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**Modelling, control and simulation of an overall wind energy conversion system
**

Ph. Delarue a, A. Bouscayrol a,∗, A. Tounzi a, X. Guillaud a, G. Lancigu b

b a L2EP Lille, USTL, 59655 Villeneneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France Jeumont SA, 27 rue de l’Industrie, 59573 Jeumont Cedex, France

Received 27 May 2002; accepted 12 October 2002

Abstract More and more conversion systems have been proposed to capture wind energy in order to produce electrical power. In this paper, an energetic macroscopic representation is used to describe such systems composed of very different parts. This representation yields the simulation model of the overall system based on energetic considerations. Moreover, a control structure can be deduced from this representation by simple inversion rules. Hence, the different strategies of wind turbine management can be shown by the theoretical control structure. In order to illustrate this modelling and control methodology a 750 kW wind energy conversion system is studied and simulated. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Wind energy; Wind systems; Wind turbine, Control

1. Introduction The wind energy conversion systems (WECS) have increasingly been developed over the last 10 years. Indeed, they offer energy without negative environmental impact. Constant-Speed Constant-Frequency (CSCF) systems were ﬁrst developed using a pitch angle control [1] in order to minimize the wind ﬂuctuations on the transfer power. CSCF systems generally use synchronous or squirrel cage induction

Corresponding author. Tel.: +33-3-20-43-42-53; fax: +33-3-20-43-69-67. E-mail addresses: alain.bouscayrol@univ-lille1.fr (A. Bouscayrol); http://www.univ-lille1.fr/l2ep/ (A. Bouscayrol).

∗

0960-1481/03/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0960-1481(02)00221-5

These generators can be squirrel cage induction or doubly fed induction machines [2–4]. many different WECS are provided. Variable-Speed Variable-Frequency (VSVF) systems improve the annual energy production [5] and are more ﬂexible under various wind conditions and reduce the stresses of the turbine [6]. electrical machines and power electronics. Various control strategies are proposed to extract maximum power from the wind [8–11. Hence. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Nomenclature Cp e f F I J L m P r R sij S T u v l r power coefﬁcient of the wind turbine electromotive force (V) coefﬁcient of viscous friction (N m s) various forces (N) various currents (A) moment of inertia (kg m2) various inductances (H) various modulation coefﬁcients various powers (W) various resistances ( ) blade radius (m) switching functions of power electronics converters swept area of the blades (m2) various torques (N m) various voltages (V) various speeds (m/s) tip speed ratio various rotation speeds (rad/s) air density (kg/m3) machines. The squirrel cage induction machine with two voltage-source-converters is the most ﬂexible conversion structure [7–11]. matlabTM. etc. Nowadays. However. Even if global softwares (saberTM.16]. Indeed. power electronics and electrical machines. with several power components using different technologies and knowledge: turbine. Synchronous machines with a high pole number [12] or Vernier reluctance machines for low speed [13] are also used in order to avoid the mechanical gearbox. as a result of the design evolutions of aerodynamics. if each part can easily be studied.) have adapted libraries . Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency (VSCF) systems have been developed to reduce the inﬂuence of the wind ﬂuctuations with variable speed machines.14] and to manage the system according to the standard operating modes [15. They have to be simulated in order to provide comparisons for a critical choice. which are of a different nature. mechanical power train.1170 Ph. Delarue et al. dynamic modelling of such complex systems is not always made [17. there are sometimes problems in connecting models of the devices.18]. several solutions can be found.

