Está en la página 1de 67

First Printing, June 2003 Copyright Alvaro Alvarez Carvajal- Lucia Ribeiro, 2003 Este trabajo fue realizado

o por Alvaro Alvarez Carvajal bajo el patrocinio de Kennesaw State University. Especial Agradecimiento a Lucia Ribeiro, Directora, Centro de Recursos de las lenguas extranjeras, Kennesaw State University por ayudar en la creacin de este manual. La venta, reproduccin, copia y ejecucin pblica, radiodifusin y/o distribucin parcial o total no autorizados previamente estn prohibidos por la ley sobre derechos de autor. No part of this publication may be reproduced , stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.

Indice de Contenidos
(Index Table)
Bienvenidos (Welcome) 4

LECCIN 1
La Pronunciacin (About Pronunciation) El AlFABETO ESPAOL (The ABC) First Lesson in Survival! Aprendiendo sin Stress (How to Learn Without Stress!) Presentaciones (Introductions) Asking & Understanding Questions 5

8 9

10

11 12

LECCIN 2
Informacin sobre los Estudiantes ( Information About Students) Expresiones Utiles (Useful Expressions) Ingresar (Admitting) Informacin Cultural (Cultural Information) Los Nmeros (The Numbers) Lets Talk about .... GENDER 14

16

17

19

20 22

LECCIN 3
Empecemos... lets begin El Cuerpo Humano = The Human Body 25 27

LECCIN 4
El Tiempo (Time frame reference expressions) LAS CITAS Y LAS FECHAS (Appointments And Dates) 29

32

LECCIN 5
En la Escuela (At School) Mas expresiones tiles (More Useful Expressions) Conectando Palabras y Frases (Connecting words and phrases together) Comuniquemos .... Lets communicate! Un Poco de Gramtica (About Grammar) 35

48

49 54

56

LECCIN 6
Los Verbos ms comunes (The Most Common Verbs in Spanish) Ser / Estar Useful Expressions Useful Commands Grammar Tips 58 59 60 61 63

Bienvenidos!
Welcome to the study of Spanish! The growing number of Spanish-speaking students in our schools indicates a real need for a more authentic, personalized service from educators. We hope that this manual and the accompanying CD, being a great source of vocabulary, basic expressions, and grammar, will help you have a great start in the language. LEARNING SPANISH IS FUN!!! In this course, you will be exposed to a magical world of Spanish. The basics of the language will be introduced along with some grammatical concepts. However, the main focus of this course is laid on the terminology and experiences that are applicable to the teaching profession. Anyway, it is advisable that you apply the same concepts to help you enlarge your vocabulary and broaden the scope of the Spanish grammar as you progress at your own pace. No attempt has been made for this manual to be a complete grammar text, but you will find a lot of useful information! Relax and dont be afraid to try to speak Spanish, and most of all . . . HAVE FUN!!!

Leccin 1 La Pronunciacin

Just like in English, there are five vowels in Spanish. However, in Spanish these vowels are pronounced only in one way. They are short and crisp, without breath, and spoken at the front of the mouth. The mouth is somewhat tenser when speaking Spanish, and the corners of the mouth tend to smile!

A = as in a in father I = as in ee in keep E = as in ei in eight O= as in o in shot U = as in oo in spoon


There are no short or long vowels in Spanish!!! And neither is there an uh sound as when many gringos try to say chips and salsuh! There should be two as. Salsa! Pronounce:

Plasma Pepe

gas beb

mapa excelente

rata sed

banana venga

salsa le en

* a written accent mark tells you to say that vowel louder ir como Cuba crisis tomo uva repita hola burro idea ol til isla oso uso irrita bobo tuvo pila

Most of the consonants are pronounced just like those in English... with

some exceptions that we will practice. But remember ... keep the sounds to the front of the mouth and speak with the lips fairly tense in order to imitate a perfect Spanish accent.

C =

has two sounds: like an s before e and i; & like a k before o, u, and a. cinco centro catarro cuatro color

D =

pronounced much softer than an English d. In the middle or end of a word it is pronounced more like a th. donde verdad edad sed derecho codo

G =

also has two sounds: like an h before e and i; & like a g as in go elsewhere. Argentina meningitis gringo gato

H =

is always a silent letter! Never make the h sound! Hola hoy ahora hospital 6

J =

is always a hard h sound Jorge ojo jarabe traje oreja

Ll =

two ls combined make one sound, similar to an English y rodilla amarillo calle tobillo costilla

the letter makes the sound similar to the ny in the English word canyon or like nio in onion Ao uas nio nia mueca

R =

the single r makes the sound like the dd in ladder Cara doctor mira oreja para

Rr =

a strongly trilled sound. Practice it! (Single r is also trilled if it begins a word) ro Ramn arroz carro hierro

EL ALFABETO ESPAOL
Learn the pronunciation of each letter of the Spanish alphabet and try to spell out words and names. Do not forget to ask people to spell words for you!

A Be Ce CHe De E EFe Ge Hache I Jota Ka Ele ELLe

eMe eNe ee O Pe Cu (Q) eRe eRRe eSe Te U Ve Doble Ve Equis I Griega Zeta

Practice spelling these names aloud: Ricardo Jimnez, Elena Figueroa, Pepe Luis Galds

First Lesson in Survival!


