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CD11Cassette1

Introduction
Pronunci,ltion
Unit 1.1
Unit 1.2
Unit 1.3
Unit 1.5
Summary 1
Unit 2.1
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Unit
Unit 2.5
Sum11tant 2
Unit 3.1
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Unit 3.2
Unit 3.3
Unit 3.5
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Review 1
Unit4.l
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Unit 4.2
Unit 4.3
Unit 4.5

Unit 5.1
Unit 5.2
Unit 5.3
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Unit 6.1
Unit 6.2
Unit 6.3
Unit 6.5
Summary 6
Unit 7.1
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Unit 7.5

Summary 1
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Review 2
Unit 8.]
Unit 8.2
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Re\ iew 4
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Alphabet
Printed forms
Letter
Approx.
Tra11slit-
Hnlldwritte1l forms

eration
fower
capital
lower
capital
ll0111C
pro11.
-case
-case
a
A
'ah'
a
a
fl
.J
6
6
'beh'
b
b
o
$"
8
B
'veh'
v
v
G
J3
r
r
'geh'
g
g
~
Jl
'deh'
d
d
3
tf)
E
'yeh'

e
ye
e
e

'yoh'
..


E
e
yo
yo
e
II\
)I(
'zheh'
French 'j'
zh
JK,
J{C-
3
3
'zeh'
z
z
3
3
l1
'ee'
lL
It

ee
1
u.

~
l1
sl!ort i
J
It
yin dipht1wng i
~
u
t.l
~
K
'kah'
k
k
X
.1
J1
'el'
1
1
.II
Jl
M
rvt
'em'
m
m
Jl1
tl H
'en'
n
n
1-1
Jl
0
0
'oh'
0
0
D
0
II
n
'peh'
p
j(
p
p
p
'err'
rolled 'r'
.f
r
f
c
c
'es'
s
s
c
c
I T
'teh'
t
j/
t
-
n1
"
)'
,
I
J

Ol)
u
u
y
4>
<J)
'cf'
f
f
j)
f
X X
'hah'
h
J:
kh
X
ll u
'tseh'
ts
11
ts
~
'I 4
'cheh'
ch
ch
~
7:
Ill w
'shah'
Irani 'sir'
sh
/J).
(.!!
Ill
Ill
'ssshah'
soft 'sss/1'
shch us
lLI
1. 'h
Jun cl sig11
II
-
0
... hl 'uy'
uy
y
bt.
I
b

h
soft sig,
-
~
lmck-cvnrds t'
e
e
a
a
10 10
I yuo'
yoo
yu
ID
iO
Sl
'yah'
ya
yn
..,
f;l{_
ix
Vowels
There are ten vowels in the Russian alphabet. Five are the so-
called 'hard vowels' and five are the so-called 'soft vowels'.
When pronounced on their own, or at the beginning of a word,
the first four 'soft' vowels have a y- sound at the beginning.
'Hard' vowels a 3 o y bl

