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Tng quan MPLS nh ngha Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc (MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching) l mt cng ngh lai kt hp nhng c im tt nht gia nh tuyn lp 3 (layer 3 routing) v chuyn mch lp 2 (layer 2 switching) cho php chuyn ti cc gi rt nhanh trong mng li (core) v nh tuyn tt cc mng bin (edge) bng cch da vo nhn (label). Li ch ca MPLS - Lm vic vi hu ht cc cng ngh lin kt d liu. - Tng thch vi hu ht cc giao thc nh tuyn v cc cng ngh khc lin quan n Internet. - Hot ng c lp vi cc giao thc nh tuyn (routing protocol). - Tm ng i linh hot da vo nhn(label) cho trc. - H tr vic cu hnh qun tr v bo tr h thng (OAM). - C th hot ng trong mt mng phn cp. - C tnh tng thch cao. c im mng MPLS - Khng c MPLS API, cng khng c thnh phn giao thc pha host. - MPLS ch nm trn cc router. - MPLS l mt giao thc c lp nn c th hot ng vi cc giao thc mng khc IP nh IPX, ATM, Frame-Relay, PPP hoc trc tip vi tng Data Link. - nh tuyn trong MPLS c dng to cc lung bng thng c nh tng t nh knh o ca ATM hay Frame Relay. - MPLS n gin ho qu trnh nh tuyn, ng thi tng cng tnh linh ng vi cc tng trung gian. Mt s khi nim thng gp - FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class) l mt nhm cc gi tin lp mng c dn nhn ging nhau v gi i ng nht theo mt ng i xc nh. - LSR (Label Switching Router) l b nh tuyn c h tr MPLS, bao gm cc giao thc iu khin MPLS, cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng v cch thc x l nhn MPLS. - LER( Label Edge Router) l cc LSR bin mng MPLS trong MPLS domain, gm c LER vo (Ingress LER) v LER ra (Egress LER). - LSP (Label Switching Path) l ng i xut pht t mt LSR v kt thc ti mt LSR khc. Tt c cc gi tin c cng gi tr nhn s i trn cng mt LSP. - MPLS domain l tp cc nt mng MPLS.

3. Kin trc MPLS * Label : Nhn c s dng trong tin trnh gi gi tin sau khi thit lp ng i. MPLS tp trung vo qu trnh hon i nhn (Label Swapping). Mt trong nhng th mnh ca kin trc MPLS l t nh nghi cc chng nhn(label stack). Cng thc dn nhn gi tin l: Network Layer Packet + MPLS Label Stack Label Spaces : chia lm 2 loi Per-Platform Label Space: cc interface dng chung gi tr nhn. Per-Interface Label Space: mi interface mang gi tr nhn ring. Hot ng ca LSR : - tng chnh ca MPLS l s dng nhn quyt nh chn k tip, nn router lm vic t hn v hot ng gn ging nh switch. V cc nhn th hin cc tuyn ng trong mng nn ta c th iu khin chnh xc qu trnh x l lu lng bng cch dng cc chnh sch gn nhn. + chng router u tin, router chuyn gi tin da vo a ch ch, xc nh nhn thch hp ty vo FEC gn nhn cho gi & chuyn gi i tip. + chng k tip, LSR dng gi tr nhn xc nh nt tip theo cn chuyn gi, gn nhn mi ri chuyn gi i tip. Label Switch Path - LSP : LSP xc nh ng i gi tin MPLS, chia lm 2 loi: Hop by hop signaled LSP - xc nh ng i kh thi nht (best-effort path) v Explicit route signaled LSP(ER-LSP) - xc nh cc tuyn ng i bt ngun t nt gc. ER-LSP c cc u im sau: kh nng nh tuyn linh hot, xc nh nhiu ng i n ch, qun l lu lng linh hot, vic tm ng da trn quan h rng buc nh mng ATM. Mt s ng dng -Cc dch v internet c th chia lm 3 nhm chnh:voice, data, video vi cc yu cu khc nhau. Nh voice yu cu tr thp, cho php tht thot d liu tng hiu qu. Video cho php mt mc d liu mc chp nhn c, mang tnh real time. Data yu cu bo mt, chnh xc cao...Vic trin khai cng ngh MPLS lm tng hiu qu khai thc cc ti nguyn mng sao cho hu hiu nht. Hin c mt s ng dng MPLS ang c trin khai l: - MPLS Traffic Engineering - MPLS VPN - MPLS QoS - MPLS Unicast/Multicast IP Routing ...

