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MUSIC

GCSE
Specification

For First Teaching From Autumn 2001


For First Examination in Summer 2003
CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

FOREWORD
This booklet contains CCEA’s GCSE Music specification for teaching from
September 2001. This specification has been developed to take account of the
revised Subject Criteria for Music, the Common Criteria and the GCSE General
Criteria published by the regulatory authorities in March 2000. The first award
based on this specification will be made in 2003.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

CONTENTS
Pages

KEY FEATURES vii

SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT INFORMATION ix

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Rationale 1
1.2 Specification Content and Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social
and Cultural Issues 1
1.3 Environmental Issues 2
1.4 Information and Communications Technology 2
1.5 Health and Safety 2
1.6 European Developments 2
1.7 Aims 3
1.8 Assessment Objectives 3
1.9 Specification Structure 4
1.10 Awarding and Certification 4
1.11 Candidates with Particular Requirements 4
1.12 Key Skills 4
1.13 Overlap and Equivalence with Other Qualifications 5
1.14 Restrictions on Candidate Entry 5

2 SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT 6
2.1 Relationship between Assessment Components and
Assessment Objectives 6
2.2 Overview of Assessment Requirements Related to the Areas of Study 6
2.3 Nature of Assessment Components 7
2.4 Language of Specification and Assessment Materials 11
2.5 Quality of Written Communication 11

3 SUBJECT CONTENT 12
3.1 Music for Celebration 13
3.2 Musical Arrangements 16
3.3 Musical Traditions in Ireland 19

4 GRADE DESCRIPTIONS 22
4.1 Grade F 22
4.2 Grade C 22
4.3 Grade A 22

5 GUIDANCE FOR TEACHERS ON THE INTERNAL ASSESSMENT


AND EXTERNAL MODERATION OF COMPOSING 23
5.1 Assessment 24
5.2 Role of the Teacher 26

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

5.3 Annotation of Coursework 26


5.4 Agreement Trials 26
5.5 Support Service and Advice 26
5.6 Internal Centre Standardisation 26

APPENDIX 1 27
Opportunities for Developing and Generating Evidence for Assessing
Key Skills 27

APPENDIX 2 38
Mark Schemes and Guidance on Performing 38
Technical Guidance for Non-Orchestral Instruments 43

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

KEY FEATURES
The course has been designed to:

• meet the regulatory authorities’ general requirements, including the Subject


Criteria for Music, the Common and GCSE Criteria, and the requirements of
the Northern Ireland Programme of Study for Music at Key Stage 4;

• build upon the knowledge, understanding and skills developed within the
programmes of study for music at Key Stages 1 to 3 of the Northern Ireland
Curriculum and to reflect the key experiences of a musical education –
making and responding to music;

• incorporate the fundamental musical activities of composing, performing


and listening and appraising in a holistic manner through teaching and
learning in three areas of study which encompass Music for Celebration,
Musical Arrangements and Musical Traditions in Ireland;

• accommodate the needs and interests of a wide variety of students;

• promote knowledge and understanding of a range of music and cultural


traditions;

• provide an appropriate body of knowledge, promote understanding and


develop skills as a basis for progression to further study, employment or
creative use of leisure time.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT INFORMATION


Target Grades A*–G

Assessment Components Requirements Further Detail

Composing and Folio of two compositions Where a candidate chooses


Appraising with commentaries. At to present two compositions
least one of the pieces related to an area of study,
Internally assessed and must be the outcome of the second piece must relate
externally moderated. one area of study-related to a different area of study
task. (see below). The
(folio of 3–5 mins duration) candidate’s commentary on
the compositions will be
worth 10%.
Percentage assessment 40%
weighting

Performing and Solo and ensemble Where a second area of


Appraising performances which must study composition is not
include at least one piece undertaken by the
related to the same area of candidate a second
study as one composition. performance piece related
This may be a to a different area of
performance of the study must be included.
candidate’s own The candidate’s discussion
composition. of performance will be
(up to five mins duration) worth 5%.

Percentage assessment 35%


weighting

Listening and One test of aural Areas of study:


Appraising perception consisting of up
to eight questions based on 1 Music for Celebration.
familiar and unfamiliar 2 Musical Arrangements.
music related to three areas 3 Musical Traditions
of study. in Ireland.
(approx one hour)

Percentage Weighting 25%

Documentation Candidate record sheet


EAD 78

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 RATIONALE

This specification promotes continuity, coherence and progression within the


study of music. It builds on the knowledge, understanding and skills developed
within the programmes of study for music at Key Stages 1 to 3 of the Northern
Ireland Curriculum and reflects the key experiences of a musical education –
making and responding to music. These experiences are placed within the
context of three mutually supportive and interactive areas of musical activity:
composing, performing, and listening and appraising. Before embarking on a
course based on this specification, students should have acquired some basic
skills in singing and/or playing an instrument.

