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DISCOVER Galatians, an early epistle by the Apostle Paul that...

Helped define first-century Christianity Was a pivotal text for the Protestant Reformation Holds earth-shaking implications for Christianity today, and Can radically change your life! The path to that end is a penetrating case study in biblical interpretation. It explores timeless controversies and essential background issues that challenged the early church and will shed light on just about every New Testament passage youll ever read. This is a how-to class for intermediate-to-advanced Bible loversor for anyone who wants to become one! Dave Leigh holds an M.A. in theological studies from Wheaton College. His varied ministry experiences include having served as an editor and freelance writer for a number of Christian publications, and more than a decade in pastoral ministries. Ive learned more from my many failures than from books, he says. But my greatest life-lesson has been that Gods grace is big enough even for me. Dave brings academic and experiential dimensions to his classes in a way that will make you smile and bring you insight.

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

Class Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. Learn how to hear God's Word to the original recipients of this epistle. Then hear, understand, and apply God's Word to US through God's Word to them. Discover and explore key underlying background issues that will help us better understand Galatians and the rest of the New Testament. Therefore becoming better self-feeders as Christ-followers.

Recommended Reading: How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart (especially chp 3) Genius of GenresAn Overview (Dave's hand-out/study companion to Fee & Stuart, above) How to Read the Bible Book By Book, Gordon D. Fee & Douglas Stuart (pp. 340-346) Jewish Backgrounds of the New Testament, J. Julius Scott The Blue Parakeet: Rethinking How You Read the Bible, Scot McKnight The King Jesus Gospel: The Original Good News Revisited, Scot McKnight Outside Assignment: Read the epistle through in three different translations (one sitting each). If you don't own three translations, you can read many online at www.BibleGateway.com. Ideally you should choose one from each of the following categories:

a dynamic equivalent translation (e.g. TNIV, NIV, NLT) a formal/literal translation (e.g., NASB, NKJV, NRSV) a paraphrase (e.g. The Message, The Living Bible, J.B. Phillips' NT in Modern English).

Remember: The proper stance toward the Bible as the Word of God is always one of prayerful humility and expectation. As the Holy Spirit must be our Teacher, remember to pray before reading, while reading, and after reading!
Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

Introduction The Two Horizons 1. Exegesis: Their questions 2. Hermeneutics: Our questions The epistles were written to address first-century problems. The theology we pull from them for our questions is sometimes incidental to the writer's central purpose. For example, when we come to passages about things like slavery, meat sacrificed to idols, and circumcision we often do one of three things: 1. Skip over it (not for us) 2. Spiritualize it (treating particulars as symbolic) 3. Draw tenuous parallels (cf. slavery and employment), throwing away the heart of the content What we should do is get ourselves inside the horizon of the first readers. Once we get God's Word to them, we can discern God's Word to us and make applications. Concerns Raised In Galatians Galatians may be Paul's earliest epistle and certainly one of his angriest. 1. Note Galatians 1:8-9 (curse = damned) 2. Note Galatians 5:12, where Paul suggests the troublemakers should go all the way and castrate themselves! 3. Yet Paul stands in the solid tradition of the prophets and Jesus (cf. Matthew 23:15).

At issue [in Galatians] is the question, Who are the true children/seed of Abraham and thus true heirs of the promises made to Abraham. -- Fee & Stuart, How to Read the Bible Book By Book, p 342

While slaying the dragon of legalism is certainly a central concern of Paul in Galatians, the more fundamental issue he faces has to do with the nature and essence of the Messianic Kingdom of God, specifically:

How are God's covenant, blessings, and promises toward Abraham fulfilled with respect to the nations/Gentiles who are specifically noted in those covenant promises? How do Gentiles relate to Israel and become one people with them in the Messianic age? As two peoples (cf. clubs) become one, whose customs and rules (etc.) prevail? And therefore, how are Jews and Gentiles to relate to the Law of the Old Covenant, along with the additional layers of customs and conventions that emerged as sacrosanct in the legacy of Second-Temple Judaism? In other words, as Israel's Messianic movement progressed toward Israel's God-intended goal of being a light for the nations (Gentiles) and fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant, how were the Gentiles to fit into that restored and corrected Israel of covenant people? And by implication, how were believing Jews to accommodate this expansion of the Kingdom and the inclusion of these new citizens with respect to their understanding of orthodoxy and orthopraxy? This affected not only initiation (circumcision) but also ongoing practice.

