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Angle Measurement

Angle may be defined as the opening between two lines which meet at a point. An angle is generated by simply moving a line in an arc arround a point. By this method a complete circle can be made. From such a circle units of angular measurement have been derived. A circle divided into 360 parts, by lines passing through its centre, each part is called a degree of arc. The angle between the two lines passing through the centre of circle for one degree arc is an angle of 1 degree (o). Each degree can be divided into sixty parts called minutes and each minute is further divided into 60 seconds. So angle can be generated very easily, requiring no absolute standard. It is the precision with which the circle can be divided to get the correct measure of an angle. The calibration of angular subdivision is a self checking process. Angular measurements are so common and so essential in the manufacture of interchangeable parts, jigs, dies, and fixtures that a basic knowledge of angles and their measurement is indispensable to successful manufacturing. Among the tools most commonly used for industrial angular measurement are the bevel (vernier) protractor, universal angle gage blocks, sine bar, squares, and levels.

A recent development of the vernier bevel protractor is optical bevel protractor. In this instrument, a glass circle divided at 10 intervals throughout the whole 360 is Fitted inside the main body. A small microscope is fitted through which the circle graduations can be viewed. The adjustable blade is clamped to a rotating member which carries this microscope. With the aid of microscope it is possible to read by estimation to about 2 .

Vernier and Optical Bevel Protractor


Bevel protractor is the simplest instrument for measuring the angle between two faces of component. It consists of a base plate attached to the main body, and an adjustable blade which is attached to a circular plate containing vernier scale. The adjustable blade is capable of rotating freely about the centre of the main scale engraved on the body of the instrument and can be locked in any position. An acute angle attachment is provided at the top, as shown in the fig. It is capable of measuring from 0 to 360. The vernier scale has 24 divisions coinciding with 23 main scale divisions. Thus the least count of the instrument is 5 . This instrument is most commonly used in workshops for angular measurements till more precision is required. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis 1

Optical Bevel Protractor.

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

Universal Bevel Protractor.

General Description of Various Components of Bevel Protractors Body


It is designed in such a way that its back is flat and there are no Projections beyond its back so that when the bevel protractor is placed on its back on a surface plate there shall be no gap between the two. The flatness of the working edge of the stock and body is tested by checking the square-ness of blade with respect to stock when blade is set at 90. Stock. The working edge of the stock is about 90 mm in length and 7 mm thick. It is very essential that the working edge of the stock be perfectly straight and if at all departure is there, it should be in the form of concavity and of the order of 0.01 mm maximum over the whole span. Blade. It can be moved along the turret throughout its length and can also be reversed. It is about 150 or 300 mm long, 3 mm wide and 2 mm thick and ends bevelled at angles of 45 and 60 within the accuracy of 5 minutes of arc. Its working edge should be straight upto 0.02 mm and parallel upto 0.03 mm over the entire length of 300 mm. It can be clamped in any position. Acute angle attachment. It can be readily fitted into body and clamped in any position. Its working edge should be flat to within 0.005 mm and parallel to the working edge of the stock within 0.015 mm over the entire length of attachment.

It is used for measuring and laying out of angles accurately and precisely within 5 minutes. The protractor dial is slotted to hold a blade which can be rotated with the dial to the required angle and also independently adjusted to any desired length. The blade can be locked in any position.

Measuring Acute Angles

Measuring Obtuse Angles The bevel protractors are tested for flatness, square-ness, parallelism, straightness and angular intervals by suitable methods.

Using a bevel protractor with a vernier height gage. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

Squares
Combination squares

Use of bevel protractor for checking of vee block.

Using bevel protractor for checking the inside bevelled face of a ground surface. solid square

Combination sets

Any angle can be measured with the vernier bevel protractor, but you have to be careful to note which part of a full circle you are measuring. For every position of the bevel protractor, four angles are formed see Fig. Two of the angles can be read directly on the main scale and the vernier scale while the other two are supplemental angles. Keep track of the obtuse and acute angles and try to read from zero whenever possible. There is no general rule for use, just keep in mind that you are adding to 90 degrees to make up the angle being measured.