This specification will provide a worthwhile course of study in its own right and
will also create a suitable foundation for continued study of music at a more
advanced level, for example, Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced GCE and
Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education qualifications.

The specification has been designed to meet the regulatory authorities’ general
requirements, including the Subject Criteria for Music, the Common and GCSE
Criteria, and the requirements of the Northern Ireland Programme of Study for
Music at Key Stage 4. It has also been designed to be as free as possible from
ethnic, gender, religious, political or other forms of bias.

1.2 SPECIFICATION CONTENT AND SPIRITUAL, MORAL, ETHICAL,


SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES

The fundamental nature of music rests in its ability to evoke a personal response
through active involvement as composer, performer or audience. The raw
materials of sound are expressively honed and fashioned in myriad ways to
realise different intentions and for different purposes which reflect a wide range
of cultures and traditions across time and place. These two factors form the most
significant aspects of the study of music.

Students should become aware of the power of music across a wide range of
contexts, for example:

• spiritual, social and cultural – the creation, performance and use of music to
uplift the human spirit as exemplified in Music for Celebration across all
cultures;

• spiritual, cultural, moral and ethical – how their own and other people’s
responses to the music they hear can be influenced by the context in which
it is received as exemplified in Musical Traditions in Ireland; and

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• social, moral and ethical – how thoughts, feelings and actions can be
manipulated through the pre-planned and conscious use of music to effect a
particular outcome across all three designated areas of study in this
specification.

When addressing the content of this specification, students should have


opportunities to reflect critically upon and discuss the power of music in relation
to, spiritual, social, moral, ethical, historical, institutional and cultural contexts.

1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Environmental issues and the issue of sustainable development can be addressed


through the content of the specification, particularly through activities related to
free composition where students may choose a brief in response to emotive
environmental/sustainable development issues, for example, pollution of the
rivers and seas, the clearing of rain-forests or issues related to their own locality.

1.4 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

In studying a course based on this specification, students should be encouraged to


make appropriate use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
across all areas of musical activity. They should develop knowledge,
understanding and skills related to the use of ICT in present-day music-making,
for example, through the use of sequencing, sampling, multi-tracking, and MIDI
technology as aspects of composing, performing, recording, editing and notating
music. Students should also become aware of the expanding access to music and
musical resources available through the Internet, and the interactive nature of
some commercial CDs, for example, the composing facility available on the
second CD issued by the Afro Celt Sound System. Further detail on the
requirement for ICT is set out in Section 3, Subject Content on page 13.

This specification also signposts opportunities to develop Key Skills, including


that of Information Technology.

1.5 HEALTH AND SAFETY

The issue of health and safety should be an essential element of learning in the
use, maintenance and storage of music technology equipment throughout the
course. The issue of health in relation to instrumental performance, for example,
posture and strain, should also be addressed as part of instrumental performance
technique.

1.6 EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENTS

Students should develop awareness of the opportunities and challenges presented


through membership of the European Union and developments arising from that
membership, for example, the music industry as a transnational and global
phenomenon, the issue of human rights and its implications for playing loud
music in public places and the on-going issue of music copyright.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

1.7 AIMS

This specification provides candidates with opportunities to:

• develop their understanding and appreciation of a range of different kinds of


music, extending their own interests and increasing their ability to make
judgements about musical quality;

• acquire the knowledge, skills and understanding needed to:

– make music, both individually and in groups,

– develop a life-long interest in music, for example, through community


music-making,

– progress to further study, for example, Advanced Subsidiary and


Advanced GCE and Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education
qualifications, and/or to follow a music-related career, where
appropriate; and

• to develop broader life-skills and attributes, including critical and creative


thinking, aesthetic sensitivity and emotional and cultural development.

1.8 ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

The assessment objectives provide an indication of the skills and abilities which
the assessment components are designed to assess, together with the knowledge
and understanding specified in the subject content.

Candidates are required to demonstrate aural perception, musical knowledge and


understanding and communication through the following inter-related assessment
objectives by:

AO1 singing and/or playing an individual part (ie one which is not doubled.
This could be a solo, accompanied or unaccompanied, or an individual
part in an ensemble) with technical control, expression, interpretation
and, where appropriate, a sense of ensemble. At least one performance
must include a significant part in an ensemble – performing skills;

AO2 creating and developing musical ideas in relation to a given or chosen


brief. The brief must describe the stimulus for the composition, provide a
clear indication of the candidate’s intentions and, for at least one
composition, make connections with an area of study – composing skills;

AO3 analysing and evaluating music using a musical terminology – appraising


skills.

The weighting of the assessment objectives in the Scheme of Assessment is


shown in Table 1 on page 6.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

1.9 SPECIFICATION STRUCTURE

The subject content is divided into three areas of study which are listed below.