History of circumcision from Abraham to the Jerusalem Council I. Why Circumcision? A. The Abrahamic Covenant: i. Genesis 12:1-3 ii. Genesis 15 iii. Genesis 17 B. Circumcision and the Wilderness Wanderings: i. Joshua 5:2-9 C. Circumcision's Intended Symbolism: i. Deuteronomy 10:16 ii. Deuteronomy 30:6 iii. Jeremiah 4:4 iv. Jeremiah 9:25-26 v. Romans 2:29 vi. Colossians 2:11-12

II. Circumcision's link to Jewish identity, expectations of Messianic Kingdom and how the Gentiles relate A. History of Political Influence i. Intertestamental/Second Temple developments a) b) c) d) e) Babylonian Captivity (Judah) 605-538 BC Persian Period 539-331 BC Hellenistic Period 331-164 BC Hasmonean Period 164-63 BC Roman Period 63 BC AD 135

ii. Jewish Response to the crises of the 6th and 4th centuries BC a) Destruction of Temple b) Hellenism Note: Factions among the Jews found their way into the church as it was originally made up of Jews. iii. As in every controversy, there are non-rational factors at work; the Jews had strong emotional commitments to deal with regarding circumcision (cf. Woman's issue & happy slaves, civil rights, etc.) a) Note the strong emotions present from the start of their return to the land (Ezra 3:12-13; 10:1; Nehemiah 8:9) as in the exile (Psalm 137:1) b) After taking a beating via exiles, etc., many Jews did not want to repeat the past by angering God c) They wanted to preserve their identity as the chosen people and just as a people! (cf. Ecumenism v. Assimilation) d) Many zealously longed for purity and holiness, for themselves and their nation e) Many nurtured a mystical and spiritual love of ritual f) Spiritual, cultural, and ethnic pride was as work, as well as patriotism and racism g) Now back in the land, they wanted to see the Kingdom happen and thought it depended on them. iv. First-century Judaism was not monolithic (meaning you can't always generalize as to what all Jews thought or believed or practiced at the time). Consider:

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Hellenism v. Hebraic (cf Acts 6:1, 9) Pharisees Zealots Sadducees Essenes Fourth Philosophy The masses

(The early church inherited many of the problems, questions, and divisions reflected in this diversity.) III. The Jewishness of the Early Church

A. Salvation is from the Jews Jesus in John 4:22 B. Restoration of the Kingdom to Israel Acts 1:6 C. They continued in the Temple courts while they could Acts 2:46; 3:1 D. Peter's perspective is representative of the early church's predicament i. Messiah was to rule from David's throne Acts 2:30-31 ii. Disturbed by vision regarding including Gentiles Acts 10 (cf. 11:18) E. The Jerusalem council, led by James, affirmed the Gentile mission and their inclusion without circumcision Acts 15 i. The council of apostles and elders, addressed objections raised by some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees v. 5 ii. James saw the inclusion of Gentiles as a restoration of David's kingdom as predicted by the prophets vv. 14-19 iii. The council wrote a letter, to be delivered by Paul and Barnabas, acknowledging that circumcision was not an appropriate imposition on the Gentiles vv. 22-35 F. For his second missionary journey, Paul takes Timothy, a half-Jew/half-Greek from Lystra (in southern Galatia) and circumcises him! Acts 16:1-5 G. As late as Acts 21, James points out that thousands of Jews in Jerusalem have believed, and all of them are zealous for the law. -- v. 20