Here are some very basic expressions you want to memorize:

Por Favor = Please Otra Vez = Again Habla Ingls? = Do you speak English? Cmo se llama usted? = Whats your name? Cmo est usted? = How are you? Repita = Repeat Ms despacio = Slower No entiendo = I dont understand Gracias = Thank you De Nada = You are welcome Muy bien = Very good (well)
9

Aprendiendo sin Estrs


(How to Learn Without Stress!)
1. Take control!!! Practice all the expressions and automatic responses, you have written and memorized, even if you are uncertain they quite fit. They will be your backbone of defense and help you get control of any situation. 2. Remember to keep handy a sheet of most commonly used phrases for your particular field. This will help if you get stuck. 3. Listen to your Spanish students without being afraid to NOT UNDERSTAND EVERY SINGLE WORD!!! This is very liberating while learning a new language. You will gradually increase your speed of comprehension if you are consistently exposed to Spanish. 4. Experiment with some new phrases that you pick up. Commit to using them the next time you come in contact with a Spanish-speaking student, and you will truly learn them. 5. Use Spanglish! Remember that your Spanish students will probably know some key English words, or recognize them just as you recognize some Spanish words! 6. Dont forget the comfort level you feel in the classroom, and TRY to remember how to achieve that level of comfort in a real-life situation.7. 7. TRY to pronounce correctly!!! Pronunciation DOES MATTER, and it is so important that sometimes the wrong pronunciation can cause total misunderstanding and confusion. Learn the rules and be confident!

10

Presentaciones
Introductions / Personal Pronouns

Yo = I Usted = You l = He Ella = She

Nosostros = We Ustedes = You Ellos/ Ellas = They

*There is also a form T used in informal situations and when saying you
to friends and family members.

Yo soy = I am.... (John, Mary, the teacher, etc.) Usted (abbrev. Ud.) es Es Ud.? =
Are you? = You are

Nosotros somos = We are... l es = He is.... Ella es = She is....

Ellos son = They are....


11

Mi = my

mis = my (for more than one)


your, his, her (for more than one) Ellos son mis . . . padres = parents hijos = children hermanos = siblings primos = cousins tos = uncle and aunt abuelos = grandparents
Theyre my . . .

Su = your, his, her sus =


l es mi . . .
Hes my . . .

Ella es mi . . . madre = mother hija = daughter hermana = sister prima = cousin ta = aunt abuela = grandmother esposa = wife
Shes my . . .

Padre = father Hijo = son Hermano = brother Primo = cousin To = uncle Abuelo = grandfather Esposo = husband

Asking & Understanding Questions


Tiene una pregunta? Do you have a question?
This question itself might get you scared. Dont worry, and dont let the FOF take over!!! If you know by ROTE the following question words, you at least know the directions that the question or statement will be taking. The question words Who, When, Where, Why, How, How much, and What are

very important!

12

Qu? = What? Cul? = Which? Cundo? = When? Cmo? = How? Quin? = Who? Por qu? = Why? Cunto(s)? = How much (how many)? Dnde? = Where? De quin? = Whose?
Notice the upside-down question marks before each interrogative word. They signal that a question will be asked. It is user-friendly to someone who is reading in the language!

13

Leccin 2 Informacin sobre los estudiantes Information About Students

El estudiante / La estudiante = the student Su familia = his/ her/your family Su pariente = his/her/your relative Su nombre completo = his/her/your full name Seor = Mr. Seora = Mrs. Seorita = Miss or Ms. Apellido(s) = last name(s) Su direccin = his/her/your address Su calle = his/her/your street

14

Su ciudad = his/her/your city Su zona postal = hi/her/your zip code Su nmero de apartamento = his/her/your apartment number Su nmero de telfono = his/her/your telephone number Su fecha de nacimiento = his/her/your date of birth Su edad - his/her/your age Su nmero de licencia = his/her/your license number Su sexo = sex (masculino / femenino) Lugar donde estudia/trabaja = his/her/your study/workplace Su estado civil = his/her/your marital status Soltero (a) = Single Casado (a) = Married Separado (a) = Separated Viudo (a) = Widower (widow)

Divorciado (a) = Divorced

15

Expresiones tiles
Tiene usted ....? = Do you have ....? un problema = a problem?

dolor de estmago = a stomachache dolor de cabeza? = a headache Qu problema tiene ... (usted, l, ella)?

What problem do you have, does he have, does she have?


Por cunto tiempo? Cundo empez? Cundo pas? Qu pas? Sabe ...? Entiende? Estudia? Mucho o un poco? For how long? When did it begin? When did it happen? What happened? Do you know ...? Do you understand (process)? Do you study? A lot or a little?

16

Ingresar (Admitting)

El ingreso Admission to the school Inscripcin, Matrcula - Registration La admisin Admission Usted tiene que . . . . . You have to ... Escribir = write Mostrar = show firmar = sign tener = have dar = give llenar = fill out

Su nombre completo = your complete name Su direccin = your address Su nmero de telfono = your phone number Su tarjeta de vacuna = your vaccination card Su fecha de nacimiento = your date of birth Su lugar de nacimiento = your place of birth

17

El nombre de su esposo (a) = name of husband/wife Su pariente ms cercano = your closest relative Los nombres de sus padres = parents names Esta forma/planilla = this form Este documento = this document Su nmero de identidad = Identification number

18

Informacin Cultural Information about the Culture


Have you ever wondered why it seems that Spanish-speakers have long names? Well, there is a reason! In the Latin culture, one often takes both the fathers last name and the mothers maiden name! This cultural aspect has caused a lot of confusion for English-speakers who do not know which name they should use to address a person. Here are two examples:

Jos Manuel Lpez Garca is Sr. Lpez Mara Elena Ramrez Fuentes is Srta. Ramrez How would you address Sr. Ramn Vizcaya Coln? And Sra. Isabel Teresa Martnez Gmez?