1 Music for Celebration.

2 Musical Arrangements.

3 Musical Traditions in Ireland.

The order in which the subject content is presented is not intended to imply a
proposed teaching order. Teachers are free to organise the teaching of the content
as they think appropriate. The subject content is described in detail in Section 3
of this specification.

It is expected that approximately 180 hours of guided learning will be required to


achieve a GCSE qualification in Music.

1.10 AWARDING AND CERTIFICATION

GCSE awards will be conducted in accordance with the relevant Codes of


Practice developed by the regulatory authorities and agreed with the awarding
bodies.

This specification enables candidates from a wide ability range to demonstrate


achievement through a single tier of entry which provides access to the full range
of Grades, A* to G. Differentiation is achieved by outcome across all three
assessment objectives.

In order to obtain an award, candidates must normally complete all assessment


components. The award will be based on the aggregation of the outcomes from
each of the assessment components weighted accordingly, as detailed in the
Scheme of Assessment on page 6.

1.11 CANDIDATES WITH PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS

Details of arrangements for candidates with particular assessment requirements


are provided in the Joint Council for General Qualifications GCSE and GCE
Regulations and Guidance for Candidates with Special Assessment Needs.
Copies of these can be obtained from CCEA on request.

1.12 KEY SKILLS

The key skill of Communication will contribute to the assessment of this


specification. This will be achieved through the assessment of candidates’ quality
of written communication as detailed on page 12. In addition, the specification
provides opportunities for developing and generating evidence for assessing the
following nationally specified key skills at the levels indicated.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• Communication – Levels 1 and 2.

• Information Technology – Levels 1 and 2.

• Improving Own Learning and Performance – Levels 1 and 2.

• Problem Solving – Levels 1 and 2.

• Working with Others – Levels 1 and 2.

The opportunities provided are referenced to the relevant key skills


specifications and exemplified in Appendix 1.

1.13 OVERLAP AND EQUIVALENCE WITH OTHER


QUALIFICATIONS

The content of this specification does not reflect or overlap with any other GCSE
subject examined by CCEA.

The following is an indication of the broad equivalence of GCSE and General


National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ).

• Two GCSEs at grades D–G are equivalent to one three-unit VCE at


foundation level.

• Two GCSEs at grades A*–C are equivalent to one three-unit VCE at


intermediate level.

• Four GCSEs at grades D–G are equivalent to one six-unit VCE at


foundation level.

• Four GCSEs at grades A*–C are equivalent to one six-unit VCE at


intermediate level.

1.14 RESTRICTIONS ON CANDIDATE ENTRY

In any one series of examinations a candidate may not take examinations on this
specification together with examinations on a another specification of the same
title.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

2 SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT
2.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASSESSMENT COMPONENTS AND
ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

The relationship between the assessment components and the assessment


objectives is set out in Table 1.

Table 1: Assessment Weightings

Assessment Objectives

Assessment Nature of AO1 AO2 AO3 Component


Component Assessment % % % Weighting %

Composing and Internal 30% 10% 40%


Appraising

Performing and External 30% 5% 35%


Appraising

Listening and External 25% 25%


Appraising

Totals 30% 30% 40% 100%

2.2 OVERVIEW OF ASSESSMENT REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO


THE AREAS OF STUDY

Assessment requirements which are addressed within and across the three
examination components are summarised below.

1 Candidates must compose one piece of music and perform, (solo or


ensemble), one piece of music, related to one of three compulsory areas of
study. A candidate who wishes to do so may meet the performing
requirement by performing or taking part in a performance of his/her own
composition.

2 Candidates must compose or perform (solo or ensemble), one piece of


music related to a second (different) area of study.

3 Candidates must undertake a listening test related to three areas of study.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

2.3 NATURE OF ASSESSMENT COMPONENTS

The GCSE award is achieved through aggregation of the marks achieved in each
of the three assessment components, the details of which are set out below.

Composing and Appraising: 40%

Composing is a coursework activity and assessment should be carried out by the


teacher using the criteria set out below and instructions within Section 5 of this
specification. Moderation by inspection will be carried out by the Council.
Composing will automatically provide a differentiated form of assessment since
candidates should undertake tasks at a level which is appropriate to their ability.
It will be possible to assess the outcomes in terms of positive achievement.

• Candidates may fulfil the requirements for the composing component


through the creative use of music technology.

• Candidates should submit a folio consisting of two compositions, at least


one of which is linked to a chosen area of study.