'Soft' vowels H e e 10 H
Co11smzan ts
Most consonants in Russian can be either 'soft' or 'hard'. A
consonant is hard when it is followed by a so-called 'hard'
vO\'\'el, or if it comes at the end of a word and does not have a
soft sign (-b) after it. Here are the hard variants of consonants
followed by some so-called 'hard' vowels.
Hard variants of 6y oo Jla ry Ja KO Jlbl
consonants
Ma HJ no pa co Tbl
cibl Xbl
A consonant is soft when it is followed by a so-called 'soft'
vowel or has a soft sign (-b) after it. When pronouncing a soft
consonant, the main part of the tongue is pushed up against
the roof of the mouth, giving the sound a 'y'-like quality. Here
are the soft variants of consonants followed by some so-called
'soft' vowels.
Soft variants of
consonants
610 Be )lH rH 3H KJI JJH
MH He ne pH Ce TH c110 XH
And here are some examples of soft consonants followed by a
soft sign (-b). The vowel a has been added before the
consonant: aJib. aub, aTb. Without the soft sign these would be
hard: aJI, an. aT.
Not all consonants have hard and soft variants. There are
three inherently hard consonants, which are hard no matter
what sort of vowel follows them, and there are two inherently
soft consonants.
Inherently hard consonants
Inherently soft consonants
m
w
Stress has an important effect on the pronuncation of some
vowels. In this book the stressed syllable in words of more
than one syllable is marked with an acute accent- ouo. eMy,
- 1 08
0PHTb. ln normal written Russian however - books,
newspapers, signs, letters, etc.- stress is not marked, since
Russians' k 1 d h
. ~ now e ge .of their own language tells them w ere
at falls.
I> I>
I>
I>
I>
I>
I> I> I> I> I>
Starting out
noexanM!
OBJECTIVES
In this unit you'll learn how to:
0 pronounce Russian words
0 greet people
0 ask simple questions
0 make simple statements
[> [>
And cover the following grammar and language:
0 3To 'this is', 'that is'
0 gender of nouns
0 pronouns
LEARNING RUSSIAN 1
The first challenge in learning Russian is familiarizing
yourself with the script. Although it may look daunting to
begin with, you will soon find that you can recognize the
words you hear on the recordings quickly and that there are
few surprises in Russian spelling. To start with, however, you
will need to practise reading as much as possible. Reading
exercises are included in this unit.
Although this course concentrates on listening and speaking,
one of the best ways of learning new words is by writing
them down, and then writing them out several times if
possible. For this you will need to know Russian handwritten
forms, which are a little different from printed letters (see
page ix). Learning them now may seem like an extra b u r ~ e n
to begin with, but your efforts will be repaid when you find
you are reading and writing with ease!
@ Now start the recording for Unit 1.
1
The alphabet
AncJlaBHT
h
't alreadv listen now to the Pronunciation Guide
A If vou aven J' Wh
ar{d look at the alphabet chart on pagbe txk. thenbyoukfeel you
f
-
1
vith the alphabet, come ac to e oo and try
are am1 tar'
the activity below.
ACTIVITY 1
many words borrowed from English and many
Russ1an uses .
t. I' terms Try to work out the meantngs of the
'mtema wna
following words.
1 6opm
9
,
UHKJIOH
10
,
2 Q>6pyM
SIHKII
3
,
'3pa
11 x666n
4
,
12 noHJJ,OH rapa)K
5
,
13 l.J.uKaro an3a
6
., ,
ManoHe3 14
..... ,
Hhlo-HopK
7
woQ>ep 15 AMepnKa
8
,
16
CaHKT-neTep6ypr
mlTepbep
LANGUAGE BUILDING l
0 Stress and vowels
You now know all you need to know to read Russian words of one syllable
correctly, and read out longer words in a slow and deliberate style.
In this book the stressed syllable in words of more than one syllable is
marked with an acute accent (MocKea, xopow6). (In books for Russian
native speakers stress is not marked, since Russians' knowledge of their
own language tells them where it falls.)
Stress has an important effect on the pronunciation of some vowels. The
following points are vital to your understanding and speaking of Russian:
an unstressed o sounds something like 'ah' or 'uh'
an unstressed e sounds something like 'i' or 'yi'
an unstressed fl before the stressed syllable sounds like 'i' or 'yi'
Thus the word oH6, meaning 'it', will sound and
the word eM.' mean in 'to him', sounds something like Ylmoo.
ACTIVITY 2
Read the following words out loud. Remember, words of one
syllable have no stress mark, and their vowels are
pronounced as normal. Try to learn the meanings of the
words as you go.
Words of one syllable:
.na
yes
ue1
no
KTO?
who?
r.ne?
where?
B I
Tbl
you [familiar, singular]
OH
he/it
Mbl we
Bbl you [plural; also polite si11gttlar]
Words of two syllables:
oua she/it
,
OHO
,
OHH
,
BOK33.11
MocKoa
TeTH
,
CJIOBO
,
BlbiK
,
OKHO
it
they
main railway station
Moscow
aunt [no stress marked as e is always stressed]
word
language
window
Words of three syllables:
pa66Ta work
,
YJUIU3
,
xopowo
street
OK; \Veil
Now do activities 3, 4, and 5 on the recording.
3
Hello!
3ApaBCTBYMTe!
@ ACTIVITY 6 is on the recording.
ACTIVITY 7
A Listen to the recording. Which of the followin
words ani phrases do you hear? g
1 lloKa!
2 llpHJITnoro anneniTa!
3 flO)I(MYHCTa!
B Which of the phrases above would you use:
a when offering somebody something?
b on starting a meal?
c when saying goodbye to a close friend?
DIALOGUE 1
0 no)l(anyifcra, sam 6opm.
Cnacu6o. A cMeTana?
0 BoT, no)l(anyifcTa. cMeTaHa.
Cnacu6o.
0 flO)I(MyHCTa, BclillH ~ H .
.&. MMMM! Cnacli6o!
0 H xne6, no)J(anyiicTa. IlpM5ITHOro anneTI1Ta!
Cnacu6o!
I VOCABULARY
3AP8BCTBYMTe!
AO CBMACJHMA!
npMBeTI
non I
noanyi4CTa
cnacil&o
B8W, UWM
a
CM8T6H8
BOT
..
II
....
...-THoro annerin'al
hello
goodbye
hi! [informal]
bye! [informal]
please; you're welcome
thank you
your ] but
and [with slight contrast,
sour cream . g or
here is [said whilst pomtm
indicating in some way]
cabbage soup
and
bread
1
enjoy your meal .
LANGUAGE BUILDING r
Rather than giving you any new grammar in this section, here is some
more reading practice. For both activities, read the words out loud,
repeating them several times. You will probably need to check back to
the alphabet summary chart on page ix. Also, bear in mind how stress
affects the vowels o, e, and R (see page 2) .
ACTIVITY 8
Read the following words out loud carefully. Try to learn the
mearungs as you go.
Words of one syllable:
uaw
HO
TaM
l.lleCb
our
but [strong contrast]
there
here
Words of two syllables:
Kor.ua ? when?
very

also
town, city
mum
TO IKe

ropo.u
Phrases:
I can
,
H MOry

H XO'IY
I want
H JIJ06JIW
I like, I love
Words of four syllables:
HlBHHHTe! sorry!
csn.uaune meeting, rendezvous
ACTIVITY 9
Try to work out the meanings of the following words.
1 6ap 8 aHopaK 15 3M6apro
2 <t>aKC 9 xynMraH 16
3

1
0 napnaMeHT 17 aBOKa,z:J.O
caMMHT ,
11
18 rHMH3CTiiKa
4 npHHTep nHuua ,
5 BHCKH 12 i16ra 19
6 <t>yr66n 13 20
7 HeiUI6H 14 KYJihTypa 21 opraHn3auujl
@ Now do activities 10 and 11 on the recording.
5
Are ou a student?
@ ACTIVITY 12 is on the recording.
ACTIVITY 13
What three things do Gleb and Svetlana have in common?
DIALOGUE 2
0 CseTnaHa, Bbi - cT)')J:eHTI<a?
LJ:a, - cry.IJ.eHTKa. A - cry.IJ.eHT?
,na, Sl TO)f(e cry.neHT. A CseTa, Bbl - MOCKBMqKa?
LJ:a, MOCKBI-It.tKa. A Bbi?
0 51 To)f(e MOCKBIIt.t. Ho H nro6nK> CaHKT-IleTep6ypr.
,
51 TO)f(e n106n!O CaHKT-IleTep6ypr. Ot.teHh mo6nK>.
! voCABULARY
CTy.QeHTKa
CTy.QeHT
Calrra
,
MOCKBM"'Ka
,
MOCKBM"'
student [female]
student [male]
familiar form of the name CaeTnaHa
Muscovite [female]
Muscovite [male]
LANGUAGE BUILDING I
0 3To 'this is'. 'that is'
The word 3To means 'this is' or 'that is'. (Notice that the word '4TO is
spelled with "' not was you might expect.)
KTO 3To? Who is that?