The ﬁrst part is devoted to the description of a studied wind generation system. An overall modelling is built. The last part focuses on the transposition of the modelling and control into the matlab–simulinkTM software.24]. Modelling of a wind energy conversion system The WECS studied is a VSVF structure. The aim of this paper is to deal with a modelling and a control methodology in order to simulate such WECS. 1). the modelling of such a system is extended to its control design and simulation. The DC machine has been chosen due to its simple electrical model. 2. the electromechanical conversion is provided by a permanent magnet DC machine instead of the AC machine classically used in wind generation system. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of traction applications [23. The different choices will be justiﬁed by the modelling of the global system. Hence. which is converted to AC voltages by a three-phase power converter.Ph. thanks to a four quadrant-chopper. In the system studied. The electrical power produced supplies a capacitor. In this paper. As the modelling of the blade is often neglected.2. The DC voltage of the capacitor consists of a DC bus. Then simulation results are provided. A gearbox ensures the adaptation between the rotation shaft of the blades (low speed) and the rotation shaft of the machine (high speed). In the second part.22]. Global modelling of the overall system The EMR yields a synthetic description of complex systems based on the action– reaction principle between power devices [26]. 2. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1171 and toolboxes. a control structure of this system is suggested according to inversion rules. after ﬁltering the ripples induced by the modulations of the converters. thanks to the energetic macroscopic representation (EMR). The WECS is a ﬁxed-pitch turbine with a horizontal axis and three blades. This description [19] allows the subdivision of the whole complex system into simple blocks which allows a synthetic and physical representation [20] based on the causality principle [21. this part is particularly detailed. from where the variable comes. Delarue et al. The components (or sub-systems) of . The wind energy conversion systems studied The subscript of each power variable is associated with the physical element. we can avoid a too complex representation as this study is principally focused on the representation of the overall system. 2. It ensures an energy conversion from the wind to an AC grid.1. A ﬁrst modelling of a WECS with an induction generator has also been proposed [25]. the connections of such elements cannot be made without a preliminary study and sometimes they involve modiﬁcations of standard models. a three-phase transformer adapts the voltage magnitudes to those of the AC grid (Fig. Finally.

/ Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Fig.1172 Ph. are all depicted by a rectangular pictogram. which adapts the AC voltages of the lines to those of the grid). The WECS studied. The EMR of the studied WECS is composed of several power components linking the wind to the AC grid. this representation are associated with each physical device. 2). the gearbox (mechanical conversion function. which are called upstream and downstream power sources (Fig. EMR of the WECS studied. the capacitor (electrical accumulation function. The elements. Several elements. which imposes the DC voltage). the ideal machine (electromechanical function). The power between two connected blocks can be expressed by the product of their exchange variables. can be pointed out: the blades (mechanical conversion function). 1. which yields the DC bus). the three-leg inverter (electrical conversion function). the chopper (electrical conversion function. The elements. . the three-phase transformer (electrical conversion function. have different pictograms: triangular pictogram for mechanical conversion. which will be detailed in the following part. First. Fig. which induce energy conversion without energy accumulation. they are reduced to their global functions according to their internal causalities [19]. an equivalent shaft (mechanical accumulation function). which induce energy accumulation. which adapts the rotation speed). Delarue et al. the winding of the machine (electrical accumulation function in the inductance). an equivalent ﬁlter (electrical accumulation function of the inductances). 2.

Energy accumulation and conversion are differentiated. (b) CP/l versus l/lopt. there is no blade torque and the system cannot start to run. the rotation speed is replaced by the tip speed ratio (2) Tblade Cp(l)1 rSRv2 . / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1173 circular pictogram for electromechanical conversion and square pictogram for electrical conversion. lopt is the value of l which corresponds to the maximum of Cp. this modelling gives a global overview of the energy modiﬁcation in the WECS. 2 wind (1) The power coefﬁcient is a non-linear function of the tip speed-ratio l. vwind (2) where R represents the blade radius. which depends on the wind velocity and the rotation speed of the shaft shaft (Fig. In the curve. . The transmitted power Pblade is generally deduced from the wind power using the power coefﬁcient Cp Pblade 1 Cp rSv3 . Delarue et al. 3. an expression of the blade torque can be deduced from (1) Tblade 1 v3 wind Cp(l) rS . 2.3. If the wind blows at zero rotation speed. Modelling of the blades The wind power acting on the swept area of the blade S is a function of the air density r and the wind velocity vwind. Hence. this difference is the basis of the suggested control methodology. 3(a)) l R shaft . Indeed. Blade characteristics: (a) CP versus l/lopt. As the transmitted power can be assumed to be the product of the torque and the rotation speed of the shaft.Ph. as will be seen in the next section. To solve this problem. 2 shaft (3) But this classical modelling results in a problem. wind l 2 (4) Fig.