The area of study composition should be chosen from one of the following tasks:

• a piece of music to celebrate an occasion, for example, a special event or


day, a birthday, sporting success or successful accomplishment of a task,
Christmas, Easter, the coming of Spring, a public holiday, carnival etc, or a
piece of music inspired by the musical content of one of the set works or
any other celebratory work which the candidate has listened to (Music for
Celebration);

• an arrangement of their own or someone else’s music, for example, for own
instrument or a group of fellow students (ensemble performance), taking
account of available instruments and levels of performing skill, or a piece of
music inspired by the content of one of the set works or other works
listened to, for example, a set of variations on a tune or on a ground bass or
twelve-bar blues chord sequence (Musical Arrangements);

• a piece of music related to one of the musical traditions of Ireland, for


example, a traditional “set”, an exploration of traditional tunes using
electronic resources, music for traditional instruments, traditional styles and
structures, music which is representative of a particular cultural tradition or
a piece of music which explores the fusion of two musical styles, such as
traditional Irish and rock/“pop”, traditional Irish and African/classical, or a
piece of music inspired by one of the set works or other works listened to
(Musical Traditions in Ireland).

Where a candidate chooses to fulfil assessment requirement two through


composing, by submitting two area-of-study compositions, the brief for the
second composition should relate to a different area of study.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Where a candidate chooses to meet assessment requirement two through the


performing component, the second composition may be to the candidate’s own
chosen brief which may, or may not, be linked to any area of study.

Each composition must be accompanied by a written commentary which:

• describes the given or chosen brief and the candidate’s response to the brief;

• sets out the candidate’s intentions in relation to the brief;

• includes an analysis of the composition in relation to the use of musical


elements, devices, tonality and structure;

• identifies the relationship of the composition to the area of study and/or


other contextual influences;

• presents the candidate’s personal evaluation of the composition.

NOTE: Where a candidate creates a composition through the use of music


technology the commentary should include a detailed account of resources and
processes used, including makes and models of electronic equipment, computer
programs etc. The commentary should also indicate how the finished
composition might reflect what was already programmed into the technology.

Folios may consist of notated scores and/or recordings of compositions with a


performance time of 3–5 minutes.

Each composition will be marked out of 60 marks, according to the following


criteria:

(i) creation/organisation and development of musical ideas (21 marks);

(ii) use of resources (including music technology where appropriate) to fulfil the
brief (18 marks);

(iii) sense of completeness in relation to the brief (21 marks);

Each commentary will be marked out of 20 marks according to:

• the appropriateness and relevance of information presented (17 marks); and

• the quality of written communication (3 marks).

Performing and Appraising: 35%

Assessment of the performing component will be carried out by the Council’s


visiting assessors and supervised by the Chief Examiner. All styles and
performance media are acceptable. Candidates who wish to present performances
using music technology resources such as pre-recorded backing tracks, MIDI etc,

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

are free to do so. The minimum level of technical demand of the candidate’s
performance programmes should be equivalent to Grade 1 of the instrumental
examining boards.

Performing will automatically provide a differentiated form of assessment since


candidates will be guided by their teachers as to the standard of technical
difficulty and interpretative demands of the programmes they offer. Further
details and guidance are provided in the Mark Schemes and Guidance on
Performing set out in Appendix 2.

Candidates are required to:

• perform as an accompanied/unaccompanied soloist, or contribute a


significant solo part within an ensemble texture;

• perform an independent part as a member of an ensemble. (The candidate’s


part should be sufficiently independent to ensure that the Council’s assessor
can make a valid judgement of the candidate’s ensemble skills.); and

• respond appropriately to questions by the visiting assessor on points arising


from the performance and relationship(s) with the selected area(s) of study.

NOTE: There is no requirement for all members of the ensemble to be


examination candidates.

Candidates should present solo and ensemble performance programmes of up to


five minutes duration. Although there is no minimum time requirement, the
performance should be sufficient to enable the visiting assessor make a valid
judgement in relation to the criteria set out below.

One of the performance pieces must be related to the same area of study as
one of the candidate’s compositions. Candidates who wish to do so, may meet
this requirement by performing their composition.

Where assessment requirement two is being met though performance (see


page 6) a second solo or ensemble piece, related to a second area of study,
must be included. Where assessment requirement two is being met through
composing, the additional solo or ensemble piece may or may not be related to
any area of study.

Candidates should present the visiting assessor with an outline of their solo and
ensemble performance programmes and, if appropriate, a copy of the
commentary for the composition which is being performed. Candidates will be
required to comment on their performance pieces, aspects of their performance
and, where appropriate, the related areas of study.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Criteria for Solo Performance: 15%

Solo performance will be marked out of 60 marks in relation to the following


criteria. Criterion (i) relates to the technical demands of the candidate’s chosen
music. Criteria (ii) and (iii) relate to the candidate’s response to the expressive
features of the music.

(i) technical control of the voice or instrument (21 marks);

(ii) expressive interpretation of the music in relation to:

• tempo and dynamics (12 marks);

• phrasing, tone and articulation (12 marks);

(iii) sense of style and communication (15 marks).