i. He asks Paul to prove to these Jewish believers that the following charges were false (vv. 21-24). They charged that Paul teaches Jews of the dispersion to: ii. turn away from Moses iii. not circumcise their children iv. not live according to Jewish customs v. His plan would also show the Jews that Paul himself was living in obedience to the law -- v. 24 vi. Paul agrees and complies! vv. 26-36 H. Paul continued to identify himself as still being an exemplary Jew and Pharisee throughout his ministry (cf. Acts 23:6) The Gospel Message that Paul preached to the Galatians I. Pisidian Antioch (in Galatia)Acts 13:13-43 A. Reviews Israel's history of Messianic hope vv. 16-23 i. Note Paul is speaking in a synagogue (cf. vv. 14,15,42) ii. Paul addresses both Jews and Gentiles in the same audience (vv. 16,26,43) B. Describes contemporary events of their day (i.e. News): i. John the Baptist's Ministry vv. 24-25 ii. Jesus' reception, death, and resurrection vv. 26-31 C. Application Good News! i. The Messianic promise of the Scriptures has been kept vv. 32-37 ii. Therefore, forgiveness of sin is proclaimed and offered to you vv. 38-39 a) If you will but believe, then justification (cleansing/becoming righteoused) is yours. b) This surpasses what the Law was able to provide or accomplish (Note: Old Testament sacrifices were only for unintentional sins. Intentional sins required additional restitution by the sinner.)

c) Therefore, BE SET FREE from every sin NOW! iii. Warning: Those who scoff at this message will perish vv. 40-41 II. Other Key Examples of Paul's Gospel: A. 1 Corinthians 15:1-18 B. Romans 10:8-13 C. Galatians 3:7-11

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

BREAK-OUT GROUPS: STUDY & DISCUSSION GUIDE


Appoint a spokesperson for your group to share your findings with the larger class at the end of this exercise. Read the passage(s) assigned to your group (from the three below) and discuss the following questions.

The Abrahamic Covenant


[ ] Genesis 12: 1-9 [ ] Genesis 15 [ ] Genesis 17:1-19

1. What promises does God give to Abraham in this passage?

2. What commands does God give Abraham?

3. What does God reveal to Abraham about other nations (Gentiles)?

4. Why do you think God said these things?

5. If you were a believing Jew in the first century, what would you conclude about God's expectations of you, based on these findings?

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

The Abrahamic Covenant


GENESIS 12 Promises [] I will make you a great nation, [] I will bless you, [] I will make your name great; [] So you shall be a blessing; [] I will bless those who bless you, [] The one who curses you I will curse [] In you all the families of the earth will be blessed. (vv. 2-3) [] To your descendants I will give this land (v. 7) [] None [] Do not fear, I am a shield to you; your reward shall be very great. (v. 1) [] One who will come forth from your own body, he shall be your heir (v.4) [] Look to the heavens, and count the stars, if you are able to count them. So shall your descendants be (v. 5) [] To your descendants I have given this land, from the Wadi of Egypt as far as the great river, the river Euphratesthe land of the Kenite and the Kenizzite and the Kadmonite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Rephaim and the Amorite and the Canaanite and the Girgashite and the Jebusite (vv. 18-21) [] None

Commands & Conditions GENESIS 15 Promises

Commands & Conditions

The Circumcision Covenant


GENISIS 17 Promises [] You will be the father of many nations. [] No longer will you be called Abram; your name will be Abraham, for I have made you a father of many nations. I will make you very fruitful. I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you. [] I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you. [] The whole land of Canaan, where you now reside as a foreigner, I will give as an everlasting possession to you and your descendants after you [] And I will be their God (vv. 4-8) [] "I am God Almighty; walk before me faithfully and be blameless. Then I will make my covenant between me and you and will greatly increase your numbers." (vv. 1-2) [] You must keep my covenant, you and your descendants after you for the generations to come. This is my covenant with you and your descendants; the covenant you are to keep:

Commands &Conditions

[] Every male among you shall be circumcised [] You are to undergo circumcision [] It will be the sign of the covenant between me and you [] For the generations to come every male among you who is eight days old must be circumcised, including those born in your household or bought with money from a foreignerthose who are not your offspring [] Whether born in your household or bought with your money, they must be circumcised. [] My covenant in your flesh is to be an everlasting covenant. [] Any uncircumcised male, who has not been circumcised in the flesh, will be cut off from his people; he has broken my covenant." (vv. 9-14) [] As for Sarai your wife, you are no longer to call her Sarai; her name will be Sarah. [] I will bless her and will surely give you a son by her. [] I will bless her so that she will be the mother of nations; kings of peoples will come from her." (vv. 15-16) [] Your wife Sarah will bear you a son, and you will call him Isaac. [] I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his descendants after him (v. 19)