Squares : One of the very important ability of a machine shop is to machine surfaces square to each other and the ability to check them for squareness. There are many useful tools that can be used to precisely measure or check for squareness. The most common is the solid square. The wide portion is referred to as the beam and the slender upright portion is called the blade. The solid square is usually used to check squareness of surfaces or to square up parts on a surface plate prior to inspection. Combination squares find frequent use where it is necessary to check for squareness, check lengths and heights, or for layout work. Several methods are available to determine squareness. After holding the square up to the feature to be checked, the simplest method is to just look with the naked eye. For closer work you might use a magnifying glass or a strong beam of light as an aid to see any opening that might be there. Even a white sheet of paper to reflect light might be useful. These methods will tell if the feature is out of square but not by how much. The deviation from squareness can be determined by using feeler stock, paper, or other items of known thickness. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis 6

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

Sine Bar
The sine principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right triangle in deriving a given angle. It may, be noted that devices operating on sine principle are capable of self generation. The measurement is usually limited to 45 from loss of accuracy point of view. The accuracy with which the sine principle can be put to use is dependent on form of linear measurement. The sine bar in itself is not a complete measuring instrument. Another datum such as a surface plate is needed, as well as other auxiliary equipment, viz. slip gauges, and indicating device are required to make measurements. Sine bars used in conjunction with slip gauges constitute a very good device for the precise measurement of angles. Sine bars are used either to measure angles very accurately or for locating any work to a given angle within very close limits. Sine bars are made from high carbon, high chromium, corrosion resistant steel, hardened, ground and stabilised. Two cylinders of equal diameter are attached at the ends. The axes of these two cylinders are mutually parallel to each other and also parallel to and at equal distance from the upper surface of the sine bar. The distance between the axes of the two cylinders is exactly 5 inches or 10 inches in British system, and 100, 200 and 300 mm in metric system. Depending upon the accuracy of the centre distance, sine bars are graded as of A grade or B grade. B grade of sine bars are guaranteed accurate upto 0.02 mm/m of length and A grade sine bars are more accurate and guaranteed upto 0.01mm/m of length.

Sine Bar

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

Although there are several forms of sine bars, the one shown above is most commonly used. Some holes are drilled in the body of the bar to reduce the weight and to facilitate handling. The various parts are hardened and stabilised before grinding and lapping. All the working surfaces and the cylindrical surfaces of the rollers are finished to surface finish of 0.2 m Ra value or better. following accuracy requirements and tolerances are specified by I.S. 53591969 for 100 mm sine bar Characteristics Permissible Tolerance Flatness of upper and lower surfaces 0.001 mm Parallelism of upper and lower surfaces w.r.t. datumsurface when resting on it 0.001 mm Flatness of side faces 0.005 mm Squareness of side faces to upper surface 0.003/25 mm Parallelism of side faces to the axes of rollers 0.01/25 mm Flatness of end faces 0.003 mm Squareness of end faces to the upper surface 0.003/25 mm Parallelism of end faces to the axes of the rollers 0.01/25 mm Straightness of individual rollers and freedom from lobing and uniformity in diameter 0.002 mm Mean diameter of rollers 0.002 mm Distance between the roller axes 0.003 mm Roller axes: (i) In a common plane over the length of either roller 0.003 mm (ii) Parallel to and equidistant from the upper surface over the length of either roller 0.003 mm Flatness of the bearing surface of the setting foot 0.003 mm DBIT Pvt. circulation 8 Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

The accuracy of sine bar depends on its constructional features and on maintaining these features. These important features of sine bar are : (i) The two rollers must have equal diameter and be true cylinders. (ii) The rollers must be set parallel to each other and to the upper face. (iii) The precise centre distance between the rollers must be known. (iv) The upper face must have a high degree of flatness. The various characteristic tolerances have already been indicated above. Use of Sine Bar. (1) Measuring known angles or locating any work to a given angle. For this purpose the surface plate is assumed to be having a perfectly flat surface, so that its surface could be treated as horizontal. One of the cylinders or rollers of sine bar is placed on the surface plate and other roller is placed on the slip gauges of height h. Let the sine bar be set at an angle . Then sin = h / l where I is the distance between the center of the rollers. Thus knowing angle h can be found out and any work could be set at this angle as the top face of sine bar is inclined at angle to the surface plate. The use of angle plates and clamps could also be made in case of heavy components. For better results, both the rollers could also be placed on slip gauges of height h1 and h2 respectively. Then sin = (h2 h1) / l

(2) Checking of unknown angles. Many a times, angle of a component to be checked is unknown. In such a case, it is necessary to first find the angle approximately with the help of a bevel protractor. Let the angle be . Then the sine bar is set at an angle and clamped to an angle plate. Next, the work is placed on sine bar and clamped to angle plate as shown in Fig. and a dial indicator is set at one end of the work and moved to the other, and deviation is noted. Again slip gauges are so adjusted (according to this deviation) that dial indicator reads zero across work surface. If deviation noted down by the dial indicator is h over a length l of work, then height of slip gauges by which it should be adjusted in equal to = h x l / I.