Criteria for Ensemble Performance: 15%

Ensemble performance will be marked out of 60 marks in relation to the


following criteria. Criterion (i) relates to the technical demands of the candidate’s
chosen ensemble music. Criteria (ii) and (iii) relate to the candidate’s response to
the expressive features of the music and to other members of the group.

(i) control of the technical demands of the ensemble piece (21 marks);

(ii) sense of ensemble in relation to:

• balance between parts (12 marks);

• pitch/intonation and phrasing (12 marks);

(iii) response to other members of the ensemble (15 marks).

20 marks will be available for candidates’ ability to comment on the music


performed, aspects of performance and relationships with areas of study, where
appropriate, across both solo and ensemble programmes.

Further details and information which may be helpful to teachers in guiding


candidates towards an appropriate choice of music are provided in the Mark
Schemes and Guidance on Performing in Appendix 2.

Listening and Appraising: 25%

Assessment of listening and appraising will be carried out through a single test of
aural perception lasting approximately one hour. Differentiation within the single
tier of entry for this component will be achieved through inclines of difficulty
within and between questions.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

The test will consist of up to eight questions based on both familiar and
unfamiliar music and will be marked out of 100 marks. Not all set works will be
assessed in any one year and candidates will be required to apply their
knowledge of the areas of study to unfamiliar music. Some questions will require
a knowledge of staff notation.
2.4 LANGUAGE OF SPECIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT MATERIALS

The specification and associated assessment materials are provided in English.


CCEA may provide operational assessment materials in Irish on request from
centres if prior approval has been given by the Department of Education.

2.5 QUALITY OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

Assessment will take into account candidates’ quality of written communication


where they are required to produce extended written material.

Quality of written communication refers to candidates’ ability to:

• present relevant information in a form that suits its purpose;

• ensure text is legible and that spelling, grammar and punctuation are
accurate so that meaning is clear.

Quality of written communication will be assessed through Assessment Objective


3, applied to candidates’ written commentaries within the composing component.
It will not be applied to answers within the listening and appraising test.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

3 SUBJECT CONTENT
The subject content should be read in conjunction with the aims and assessment
objectives set out in Section 1 of this specification. It should also be approached
with the need to address the range of issues also set out in Section 1.

The subject content is organised into three teaching and learning areas of study
which require a holistic approach to making and responding to music, based on
the three interactive and mutually-supportive areas of musical activity –
composing, performing and listening and appraising. Learning within any
particular context should support and inform candidates’ knowledge and
understanding across all the areas of study.

The musical activities required by this specification should also form the context
for developing candidates’ capacity for creative and critical thinking as they
generate, appraise, select, apply and evaluate ideas associated with, and outcomes
of, their musical activities. The commentaries which accompany their
compositions and the requirement to discuss performance with the visiting
assessor should also promote candidates’ capacity for critical thinking as well as
the personal and interpersonal skills required for effective communication.

The areas of study are:

• Music for Celebration;

• Musical Arrangements; and

• Musical Traditions in Ireland.

The musical content of the pieces identified for aural study within these areas
should be used to develop candidates’ aural perception skills and to stimulate
composing, performing and appraising activities which will develop candidates’
knowledge and understanding of:

• the use of musical elements (pitch, rhythm, metre, phrasing, articulation,


dynamics, instrumental and vocal timbres, textures) devices such as
sequence imitation, syncopation etc, tonalities and structures;

• the use of resources, conventions, processes and relevant notations,


including staff notation;

• the contextual influences that affect the way music is created, performed and
heard, for example, the effect of different intentions, uses, venues, occasions,
available resources and the cultural environment.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

In addressing the areas of study, candidates should develop awareness of the ICT
related issues set out in Section 1; also, an understanding of the impact of ICT on
the way music is performed and heard, for example:

• the standardisation of interpretation which has resulted from numerous and


widely available recordings which lead to particular audience expectations;
and

• the differences between live and recorded (edited) performances within the
“classical” and popular music repertoires.

Examples of the use of ICT are set out in relation to the key skill of IT at
Levels 1 and 2 in Appendix 1.

The areas of study are sufficiently expansive to incorporate a wide range of


musical styles and genres beyond the set pieces. The specification, therefore,
should cater for a wide range of interests and abilities. It also allows scope for
candidates to undertake composing and performing briefs which fall outside the
areas of study, by offering freedom of choice beyond the minimum requirements
in composing and performing components.

The detailed content of each area of study is set out below.

NOTE: Each area of study includes suggestions for further listening. These have
been included to provide an expanded range of techniques, styles and contexts
which can be used to support learning within the area of study. Where specific
pieces have been identified, they should not be treated as set works. They will
not form part of the listening and appraising test.