Algunas situaciones en la escuela y en el aula Some situations at school and in the classroom

El/La Director(a) de la escuela = Principal La secretaria = The Administration Office 19

La sala = the room / area La sala de espera = the waiting room El saln de clases = Classroom El / La ayudante = Assistant El examen = Exam El/Los cursos = Courses El almuerzo = Lunch La merienda = Break/Snack La mesa = the front desk El piso 2, el piso 3 = the second floor, third floor La planta baja = the ground floor

Los nmeros
0 = cero 1 = uno 11 = once 12 = doce

20

2 = dos 3 = tres 4 = cuatro 5 = cinco 6 = seis 7 = siete 8 = ocho 9 = nueve 10 = diez 21 = veintiuno 22 = veintidos 30 = treinta 40 = cuarenta 50 = cincuenta 60 = sesenta 70 = setenta 80 = ochenta 90 = noventa 100 = cien 101 = ciento uno 102 = ciento dos

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

= = = = = = = =

trece catorce quince (pron. keen-say) dieciseis diecisiete dieciocho diecinueve veinte

21

200 = doscientos 300 = trescientos 400 = cuatrocientos 500 = quinientos 600 = seiscientos 700 = setecientos 800 = ochocientos 900 = novecientos 1000 = mil

Lets Talk about.... GENDER


Every Spanish noun (book, shelf, floor, door, table, child, etc.) has a GENDER. It means that the noun for an object or an idea is either

MASCULINE or FEMININE.

22

Thats a rather strange concept for English-speakers; since most inanimate objects are neutral... we call them IT. This isnt the case in Spanish, as well as in many other romance languages. What youll have to remember is that GENDER DOES NOT MEAN SEX!!! Its not a biological term in a language. Its a linguistic term!!! So it does not mean that the door (la puerta) bears some female characteristics, but the word for door (la puerta) has a feminine gender. Usually nouns ending in a are feminine. The book (el libro) is not a male in the least but it is linguistically masculine. Usually nouns ending in o are masculine. Now is this concept becoming a little clearer? So does it really matter anyway? Well, yes and no. Sometimes a gender error wont interfere at all with your speech, but sometimes it can be crucial. Also, it is important to learn the correct gender (each noun has a correct gender), since all the adjectives describing the nouns will match in gender. So here are some key words we will learn... The words below are the equivalents to the Definite Article the. They precede most nouns:

EL Libro Piso Hombre

LOS libros chicos lpices

LA mesa pared mujer

LAS mesas cosas sillas

But here are a few exceptions (this is not a perfect world!!!)

Da* = el da mano* = la mano Mapa* = el mapa foto* = la foto Problema* = el problema


These are the indefinite articles (a, an, some) UN = a UNOS = some UNAS = some

23

Obviously, as you refer to a living, biologically male or female person, then the gender will certainly match the person: El profesor / La profesora El gerente / La gerente El comerciante / La comerciante El cirujano / La cirujana Los profesores / Las profesoras El mdico / La mdica El enfermero / La enfermera El director / La directora

24

Leccin 3 Empecemos.... lets begin

Some Basic Vocabulary For Teachers Algunas expresiones tiles (Some useful expressions)

When Speaking to One Child


Abre tus libros Cierra tus libros Escribe Escucha Estudia la leccin __. Sintate Ve a la pgina ___. Entrega la tarea Presta atencin. Cllate

When Speaking to the Whole Class


Abran sus libros Cierren sus libros Escriban Escuchen Estudien la leccin ___. Sintense Vayan a la pgina ___. Entreguen la tarea Presten atencin. Cllense

English Equivalent
Open your books Close your books Write Listen Study lesson ___. Sit down Go to page ___. Turn in your homework Pay attention. Be quiet. 25

Ve a la pizarra No corras. No empujes. Levanta la mano. Vuelve a tu asiento

Vayan a la pizarra No corran. No empujen. Levanten la mano. Vuelvan a sus asientos.

Go to the board. Dont run. Dont push. Raise your hand(s). Go back to your seat(s).

Otras palabras tiles


(Other useful words) 1. Dictado 2. Presente 3. Ausente Dictation Present, Here Absent

Lets See How Much You Remember!


Match the items in column A with the items in column B.

A
Escriban._____ Va a la pizarra.___ Vayan a la pgina.___ Entreguen la tarea.___ Presten atencin.___ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B
Sit down. Dont run. Listen. Go back to your seats. Write.

26

Escucha.___ Levanta la mano.___ No corras.___ Estudien la leccin.___ Sintense.___ Cllense.___ No empujes.___ Vuelve a tu asiento.___ Presente.___ Dictado.___ Ausente.___ Abran sus libros.___

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Open your books. Dont push. Go to the board. Study the lesson. Go to page ___. Turn in your homework. Dictation. Absent. Pay attention. Here. Be quiet. Raise your hand.