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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(3) Checking of unknown angles of heavy component. In such cases where components are heavy and cant be mounted on the sine bar, then sine bar is mounted on the component as shown in Fig. The height over the rollers can then be measured by a vernier height gauge ; using a dial test gauge mounted on the anvil of height gauge as the fiducial indicator to ensure constant measuring pressure. The anvil on height gauge is adjusted with probe of dial test gauge showing same reading for the top most position of rollers of sine bar. Fig. shows the use of height gauge for obtaining two readings for either of the roller of sine bar. The difference of the two readings of height gauge divided by the centre distance of sine bar gives the sine of the angle of the component to be measured.

Devices operating on the sine principle are fairly reliable at angles less than 15, but become increasingly inaccurate as the angle increases. Sine bars inherently become increasingly impractical and inaccurate as the angle exceeds 45.

The major limitations of sine bar are The sine bar is physically clumsy to hold in position. The body of the sine bar obstructs the gauge block stack, even if relieved. Slight errors of the sine bar cause large angular errors. Long gauge stacks are not nearly as accurate as shorter gauge blocks. Temperature variation becomes more critical. A difference in deformation occurs at the point of roller contact to the support surface and to the gauge blocks, because at higher angles, the weight load is shifted more toward the fulcrum roller. The size of gauges, instruments or parts that a sine bar can inspect is limited, since it is not designed to support large or heavy objects.

Sine Centre
Where greater accuracy is required, the position of dial test gauge probe can be sensed by adjusting a pile of slip gauges till dial indicator indicates same reading over roller of sine bar and the slip gauges. The establishment of angle by the sine principle is essentially a length measuring process. Thus the accuracy, in practice, is limited by measurement of centre distance of two precision rollers. The geometrical condition involved in measuring the exact, effective centre distance existing between two rollers of the sine bar to a certainty of fraction of a m is an infinitely complex problem. This fundamental limitation alone precludes the use of the sine bar as a primary standard of angle. Sine centre is basically a sine bar with block holding centres which can be adjusted and rigidly clamped in any position. These are used for inspection of conical objects (having male and female centres.) between centres. These are used upto inclination of 60. Rollers are clamped firmly to the body without any play. This is a very useful device for testing the conical work centered at each end.

Limitations of Sine Bars.

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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Angle Gauges
The first set of combination of angle gauges was devised by Dr. Tomlinson of N.P.L.

Angle set up = 27 minus 9 30 = 26 50 30 All gauges added. Total angle = 37 9 18 (Not to scale)

With thirteen separate gauges used in conjunction with one square block and one parallel straight-edge, it is possible to set up any angle to the nearest 3 . In the same way, as slip gauges are built up to give a linear dimension, the angle gauges can be build up to give a required angle. Angle gauges are made of hardened steel and seasoned carefully to ensure permanence of angular accuracy,and the measuring faces are lapped and polished to a high degree of accuracy and flatness like slip gauges. These gauges are about 3inch (76.2 mm) long, 5/8 inch (15.87 mm) wide with their faces lapped to within 0.0002 mm and angle between the two ends to 2 seconds. The thirteen gauges can be divided into three series ; degrees, minutes and fractions of a minute. The gauges available in first series are of angle 1, 3, 9, 27 and 41. Second series comprises 1 , 3 , 9 and 27 angle gauges and third series has 0.05 , 0.1 , 0.3 and 0.5 (or 3 , 6 , 18 and 30 ) angle gauges. All these angle gauges in combination can be added or subtracted, thus, making a large number of combinations possible.

Combination of 3 blocks of 9 and one block of 27 so as to form parallel set of blocks. Angle gauges can be used in addition and subtraction mode. It is seen that any angle could be made up, but the block formed by the combination of a number of these gauges is rather bulky and, therefore, cannot be always directly applied to the work. Hence these gauges are used as reference and aid of other angle measuring devices is taken. Angle gauge blocks seem to lack the requisites for use as primary standards because errors are easily compounded when angle blocks are wrung in combination. Further the absolute verification of angle blocks is usually dependent on some other primary standard.