3.1 MUSIC FOR CELEBRATION

When undertaking study of Music for Celebration candidates should be given


opportunities to consider:

• how music can have several functions which are related to the cultural,
political, philosophical and religious conditions which have evolved across
time and place, and how music has been used to celebrate events, people and
places across these contexts;

• how the status and conditions of work for the composer changed across time
from one of servitude under patronage (producing music to order across a
wide range of functions) to one of some independence (Mozart, Beethoven,
Berlioz) to the working contexts and status of present-day composers;

• how the patronage of Church, State and wealthy individuals has been
replaced by institutions such as the Arts Council, the BBC and a wide range
of autonomous orchestral and musical societies and other corporate bodies
who commission works;

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• how the parameters of a composition are set by factors, such as its required
length and venue for performance, commissioner’s/audience expectation,
chosen or requested/available resources and cultural conventions of the time
and place;

• how there are characteristics which are common to all music which is
celebratory, for example, the need to support and reflect the nature of the
particular celebration, to draw the listener’s attention, stir the emotions, lift
the spirit and create a sense of well-being.

Candidates’ knowledge and understanding of Music for Celebration should be


developed through a wide range of listening, composing and performing
activities which are supported by aural study of the works listed below.
Candidates study of the work should include an awareness of the context in
which the work was created.

Handel: La Réjouissance from Music for the Royal Fireworks (1749 to


celebrate the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle: listening time 3’06”).

Candidates should be encouraged to place the movement within the wider


context of the complete work and to identify:

• structure of the movement (binary form);

• structural devices (use of sequence and repetition);

• melodic and rhythmic features (repeated notes, “turn-like” figures, rising


and falling sequences dotted rhythms);

• tonality and modulation (major – moving to the dominant at the end of the
first section and then back to the tonic).

Fanshawe: African Sanctus-Gloria (1972 first performed and broadcast to


celebrate United Nations Day: track 12 on Philips CD 426 055-2: listening time
3’13”).

NOTE: This work will give candidates the opportunity to address music of
another culture and to consider the role of ICT in capturing, preserving a musical
tradition that may be in danger of extinction; also how this tradition can be
juxtaposed and incorporated into the Western “classical” tradition. They can also
consider how the vast and varied resources, both live and recorded, are brought
together and mixed to create a performance in which the various elements are
technically and aesthetically balanced.

Candidates should be encouraged to place the movement within the wider


context of the work and to identify:

• the expressive drive and purpose of the music (praise);

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• the combination of recorded live African dance music with the Western
tradition of writing church music (African chanting and drumming and the
Latin text);

• the “Bwala” dance and drumming of Northern Uganda (danced for visiting
kings and dignitaries – unvarying tempo and repetition of seven bars of
duple (2/4) time followed by one bar of triple time);

• how this final movement brings together different aspects of the whole work
(the “Bwala” dance and drummers, rock drums, guitars, African tom-toms,
piano and full choir – cf full list of resources used on the accompanying
notes to the CD);

• the performance created by mixing all the elements through a sixteen-track


mixer unit (“composer, conductor and operators all swing together”).

Freddie Mercury: We are the Champions (performed by Queen on CDPCSD


141: Queen Greatest Hits: listening time 2’50”).

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:


• the overall structure of the song (strophic);

• instruments playing and different instrumental parts;

• how the musical elements are combined to create climax in the music;

• how the music supports the words.

The following list contains suggestions for further listening which could be used
to support learning within the area of study and stimulate composing and
performing activities.

Vivaldi: The Seasons (celebration of the seasons).

Handel: Zadok the Priest (coronation of George II).

Haydn: Symphony No 48, first movement (to celebrate a visit by


the Empress Maria Teresa).

Beethoven: Symphony No 6, fifth movement (Shepherd’s Hymn of


Praise after the Storm) and Symphony No 9, fourth
movement (to celebrate the brotherhood of men).

Verdi: Triumphant March from Aida (to celebrate the opening of


the Italian Theatre in Cairo).

Sousa: The Washington Post (to celebrate the winners of a


competition sponsored by the Washington Post.
newspaper).

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Stravinsky: Greeting Prelude: Happy Birthday (a musical telegram to


celebrate a friend’s birthday).

Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (1942 a tribute to men and
women fighting in World War II).

3.2 MUSICAL ARRANGEMENTS

When undertaking study of Musical Arrangements candidates should be given


opportunities to consider:

• how arrangements (sometimes called transcriptions) involve the process of


adapting music composed for one medium to another and how the making of
an arrangement usually means that the arranger places considerable value on
the original music and wishes to explore its potential and/or make it more
accessible to a wider range of performers;

• how composers can make arrangements of their own works, sometimes for
expanded, but often more restricted resources, for example, the numerous
transcriptions of operatic scenes by Liszt as a vehicle for demonstrating his
virtuoso performance technique;

• how the art of the arranger is an essential aspect of the present day music
industry, spanning the full range of musical styles and idioms, for example,
the professional role of the arranger as orchestrator for popular music and
musicals and the vast quantity of materials which have been arranged for
school, instrumental examination and amateur music-making;

• that there are characteristics which are common to all musical arrangements,
for example, the change of media from the original, the retention of musical
substance or the ability of the arrangement to show the original musical
content in a “new light”.