Cng ngh MPLS v dch v MPLS y tim nng


Hin hu ht cc mng din rng ti Vit Nam u c t chc vi kt ni s dng dch v thu ng truyn ring (Leased Line), Frame Relay hoc X.25 thng qua cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng. Hu ht cc h thng mng ny u hot ng theo cch thc nh tuyn IP truyn thng vi khng t nhc im, p ng rt chm khi c yu cu x l lung lu lng ln trn mng. Ngay c khi p dng mt s k thut mi nh fast-table lookup hoc policy-based routing th vic x l ti cc router vn thng b qu ti. Hu qu l c th mt lu lng, mt kt ni, thm ch gim c tnh ca mng. Ngoi ra cn phi k n cc chi ph khng nh dnh cho vic thu dch v vin thng kt ni mng. Cng ngh MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) v dch v MPLS VPN (mng ring o MPLS) c xem l gii php cho vn ny. im ni bt ca cng ngh ny l chuyn tip lu lng nhanh, kh nng linh hot, n gin v iu khin phn lung. MPLS cn c kh nng phc v linh hot cc dch v nh tuyn, tn dng c ng truyn gip gim chi ph.

Hn Ch Ca nh Tuyn Ip Truyn Thng Vi cc h thng mng hot ng theo cch thc nh tuyn IP truyn thng, mi node mng (router) u phi thc hin hai chc nng chnh: nh tuyn (routing) v chuyn tip (switching hoc forwarding). Qu trnh nh tuyn v chuyn tip ny gp phi ba hn ch ln: - Phi da vo cc giao thc nh tuyn phn b thng tin nh tuyn - Vic thc hin qu trnh chuyn tip ch da trn a ch ch ca gi tin; khng th da trn cc tham s QoS (cht lng dch v). - Mi node mng u phi thc hin vic tm kim thng tin nh tuyn. Cng Ngh Mpls hiu c nguyn tc hot ng ca MPLS, trc ht ta phi lm quen vi mt s khi

nim mi c dng trong MPLS. MPLS domain: L tp hp ca cc node mng MPLS c qun l v iu khin bi cng mt qun tr mng, hay ni mt cch n gin hn l mt MPLS domain, c th coi nh h thng mng ca mt t chc no (chng hn nh cung cp dch v). LSR (Label Switching Router): L node mng MPLS. C hai loi LSR chnh: - LSR cnh (gm LSR hng vo, LSR hng ra): LSR nm bin ca MPLS domain v kt ni trc tip vi mng ngi dng. - LSR chuyn tip (Transit LSR): LSR nm bn trong MPLS domain, cc LSR ny chnh l cc b nh tuyn li (core router) ca nh cung cp dch v. Nhn (Label): Thng c t chc di dng ngn xp nhn (Label Stack), c di 32 bit c th hin nh sau: Trng Label: C di 20 bit, y chnh l gi tr nhn. Trng Exp (Experimental): C di 3 bit dng cho mc ch d tr nghin cu v phn chia lp dch v (COS - Class Of Service). Trng S: C di 1 bit, dng ch nh nhn cui cng ca Label Stack. Vi nhn cui cng, S=1. Trng TTL (Time To Live): C mc ch nh trng TTL trong gi tin IP. FEC: MPLS khng thc hin quyt nh chuyn tip vi gi d liu lp 3 (datagram) m s dng mt khi nim mi gi l FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class). Mi FEC c to bi mt nhm cc gi tin c chung cc yu cu v truyn ti hoc dch v (thoi, data, video, VPN...) hoc cng yu cu v QoS. Hay ni mt cch khc, MPLS thc hin phn lp d liu chuyn tip qua mng. LSP (Label Switching Path): L tuyn c bt u ti mt LSR hng vo thng qua mt hoc nhiu hoc thm ch l khng LSR chuyn tip no v cui cng kt thc ti mt LSR hng ra. LSP chnh l ng i ca cc FEC thng qua mng MPLS. Khi nim v LSP tng t nh khi nim v knh o (Virtual Channel) trong mng IP, ATM, Frame Relay ... LDP (Label Distribution Protocol): L cc giao thc phn b nhn c dng trong MPLS phn b nhn v thit lp cc LSP thng qua mng MPLS. Chng ta hy xem MPLS hot ng nh th no, c th l cch thc truyn ti d liu qua mng MPLS (xem hnh). Nh trong hnh v th hin, khi lung d liu ca ngi dng c gi n mng MPLS, ti LSR hng vo (LSR A) lung d liu s c phn lp v c ng trong cc FEC. LSR hng vo s thc hin vic phn b nhn v thit lp LSP cho cc FEC ny (chng hn thit lp LSP 44-67-13). Ti cc node chuyn tip trong mng, LSR ch thc hin vic tro i nhn v gi FEC n LSR k tip (LSR B gp nhn 44 lp tc i sang nhn 67 v chuyn tip n LSR D, tng t LSR D gp nhn 67 s tro i thnh nhn 13 v gi n LSR F). Cc LSR B v D khng quan

