE200 CE)

The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th-1st century BCE). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.

Grand Anicut dam on river Kaveri (1st-2nd Century CE) is one of the oldest water-regulation structures in the world still in use.[2] Further information: Hindu temple architecture, Buddhist architecture, and Indian rock-cut architecture The Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.[3] The stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddhist monument used for enshrining sacred relics.[3][3] Fortified cities with stpas, viharas, and temples were constructed during the Maurya empire (c. 321185 BCE).[4] Wooden architecture was popular and rock cut architecture became solidified.[4] Guard railsconsisting of posts, crossbars, and a copingbecame a feature of safety surrounding a stupa.[4] Templesbuild on elliptical, circular, quadrilateral, or apsidal planswere constructed using brick and timber.[4] The Indian gateway archs, the torana, reached East Asia with the spread of Buddhism.[5] Some scholars hold that torii derives from the torana gates at the Buddhist historic site of Sanchi (3rd century BCE 11th century CE).[6] Rock-cut stepwells in India date from 200-400 CE.[7] Subsequently, the construction of wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) took place.[7] The city of Mohenjo-daro has wells which may be the predecessors of the step well.[8] As many as 700 wells, constructed by 3rd millennium BCE, have been discovered in just one section of the city, leading scholars to believe that 'cylindrical brick lined wells' were invented by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.[8] Cave temples became prominent throughout western India, incorporating various unique features to give rise to cave architecture in places such as Ajanta and Ellora.[4] Walled and moated cities with large gates and multi-storied buildings which consistently used arched windows and doors are important features of the architecture during this period.[4] The Indian emperor Ashoka (rule: 273232 BCE) established a chain of hospitals throughout the Mauryan empire by 230 BCE.[9] One of the edicts of Ashoka (272231 BCE) reads: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."[10] Buddhist architecture blended with Roman architecture and Hellenestic architecture to give rise to unique blendssuch as the Greco-Buddhist school.[11]

[edit] Early Common EraHigh Middle Ages (200 CE1200 CE)

The temple complex at Khajurahoadhering to the shikhara temple style architectureis a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Further information: Architecture of Karnataka, Dravidian architecture, Architecture of Bengal, Western Chalukya architecture, and Badami Chalukya Architecture Universitieshousing thousands of teachers and studentsflourished at Nalanda and Valabhi between the 4th-8th centuries.[12] South Indian temple architecturevisible as a distinct tradition during the 7th century CEis described below:[13] Mru-Gurjara Temple Architecture originated somewhere in sixth century in and around areas of Rajasthan. Mru-Gurjara Architecture show the deep understanding of structures and refined skills of Rajasthani craftmen of bygone era. Mru-Gurjara Architecture has two prominent styles Maha-Maru and Maru-Gurjara. According to M. A. Dhaky, Maha-Maru style developed primarily in Marudesa, Sapadalaksa, Surasena and parts of Uparamala whereas Maru-Gurjara originated in Medapata, Gurjaradesa-Arbuda, Gurjaradesa-Anarta and some areas of Gujarat.[14] Scholars such as George Michell, M.A. Dhaky, Michael W. Meister and U.S. Moorti believe that Mru-Gurjara Temple Architecture is entirely Western Indian architecture and is quite different from the North Indian Temple architecture.[15] There is a connecting link between Mru-Gurjara Architecture and Hoysala Temple Architecture. In both of these styles architecture is treated sculpturally.[16] The South Indian temple consists essentially of a square-chambered sanctuary topped by a superstructure, tower, or spire and an attached pillared porch or hall (maapa, or maapam), enclosed by a peristyle of cells within a rectangular court. The external walls of the temple are segmented by pilasters and carry niches housing sculpture. The superstructure or tower above the sanctuary is of the kina type and consists of an arrangement of gradually receding stories in a pyramidal shape. Each story is delineated by a parapet of miniature shrines, square at the corners and rectangular with barrel-vault roofs at the centre. The tower is topped by a dome-shaped cupola and a crowning pot and strawniy zadnica.