Candidates’ knowledge and understanding of Musical Arrangements should be


developed through a wide range of listening, composing and performing
activities which are supported by aural study of the works listed below. This area
of study can be supported particularly well by the very wide repertoire of pieces
which have been transcribed for both solo and instrumental performance, for
example, classroom arrangements and transcriptions which form part of
instrumental examinations.

In addressing the following set works, candidates should have opportunities,


where possible, to compare the arrangements with originals or with other
arrangements of the same music. Candidates’ study of the work should include an
awareness of the context in which the work was created.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Schubert: Piano Quintet: The Trout, Fourth Movement (Schubert develops the
potential of his own song melody by writing a set of variations: listening time
7’06”).

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:

• the structure of the theme and the instrument which plays it (played by the
violin in the binary form melody of Schubert’s song The Trout);

• how the theme is treated in each variation, for example,

Variation 1: piano plays the theme (octaves in the high register),


pizzicato “walking” bass with triplet figures in viola and
cello, violin trills suggest bird calls;

Variation 2: viola plays the theme (echoed a bar later by the piano),
violin provides a decorative obligato part;

Variation 3: cello plays the theme, doubled by the bass,


violin and viola fill in the harmonies (detached chords with
some syncopation), piano plays fast-moving bright
accompaniment figures;

Variation 4: more complex variation in which tonality changes to minor,


melodic line abandoned but phrase structure retained,
denser texture achieved through double-stopping and
heavier chords on the piano;

Variation 5: some major/minor tonal ambiguity; modified version of the


theme played by the cello, imitated by the piano, variation
prolonged to accommodate modulation to the tonic key;

Final section: return of original theme with sections played by violin,


viola and accompanied by piano (original leaping trout
figure from song accompaniment).

Kurt Weill: Mack the Knife from The Threepenny Opera (live performance
recording of jazz arrangement sung by Ella Fitzgerald, available on Compact
Jazz – The Sampler CD Verve 831 376-2: listening time 5’06”).

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:

• instruments in the jazz combo (piano, guitar, bass and drum-kit);

• empathy between group members and soloist (for example, in the


introduction and ending and general treatment of the song by the vocalist);

• the upward key changes for each verse;

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• free treatments of words and melody (for example, topical references to


other performers of the song; did she really forget the words?);

• elements of improvisation (melody, words and style of singing, for example,


the Louis Armstrong imitation);

• freedom of the singer over a very consistent accompaniment;

• features of the accompaniment (very much a supportive role with limited


opportunities for piano to do its “own thing”).

The following list contains suggestions for further listening which could be used
to support learning within the area of study and stimulate composing and
performing activities.

• Alternative arrangements of set works;

• Sets of variations by any composer;

• Arrangements of a wide range of music for brass and military bands;

• Orchestral arrangements of pop songs;

• Music based on riffs, 12 bar blues, ostanati, ground bass, for example:

Pachelbel: Kanon – various versions;

Glen Miller: arrangement of song In the Mood by Joe


Garland;

Walton: orchestral arrangement of Sheep May Safely


Graze from Bach Cantata No 208;

Vaughan Williams: Fantasia on Greensleeves;

Stokowski: orchestral arrangement of Bach Toccata and


Fugue in G minor;

Shostakovich: Tahiti Trot – orchestral arrangement of song Tea


for Two by V Youmans;

Simon and Garfunkel: arrangement of Scarborough Fair, folk song.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

3.3 MUSICAL TRADITIONS IN IRELAND

When undertaking study of Musical Traditions in Ireland candidates should be


given opportunities to consider the main traditions and influences which are
reflected in present-day music-making. These include:

• the Scots-Irish tradition: the jigs, reels and hornpipes of Scottish origin and
the piping and drumming tradition of the Scottish bagpipe;

• the Anglo-Irish tradition: the ballads and other well-known “folk-songs” in


English, for example, the folk song tradition of Northern Ireland, the songs
of Percy French and Moore’s Irish Melodies (a collection of Irish tunes with
words by Sir Thomas Moore) – songs which were the Irish equivalent of the
English Victorian drawing room songs in the 19th century;

• the indigenous Irish tradition which is represented by songs, especially the


unaccompanied songs in Irish (Sean Nós) and others now in translation, and
the jigs, reels and slow airs; also the harping tradition which was originally
closely allied to the aristocracy but became more susceptible to external
influences such as the Baroque style;

• instruments associated with the different styles and traditions, for example,
bodhrán/ lambeg drum, flute/accordian/brass/military bands;

• the interchangeable and interactive relationships which exist between the


range of musical traditions in Ireland, for example, English words to old
airs, and the assimilation of Scottish tunes into the traditional musician’s
repertoire;

• the interaction between Irish music and other types and styles of music, for
example, the use of Irish music within the European “classical” tradition
(the music of Sir Hamilton Harty, Shaun Davey, Mícheál Ó Súilleabháin etc)
the fusion of Irish traditional with rock music (groups such as Horslips, the
Waterboys, Moving Hearts) and the fusion of Irish traditional with other
world musics (Donal Lunny and the Afro-Celt Sound System).