tm n mo u ca cc gi tin trong FEC (iu ny khc bit hn vi mng nh tuyn lp 3 truyn thng). Khi lung d liu n LSR hng ra, cc FEC c g b nhn v tch ngc tr li thnh cc gi tin thng thng v c gi n ngi dng cui bng cc giao thc nh tuyn truyn thng. C mt im cn lu , l cc FEC c th c chuyn tip trn nhiu LSP khc nhau, y l mt u im ni tri ca MPLS so vi mng nh tuyn thng thng. Dch V Mpls Vpn C th ni VPN l mt trong nhng ng dng quan trng nht ca MPLS. K thut MPLS VPN a ra mt thay i c bn trong cng ngh VPN l s dng khi nim Virtual Router thay cho Dedicated Router v Shared Router. Trong khun kh bi vit ny khng cp nhiu n cng ngh MPLS VPN m ch a ra cc li ch ca n so vi cc dch v VPN truyn thng: Ring bit v bo mt: MPLS VPN gi cc thng tin nh tuyn ring bit cho mi VPN, m bo ngi dng ch c th lin lc c vi cc a ch c lp sn cho VPN ca mnh. c lp vi khch hng: MPLS VPN c cch nh a ch (gn nhn trong mng MPLS) ht sc linh hot, ngi dng c th s dng bt c di a ch no (k c cc a ch kim tra hoc cc a ch khng c ng k) hoc c th s sng NAT (Network Address Translation). Mt khc, ngi dng cn c th s dng cc di a ch trng hoc ging nhau. Mt im ni bt khc l mng ca ngi dng khng yu cu cc thit b h tr MPLS, cc thit b t tin nh VPN Router vi IP Sec hoc bt c yu cu c bit no khc ngoi IP. Linh hot v kh nng pht trin: Vi cc dch v VPN da trn IP, s lng router trn mng tng nhanh chng theo s lng cc VPN. VPN s phi cha cc bng nh tuyn ngy mt ln. MPLS VPN s dng mt tp cc BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) ngang hng gia cc LSR cnh (Edge LSR), cho php s lng VPN khng hn ch v h tr nhiu dng VPN, d dng to thm cc VPN hoc site mi (ch cn thc hin ti router ca site mi). Kt Lun MPLS l mt trong nhng gii php mng ng trc cho mng th h mi, hin xu hng pht trin ca MPLS l ATOM (Any traffic Over MPLS), ngha l c kh nng p ng bt c loi dch v no: thoi, video, fax, data... MPLS VPN s l mt th trng y tim nng v ha hn mang li nhiu li ch cho c ngi dng v nh cung cp dch v vin thng.