Delarue et al. Moreover. Tgear. Fig.4. 4(a). a blade velocity vblade and a tangential force Ftang can also be deﬁned according to the blade radius R vblade Tblade R shaft RFtang . 4. and the blade torque (J. shaft. Using an extrapolation method for the lower values of l. from the gear torque. . when the wind is blowing. but it avoids the singularity at zero rotation speed. coefﬁcient of viscous friction) d Jshaft dt with Jshaft J1 J2 f m2 shaft gear f1 f2 . EMR of the mechanical parts. a small torque acts on the blades and the rotation occurs. 2. This representation indicates an energy accumulation: this device yields a rotation speed of the shaft which is a state variable. (5) If we take the previous considerations into account. the model of the blades can be described as shown in Fig. can then be deﬁned.1174 Ph. 5). 5. This coefﬁcient is sometimes used to deﬁne the torque [7. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Fig. This internal description leads to the external exchange variables of the macroscopic representation of the blades (triangular pictogram. Modelling of the blades: (a) internal description and (b) EMR. m2 gear shaft Tblade Tgear fshaft shaft (6) This element is depicted by a rectangular pictogram with an oblique bar according to the EMR (Fig.27]. there is only one state variable [20]. It yields the rotation speed of the shaft. the torque coefﬁcientCT(l) CP(l) / l. It also has a non-linear evolution with respect to l. A new coefﬁcient. for l 0. Modelling of the mechanical parts As both mechanical shafts are linked by the gearbox (mgear gear ratio). An equivalent shaft is so deﬁned [25]. 4(b)). Then. Fig. moment of inertia and f. 3(b)). we obtain. a non-zero value of Cp / l (Fig.

First. with the gear ratio.m. It is thus depicted by a square pictogram (Fig. (8) The winding of the machine is an accumulation element. and the e. Ldcm resistance and inductance of the winding) d Ldcm idcm dt edcm uchop rdcmidcm. to the speed. gear. 6. Tdcm. Modelling of the electrical machine The electromechanical conversion (circular pictogram. 6) of the DC machine links its torque.m. Its inputs and outputs can be modelled by classical relations Fig. Delarue et al. The gearbox is a mechanical converter.f. mgear gear gear . The chopper leads to an electrical conversion without energy accumulation. . mgear shaft Tgear mgearTdcm . the switching and modulation functions are replaced by their mean values calculated on the switching period (0 sij 1 and 1 mi 1). Fig. 7).6. Modelling of the electrical parts The power converters are modelled by their switching functions. and the torque. sij (1 for closed switch and 0 for open switch) and their modulation functions. through the ﬂux coefﬁcient kf Tdcm edcm kfidcm kf gear . which adapts the rotational speed. EMR of the DC machine. uchop (rdcm. EMR of the electrical part. the power converters can be modelled in mean values. and the chopper supply voltage. Hence. mi [28]. to the armature currents idcm. (7) 2. Tgear. edcm. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1175 Fig.Ph. which yields the machine current from the e..5. 7.f. (9) 2.

(12) where rcap is an equivalent resistor to take the converter losses into account. Control of a wind energy conversion system The aim of the wind generation control is to ensure the management of the power. (13) i dt 3 1 2 The ideal transformer is an electrical converter (square pictogram) between the ﬁlter and the grid. The association of the ﬁlter inductances and the transformer inductances leads to a common accumulation element: their currents are common state variables. Delarue et al. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 uchop ichop mchopucap mchopidcm with mchop schop11 schop21. This voltage also has to be controlled. (10) The three-phase inverter is modelled in the same way uinv ¯ iinv minvucap ¯ with minv ¯ mtinv¯line i ¯ sinv11 sinv31 sinv21 sinv31 . As a result of inversion rules. . which yields the capacitor DC voltage ucap from the inverter current iinv and the chopper current ichop d Ccap ucap dt ichop iinv ucap / rcap. and the transformer current itrans [itrans1itrans2]t to those of the line. Moreover. as this system is directly connected to the grid. which is delivered by the wind. with the transformer ratio mtrans utrans itrans mtransugrid mtransiline . a maximum control structure (MCS) is deduced from the EMR of the system. But. It links the transformer voltages to those of the grid ugrid [ugrid13ugrid23]t. It consists of control blocks. Two other control blocks have to be built in order to deﬁne the references of the MCS from the power references: the active power management (APM) and the reactive power management (RPM). (14) 3. It yields two independent currents iline [iline1iline2]t (the third is a combination of the two others) from the inverter voltages uinv [uinv13uinv23]t and the transformer voltages utrans [utrans13utrans23]t [25] ¯ 1 1 2 d lline ¯line (uinv utrans) rlineiline. the voltage of the DC bus is a sensitive variable for the design of the power converter and the DC capacitor. which have to inverse the local function of each power component.1176 Ph. (11) The DC bus voltage capacitor is an accumulation element. the reactive power has to be controlled too.