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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Clinometer
Fig. Principle of clinometer

Autocollimator
This is an optical instrument used for the measurement of small angular differences. For small angular measurements, autocollimator provides a very sensitive and accurate approach.

Micro-optic clinometer A clinometer is a special case of the application of spirit level. In clinometer, the spirit level is mounted on a rotary member carried in a housing. One face of the housing forms the base of the instrument. On the housing, there is a circular scale. The angle of inclination of the rotary member carrying the level relative to its base can be measured by this circular scale. The clinometer is mainly used to determine the included angle of two adjacent faces of workpiece. Thus for this purpose, the instrument base is placed on one face and the rotary body adjusted till zero reading of the bubble is obtained. The angle of rotation is then noted on the circular scale against the index. A second reading is then taken in the similar manner on the second face of work piece. The included angle between the faces is then the difference between the two readings. Clinometers are also used for checking angular faces, and relief angles on large cutting tools and milling cutter inserts. These can also be used for setting inclinable table on jig boring machines and angular work on grinding machines etc. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis 15 Principle of working of autocollimator Auto-collimator is essentially an infinity telescope and a collimator combined into one instrument. The principle on which this instrument works is given below. O is a point source of light placed at the principal focus of a collimating lens in Fig (a). The rays of light from O incident on the lens will now travel as a parallel beam of light. If this beam now strikes a plane reflector which is normal to the optical axis, it will be reflected back along its own path and focused at the same point O. If the plane reflector be now tilted through a small angle , [Refer Fig. (b) then parallel beam will be deflected through twice this angle, and will be brought to focus at O in the same plane at a distance x from O. Therefore OO = x = 2 .f where f is the focal length of the lens. The position of the final image does not depend upon the distance of reflector from the lens, i.e. separation x is independent of the position of reflector from the lens. But if reflector is moved too much back then reflected rays will completely miss the lens and no image will be formed. Thus for full range of readings of instrument to be used, the maximum remoteness of the reflector is limited. For high sensitivity, i.e. for large value of a; for a small angular deviation , a long focal length is required. DBIT Pvt. circulation 16 Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

If the reflector is tilted through a small angle the reflected pencils of light will be deflected by twice the angle of tilt (principle of reflection) and will be brought to focus in the plane of the target graticule but linearly displaced from the actual target cross lines by an amount 2 x f. Linear displacement of the graticule image in the plane of the eyepiece is directly proportional to reflector tilt and can be measured by an eyepiece graticule, optical micrometer or electronic detector system. The autocollimator is set permanently at infinity focus and no device for focusing adjustment for distance is provided or desirable. It responds only to reflector tilt (not lateral displacement of the reflector). The deflection is independent of separation between the reflector and the autocollimator. The focal length determines basic sensitivity and angular measuring range. The longer the focal length the larger is the linear displacement for a given reflector tilt, but the maximum reflector tilt which can be accommodated is consequently reduced. Sensitivity is therefore traded against measuring range. The maximum separation between reflector and autocollimator, or working distance, is governed by the effective aperture of the objective, and the angular measuring range of the instrument becomes reduced at long working distances.

Angle Dekkor
A cross line target eyepiece graticule is positioned at the focal plane of a telescope objective system with the intersection of the cross line on the optical axis, i.e. at the principal focus. When the target graticule is illuminated, rays of light diverging from the intersection point reach the objective via a beam splitter and are projected from the objective as parallel pencils of light. In this mode, the optical system is operating as a collimator. A flat reflector placed in front of the objective and exactly normal to the optical axis reflects the parallel pencils of light back along their original paths. They are then brought to focus in the plane of the target graticule and exactly coincident with its intersection. A proportion of the returned light passes straight through the beam splitter and the return image of the target cross line is therefore visible through the eyepiece. In this mode, the optical system is operating as a telescope focused at infinity. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis 17 This is also a type of an autocollimator. (Refer Fig.). It contains a small illuminated scale in the focal plane of the objective lens (collimating lens). This scale in normal position is outside the view of the microscope eyepiece as shown in Fig. (b). The illuminated scale is projected as a parallel beam by the collimating lens which after striking a reflector below the instrument is refocused by the lens in the field of view of the eye-piece. In the field of view of microscope there is another datum scale [Fig. (c)] fixed across the centre of screen and the reflected image of the illuminated scale is received at right angle to this fixed scale as shown in Fig. (a) and the two scales, in this position intersect each other. DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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Uses of angle dekkor in combination with angle gauges