El Cuerpo Humano = The Human Body

Los huesos El pelo La cara La cabeza Las orejas El odo

= = = = = =

the bones the hair the face the head the outer ears the inner ear

27

Los ojos La boca La lengua

= = =

the eyes the mouth the tongue the teeth the lips the nose the chin the neck the chest the back the shoulders the arm the hand the fingers the waist the hip the stomach the lungs the Heart the leg the foot

Los dientes = Los labios La nariz = =

La barbilla = El cuello El pecho = =

La espalda = Los hombros = El brazo La mano Los dedos La cintura La cadera = = = = =

El estmago = Los pulmones = El corazn La pierna El pie = = =

28

Leccin 4 Time frame reference expressions:

60 segundos = un minuto 60 minutos = una hora 24 horas = un da 7 das = una semana Los das de la semana son: o El lunes Monday o El martes Tuesday o El mircoles Wednesday o El jueves Thursday o El viernes Friday o El sbado Saturday o El domingo Sunday Los meses del ao son: Enero January Febrero February Marzo March Abril April Mayo May Junio June Julio July Agosto August Septiembre September Octubre October Noviembre November Diciembre December 29

A qu hora? At what time?


Jos tiene una clase a las once menos cuarto. Telling at what time something is going to happen or when one has an appointment is not that difficult. There are several ways to do this, and here are some of them:

At = A las (except with 1:00 hour where you say a la) Examples: 6:00 = a las seis 4:00 = a las cuatro 8:00 = a las ocho 1:00 = a la una

After = y Examples: 5:10 = a las cinco y diez 9:25 = a las nueve y veinte y cinco 11:05 = a las once y cinco

30

Before = menos or para Examples: 4:50 = a las cinco menos diez O diez para las cinco 3:35 = a las cuatro menos veinte y cinco O veinte y cinco para las cuatro

Quarter past the hour = y cuarto Half past the hour = y media Quarter before = menos cuarto or cuarto para In the morning = de la maana In the afternoon = de la tarde In the evening = de la noche

LA HORA Y LOS DIAS DE LA SEMANA TIME AND DAYS OF THE WEEK A A A A A A la una ... at one oclock las dos ... at two oclock las tres ... at three o clock las tres y cuarto ...at three-fifteen las tres y media ...at three-thirty las cuatro menos cuarto ...at 3:45

Translate: Su clase es a las tres el mircoles. Su clase es a las dos menos cuarto el lunes. Su clase es a la una y media el jueves. Su clase es a las cinco el viernes. Su examen es a las cuatro menos veinte el martes. Su cita es a las diez y diez el sbado. Su reunin es a las once menos cuarto el martes.

31

LAS CITAS y LAS FECHAS


Appointments and dates

Some critical vocabulary: Hoy = Today Ayer = Yesterday Maana = Tomorrow Esta semana = This week La semana que viene = Next week La semana pasada = Last week Este mes = This month El mes que viene = Next month Este ao = This year El ao que viene = Next year

Por .... = for .....


Por diez das . . . for ten days

32

Por dos semanas . . . for two weeks Por una hora . . . for an hour Por treinta minutos . . . for thirty minutes

Cada ... = each (every)


Cada cuatro horas . . . every four hours Cada cinco horas . . . every five hours Cada seis horas . . . every six hours

. . . . . veces al . . . . . = times per


dos veces al da . . . two times per day tres veces al da . . . three times per day cuatro veces al da . . . four times per day

Antes de . . . = before
Antes de comer = before eating Antes de dormir = before sleeping (bed)

33

Despus de . . . = after
Despus de comer = after eating Despus de dormir = after sleeping

34

Leccin 5 En la escuela (At School)

La seorita Soto habla con los nios en la clase. Primero ella toma lista. Srta. SOTO ___Buenos das, nios. Cmo estn? NIOS ___Buenos das, seorita.

Srta. SOTO ___(Toma lista) Jos Jimnez. JOS ___Presente.

Srta. SOTO ___Ana Rodrguez. CARLOS ___Ausente

(Despus de tomar lista) Srta. SOTO ___(a Carlos) Necesitas lpiz y papel? CARLOS ___No, seorita, pero necesito una pluma y el libro de

35

lectura.1 Srta. SOTO ___Simpre debes traer el libro de lectura a la escuela, Carlos. JUAN ___Seorita, escribo la fecha en la pizarra?

Srta. SOTO ___S, Juan. Ral, qu fecha es hoy? RAUL CAMILO ___Hoy es el veinticinco de septiembre, seorita. ___Que pginas leemos hoy, seorita?

Srta. SOTO ___Hoy deben leer las pginas trece, catorce y quince. CAMILO ___Leemos en voz alta?

Srta. SOTO ___No, con la vistaSilencio, nios!

Despus de la hora de lectura los nios trabajan en grupos.


JULIAN ___Seorita, Alicia y yo necesitamos lpices rojos, azules y amarillos. Srta. SOTO ___Muy bien. Deben colorear los rectngulos con azul, los crculos con anaranjado, los Cuadrados con rosado y los tringulos con marrn.

Spanish uses prepositional phrases that correspond to the English adjectival use of nouns reading booklibro de lectura.

36

JULIAN

___Abro la ventana, seorita?

Srta. SOTO ___S, por favor. JULIAN ___Necesito ir al bao, seorita.

Srta. SOTO ___Debes esperar un momento, Julin. JULIAN ___Borro las palabras de la pizarra, seorita?