North Indian temples showed increased elevation of the wall and elaborate spire by the 10th century.[17] Richly decorated templesincluding the complex at Khajurahowere constructed in Central India.[17] Indian traders brought Indian architecture to South east Asia through various trade routes.[11]

[edit] Late Middle Ages (1100 CE1526 CE)

Ornate lintel over mantapa entrance, Belur temple. Further information: Hoysala architecture and Vijayanagara architecture Vijayanagara Architecture of the period (1336 - 1565 CE) was a notable building style evolved by the Vijayanagar empire that ruled most of South India from their capital at Vijayanagara on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in present-day Karnataka.[18] The architecture of the temples built during the reign of the Vijayanagara empire had elements of political authority.[19] This resulted in the creation of a distinctive imperial style of architecture which featured prominently not only in temples but also in administrative structures across the deccan.[20] The Vijayanagara style is a combination of the Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola styles which evolved earlier in the centuries when these empires ruled and is characterised by a return to the simplistic and serene art of the past.[21] Hoysala architecture is the distinctive building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire in the region historically known as Karnata, today's Karnataka, India, between the 11th and the 14th centuries.[22] Large and small temples built during this era remain as examples of the Hoysala architectural style, including the Chennakesava Temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara Temple at Halebidu, and the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. Other examples of fine Hoysala craftmanship are the temples at Belavadi, Amrithapura, and Nuggehalli. Study of the Hoysala architectural style has revealed a negligible Indo-Aryan influence while the impact of Southern Indian style is more distinct.[23] A feature of Hoysala temple architecture is its attention to detail and skilled craftmanship. The temples of Belur and Halebidu are proposed UNESCO world heritage sites.[24] About a 100 Hoysala temples survive today.[25]

[edit] Islamic influence and Mughal Era (1526 CE-1857 CE)

In the August of 1604 CE the construction of the Harmandir Sahibthe holiest shrine of the Sikh religionwas completed. Further information: Mughal architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture

Qutub Minar a prominent example of Islamic architecture in India. Mughal tombs of sandstone and marble show Persian influence.[26] The Red Fort at Agra (156574) and the walled city of Fatehpur Sikri (156974) are among the architectural achievements of this timeas is the Taj Mahal, built as a tomb for Queen Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan (162858).[26] Employing the double dome, the recessed archway, white marble and parks while stressing on symmetry and detail was visible during the reign of Shah Jahan.[27] Quranic verses were described on the walls of the buildings.[1] However, the depiction of any living beingan essential part of the pre-Islamic tradition of Indiawas forbidden under Islam.[1] Some scholars hold that cultural contact with Europe under Manuel I of Portugal (reign: October 25, 1495 December 13, 1521) resulted in exchange of architectural influences.[28] Little literary evidence exists to confirm the Indian influence but some scholars have nonetheless suggested a possible relation based on proximity of architectural styles.[28]

[edit] Colonial Era (1500 CE1947 CE)

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (completed 1897), formerly Victoria Terminus. Further information: Indo-Saracenic

Architecture an emblem of power, designed to endorse the patron. Numerous outsiders invaded India and created architectural styles reflective of their ancestral and adopted homes. The European colonizers created architecture that symbolized their mission of conquest, dedicated to the state or religion.[29] The British, French, Dutch and the Portuguese were the main powers that colonized India. [30] [31] British Colonial Era: 1615 to 1947 The British arrival in 1615 overthrew the Mughal empire. Britain reigned India for over three hundred years and their legacy still remains through building and infrastructure that populate their former colonies. [32] The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Bankipore, Karachi, Nagpur, Bhopal and Hyderabad. [33] [34] St Andrews Kirk, Madras is renowned for its colonial beauty. The building is circular in form and is sided by two rectangular sections one is the entrance porch. The entrance is lined with twelve colonnades and two British lions and motto of East India Company engraved on them. The interior holds sixteen columns and the dome is painted blue with decorated with gold stars.[35] The staple of Madras was Fort St. George, a walled squared building adjacent to the beach. Surrounding the fort was White Town settlement of British and Indian area Black Town later to be called Georgetown. Black Town described in 1855 as the minor streets, occupied by the natives are numerous, irregular and of various dimensions. Many of them are extremely narrow and ill-ventilateda hallow square, the rooms opening into a courtyard in the centre." [36] Garden houses were originally used as weekend houses for recreational use by the upper class British. Nonetheless, the garden house became ideal a full time dwelling, deserting the fort in the 19th Century. [37] Calcutta Madras and Calcutta were similar bordered by water and division of Indian in the north and British in the south. An Englishwoman noted in 1750 the banks of the river are as one may say absolutely studded with elegant mansions called here as at Madras, garden houses. Esplanade-row is fronts the fort with lined palaces. [38] [39] Indian villages in these areas consisted of clay and straw houses, later transformed into a metropolis of brick and stone.[40] The Victoria Memorial in Calcutta, is the most effective symbolism of British Empire, built as a monument in tribute to Queen Victorias reign. The plan of the building consists of one large central part covered with a larger dome. Colonnades separate the two chambers. Each corner holds a smaller dome and is floored with marble plinth. The memorial stands on 26 hectares of garden surrounded by reflective pools. [41] French: 1673 to 1954 The French colonized a fishing village (Pondicherry) in Tamil Nadu and transformed it into a flourishing port-town. The town was built on the French grid pattern and features neat sectors and perpendicular streets and divided into two sectors, French Quarter (Ville Blanche) and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire). French styled villas were styled with long compounds and stately walls, lined houses with verandas, large French doors and grills. Infrastructure such as banks, police station and Pondicherry International Port still hold the French presence. To preserve Pondicherry an organization names INTACH was formed. Authorization is needed from INTACH, to annihilate any original French Architecture.[42] French expanded their empire by colonizing coastal towns, Yanam in Andhra Pradesh, Karaikal in Tamil Nadu and Mahe in Kerala with a French atmosphere of quiet towns around beaches. French spelling on signage and traffic signs still remains.[43] Dutch: 1605 to 1825 The Dutch entered India with the only interests of Trade in the early 17th Century. During their 200 years in India, they colonized Surat, Bharuch, Venrula, Ahmedabad, Malabar Coast, Kochi and Sadras. [44]