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

Background Notes on Paul Acts 21:37-22:29


Born Saul, a Roman citizen in Tarsus of Cilicia (probably therefore of wealthy parents) Raised in Jerusalem Trained under the famous Rabbi Gamaliel Spoke Greek and Aramaic

Acts 6:8-15; 7:58-8:1


Probably belonged to a Hellenistic synagogue May have been a rabbi or a leader there May have belonged to the Sanhedrin

He was a tentmaker by trade (Acts 18:3) Acts 9


Cooperated with the Sanhedrin in seeking Christians to bring charges against Was not converted by missionaries or evangelists, but by Jesus himself

Came to be called an apostle (like Barnabas), though not one of the Twelve. Remained a Jew and a Pharisee, even as an apostle (Acts 22:3; 23:6) His home base of operation and his sending church was in Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:19-30; 12:25-13:3) Autobiographical passages:

2 Corinthians 6:3-10; 11:21-12:10 Galatians 1:13-24 Philippians 3:4-14 1 Timothy 1:12-17

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

BREAK-OUT GROUPS: STUDY & DISCUSSION GUIDE


Appoint a spokesperson for your group to share your findings with the larger class at the end of this exercise. Read the passage(s) assigned to your group (from the three below) and discuss the following questions.

Paul's Gospel
[ ] Acts 13:13-41 [ ] 1 Corinthians 15:1-18 [ ] Romans 10:8-13 and Galatians 3:7-11

1. What Jewish elements or Jewish/Gentile concerns do you notice in this passage?

2. What does Paul say his gospel/message is?

3. What are the implications of this message for its first recipients?

4. What are the implications for you?

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

BREAK-OUT GROUPS: STUDY & DISCUSSION GUIDE


Appoint a spokesperson for your group to share your findings with the larger class at the end of this exercise.
Read the passage below and discuss the following questions.

Galatians1:11-24
1. How did Paul get his Gospel? (1:11-12) 2. What do you learn about Paul's former life in 1:13-15? A. He intensely ____________________ the church B. and tried to _____________ it. C. He was _____________ in Judaism beyond ______________________ D. and was extremely zealous for the ________________ of his fathers. 3. What was God's real plan for Paul? (1:15-16)

Why do you think Paul did not consult others upon learning this?

4. Read 1:17-24. A. Where would you expect Paul to go, upon learning he was to preach the gospel? Why?

B. When Paul finally went to Jerusalem, who did he see and for how long?

C. What was the effect of Paul's activities after that?

5. Bottom Line: Why is Paul making an issue of these things?

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

Flesh & The Sinful Nature in Galatians


sarx - Has a wider range of meaning in the NT than in the OT. Its uses in the NT may be analyzed as follows:
"(a) "the substance of the body," whether of beasts or of men, 1Co. 15:39; (b) "the human body," 2Co. 10:3; Ga. 2:20; Php. 1:22; (c) by synecdoche, of "mankind," in the totality of all that is essential to manhood, i.e., spirit, soul, and body, Mt. 24:22; Jn. 1:13; Ro. 3:20; (d) by synecdoche, of "the holy humanity" of the Lord Jesus, in the totality of all that is essential to manhood, i.e., spirit, soul, and body, Jn. 1:14; 1Ti. 3:16; 1Jo. 4:2; 2Jn. 1:7; in Heb. 5:7, "the days of His flesh," i.e., His past life on earth in distinction from His present life in resurrection; (e) by synecdoche, for "the complete person," Jn. 6:51-57; 2Co. 7:5; Jas. 5:3; (f) "the weaker element in human nature," Mt. 26:41; Ro. 6:19; 8:3; (g) "the unregenerate state of men," Ro. 7:5; 8:8,9; (h) "the seat of sin in man" (but this is not the same thing as in the body), 2Pe. 2:18; 1Jn. 2:16; (i) "the lower and temporary element in the Christian," Ga. 3:3; 6:8, and in religious ordinances, Heb. 9:10; (j) "the natural attainments of men," 1Co. 1:26; 2Co. 10:2,3; (k) "circumstances," 1Co. 7:28; the externals of life, 2Co. 7:1; Eph. 6:5; Heb. 9:13; (l) by metonymy, "the outward and seeming," as contrasted with the spirit, the inward and real, Jn. 6:63; 2Co. 5:16; (m) "natural relationship, consanguine," 1Co. 10:18; Ga. 4:23, or marital, Mt. 19:5." * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 111,112.] In Mt. 26:41; Ro. 8:4,13; 1Co. 5:5; Ga. 6:8 (not the Holy Spirit, here), "flesh" is contrasted with spirit; in Ro. 2:28,29, with heart and spirit; in Ro. 7:25, with the mind; cp. Col. 2:1,5. It is coupled with the mind in Eph. 2:3, and with the spirit in 2Co. 7:1. Note: In Col. 2:18 the noun sarx is used in the phrase "(by his) fleshly mind," lit., "by the mind of his flesh" [see (h) above], whereas the mind ought to be dominated by the Spirit. -- Vines Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words