3To lt1aaH. That is Ivan.
'-ITo 3To? What is that?

3To It's bortsch.
0 Simple statements
6
There is no verb 'to be' in the present tense. In writing it is sometimes
indicated by a dash.
HVIHa. I am Nina.
Tbl- MOCKBVlYKa. You're a Muscovite.
0Ha- spaY. She's a doctor.
lt1aaH - onT1!1MVIcT. Ivan's an optimist.
0 Questions
Simple questions are made by keeping the same w d d
. or or er as the
statement, but usmg a question intonation.
HI-1Ha - spa'4. Nina is a doctor.
Bpa'4? Is Nina a doctor?
0 Gender of nouns
It is easy to tell the gender of a Russian noun from the ending on the
form in which it appears in the dictionary. This form is called the
nominative singular. Nouns ending in a consonant in the nominative
singular are masculine. Here are some examples you know already:
xne6, RlbiK, BOKJan, r6po,q, CaHKT-neTep6ypr,
apa'4, CTYAeHT, MOCKBM'4, cpyT66n, xynHraH
Most nouns ending in the letter -a, its 'soft' equivalent R, or -MR are
feminine:

cTyAeHTKa, MOCKBM'4Ka, TeTft. BMJg_,_ peeomouMR
Nouns ending in the letters -o or -Me are neuter.
0 Pronouns
singular
I "
you [familiar) Tbl
plural
we
you [plural; also polite singular)
they/nouns of any gender
Mbl
Bbl
he/masculine nouns OH

OHM
she/feminine nouns
neuter nouns
,
OHa
OHO

ACTIVITY 14 t
In A and B below, match the questions with the appropna e
answer.
A 1 f.ne XJie6?
2 r.ne cMeTaHa?
3 f.ne aBOKcl,UO?
a 0H6 3JleCh.
b OH TaM.
,
c Bor oHa.
a Omi
B 1 f.ne 6opm? b BoT OH. no>K[Ulyi1cra!
2 r.ue MaMa? fA / ? c Ow\ 3)leCb.
3 f.ne fne6 H nBaH. .
. . . 15 16 and 17 on the recordmg.
Now do achvtties , '
7
Who is that?
KTo 3To?
Below are some short biographies to introduce the main
characters in our story I The Larin Family'. The first episode
follows in 1.5.
, ,
3To EsreHIUI
flaBJIOBHa JlapHHa.
OHa - 6a6ywKa.
A 3To HsaH
fpuropbeBHq Jla pMH.
OH - ne.uylliKa.
OH nro6MT 6opm.
,
3To TeTSJ TflHSI.
OHa - spali.
0Ha T6)Ke mo6Hr
6opm.
,
3To MapnSI HsaHoBHa
A soT JleHa.
0Ha - ):(Ol.Jb.
3To Oner Iifs.HoBirtt
JHipHH.
)l{aposa.
0Ha- MaTh.
OH _ npenonasareJib.
0Ha - :>KypHanHCTKa.
VOCABULARY
grandmother [used colloquially of any
old woman]
nta6HT
grandfather [used colloquially of any old
man]
apa"t
M3Tb
>t<ypHanHCTKa
>t<ypHanaitcT
,QO"tb(f)
npeno,QaeaTenb
Xy,QO>KHHK
WOTnilH,QKa
TaTapHH
ACTIVITY 18
loves
doctor
mother
journalist [female]
journalist [male)
daughter
teacher
artist
Scottish woman
Tartar
Read the biographies aloud several times, checking back in
your book if you have forgotten any letters. Translate the text
as you go, using the pictures to help you, and learn the new
words.
ACTIVITY 19
You're at a business reception and you think you see Aleksei
Semyonovich Gagarin, a Russian businessman who has done
some work for your company. Check with your Russian host
that it is indeed Aleksei Semyonovich, and then go over and
say hello.
Don't be discouraged if at this stage you're still finding the
alphabet hard going. It will take quHe a while before you feel
really confident in reading and writing. If you keep practising,
however, one day you'll suddenly realize you're reading or
writing something in Cyrillic without even thinking about it,
and all the hard work will have been worthwhile.
In the meantime, keep checking back over the alphabet chart
on page ix and revising the early parts of the book. The more
reading and writing practice you do, the easier it will be to
learn new words and absorb granunar points.
9
1.5 fl8pMHbl - The Larin Family
nporjnKa no TaepcK6My 6ynbaapy
A stroll along the Tverskoi Boulevard
@ The scene takes place on Moscow's Tverskoi B
1
. 1 . ou evard
where Evgentya Pav ovna Lanna, her daughter M . '
lvanovna Zharova, and her granddaughter Lena anya
h
are takin
afternoon stroll. By c ance, they meet someone M . g au
I vanovna knows. anya
I VOCABULARY
my [with feminine nouns] -
diminutive form of Lena- 'little Lena'
ACTIVITY 20
Listen to the story and write in the m1ssing words below.
1 Mapit51 HsaHOBHa. ___ ?
2 6opHC MuxaHIIOBHtJ, )TO --- naBnOBHa.
3 , EsreHH51 llasnosHa.
4 A 3To?
s ;uoqh, JleHa.
6 , JleHOqKa.
ACTIVITY 21
Listen to the story again and answer the questions.
1 What is the name of the man they meet?
2 Who does Mariya introduce him to first?
3 What does the man ask Mariya next?
4 How does Mariya answer?
f
. ?
5 What is the man's pro esston.
Test
Now it's time to test your progress in Unit 1.
1 Match 1-8 with the English equivalents from a-h.
1 no)KanyifcTa! a hi!
2 3.n;pciBcray'HTe! b OK!
3 )1.0 CBI1,llaHH51! C hello
4 I<TO 3To? d you're welcome
5 npruiTHoro anneTI1Ta! e thank you
6 npwaeT! f who is that?
7 xoporn6! g goodbye
8 cnacl16o! h enjoy your meal
2
Pair up the sentences 1-6 with the correct response from
a- to make six mini-dialogues.
1[