1. MPLS l mt phng thc c ci tin cho vic chuyn tip cc gi tin trong mng bng cch s dng cc nhn c gn thm vo trong cc gi tin IP (IP packet). Cc nhn c chn vo gia header ca lp 3 v header ca lp 2 trong trng hp s dng k thut da trn khung lp 2. i vi cc k thut da trn t bo nh ATM, th n s cha c trng VPI v VCI. MPLS l s kt hp ca k thut chuyn mch lp 2 v k thut nh tuyn lp 3. Mc tiu chnh ca MPLS l to ra mt cu trc mng mm do cung cp cho c tnh m rng v n nh ca mng. iu ny bao gm k thut iu khin lu lng v kh nng hot ng ca VPN v c lin quan n Cht lng dch v (QoS) vi nhiu lp dch v (Cos). Trong mng MPLS, cc gi tin vo c gn nhn bi mt B nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn bin (Edge Label Switched Router Edge LSR). Cc gi tin c gi theo mt ng chuyn mch nhn (Label Switched Path - LSP), y l con ng m mi LSR s dng chuyn tip da trn cc i x ring bit cho tng nhn. Ti mi chng, LSR g b cc nhn c sn v thm vo mt nhn mi, sau thng bo cho chng k tip bit chuyn tip gi tin. Nhn s c g b ti LSR bin v gi tin s tip tc c chuyn tip n ch cn n. 1.2.2S pht trin ca MPLS: Mc ch ban u ca chuyn mch nhn l mun a tc ca chuyn mch lp 2 vo lp 3. L l ban u cho cc k thut nh MPLS khng lu sau c nhn thy l c u im, bi v cc chuyn mch lp 3 mi c s dng cng ngh ASIC ( Application-specific integrated circuit), k thut nn tng c th thi hnh chc nng tm kim vi tc va h tr cho hu ht cc loi giao tip (interface). Chun ca chuyn mch nhn c nhm nghin cu ca IETF v MPLS xut nm 1997 v c nghin cu rng ri. MPLS c pht trin t nhiu k thut chnh, bao gm cc phin bn c quyn v chuyn mch nhn nh chuyn mch nhn ca Cisco (Ciscos Tag Switching), Chuyn mch IP da trn nn nh tuyn tng hp ca IBM (IBMs Aggregate Route-Based IP Switching ARIS), B nh tuyn chuyn mch t bo ca Toshiba (Toshibas Cell-Switched Router CSR), Chuyn mch IP ca Ipsilon (Ipsilons IP Switching) v b nh v IP ca Lucent (Lucents IP Navigator). Chuyn mch th (Tag Switching), c pht minh bi Cisco, v a n ngi dng ln u tin vo nm 1998. T khi bt u trin khai chuyn mch th, Cisco lm vic chung vi IETF pht trin v thng qua cc chun ca MPLS, hp nht cc c tnh v u im ca Chuyn mch th. 1.2.3u im ca chuyn mch nhn ao giao thc MPLS: 1.2.3.1 Tc v tr: Chuyn mch nhn c cung cp gii quyt vn v tc v tr mt cch hiu qu. Chuyn mch nhn nhanh hn nhiu chuyn mch IP c in bi v gi tr nhn c t trong header ca gi n, c s dng qun l bng nh tuyn theo cch nhn s c s dng l ch mc trong bng. Vic tm kim ny yu cu ch mt ln l tm ra, ngc li nh tuyn c in c th phi tm trong bng vi nghn ln. Kt qu, trn lung vn chuyn, cc gi c gi