(i) Measuring angle of a component. : Angle dekkor is capable of measuring small variations in angular setting, i.e. determining angular tilt. In operation the measuring principle is that of measurement by comparison; the angle dekkor is set to give a fixed reading from a known angle (i.e. using known angular standards to obtain a zero reading) First the angle gauge combination is set up .to the nearest known angle of the component and the angle dekkor isset, (using special attachment and link), such that zero reading is obtained on the illuminated scale. The angle-gauge build up is then removed and replaced by the component under test, a straight-edge being used to ensure that there is no change in lateral positions. The new position of the reflected scale with respect to the fixed scale gives the angular tilt of the component from the set angle. (Refer Fig.below)

Thus the reading on the illuminated scale measures angular deviations from one axis at 90 to the optical axis and the reading on the fixed datum scale measures the deviation about an axis mutually perpendicular to the other two. In other words, changes in angular position of the reflector in two planes are indicated by changes in the point of intersection of the two scales. Readings from scale are read direct to 1 without the use of a micrometer. The whole of the optical system shown in the Fig. is enclosed in a tube which is mounted on an adjustable bracket. There is a reflective base which is lapped flat and on which all these things are placed. It is mostly used as a comparator. The instrument measures by comparing the readings obtained from a standard, a sine bar or combination of angle gauges with that from the work under test. Though this is not a precise instrument in comparison to autocollimator, it has wide field of application for general angular measurement, as angular variations are read direct without the operation of a micrometer.

Zero-reading with angle gauge build-up

Reading with component in position error = 40 20 = 20 divisions = 20 minutes 20

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

(ii) To obtain precise angular setting for machining operations consider an example of milling a slot at a precise angle to a previously machined face. A parallel bar is used as a datum face, the component to mill being securely clamped when in close contact with it. The parallel bar is positioned on the table of milling machine with the aid of angle dekkor. A polished reflector is firmly attached to the column of the milling machine. With the aid of this surface as reference, the angle dekkor is set up such that zero reading is obtained ; hence, the axis of the optical beam is truly at 90o to the table feed. Then build up the combination of angle gauges to the exact value , i.e. the inclination of the slot to be milled on the component. The angle gauges along with the parallel bar are placed on the table and adjusted in position such that the angle dekkor shows zero reading when viewing the flat surface of the angle gauge combination. The parallel bar is firmly clamped in this position, a check being made to ensure that no movement has taken place during clamping. Finally, now the workpiece can be clamped on milling machine table, in close contact with this pre-set parallel bar.

Dividing Heads and Circular Tables


Rotary tables are used for accurate circular indexing. These are normally designed to rotate in one plane but in some cases tilting action is also incorporated. Angular dimensions are either read from the common line measurement at the periphery of the table or by optical display units or digital readouts. Dividing heads are used for angular and linear measurements and for indexing. Clinometers, circular tables and dividing heads employ a variety of mechanical, optical and electronic techniques to divide a circular scale.

Fig. Set up for milling angular slot.

(ii) (iii)

Checking the sloping angle of a V-block To measure the angle of cone or taper gauge
Rotary Table Dividing Head

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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Optical dividing head : It mainly consists of a glass scale which is mounted on the main spindle and the graduations of the scale are observed through a microscope fitted with an eye-piece graticule and mounted in the body of the instrument. It can measure directly upto 12 of arc. Fig show arrangement of optical system. Light passes through a system of lenses & illuminates the divided scale, mounted on main spindle, projecting the readings on ground glass screen. This instrument can be used in inspection shops or on machine tools as it has a robust head and high standard of accuracy. This is very useful for rotating a work piece through a given angle precisely. Optical dividing head thus has a big advantage over mechanical type i.e. the possible inaccuracies due to wear of the worm and worm wheel mechanism are eliminated. As readings are taken at only one point on the circle, the accurate centering of the glass circle with the axis of rotation is very important. The effects of eccentricity of mounting glass circle are very serious, though the glass is perfectly divided.

DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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DBIT Pvt. circulation Notes by Prof.S.P.Sabnis

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