is estimated through the speed measurement. 3. Pconv. as the current is a state variable. As the technical speciﬁcations give only power and capacitor voltage references. gear-mes). This control structure points out the variables to be measured. Some of them cannot be directly measured and estimation algorithms have to be added in a supplementary step (as the machine e. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1177 3. Active power management A simple relation can be found between the converted power. Maximum control structure A control structure of the system studied is deﬁned from its EMR according to inversion rules [19]. Tgear Fig. from the reference torque. as follows: idcm-ref 1 T .2. The inversion rules are applied to the EMR of the wind generation system. Moreover. edcm. the inversion functions are depicted with continuous lines. 8. 8). In the following ﬁgures.f. uchop-ref. .Ph. An element without energy storage can be inverted directly (inverse mathematical operation). current controllers for the machine and the lines. All control blocks can contain classical operations: pulse width modulations (PWM) for the converters. idcm-ref. relation (8) is directly inverted in order to produce the reference current. other blocks have to be inserted in the control chain. and disturbance rejections with dashed lines. (16) Cont(xref xmes) is the controller associated to the variable x.1. needs a controller to inverse its physical function. It leads to its MCS (Fig. An element. For example. One can remark that the MCS needs torque and current references. the disturbance variable. Tdcm-ref.m. and the torque of the gear. But the estimation algorithms are not presented in this paper. Delarue et al. kf dcm-ref (15) In the case of relation (9).. which accumulates energy. MCS of the WECS studied. edcm. etc. The overall control equations are provided in Ref. a controller is needed to deﬁne the reference voltage. [29]. is taken into account and rejected externally to the controller uchop-ref Cont( idcm-ref idcm-mes) edcm-mes.

several operating modes have to be deﬁned [15]. 10). For low wind velocity.1178 Ph. APM block. a constant value is imposed on the rotation speed. a new look-up table is built with the rotation speed as input and the reference torque as output (Fig. 10. (17) The torque reference can be deduced from the following power relation: Tgear-ref Pconv-ref . Pconv. (18) shaft-mes The converted power. For high wind velocity. maximum power generation and speed limitation for high wind velocity. for different wind velocities (Fig. This look-up table gives the reference torque directly from the speed measurement for a maximum power strategy. Pconv Tgear shaft . Indeed. 9) shows that a maximum curve can be obtained for each operating point (continuous line). the control has to allow a maximum power extraction. If the wind velocity is too high or low. A more complex strategy can be deduced from the ﬁrst one. . Fig. Delarue et al. Converted power versus rotation speed. The APM block has to be changed. the wind turbine is turned off. it gives the optimum power from the rotation speed (Fig. By associating this maximum power curve and the associated rotation speed. in most wind generators. a look-up table is built. As the power is divided by the rotation speed. shaftr. versus the rotation shaft speed. 9. 10). / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Fig.

A PI (Proportional Integral) controller can be used to control the DC voltage. If the power losses are neglected in the converter switches and in the lines. (19) With these assumptions. Itrans-ref is multiplied by the unitary sine wave obtained by a grid voltage measurement. the voltage capacitor is deﬁned through the inverter and the chopper current. RPM block. The transformer current references are thus deﬁned without shift angle between the voltage (Q 0) and that without harmonics (Fig. using Eq. 11).1.Ph. All blocks can be internally described with their mathematical relations. there is a direct relation between the r. This WECS is connected to 20 kV grid. First. Reactive power management If the desired reactive power is assumed to be zero and if sinusoidal absorption is needed. Delarue et al.m. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1179 3. the active power can be expressed by the r. 4. Simulation of a wind energy conversion system A 750 kW wind generation system has been deduced from the Jeumont Industry system J48.m. in order to charge the DC capacitor. iinv-ref. Secondly. An example is given for the blades (Fig. this power is equal to the one of the DC bus.s. (19). P 3VgridItrans ucapiinv. 12). 11. 8) and the management blocks are directly transposed to the matlab–simulinkTM software (Fig. the blades are locked. 13). . The turbine has a blade radius of 24 m. Simulation results Simple tests are provided in order to validate the modelling and control methodology. 4. Fig. Itrans. Vgrid. It yields the inverter current reference. value of the absorbed current and that of the inverter. (synchronous generator). On the other hand. This is then transformed into the transformer magnitude current reference.2. the suggested methodology gives precious help to the simulation design. value of the voltage grid.s.3. Hence. Simulation transposition The modelling and the control of the studied WECS (see Fig. 4. Itrans-ref. and the transformer current.