Srta. SOTO ___No, todava no. Todos deben copiar el vocabulario en el cuaderno de ejercicios. (Entra el secretario) SECRETARIO ___Seorita Soto, llaman a Jos Jimnez por telfono. Srta. SOTO ___Gracias. (A los nios) Esta es la hora del recreo! Ah! Quines comen hoy en la cafeteria? Levanten la mano.

At School Miss Soto speaks with the children in the classroom. First she calls the roll. MISS SOTO: CHILDREN: MISS SOTO: JOSE: Good-morning, children. How are you? Good-morning, teacher (miss) (calls the roll) Jose Jimenez Here!

37

MISS SOTO: CARLOS: (After calling the roll)

Ana Rodriguez. Absent

MISS SOTO: CARLOS:

(to Carlos) Do you need a pencil and paper? No, teacher (miss), but I need (a) pen and the reading book.

MISS SOTO:

You must always bring the reading book to school, Carlos. Teacher (miss), shall I write the date on the board?

JUAN:

MISS SOTO: RAUL: CAMILO: MISS SOTO: CAMILO: MISS SOTO:

Yes, Juan. Raul, whats the date today? Today is September 25th , Miss. What pages do we read today, teacher, (miss)? Today you must read pages 13, 14, and 15. Shall we read aloud? No, silently. . . Silence, children!

(After reading time the children work in groups.)


JULIAN: Teacher, Alice and I need red, blue and yellow pencils. MISS SOTO: Very well. You must color the rectangles (with) 38

blue, the circles (with) orange, the squares (with) pink, and the triangles (with) brown. JULIAN: MISS SOTO: JULIAN: MISS SOTO: JULIAN: Shall I open the window, Miss? Yes, please. I need to go to the bathroom, teacher. You must wait a moment, Carmen. Shall I erase the words on the board, teacher (miss)? MISS SOTO: No, not yet. Everybody must copy the vocabulary into the workbook.

(The secretary comes in.)


SECRETARY: MISS SOTO: Miss Soto, they want Jose Jimenez on the phone. Thank you. (To the children) Its recess time. Ah!, who is eating in the cafeteria today? Raise your hands!

VOCABULARY
COGNATES la cafetera la clase el grupo cafeteria class group el rectngulo rectangle el, la secretario (-a) secretary el silencio silence 39

la lista presente

list, roll present

el tringulo triangle el vocabulario vocabulary

NOUNS
el bao bathroom el crculo circle el cuadrado square el ejercicio exercise los, las nios(-as) children la pgina page la palabra word el papel paper la escuela school la fecha date la hora hour el nio boy, child

EXPRESSIONS
en silencio silently, silent (reading) cuaderno de ejercicios workbook despus (de) after en on en voz alta aloud En la escuela at school es la hora del recreo (receso) it is recess time hora de lectura reading time hoy today ir al bao to go the bathroom levanten la mano raise your hands libro de lectura reading/textbook

VERBS
Borrar to erase Colorear to color Copiar to copy Deber must, should Llamar to call Traer1 to bring

ADJECTIVES
Amarillo(-a) Anaranjado(-a) Azul Marrn, caf Rosado(-a) yellow orange blue brown pink

This verb is not regular, and will be conjugated later.

40

LETS PRACTICE
Rewrite the following sentences, according to the new elements. Make all the necessary changes. 1. Necesito un lpiz rojo. (Plumas) _________________________________________________________ 2. Ella debe traer los libros a la escuela. (Nosotros) _________________________________________________________

3. Necesito el libro azul. (Azules) _________________________________________________________ 4. Colorea el crculo con el lpiz Amarillo. (Tizas) _________________________________________________________ 5. Escriban en el cuaderno de ejercicios. (El pizarrn) _________________________________________________________ 6. Leen Los nios la pgina quince? (T) _________________________________________________________

41

CONVERSATION
Answer the following questions based on the dialogue:

1.Con quin habla la seorita Soto? _________________________________________________________ 2.Pasa lista la seorita Soto? _________________________________________________________ 3.Qu necesita Carlos? _________________________________________________________ 4.Quin escribe la fecha en la pizarra? _________________________________________________________ 5.Qu pginas deben leer los nios? _________________________________________________________ 6.Deben los nios leer en voz alta? _________________________________________________________ 7.Con qu color deben los nios colorear los rectngulos? (los tringulos?) _________________________________________________________ 8.Desea Julin abrir la ventana? _________________________________________________________

42

9.Qu necesita Julin? _________________________________________________________ 10.Dnde deben copiar los nios el vocabulario? _________________________________________________________ 11.Quin entra en la clase? _________________________________________________________ 12.A quin llaman por telfono? _________________________________________________________

Some additional questions:

13.Necesita Ud. el lpiz o la pluma? _________________________________________________________ 14.Qu fecha es hoy? _________________________________________________________ 15.Pasa Ud. siempre lista? _________________________________________________________ 16.Lee Ud. en voz alta o con la vista? _________________________________________________________

43

17.Copia Ud. el vocabulario en el cuaderno de ejercicios? _________________________________________________________ 18.Come Ud. hoy en la cafetera? _________________________________________________________

DIALOGUE COMPLETION
Using your imagination and the vocabulary learned in this lesson, complete the missing lines of this dialogue.