)
(
lloKa!
Ja
2[_
Ilo)Kany'Hcra!
) (
,[{o CBI1)lclHIUI! Jb
3[_
) (
,
Jc
KTo 3To?
3TO IUII.
Jd
4[
,[(0
) (
3npaBCTBYHTe!
Je
5[ qTO )To?
) (
Crrac!f6o!
Jf
6!
)
(
, ,
Iloi<a!
3To HBaH.
un OH
b
dd
. the correct prono
3 Complete the replies Y a mg nli (plural).
(masculine), ona (feminine), ORO (neuter), or
0
1 r.n.e x.ne6? BoT
2 f.lle oKH6? BoT
3 f.n.e cry.n.eHT?
3.n.ecb.
4
f.lle ynHQa?
3,LJ,ecb.
5
r.ne MaaH H Eopnc?
TaM.
6 r.ne MaMa?
TaM.
4 Complete each sentence with the appropriate word from
the box below.
0 11
,
OHa
,
OHI1
I.ITO
KTO
,
TO)l(e
mo6n.O
,
anneTHTa
,
CBM,llaJIJ1ji
1 rne6 CTy,lleHT, 11 CseTnaHa --- CTy)l.eHTKa.
2 ,[(0 , fieTp JiiBclHOBJ11.1!
,
3 :5To? 3To Eoplic.
4 r)l.e 60pi.Q? 3,lleCb.
5 fi p iHTTHOfO !
6 R CaHKT-0eTep6ypr.
,
7 3To HI1Ha. - apaq.
,
8 )To? 3TO I.QH.
9 Cue .ne.nyUJKa H 6a6yll1Ka? BoT _ _
5 How would you say the following things in Russian?
(2 points for each correct answer, 1 point if you make only
one error)
1 Thank the hotel receptionist for giving you your key.
2 Say you're a student.
3 Ask your tour-guide if she' s a Muscovite.
4 Say you love beetroot soup!
5 Say 'hello' to some business colleagues.
6 Ask where Ivan Alekseyevich is.
7 Say 'goodbye' to a close Russian friend.
8 Apologize for stepping on someone' s toe in a
crowded bus.
If you scored less than 35, go through the and the
Language Building sections again before completing the
Summary on p age 14.
14
Summary 1
@ Now try this final test summarizing the main points
. h" . v ch k covered
tnt IS umt. 10U can ec your answers on the reco ct
r mg.
How would you:
1 greet a business colleague? a close friend?
2 say to a business colleague? to a close friend?
3 say 'enJOY your meal'?
4 ask 'who is that?'
5 say 'it's Ivan'?
6 ask where Nina is?
7 say 'she's here'?
8 ask a man you've just met if he's a doctor?
9 say you love St Petersburg?
REVISION
Before moving on to Unit 2, play Unit 1 through again and
compare what you can say and understand now with what
you knew when you started. Go over any vocabulary you still
feel unsure of.
Don't be discouraged if you find you're still having
difficulties with the Russian alphabet. We've included plenty
of reading practice in the next few units to help drive it home.
In the meantime, keep testing yourself on the alphabet,
remembering to write things down as often as you can;
practising handwritten forms will also help you remember
the alphabet. For further practice look at other Language es
Building sections later in this book - you could
of the countries on page 91 (Unit 7) and page llS h( rut
U
. 5) the mont s on p o
days of the week on page 65 ( n1t 'or . need to refer
113 (Unit 8). At this stage you will probably snlld tion to this
back tO the alphabet summary chart in the fn.trO I
ti e it vnll snc
book a good deal. Don't worry - tn rn .
t revteW
h xt few unt s,
Once you have worked through t e everything you
Unit 1 again. This will help to consohdate
have learned so far.
~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
First steps
nepBble warM
OBJECTIVES
In this unit you'll learn how to:
0 express likes and dislikes
0 correct mistakes
0 request things
And cover the following grammar and language:
0 the present tense of Ia, lb, and II verbs
0 the accusative singular of nouns
0 nouns ending in a soft sign
0 the accusative of pronouns
0 imperatives ]
0 the plural of nouns
LEARNING RUSSIAN 2
Russian is a highly inflected language, which means that
many words in the sentence alter their endings to express
elements of grammatical meaning- for example, to show
which word is the subject, which is the object, and so on.
For many people, remembering the correct inflectional
endings to put on words is one of the most difficult aspects of
learning Russian. There are different ways of approaching this
task. In this course the different inflectional endings are
introduced progressively, with examples and explanations in
the Language Building sections. However, many people find
it useful to look at all the inflectional endings together,
presented in the fonn of a table: the inforn1ation is presented
in this way in the Grammar Summary at the end of this book.
@ Now start the recording for Unit 2.
15
football
11rpa10 a ctyT66n
ITY 1 is on the recording.
ACTIVITY 2
1 Does Svetlana like football?
2 Does Gleb play football well?
3 Does Gleb's brother play football well?
DIALOGUE 1
0 CseTniHa, Bbl n.06uTe 4>yr66n?
,lla, Jl n106n.O 4>yr66n. A BLI urpae-re a <l>yr66n?
0 ,lla, Jl HI pa10 s 4>yr66n xcbic.uLiii neHh. Ho sr nn6xo Hrpa
10
.
Moii 6paT T6>Ke urpae-r a 4>yr66n.
Oi, KaK HHTepecHo! A oH xopom6 HrpaeT?
0 HeT, DJI6xo. MLI DJ16xo HrpaeM, Ho 6YeHh ni06HM HrpaTb.
I VOCABULARY I
MrpBTb B
KUf.QbiM
.qeHb (m)
nn6xo
&paT
KaK MHTepeCHO!
I LANGUAGE BUILDING I
0 The present tense
to play football
every, each
day
badly
brother
how interesting!
d
11 differing in
There are two main types of verbs in Russian: type I an type ,
1
their endings in the present tense. Infinitives end in Tb {apart a eeowtten
f ' r end1ng ar
forms in TM and 'lit). Verbs with an -a- before the 1n '"' 've eptions
there are exc
type I, and verbs with an M are often type II. However, h verb ;tself
and it is better to learn which type a verb is when you learn t e f
d
ding on the type o e'll
"JYpe I is further divided into type Ia and lb, epen you meet an
. wei When
stem. Wrth type Ia verbs, the stem ends '" .a vo . vocabulary
note the first person singular form (hsted '"
as this will give you the present tense stem.
-
Type Ia verbs (stem ending in a vowel)
pa66TaTb - to work (stem: pa6c>Ta-)
fl I work (or I am working, etc.)
Tbl pa6oTaewb you work [familiar singular]
OH, oHa, oH6 he, she, it works
Mbl pa66TaeM we work
Bbl pa66TaeTe you work [polite singular, plural]
oHl-1 pa66TatOT they work
Other type Ia verbs: 1upaTb 'to play' (f! "U1TaTb 'to read' (fl
OTAbiXaTb 'to relax' (fl OT.QbrxatO), ,qenaTb 'to do', 'to make' .Qena
10
),
noHMMaTb 'to understand' (fl H3y"faTb 'to learn' (fl