thng qua mng nhanh hn thng thng, gim thi gian tr, v p ng thi gian cho ngi dng. 1.2.3.2 Kh nng m rng (Scalability): D nhin tc l mt mt quan trng ca chuyn mch nhn, nhng dch v nhanh khng phi l tt c m chuyn mch nhn c th cung cp. N cng c th cung cp kh nng m rng, tc l iu tit mt s lng ln v ngy cng tng nhanh chng cc user trn mng Internet. Chuyn mch nhn ngh mt cch gii quyt cho vn pht trin mng mt cch nhanh chng nh vy bng cch cho php mt s lng ln cc a ch IP c lin kt vi nhau trn mt hay mt vi nhn. Cch tip cn ny s ct gim bt bng nh tuyn v cho php mt router phc v nhiu ngi dng hn ti mt thi im v cng khng cn i hi kh nng x l cao ca cc router. 1. 1.2.3.3 n gin: Mt u im na ca chuyn mch nhn l v c bn n ch l tp hp ca cc giao thc nh tuyn. N rt n gin, chuyn tip mt gi da trn nhn ca gi . Lm th no mt nhn n mt ng dn ca ngi dng m khng cn quan tm n vic chuyn tip thc s ca ng dn . Tt c c ch iu khin trn c th phc tp, nhng chng khng lm nh hng n hiu qu ca ng dn. Tc l s c rt nhiu cc phng php khc nhau phn phi cc nhn cho ng truyn, tuy nhin sau khi cc nhn c phn phi xong, hat ng chuyn mch nhn s c thc hin mt cch rt nhanh chng. Chuyn mch nhn c th c thc hin trong mt phn mm, trong cc mch in t tch hp hay trong mt vi x l c bit. 1.2.3.4 Mc s dng ti nguyn: C ch iu khin thit lp mt nhn phi khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn. N khng c lm mt nhiu ti nguyn v chuyn mch nhn th hon ton khng lm tiu tn nhiu ti nguyn thc thi vic thnh lp mt con ng chuyn mch nhn cho ng dn. 1.2.4MPLS v kin trc Internet: T khi ARPNET c trin khai, thi i ca Internet bt u, kin trc ca Internet cng c thay i. N m ra cc p ng v s tin b ca k thut, pht trin v h tr cho nhiu dch v mi. Hu ht cc s thay i gn y ca kin trc Internet l do s thm vo ca MPLS. Nhng cn ch rng k thut chuyn tip ca Internet l da vo vic nh tuyn a ch ch, v n khng h thay i t khi ARPANET xut hin. S thay i chnh l s thay th ca giao thc nh tuyn cng bin gii phin bn 4 (Border Gateway Protocol Version 4 BGP4) t giao thc nh tuyn cng bn ngoi (Exterior Gateway Protocol EGP), s b sung ca nh tuyn min trong khng phn lp (Classless Interdomain Routing CIDR), cc nng cp c nh ca bng thng v cc thit b u cui nh c thm nhiu cc b nh tuyn mnh. MPLS tc ng n c k thut chuyn tip gi tin IP v vic xc nh ng i (ng i ca cc gi tin c chuyn tip trn mng Internet). V kt qu l s ra i cc cu trc mng ca Internet. MPLS c th h tr

cho IP phin bn 6 (IP version 6) bi v thut ton chuyn tip ca MPLS cho IP phin bn 4 cng c th p dng cho IP phin bn 6 vi vic s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn h tr cho a ch IP phin bn 6. MPLS c trin khai bi v n c u im gn gi v trc tip n Internet. Hu ht u im gn gi ca MPLS vi cc chi tit c th cho mng ng trc ca nh cung cp dch v Internet l kh nng trin khai k thut lu lng (Traffic Engineering). K thut lu lng cho php cc nh cung cp dch v loi b ti ca cc tuyn (link) b tc nghn v iu khin cc ti chia x sang cc tuyn khc cha c s dng ng mc. Kt qu ca cng vic trn l tn dng ti nguyn s cp cao hn v cng c ngha l s hiu qu v chi ph s c tit kim hn. 1.3 Kt lun: Vi cc khuyt im thuc v bn cht v ngy cng bc l ra khi s pht trin mng ngy cng nhanh v tc v s lng th TCP/IP c in ang ng trc nhng vn ht sc kh khn. Tuy nhin, vi s xut hin ca chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS cng cc u im c nu trn v nu nh c p dng vo thc t cho cc mng ng trc ln ca cc nh cung cp dch v th c th gii quyt nhanh chng cc bi ton m TCP/IP c in ang mc phi. V thc t chng minh iu khi c mt s nh cung cp dch v ng dng MPLS vo mng ng trc ca mnh v thu c kh nhiu li ch