19). 16). After that. A table of an actual wind velocity is used as input for the simulation. One can notice that the blade speed is quasi-constant after the transient state. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Fig. which leads to a constant blade speed when the wind velo- .1180 Ph.2. between 10 and 19 m/s (Fig. This is due to Tdcm ref f( shaft) table which corresponds to a maximum power strategy and parabolic evolution. the DC bus voltage increases to its nominal value using a PI controller (Fig. 4. matlab–simulinkTM model and control of the WECS studied. Reactive power management The DC bus voltage is initially ﬁxed at 975 V (voltage value due to the diode bridge when switches are turned off).2. Tblade. 12. matlab–simulinkTM model of the blade. Fig. one can notice that the DC voltage remains at a constant value in spite of the wind ﬂuctuations. Sinusoidal line currents are also controlled by PI controllers and they are in phase with line-toneutral voltages (Q 0) (Fig. Delarue et al.2. Then.6 rad/s. 15). 14). the mechanical brake action is cancelled and the blades begin to rotate. is greater than the machine torque. Active power management The blade speed (Fig. 13. 17) increases under the wind action and reaches 2. Tdcm (Fig. 4. the blade torque.1. During this period.

Wind velocity. 14. Conclusions An overall wind generation system has been described with the help of the EMR. 15. A MCS of the wind generation system has been deduced from its EMR by logical inversion rules. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1181 Fig. the MCS possesses a maximum of control operations and measurements. Of course. 5. city is greater than 10 m/s. which can be deduced by adapted simpliﬁcations and variable . It is the ﬁrst necessary step for a more practical structure. Fig.Ph. Delarue et al. Capacitor voltage. This description yields a synthetic view of the overall system according to the causal relations of its components. The obtained power ﬂuctuates with the wind velocity (Fig. 18).

and parameter variation). 16. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 Fig. the inversion of power components cannot be avoided because they are based on the action–reaction principle and on the natural causality of energy accumulation. and of the wind ﬂuctuations. The model and control of the WECS have been very easily transposed in simulation software such as matlab–simulinkTM.1182 Ph. Line currents and voltages. controller design. Indeed. different management strategies can now be compared. Moreover. The MCS shows the controllers and the sensors (or estimation algorithms) which are needed in such a system. 17. . Fig. Delarue et al. estimations. Blade speed. The global simulation software allows us to study the inﬂuence of each control operation (disturbance rejection. management blocks have to be deﬁned in order to connect references of physical variables and power references. the management blocks are the key to the different control strategies. Moreover. So. and many solutions can be deﬁned.

The MCS can be built in the same way. One can notice that practical control structures can be deduced for the MCS [29].Ph. References [1] Kodama N.16:847–50. other WECS can be modelled in the same way. Renew Energy 1999. the DC machine and the chopper can be easily replaced by an AC machine and a three-leg rectiﬁer [25]. Novel control strategies for variable-speed doubly fed wind power generations systems. Fig. Matsuzaka T. 18. Torque evolutions. . Power variation control of a wind generator by using feed forward control. As a result of the ﬂexibility of the EMR and the MCS. Renew Energy 1995. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1183 Fig. Enslin J. Power evolution. Of course. 19. only the machine control and the rectiﬁer control have to be modiﬁed. ´ [2] Spee R. Tuchiya K. Bhowmik S. Delarue et al.6(8):907–15. The studies can then be more complete by taking into account wind gusts and other practical problems [30]. Arinaga S. The studied wind generation system is a virtual system.