cnywaTb 'to listen' (R cnywa10), 3HaTb 'to know'. '
With type lb verbs, the stem ends in a consonant.
Type lb verbs (stem ending in a consonant)
>K.QaTb- to wait
eX3Tb- to go (by transport)
(stem: >K.Q-)
(stem: e,q-)
I wait
,
fl eAY-
I go

you wait
,
Tbl >KAeUb
Tbl eAeWb
you go

he waits
,
he goes
OH >KAgi
OH e,qeT

we wait
,

Mbr e,qeM
we go

you wait
Bbr >K.QeTe
,
Bbl eAeTe
you go
,
>KAY! they wait
, ,
eAYI they go
If the verb is stressed on the ending, it has -e- instead of -e-.
Other type lb verbs: H.QTH 'to go (on foot)' (R >KMTb 'to live' (fl
Type II verbs
roaopl-1Tb - to speak, talk nta6HTb - to love
(stem: roaop-) (stem: nta6n-, n.06-)
fl roaop!9 I speak f! nta6n!9 I love
Tbl roaopl-iwb you speak Tbl n.06HWb you love
OH roaop!fl: he speaks OH he loves
Mbl roaopl-iM we speak Mbl n.06HM we love
Bbl roaopl-1Te you speak Bbrn.06MTe you love
OHl-1 roaopffi: they speak oHl-1 n.06ffi: they love
Some verbs, such as nta6HTb above, have a slightly different stem from the
second person singular onwards; for such verbs, the first and the second
person singular forms are listed in the vocabulary glossary.
Other type 11 verbs: cMOTpeTb 'to look, watch' cMorptb, Tbr
BHAeTb 'to see' (fl ali!>t<y, Tbl alii.Q1.1Wb).
@ Now do activities 3 and 4 on the recording.
17
2.2
18
I don't like coffee
~ He n106nl0 K6ctle
@ ACTIVITY 5 is on the recording.
ACTIVITY 6
Correct the statements which are false.
1 Kolya's mother doesn't like coffee.
2 She sometimes drinks tea.
3 She orders milk and a bun.
4 She sends the bun back.
DIALOGUE 2
0 MaMa. Tbi x6tielllh K6<t>e?
T/F
T/F
T/F
T/F
-
HeT, He xoqy. K6llil, Tbi 3Haelllb. qTo SI He mo6mo K6<t>e.
0 A, MO)KeT 6biTb, qaii?
HeT. Sl soo6me He IlbiO qai1.
0 MaMa, a liTO Tbi x6qemh?
R xoqy MonoK6 n 6ynol.n<y.
0 npHHeCHTe, flO)Kanyiicra. MOTIOKO H 6ynoqK)' .