El maestro habla con Rosita:


MAESTRO -Rosita, es la hora de lectura. ROSITA _________________________________________________________ MAESTRO -Necesitas el libro de lectura? Pero, Rosita, siempre debes traer el libro a clase. ROSITA _________________________________________________________ MAESTRO -Primero debes leer la pgina 15 y despus la pgina 16. ROSITA _________________________________________________________ Ahora el Maestro habla con Carlos MAESTRO -No. Debes leer en voz alta. CARLOS _________________________________________________________

44

MAESTRO -No, todava no debes borrar la pizarra. Debes esperar un momento. CARLOS _________________________________________________________

MAESTRO -S, necesitas repasar el vocabulario despus de la hora de recreo. CARLOS _________________________________________________________ MAESTRO -Hoy es el 10 de mayo. (a todos los nios) Quines necesitan ir al bao? Levanten la mano, por favor.

SITUATIONAL EXERCISES
What would you say in the following situations? (Please reply in Spanish)
1. Greet your students and ask them how they are. 2. You are talking to your Spanish teacher. Ask him/her what pages you should study. Also ask if you should read aloud. 3. Ask one of your students if he/she needs to go to the bathroom. Ask the rest of the class whos eating in the cafeteria. Tell them to raise their hands. 4. Tell your students to color the squares brown, the circles blue, the triangles orange, and the rectangles pink. 5. You are in your Spanish class. The teacher calls your name. Answer. The teacher then calls the name of a student who is not there. Answer for him. Then tell your teacher you need (a) pen and (some) paper. 6. Ask your teacher if you should erase the words on the board.

VOCABULARY EXPANSION
A. Terms that refer to color or coloring: 45

1. morado(-a) purple 2. gris gray 3. claro(-a) light B. Interrogative words: 1. cundo when 2. cmo how 3. quin (-es) who 4. por qu why

4. oscuro(-a) dark 5. sombrear to shade

5. cuntos (as) how many 6. qu what 7. dnde where

C. Other people who work at a school: 1. el(la) director(-a) principal 2. el(la) vicedirector(-a) vice principle 3. el(la) enfermero(-a) nurse

Do you remember the words used in the Vocabulary Expansion?


A. Write the questions that originated the following answers:

1. Bien, gracias. Y usted?


____________________________________________________________________

2. Los nios estudian ciencias sociales los Lunes. _________________________________________________________ 3. Los nios comen en la cafetera.
____________________________________________________________________

4. Irma borra la pizarra.


____________________________________________________________________

5. Deben colorear los cuadrados.


____________________________________________________________________

46

6. Necesito seis lpices. _________________________________________________________ 7. No aprende porque no presta atencin. _________________________________________________________

B. Complete the following sentences, using the words you have just learned in the correct form:

El color rojo y el azul forman (form) el color _______________________. Nosotros coloreamos los rectngulos y ______________________ los cuadrados. No necesito un lpiz azul claro. Necesito un lpiz azul ________________. El color Negro y el color blanco forman el color _____________________. La secretaria trabaja con el director y con el _______________________. La ________________trabaja en el hospital.

47

Ms expresiones tiles
More Useful Expressions

Here are some expressions that you will find helpful to memorize. Try to make a commitment to use them, so that they become an automatic part of your Spanish.

Dnde est ...? Necesito ... Quiero ... Tengo ... Tiene ... Estoy tratando de ... Es importante ... Es necesario ... Hay que ... Hay ...

Where is ...? I need ... I want ... I have ... You (have)/he/she (has) I am trying to It is important It is necessary One has to ... There is, there are 48

La maestra dice que ... El maestro quiere ... Llme a la casa!

The teacher says that ... The teacher wants ... Call home!

Conectando Palabras y Frases (Connecting Words and Phrases Together)

As your knowledge of Spanish vocabulary increases, you are able to connect the words into simple phrases. If you learn the following connectors well, you will combine simple sentences into more sophisticated ones!

But Because Because of In order that (to) Between And Unless

Pero Porque A causa de Para Entre Y A menos que

49

Nevertheless Anyway Then then (as in a sequence of steps) First of all Usually Always Never Therefore That is Perhaps

Sin embargo De todos modos Entonces Luego Primero Por lo general Siempre Nunca O jamas Por eso Es decir A lo mejor

Verbos tiles
To read = leer To see = ver To walk = caminar To look at = mirar To eat = comer To say, tell = decir To shop = ir de compras To clean = limpiar to write = escribir to hear = or to run = correr to know (how to) = saber to drink = beber to explain = explicar to buy = comprar to wash = lavar

50

To cook = cocinar To leave = salir To work = trabajar To sleep = dormir To travel = viajar

to sew = coser to go = ir to rest = descansar to live = vivir to visit = visitar

Can you determine what these mean?

YO compro = YO viajo = YO leo = YO no trabajo = YO limpio = YO coso = YO lavo = YO salgo = YO duermo =

Usted compr = Usted viaj = Usted lee = Ella trabaja = l limpia = Ella cose = Usted lava = Usted sale = Usted duerme =

51

*** Note that the yo forms almost always end in -o, -oy or -go in the present tense. Some exceptions: Saber = Yo s, Conocer = Yo conozco.

Expressing More Ideas...


All of these expressions make your language more sophisticated. Expand your communication in Spanish! Try them right away!