Galatians 1:16 - to reveal His Son in me so that I might preach Him among the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult with flesh and blood, Galatians 2:16 - nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified. Galatians 2:20 - "I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me. Galatians 3:3 - Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now being perfected by the flesh? Galatians 4:23 - But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise. Galatians 4:29 - But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also. Galatians 5:13 - For you were called to freedom, brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another.

Galatians 5:16 - But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh. Galatians 5:17 - For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please. Galatians 5:19 - Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality, impurity, sensuality, Galatians 5:24 - Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. Galatians 6:8 - For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption, but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life. Galatians 6:12 - Those who desire to make a good showing in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. Galatians 6:13 - For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast in your flesh.
New American Standard Bible (NASB) Copyright 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.

The Choice In Galatians


FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 1:1 Human authority 1:3-5 The present evil age SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION Divine authority Rescue by Christs sacrifice, by Gods will to Gods glory The one who called you

1:6-9 Another (different) gospel Brings a curse 1:10 Human approval/pleasing people 1:11-12 The false gospel has a human source and relies on human authority

Gods approval/truly serving Messiah Pauls gospel, directly from Messiah, not derived from human teachers or authorities, not even the Apostles. Gods calling on Paul By grace to reveal his Son in me Preached gospel to the nations (Gentiles) Obeyed without consulting authorities or Jerusalem Apostles The truth of the gospel Freedom The truth in line with the gospel

1:13 Pauls old way of life: Second-Temple Judaism/Religion Persecuted the Church Zeal for human traditions

2:3-5 Circumcision False Believers Slavery 2:12-14 Hypocrisy Separatism The Circumcision Party Forcing religious customs on people

FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 2:15-16 Seeking acceptability (justification) with God by observing laws 2:17-18 Rebuilding what I destroyed (i.e. going back to Law as the basis for right standing with God), which is actually the true lawbreaking 2:19 The Law (of Moses) Death 2:20-21 Not the place to live/Not a source of life No righteousness to be gained here Messiahs death does not have value to those who choose to live here. 3:1-6 Bewitched (misled/deceived)

SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION Being justified by faith in Jesus the Messiah apart from observing laws Seeking to be justified in Messiah while being found among sinners

Dead to the Law Living for God Crucified with Messiah, Messiah lives in me. Life in the body now lived by faith Counted righteous by the grace of God The reason Messiah died

Receiving the Holy Spirit by believing New beginning Continuation of what began (On same basis as we began: in the Holy Spirit, not in flesh or by human effort) Righteousness crediting by believing like ABRAHAM Children of Abraham The gospel that was given Abraham regarding the Gentiles All blessed with Abraham on same basis, by faith Justification and life Redemption from the curse of the Law The blessing promised to Abraham given to believers The promise of the Spirit also given to those who have faith

3:7-12 Reliance on keeping laws/rules All cursed Law is NOT of faith

3:13-14 Curse on everyone under the Law

FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 3:15-18 The Law, 430 years after The Seed was promised

SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION Abrahams Covenant (430 years earlier than the Law) The promise and inheritance given Abraham Inheritance based on promise given by grace What was promised to Abraham is given and received on basis of faith in Messiah

3:19-22 The Law, a temporary provision until Messiah/Seed Required angels and a mediator Cannot impart life or righteousness Locks everyone under the control of sin 3:23-25 The Law was a custodian prior to faith Was in charge of us

The awaited faith is revealed in this column Law is no longer in charge of us Messiah has justified us (made us right with God) and freed us from the supervision of the Law. Were all sons of God by faith (with all the rights of sons) All baptized in Messiah regardless of race, class, or gender All clothed in Messiah No Jew/Gentile, slave/free, male/female distinctions; all one We belong to Messiah We are Abrahams seed We are heirs of the Promise We have been adopted to sonship The Spirit of God is now in our hearts causing us to call out to call God as Daddy (Abba) We are no longer slaves; we are full heirs.