... BoT, flO)KanyacTa, MOTIOKO H 6ynoqKa. npHSITHOfO arrnenira!
Cnacl16o, K6neHbKa, HO 6ynotiJ<Y SI He xoqy.
0 MaMa, Sl He noHHMaro. Tbi x6qelllh 6ynoqKy Jinu He xoqelJlh?
R ee He xoqy, K6neHoKa, nopor6ii. 0Ha .LJ.JJSI Te6j}. Kyruai1,
K9mai1 Ha 3,Uop6sbe!
I VOCABULARY I
K6q>e (m}
,
Tbl XO'teWb
'fTO
He
MiKeT 6b1Tb
'faM (m)
a o o 6 ~ e He
R nbtO, Tbl nbeWb
MonoK6
6yno'fKa
MnM

ee
, -
AOporOM
AJIR Te6fl
KjwaM Ha 3AOp6Bbel
coffee
you want
that [conjunction]
not
maybe
tea
not at all
1 drink, you drink
milk
bun
or . of otfa]
it, her [accusatiVe
dear, my dear
for you .
1
eat! enjoy lt.
-
LANGUAGE BUILDING
0 The accusative singular of nouns
The grammar of a Russian sentence requires that nouns (and adjectives,
etc.) should be in a particular form or case. There are six cases in Russian.
You have already met the nominative, which is the case used when a
noun is the subject of a verb and also in dictionary entries.
The accusative is the case used for the direct object of verbs. For
masculine nouns (except for those referring to people and animals- see
Unit 3) and for all neuter nouns, the accusative singular is the same as the
nominative singular.
7f '-13Y4iuo pyccK .. M R3btK. I am studying Russian.
np'-1Hecl-1re, MonoK6. Could I have some milk, please?
Feminine nouns change their endings from -a to-y or -MR to Hto.
7f xo4y I want a bun.
Bbt Bl-1.Q'-1Te yn .. Can you see the street?
0 Nouns ending in a soft sign (-h)
Nouns ending in a soft sign may be either masculine or feminine. The
nominative and the accusative forms are identical (except for masculine
nouns referring to people or animals- see Unit 3). Here are some examples:
m: py6nb ('rouble'), rocTb ('guest'), AeHb ('day'), KpeMnb ('Kremlin'}
f: ('square'), ABepb ('door'), ('church'}
0 The accusative of pronouns
Pronouns have a different form when used in the accusative.
nom. accusative nom. accusative
,
I R MeHR we Mbl
you (sing.) Tbl Te6R
you (pl., formal) Bbl
he

they OH ero
she
,
..
OHa ee
it

,
OHO ero
OH ni06'-1T MeHfi. He loves me.
OHL-1 JHatOr Te6R? Do they know you?
ACTIVITY 7
Put the words into the accusative.
1 CMeniHa
4 ynHua
2 flOH,llOH
,
5 MOJJOKO

OHM
3 l.(epKOBb
6 .neHh
@ Now do activities 8 and 9 on the recording.
Hac
sac
MX
19
2.3
20
Could I have ... ?
AaMTe, no>KanyV.cTa,

@ ACTIVITY 10 is on the recording.
ACTIVITY 11
1 What newspaper is Valerii Borisovich given first of all?
2 What is wrong with the copy of Pravdn?
3 What does the postcard turn out to be?
4 What three items does Valerii Borisovich buy in the end?
DIALOGUE 3
0 )l'UiTe. no>KarryiicTa, llpaa.uy H cnM.t.tKM.
BoT no)J(anyiicTa.
0 3To He llpaB)la, a He3aaH.cHMaSI fa3eTa.
0, n3BHHHTe, no)KarryiicTa. BoT fipaaJJ.a.
0 Ho 3To cTapa51, co BTOpHuKa.
A '-ITo? He BT6pHHK?
0 HeT. cer6.UH.sl He BT6pHnK, a cpe.na.
Ax, .na! IlpasiinbHO! Yl3Bl1Hl1Te, no)J(aJiyikTa. BoT H6saH
Dpas.na. Eme qTo-Hn6y.nh?
0 fiO)Kfui)'liCTa. eme JTY OTKpbiTKY.
,
3TO He OTKpbiTKa, a KaneH.riapuK.
0 Hy xoporn6, .SI B03bMY KaneH.napnK, 0p{iB.UY u cm!ttKlJ.
0 O)l(MyHCTa.
I VOCABULARY I
AilMTe
npaaAa
He3aBMCMM3Jt ra3eTa
,
CnM'4KM
,
cTapaJt
c,co
,
BTOpHMK
cer6AHJt
cpeAil
,
npaaMnbHO
HOB 3ft

ell.\e
'4Tc>HM6YAb
&LL\e '4Tc>HMYAb?
,
OTKpb1TK3
Kan&HAapMK
,
B03bMY
could I have ... ? [literally: give]
Pravda
Nezavisimaya Gazeta
matches
old
from
Tuesday
today
Wednesday
that's right
new
still, else, further .
anything, something
anything else?
postea rd !bl
little calendar h verb
will take [from t e
-
LANGUAGE BUILDING
0 Imperatives 1
You've already met the following examples of the formal or plural
imperative (for situations where you would use Bbl): cnywaHTe 'listen',
HJBHHMTe 'excuse me, sorry', J.QpascTBYHTe 'hello', npHHecr.fre 'bring'.
Here are some more examples:
.QaHTe, Xlle6. Please give me some bread.
CMOTpHTel Look!
BXOAHTel Come in!
CKa>KHTe, rAe Merp6? Can you tell me, please, where the
metro is?
For the informal singular imperative (for situations where you would use
Tbl), the final -Te is dropped: HJBHHH! AaH! CMOTpH! CKa>KHI
0 The plural of nouns in the nominative and accusative
With the exception of nouns referring to animals and people (see Unit 4),
the accusative plural is the same as the nominative plural.
Masculine nouns ending in
consonant add -bl
, ,
BOKJanhl cTyAeHTbl
-b
replace with -H
py6nH, r6CTM
Feminine nouns ending in
-a replace with -bl
, ,
BHJg ynH4hl
-b replace with -H
, .
ABepM
-HJI replace with -HH pesonK>uHH
Neuter nouns ending in
-o replace with -a
-He replace With -HJI CBHAclHHJI
Following Spelling Rule 1 (see Grammar Summary page 221 for details)
the letter bl must be replaced by H after K. r. x. >K . .,., w. This affects
many plurals, such as: cnH.,.K!1 ('matches'). oTKpbiTKH ('postcards'), JtJbiKH
('languages'), spa._.H ('doctors').
ACTIVITY 12
Match the situations 1-4 with the expressions from a-d.
1 Asking directions. a )],anTe, no>Kfulyi1cTa, npas.uy.
2 Ordering a drink. b CI<a)f(IITe, no)l(anyi1CTa, r)le MeTp6?
3 Buying a paper. c Bxo;uiTe!
4 Knock on door. d flpnnecJITe, no)l([Uiyi1cTa. qai1.
@ Now do activities 13 and 14 on the recording.
21
2.4
Signs
BbiBeCKM
ACTIVITY 15
Here are some common words you will see around you on
signs, shops and other buildings. They are all in capital letters
-you may need check back to the alphabet summary chart
page ix to remind yourself of the See if you can
out the meanings. Complete the actlvtty and then check the
vocabulary list which follows.
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
BXO)l
- - . -- - -- ... .. - .... !
ABT01iYC
.... -- -- ...__.. ..._...... - --
KHV1fV1
Kl10CK
.