Im going to ...... = Voy a .......................(Use any infinitive or name a place!) I have to .......... = Tengo que ...............(Use any infinitive here!) I need ............... = Necesito .................(Use any infinitive or name and object!) I want ............... = Quiero .....................(Use any infinitive here!) I can ................. = Puedo .....................(Use any infinitive here!) I should ............ = Debo .......................(Use any infinitive here!) I like ................. = Me gusta .................(Use any infinitive here or a single item that you like!) Id like .............. = Me gustara ..............(Use any infinitive here or a single item you would like!)

Note: To make any of these expressions negative, simply say no before the verb, e.g., No puedo = I cant ; No voy a ... = Im not going to ....; etc.

Some useful verbs to learn with these:


To write = escribir

52

To send = enviar To read = leer To sign = firmar To ask for = pedir To eat = comer To speak with = hablar con To leave = salir To give = dar To receive = recibir

Now practice these expressions telling what someone else is doing: Youre going to = Hes/Shes going to = You have to = He/ She has to = You need = He/She needs = Do you want? = Does he/she want? = You can ( Can you?) = He/ She can .... = Va a ........... Va a ........... Tiene que ............ Tiene que ............ Necesita ......... Necesita ......... Quiere . Quiere Puede .... Puede .... ....? ...? (Puede...?) (Puede ...?)

53

You should = He/She should = Do you like ....? = Does he/she like? = Would you like ...? = Would he/she like? =

Debe ... Debe ... Le gusta ...? Le gusta ...? Le gustara? Le gustara?

Note: You can make questions out of all those statements by simply raising the pitch of the voice: Example: You need to write. = Necesita escribir. Do you need to write? = Necesita escribir?

Comuniquemos . . . Lets communicate!


This is really not that difficult! Just pay attention to the patterns and their meanings.

54

VERB Comer Beber Querer Poder

I yo como yo bebo yo quiero yo puedo

You/ He/ She Usted/El/Ella come Usted/El/Ella bebe Usted/El/Ella quiere Usted/El/Ella puede

Vivir Sentirse Pedir Tomar Necesitar Pesar

yo vivo yo me siento yo pido yo tomo yo necesito yo peso

Usted/El/Ella vive Usted/El/Ella se siente Usted/El/ella pide Usted/El/Ella toma Usted/El/Ella necesita Usted/El/Ella pregunta

The verb conjugation is just a matter of replacing the verb ending (-er, -ir, -ar) with either an o to say that I am doing this action or with an e or an a to say that You are OR he/She is doing that action! Right now, try these:

I examine = I eat = I need =

he examines = she eats = you need =

55

Un Poco de Gramtica
The preposition a means at or to. If you have the definite article el directly after it, you must form the contraction al. Example: Voy al hospital. Im going to the hospital.

The preposition de, meaning from and of combines with el to form the contraction del. Example: Las rdenes del maestro son claras. The teachers orders are clear.

We show possession in Spanish by using the preposition de, as in the example above. There is no such device as the s of English (the doctors orders). We must state this as : the orders of the doctor.

To make a sentence negative in Spanish, simply add no before the verb. Yo no hablo espaol. I dont speak Spanish.

The articles el and la are generally used more frequently in Spanish than the in English. For instance, if we speak of generic terms and general ideas, we always use the definite article. We also use it with titles when speaking ABOUT people rather than directly TO them.

56

Example: Las madres son importantes. Mothers are important. La ciruga es peligrosa. Surgery is dangerous. El seor Lpez est enfermo. Mr. Lopez is sick.

Remembering how to use verbs:

Look for / identify / remember correct endings of the INFINITIVE: -ar; -er; -ir.

Drop the ending off the rest of the infinitive; this leaves the root.

Add the appropriate endings to the root. Sometimes you have to change the stem (vowel closest to the ending but not in the ending); or irregular I yo forms: oy; -go, like in estoy, vengo, traigo, etc.

57

Leccin 6 Los verbos ms comunes


The Most Common Verbs in Spanish

To want - Querer (E:IE) To like = Gustar (LIT., To please) To do/ To make - Hacer To be able - Poder (o:ue) To know how - Saber (yo = se) To go - IR (irregular! . . . voy, vas, va vamos, van) To have - Tener (irregular, tengo, tienes, tiene, tenemos, tienen) To be ser or estar (both irregular) (soy, eres, es, somos, son, estoy, ests, est, estamos, estn)

The above verbs really express what we most often discuss: desire to do something, going somewhere, possession, obligation, existence of something, liking to, knowing how to, etc., and will be extremely helpful in your professional Spanish as well! 58

Note that there are two verbs meaning TO BE, ser and estar. The verb estar comes from Latin and has the meaning of state, or temporary characteristics. It generally describes your CONDITION and / or LOCATION, as well as being a helping verb when forming verb tenses (as in I am washing). The verb ser comes from the Latin root from which we have the word essence, and is mainly used to express permanent characteristics, nationalities, professions, possession, time of day, etc. While the two verbs are not interchangeable, an error doesnt usually mean miscommunication. However, sometimes this difference can be very slight and might cause confusion.

Some common uses of SER

l es mi hermano. Juan es mayor que yo Yo soy tcnico(a). Son las tres y media. Estudiar es importante. La varicela es una enfermedad. Es usted mexicano(a)? Su clase es a las dos.

He is my brother (possession). Juan is older than I (permanent). I am a technician (profession). It is 3:30 (time). To study is important (general truth). ChickenPox is a disease (generic). Are you Mexican? (nationality) Your class is at 2:00 (time).