3:26-4:7 Under-aged heirs no different from slaves Subject to guardians Enslaved to elemental spiritual forces of the world

4:8-16 Unable to know God Slaves to gods and to weak, miserable forces Observing customs, days, months, years, etc. Weakness of this column is like illness

Known by God Knowing God Truth

FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 4:17-18 Misdirected zeal Alienation from Paul

SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION Proper zeal Relationship with Paul likened to the intimacy of a mother giving birth to her child. Messiah is formed in us.

4:21-31 HAGAR: Slave under the Law Son born by human effort/flesh Covenant of Mt. Sinai Resulted in children who are slaves Jerusalem

SARAH: The Free Woman Son from divine promise New Covenant Free Woman is our mother The Jerusalem of above Gladness - v. 27 Joy (shouting and crying it out!) More children than the slave woman

Son born by human effort persecuted the son born by the Spirit - v. 29

We are like Isaac, children of promise and persecuted We are born by the same Spirits power - v. 28 We share in the full inheritance of the free womans son We are her children (sons) Freed in order to be FREE! Faith that awaits in hope the righteousness that comes only from the Holy Spirit Circumcision or not is irrelevant; all that matters here is faith expressing itself in love! The real obedience to God (via being led by, walking in step with, living by the Spirit)

No share in the inheritance with the free womans son - v. 30

5:1-6 Burdened by a yoke of slavery Circumcision resulting in the obligation to keep the whole Law Alienation from Jesus the Messiah Fallen (i.e., far from) grace 5:7-11 Circumcision and Law = NOT obeying the Truth Not from the One who calls you A spreading yeast (sin/false teaching of the Pharisees) Penalty

FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 5:12 Circumcisers likened to Pagan Castrators 5:13-15 The sinful nature/flesh Devouring and destroying each other Sinful nature desires what is contrary to Gods Spirit Here you cannot do what you really want. Under Law

SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION

Called to freedom, which is not for indulging the sinful nature! Serving each other in love; the Law is fulfilled in love! Walking in Spirit keeps us from gratifying/feeding sin nature. Here you find your fulfillment. Led by the Spirit The Outworking/results of this side: The Fruit of the Spirit Love Joy Peace Patience Kindness Goodness Faithfulness Gentleness Self-control Belonging to Christ

5:19-26 The Outworking/results of this side: Acts of the Flesh/Sinful Nature/Human Effort Sexual immorality Impurity Overindulgence Idolatry Witchcraft Hate Discord Jealousy Fits of rage Selfish ambition Dissensions Factions/Divisiveness Envy Drunkenness Orgies And the like Ungodly passions and desires - (v. 24) Conceit, provoking and envying each other (v. 25) These are characteristic of those missing the Kingdom of God

The sinful nature (flesh) is crucified along with ungodly passions and desires. Here we have Life and the means by which we experience it. Therefore, were to keep in step with (i.e. keep living by) the Spirit instead of by rules, laws, customs, etc.

FLESH/LAW/SINFUL NATURE/HUMAN EFFORT 6:1-10 Caught in sin Temptation

SPIRIT/FAITH/PROMISE/JUSTIFICATION Restoring fallen Christ-followers with gentleness Carry each others burdens and thereby fulfill the law of Messiah (i.e. love!) Watching ourselves to avoid temptation. Sowing to this side means to please the Spirit and reaps eternal life (in harvest proportions!) On this side: the cross of Christ: the only thing to boast about; through it the world is crucified to us and us to the world. We are a new creation! Peace, mercy, grace in our spirits, as the true Israel of God!

Sowing to this column reaps destruction.

6:11-18 Impressing others with circumcision and displays of legalistic righteousness is done to avoid persecution.

Copyright 2008 David R. Leigh. Revised 2012. All rights reserved. Permission granted to reproduce for class purposes.