Surat a Dutch factory in 1630s Bharuch: Trading Post of the Dutch East India Company had a Dutch cemetery. Venrula: a warehouse was built for 3000 Guilders by Leendart Janszoons and a castle for the protection of the Dutch. Ahmedabad: The Dutch cemetery lies on the bank of Kankaria lake. It holds a mix of Indian and European styled graves, with domed tombs, pyramids, walled and plain grave stones. Malabar Coast Kochi: The Dutch Palace (Mattancherry Palace) The palace was originally built by the Portuguese, it fell into the hands of the Dutch when the Portuguese lost control of Kochi. Dutch cemetery The cemetery runs parallel to the beach and is the oldest European cemetery in India. It holds 104 tombs that visually narrate the Dutch influence in Architecture during the era. The cemetery is guarded by heavy walls and the entrance pillar still carries the original calligraphic inscription 1724 David Hall which was the residence of the famous Dutch Commander and Governor of Kochi, Adriaan van Reed lot Drakestein was built in 1695. The hall has been restored as a cultural centre and art caf for young, visual and performing artists. Bastion bungalow This Dutch styled building near the Fort Kochi beach was built to protect the harbor. Thakur House the Dutch built this bungalow overlooking the sea as a club. Sadras 17 km from the rock cut temples of Mamallapuram is another Dutch settlement. Pullicat Pullicat lake 55 km north of Madras is a million years old and the second largest lagoon in India. It was the most important trading post of the Dutch. They built two cemeteries. One was ruined due to negligence and at the entrance is flanked by stone pillars, having 76 tombs. Images of skeletons are carved onto the gravestones, symbolizing life and death. [45] [46] Portuguese: 1498 to 1961 The Portuguese arrived as merchants in the 1498 and were more driven by a Catholic missionary zeal than gaining powers in India. The Portuguese gained a foothold Goa and ruled for 400 hundred years. [47] Portuguese dominance in Goa still remains. Their missionary spirit built many magnificent cathedrals, churches, basilicas and seminaries. The Basilica of Bom Jesus (Good Jesus), Old Goa, former capital during the Portugal rule. The three storied Renaissance styled church was built of plaster and laterite in 1605, it holds the body of St.Francis. The interior is built in a Mosaic- Corinthian style and adorned with wood and gold leaf. The walls embrace old painting of saints as the floor is laid with pure white marble. [48] The Portuguese - Catholic houses faced the street with unique large ornamental windows opening onto verendahs. Bold colours were painted on houses constructing distinct indentity, allowing the sailors to recognize their houses from sea. The covered porches and verandas were designed for socializing contrary to the Hindu styled housing. Front doors were lined with coloumns and railings were popular in embellishment. [49] The interior of Goan-Portuguese houses consisted of elaborate patterns created with tiles imported from Europe and a false ceiling installed of wood. The walls are painted with bright colours contrasting to the earthy coloured furniture. The walls were made of out mud or laterite stone and coloured with vegetable and natural dyes. Gateposts and compound walls were craved with great detail.[50] Indian Architecture continued to flourish as they took influence from the colonies. Indian Architecture further shaped as they combined the colonial influences with traditional Architecture.

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