Some common uses of ESTAR

59

Dnde est su mam? Yo estoy en la casa. Est usted mejor? Est usted embarazada? Est a la derecha.

Where is your mother? (location) I am at home. (location) Are you better? (condition) Are you pregnant? (condition) It is on the right. (location)

SOME OTHER USEFUL EXPRESSIONS

A la derecha = to the right A la izquierda = to the left Arriba = upstairs, above, up Aqu = here En = on, in, at Sobre = above, about Afuera = outside

encima de = on top of debajo de = beneath, below abajo = downstairs all = there dentro de = within de = from, of adentro = inside

Usted necesita volver dentro de un mes. El maestro va a hablar con usted sobre su hijo. Okay, lets move to another section of very important words that you should be able to use: 60

Est (usted). . . .? aqu locations: all en casa en la escuela conditions: bien cansado (a) contento (a) confundido (a) divorciado (a)

S, (Yo) estoy . . . . . all en Atlanta en el trabajo

mal alegre enfermo (a) casado (a) entusiasmado /a

Notice that the adjective takes the gender of the noun it modifies!

Some Useful Commands


*It wont hurt to say por favor with all of these! It is polite, appropriate, and very commonly used!

Answer

Conteste Pregnte (me, le, les)**

Ask (me, him/her, them)=

61

Begin (now)

Empiece (ahora) Llme (me, le, les) (ya-may) Llve (lo, los) (yay-vey) Venga (aqu) Revse (lo, los) Hga (lo) Entre Explique (ex-plee-kay) Consiga (algo) Vaya (a) Haga Recoja (ray-ko-ha) algo La (lo, los) Repita (ms despacio) Frme (lo, los) Sintese Hable (con) Dga (me, le, les) Voltese Escrba (lo)

Call (me, him/her, them)= Carry (it, them) Come (here) Check (it, them) Do (it) Enter Explain Get (something) Go (to) Make Pick up (something) Read (it, them) Repeat (slower) Sign (it, them) Sit down Speak (with) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Tell (me, him/her, them)= Turn over Write (it) = =

62

**The written accent marks () over vowels in these words do not appear in writing unless you add the pronouns on to them, but we put them in to remind you of the proper word stress!

Some Helpful Grammar Tips

The preposition para, meaning for and/or in order to is followed by an infinitive or a noun. Examples: Este antibitico es para la infeccin. La medicina es para controlar la tos. Tome esta medicina para dormir bien. The preposition por is used to say for when speaking about a length of time. Examples: La medicina es por diez das.

The expression Hace (insert a length of time) que . . . is used to state for how long something has occurred. Examples: Hace dos das que tengo tos. Hace tres semanas que Pepe no hace la tarea.

63

Hace una hora que no habla.

The indirect object le means to you, to him, or to her Voy a ponerle mas tarea.

Some verbs have irregular yo forms you have to learn: Yo pongo (I put) Yo tengo (I have) Yo soy (I am) Yo estoy (I am)

Some verbs change the o toue or the e to ie or i. These verbs, like other changes made, must be memorized. Examples: poder = yo puedo sentirse = yo me siento empezar = yo empiezo (I begin) Tener = Ud. Tiene

The se at the end of an infinitive means that the verb is reflexive. A reflexive verb often, but not always, translates in to myself or yourself with the verb, and requires either me or se, respectively, meaning that the doer of the action is receiving the action. Here are some examples: Baarse = to bath: Juan se baa. Yo me bao.

Levantarse = lit, to raise oneself up, to get up: Mara se levanta. Cortarse = to cut oneself: Es fcil cortarse con un cuchillo.

In affirmative commands, the reflexive pronoun se is attached to the

64

command: example = Sintese! Desvstase por favor! Clmese!

The Spanish endings ando (for ar verbs) and iendo (for er & -ir verbs) are the equivalent of ing in English. These take the place of the ar, -er, or ir ending. The words with ando and iendo endings are called gerunds or present participles depending on a function they perform, and are used mainly with the helping verb estar: Estoy hablando = I am speaking. Est Ud. Tomando aspirina? = Are you taking aspirin?

The Spanish endings ado (again, for ar verbs) and ido (-er & -ir verbs) are the equivalent of ed (sometimes en) in English. They are called past participles, and they form the present perfect tense with the helping verb haber: Yo he comido. = I have eaten. Ha tomado Ud? = Have you taken? Yo he caminado. = I have walked. Ella ha recetado. = She has prescribed. Usted se ha quebrado el brazo. = Youve broken your arm.

Note that these past participles are often used as adjectives, and in this case their gender and number agree with those of the nouns modified. Examples: Su hija tiene los ojos bonitos. Su hijo tiene el pelo negro. Su hijo tiene la vida complicada. Su hija tiene las manos bien cuidadas.

65

Commands are formed by taking the yo form of the verb, and replacing the o with an ending opposite to the associated with the infinitive ending. In other words, -ar verbs change the o to e, while ir and er verbs change the o to a. Examples: Tomar = yo tomo becomes Tome Ud.! Comer = yo como becomes Coma Ud.! Tener = yo tengo becomes Tenga Ud.!

We hope you have enjoyed learning Spanish with this manual. We are sure that you will enhance your knowledge by practicing the language with your students and colleagues. Do not be afraid! GOOD LUCK!!!

66