PECTOPAH
I

I

METPO
---------------------------------
' '
' '
i KACCA l
I o
._ ____________________________________________ !
AITTEKA
2
4
6
8
10
12
14

.............
\ MOPO)l(EHOE--1
I
..................................
......... I
...............
TPOflflEVlSYC
. "
-
TYAJIETbl
BOK3AJI
KMHO
KBAC
.-.

_......................... ...... .. ....... ,_., ....
OHBO
-
_ _,
16
_.-:
_ .. I
-------- I
18 r----
!.----------
VOCABULARY
bus
chemist's
entrance
3BT66yc
anTeKa
BXOA
Kacca
KBac
ticket-office, box-office, cash-desk

KMHO
kvass [a Russian drink made from black bread}
cinema, movies
book

KHMra
Mop6>KeHoe

1ce-cream

nMBO beer

no"'Ta post office
ACTIVITY 16
Now here are some names of streets, museums, cafes, and so
on. Identify the places with the help of the vocabulary li st
below.
1
3
5
7
9
11
K.A<I>E
KOnAKAEAHA
TBEPCKOl/1
6YnbBAP
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

: HOBA51 !
: TIJIOIIJ;A.IJ:h i

--- ----- - - J
YHl!IBEPCl!ITET
PECTOPAH
I
Y liAiiYlUKH

MY3EH
PEBOJIIOQMH
I VOCABuLARY I

ceram1cs
2
4
6
8
10
12
MY3Eiii
KEPAMVIKVI
,L(OM-MY3Ei1 K. C.
CTAHHCnABCKOfO
,[(Ol\1-MY3EM
A. ll.I.JEXOBA
.... ..... ............ .................. . - .. .... .
nllOLUA.Qb

. ... ..... . . . ...
KPEMJIL

I :
! KPACHA51 !
I n11omNJ.h i
L--------------------------------------------
KepaMMKa
y (+gen.)
AOM
KpacHaR
at someone's house, at, by
house
red
23
2.5
2A
napMHbl
n&tta noK)fnileT MOpb>KeH08
@?) Lena buys an ice-cream
Evgeniya Pavlovna, Mariya lvanovna, and little Lena are
continuing their afternoon stroll along the Tverskoi Boulevard.
[ VOCABULARY \
KOHe'fHO
K8K0e
3CKMMO
nnoM6Mp
K)fnMTb II (KYnn.O.

HaaepHoe
HY M Hy!
npOcTO
3TO 'fYAO!
ACTIVITY 17
of course
what sort of ... ?
choc-ice
'plombieres' {ice-cream with
candied fruit]
to buy {here we should buy]
probably
well, l never!
simply
it's wonderful!
-
Who's speaking: Mariya Ivanovna, Lena, or the ice-cream man?
1 Tbi x6qewh Mopo)l(eHoe?
2 5I. Jno6nK> Mop6)1(eHoe!
3 .5J. xoqy 3CKHMO.
4 )l.aiiTe, fiO)I(MyilcTa, '3CKHMO.
5 Eme qT6-HH6y.[(b?
6 Bbt He nJ66HTe, a SI rrro6nK>.
ACTIVITY 18
Listen to the story and decide whether the following
hich
statements are true or false. Correct the statements w
are false.
1 Lena doesn't feel like an ice-cream. choc-ice.
2 Mariya Ivanovna asks the ice-cream man for a bl'
h
g
ice-creajl'
3 The ice-cream man gives Lena t e wron
mistake.
1
""a wo.
PaV
4 They buy an ice-cream for Evgen1ya
5 Mariya lvanovna doesn't like ice-cream.
ACTIVITY 19
Now li sten to the story again and note all the imperative forms you hear
in the dialogue: there are four in total. Write them out below, giving their

meanings.