Melkebeek J. Vulturescu B.16(2):123–7. paper 971089. Pietrzak-David M. A novel converter for VSCF wind turbines. Outa E. Behaviour model control structures for an electric vehicle. [4] Muljadi E.23(2):235–45. [9] De Battista H. Moskowa J. . Bose BK. Thamodoharan M. Mutschler P. Ghale F. [14] Miller A.85:293–308. Hashizume T. Variable speed control of wind turbines using non-linear and adaptive algorithms. Spee R. Renew Energy 2000. EPE’97 Conf. RIGE 2000. September 1997.12(1):87–95. [12] Chen Z. IEEE Trans Power Electronics 2001. Degobert P. Escane P. [16] Thiringer T. Fuzzy logic based intelligent control of variable speed cage machine wind generation system. Bruges. Hautier JP. IEEE Trans Industry Applications 1997. Delarue P. Switzerland. [19] Bouscayrol A. Dhinakaran B. Amsterdam: Elsevier.9(3):558–63. [15] Song Y. [20] Rubin Z.35(4):949–58. [10] Valtchev V. Zinger D. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 1994. Gijselen J. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine generator system on net power extraction under wind velocity ﬂuctuations in ﬁelds. p. Study of a variable reluctance generator for wind power conversion. ¸ Multi-machine multi-converter systems: applications to electromechanical drives. [21] Iwasaki I. Grid power quality with variable speed wind turbine. Belgium. vol. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 1997. A variable speed wind turbine power control. CD-ROM. Tanzawa Y.9:853–7. [26] Bouscayrol A. 2000. [7] Hilloowala R. Graz. Bouscayrol A. Austria. Lausanne. Muljadi E. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 2001. Kosice. vol. Annualized wind energy improvement using variable speed. Simulation of a wind generation system based on an energetic macroscopic representation. Christiansen C. Simon HA. Power quality impact of a sea located hybrid wind park. 143–94.10(2):131–47. [6] Smith G.19(1-2):259–75. [17] Hoffmann R. [8] Simoes M. Spooner E. [22] Guillaud X.3(2):257–82. August.16(2):148–54. IEEE Trans Industry Applications 1999. Pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine generation.2:631–6. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 ´ [3] Bhowmik S. The inﬂuence of control strategies on the energy capture of wind turbine. Van den Bosche A. Bouscayrol A. [13] Haouara I. L2EP and LEEI.33(6):1444–7.16(1):843–6. Performance optimization for doubly fed wind power generation systems.12(2):181–6. In: EPE’2001. 197–202. [5] Zinger D. Sharaf A. de Fornel B. application to the electrical machine control (text in French). In: EPE-PEMC’2000. Muljadi E. Tounzi A. Petru T. according to the MMS project of GdR-SDSE) 2000. p. Renew Energy 1996. 1994. Hautier JP. [25] Tounzi A. Bao X.37(1):240–6. Hautier JP. Delarue et al. [11] Mohamed A. de Fornel B. Munns S. August. Eskander N. A utility interactive wind energy conversion scheme with an asynchronous DC link using a supplementary control loop. ´ [23] Pierquin J. Francois B. Renew Energy 2001. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 2001. IEEE Trans Power Electronics 1997. 67. Liljegren C. [18] Wakui T. Pietrzak-David M. Renew Energy 1999. control and causality: the causal ordering graph. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 2000. Enslin J. Delarue Ph. Mans R. In: ICEM’2002. Rome. [27] Kana C. Modelling. Meibody-Tabar F. 2000. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 2001. 2001. In: IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting. Guillaud X. Dynamical sliding mode power control of wind driven induction generators.15(4):451–7. IEEE Trans Industry Applications 2001. Trondheim (Norway). System management of a wind-energy converter. CD-ROM. Behaviour model control of a high speed railway traction system. The development of vehicular powertrain system modelling methodologies: philosophy and implementation. Slovak Republic. CD-ROM. Butterﬁeld CP. 2002. Davat B. CD-ROM. Hautier JP. System Automotive Engineering. 1997. Macro-modelling of electromechanical conversion. Wolf A.16(3):375–81. EPJ Appl Phys (common paper of GREEN. 6. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system. Fuzzy logic based maximum power tracking of a wind energy system. In: Artiﬁcial Intelligence. Bouscayrol A. Yamagachi K. Hautier JP. 2000. In: 16th IMACS World Congress. Speigel R.1184 Ph. Piriou F. [24] Pierquin J. Causality and model abstraction.

[29] Bouscayrol A. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 1999. / Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1169–1185 1185 [28] Guillaud X. Int J Renew Energy Eng 2002. Dynamic behaviour of variable speed wind turbines under stochastic wind.14(4):1617–23. Simpliﬁcations of the maximum control structure of a wind energy conversion system with an induction generator.Ph. General control modelling of static converter and optimization of their conversion function. [30] Papathanassiou SA. . 397–402. Papadapoulos MP. Degobert P. Delarue Ph. p. St Nazaire. 1996. Delarue et al. In: ElectrIMACS’96.4(2):479–85.

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