1 meanmg:

2 11lCt111111g:

3 I11Cl?11111g:

4 mcmzzng:
STORY TRANSCRIPT
Mariya Ivanovna
Lena
Mariya lvanovna
Lena
Mariya Ivanovna
Ice-cream man
Lena
Ice-cream man
Lena
Ice-cream man
Lena
Mariya Ivanovna
Lena
Mariya lvanovna
Lena
CMOTpH! BlUtHlllb MOp6>KeHOC'? Tt.t XOIelllh MOpo>KeHoe'!
Ypa! Mop6>Ket1oc! 5l mo6m6 Mopoii<crroc!
JleHO"'Ka, CKa>KM, KaK6e Tbl X04Clllb MOpo>KetiOC'?
MMMM, Mo>KeT 6hiTb '3CKHMo? HeT ... .ua. 'JCKIIMO. 5l xory "lCKUMo.
.LJ.aiiTe, no>Kanyficra, JCKHMo.
BoT. no>KanyikTa.
Ho :ho He JCKJiMo. a nnoM6I1p.
0. npaannhHo! 113BHmi. no>Kanyficra. Bo1 'JcKmro.
Cnac1i6o.
Eme
MaMa, MOiKCT 6biTb, KJ'TUITb JJ.nR 6a6ywKu? Oua. uaaepHoe. TO>Ke XOYCT

Mopo>KeHoe.
HeT. JleHo"'Ka. 6a6ywKa He m66HT Mopo>KeHoe.
A Tbl. MaMa, He xoqelllb MOpo>KeHoe?
Her, cnacli6o, JleH04Ka. R T6>Ke He Jl106m6 Mop6>KeHoe.
Hy H Hy! Bhi He m66HTe, a R mo6m6. Mopo>KeHoe - )To upocro 4YJJ.O!
25
26
Test
Now it's time to test your progress in Unit 2.
1 Match the following phrases with their English equivalents.
1 3Hal0 ee a he is playing
2 oH urpaeT b I am waiting
3 npnHeciiTe, nllso c where is the church?
4 r.ne uepKOBb? d I know her
5 MOJIOKO 11 6ynot.IKa e I'd like a beer, please
6 TeTH, 3To Tbi? f do you like Moscow?
7 Bbl ;n66wTe MocKsy? g is that you, Auntie?
8 "- :>K.D.Y h milk and a bun
2 Pair up 1-6 with the correct response a- to make up six
mini-dialogues.
1 qTo shi .nenaeTe?
,
2 3To He K6cpe, a qaJ%.
3 Tbi ml.nnlllb Teno?
4 5I He Mory.
5 3.upascTsy.HTe, HBaH fpnr6pbesuq!
6 ,UaiiTe, ITO)I(clJIYHCTa, OTKpbiTKy.
a Ax, H3Bl1HHTe, no)J(arryiicTal
b A S1 TO)J(e He Mory!
c BoT, no)l(anyiicTa.
d 0, BXO.zu1Te, BXO.UHTe!
e Mbi oT.UbixaeM.
f H eT, S1 ee He BH)l()'.
3 Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.
1 51 ____ _
2 Mbi
------
3 OHa
------
4 OHM
------
5 Bbi ____ _
6 Tbi ____ _
()I(.LJ.aTh, Ib)
(pa66TaTh, Ia)
( rosopliTb. II)
(ni06IITh, II)
(noHnMaTh. Ia)
(exaTh, Ib)
4 Give the gender of the words, then make them plural.
1 Cl)'J.(CHT ml fIn
2 mlf/n
J OKHll mlfln
4 1 oc 1 b m I f I n
5 ml fIn
5 Complete each sentence with an appropriate noun or
pronoun in the accusative taken fron1 the box below.
,
513bl K
,
ITHBO IIX
,
,
MCJUJ MocKBY
Te6}}
pecTopaH
D pas.uy
,
ero
,
1 rne Oner? 5I He BlDKy.
2 5I soo6me He rrhiO .
3 0Ha KclJK.llbiM .neHb l.JHTaeT .
4 Tbl ee mo6lllllb, a OHa He nro6nT.
5 5I 3HcliO Y 6a6ylllKH.
6 5I rosopro, a Bhi He cnymaeTe ____ !
7 Mbi uJyt.nieM pyccKnM: .
8 MaMa nro6HT CaHKT-IleTep6ypr, a nan a nro6nT ----
9 r.ne rne6 11 CseTnciHa? Bhl BH):(HTe ?
6 How would you do the following in Russian?
(2 points if correct, 1 point if only one error)
1 Tell son1eone you love football.
2 Ask where the telephone is.
3 Say sorry, you don't understand.
4 Ask the hotel receptionist if he understands you.
5 Order some ice-cream in a restaurant.
6 Ask for a post-card in a kiosk.
7 Say 'come in!'
8 Say you don't like beer.
TOTAL SCORE
.___
If you scored less than 45, go through the dialogues and the
Language Building sections again before completing the
Summary on page 28.
27

Summary 2
@ Now try this final test summarizing the main points covere
in this unit. You can check your answers on the recording. d
How would you:
1 say you understand?
2 say you don't understand?
3 say you don't know?
4 say you love Moscow?
5 ask a business colleague if he likes beer?
6 say it's not tea, it's coffee?
7 say it's not Ivan, it's Oleg?
8 ask the waiter to bring some milk?
9 ask for a postcard at a kiosk?
REVISION
Before moving on, play Unit 2 through again and see how
much you have already learnt. Go over any points of
grammar you still feel unsure of, and check that you know
the new vocabularly introduced in the unit.
If you have not already done so, have look at the tables in the
Grammar Summary at the end of the book. See how the cases
you have learned- the non1inative and the accusative- fit into
the information given in the tables. If you find it useful, you
may like to write out these tables a few times- it may help the
different forms stick in your mind. Don't worry, however, if
you're finding all these different forms bewildering at the
moment. As you continue through the course you'll see that,
although the system is complex, the patterns are generallY
regular and there are very few exceptions.
. real
Practise the new grammar from this unit by
life situations. For example, how would you order t.1 , ,rV0uld
ki k? .nOV!
things in a restaurant or buy things from a
05
.. g real
you say whether you like or don't like them? for
situations such as these will help the different en I.I1
verbs and nouns stay at the front of your mind .