Candidates knowledge and understanding of Musical Traditions in Ireland should


be developed through a wide range of listening, composing and performing
activities which are supported by aural study of the works listed below.
Candidates study of the work should include an awareness of the context in
which the work was created and/or performed.

The Bucks of Oranmore (live performance of traditional Irish reel tune recorded
on track 8, disc 1 of Bringing it all Back Home from the BBC TV Series:
listening time 3’15”).

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:

• those aspects of the recording which indicate that this is a live performance;

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• the range of instruments being used (two fiddles, whistle, accordian;


bouzouki, bass, bodhrán);

• two-part structure of the reel with repetition of each part and unison style of
playing;

Donal Lunny: April The 3rd (dance tune with stylistic fusion on track 1, disc 1
of Bringing it all Back Home from the BBC TV Series: listening time 4’30”).

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:

• electric and acoustic instruments (pipes, keyboard, fiddle, electric guitars,


bouzouki, bodhrán, Egyptian hand drums, timps and other percussion);

• melodic structure of the piece based on traditional dance music;

• the rhythmic complexity of the accompaniment;

• layering of rhythms and introduction of melodic material at the beginning


and end;

• “Eastern” flavour of the music, for example, the opening section and the
repeated melodic motif.

Field Marshal Montgomery Pipe Band: March, Strathspey and Reel (recorded
live performance, track 5 on The World Pipe Band Championships 1998,
Monarch KLR, CDMON 833: listening time 4’35”)

Candidates should be encouraged to identify:

• features and characteristics of each section (AB structures with repeats, use
of “Scotch snap”, dotted rhythms and triplets in the Strathspey,
differentiation between the sections, drone accompaniment throughout);

• the structures and repetition of sections;

• different drumming accompaniment patterns for each section; complex side-


drum patterns, especially in the Strathspey).

Sir Hamilton Harty: Irish Symphony, 2nd movement Scherzo “Fair Day”
(played by the Ulster Orchestra on (M) Chandos CHAN7034: listening time
3’15”).

Candidates should be encouraged to place the movement within the wider


context of the work and to identify:

• the structure of the movement;

• the dance-like quality and “busyness” of the music, recalling the hustle and
bustle of market day in a country town;

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• the fiddler “tuning up” effect at the opening (open fifths on strings);

• the traditional flute-type melody (reel tune, The Blackberry Blossom);

• the development of the tune;

• introduction and treatment of the second tune (known as The Girl I Left
Behind Me or The Wandering Labourer played in fifths to imitate flute
bands where flutes at different pitches play the same tune);

• use of large orchestra, including tuned and untuned percussion (distinctive


contribution of xylophone and tuba).

The following list contains suggestions for further listening which could be used
to support learning within the area of study and stimulate composing and
performing activities.

Other tracks on Bringing it all Back Home.

Any of the songs appearing in Moore’s Irish Melodies.

The songs of Percy French.

Any music by the Chieftains.

Any music on CDs by the Afro Celt Sound System.

Music performed by Clannad, Anuna, Altan.

Music performed by Horslips, the Waterboys, De Danan, Stockton’s Wing,


Moving Hearts, the Big Geraniums etc (available on Lime Records CD Electric
Reels).

This Land (Riverdance) by Bill Whelen.

Music by Sean Ó Riada, Shaun Davey, and other works by Sir Hamilton Harty.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

4 GRADE DESCRIPTIONS
The following grade descriptions indicate the level of attainment characteristic of
the given grade at GCSE level. They give a general indication of the required
learning outcomes at each specific grade. The descriptions should be interpreted
in relation to the specified subject content; they are not designed to define that
content. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the extent to which the
candidate has met the assessment objectives overall. Shortcomings in some
aspects of the examination may be balanced by better performance in others.

4.1 GRADE F

Candidates sing and/or play music with some fluency and control of the
resources used. They compose music that shows some ability to organise musical
ideas and use appropriate resources in response to a brief. They describe musical
features using simple musical vocabulary; make improvements to own work and
offer some justification of opinions expressed.

4.2 GRADE C

Candidates sing and/or play music with control, making expressive use of phrase
and dynamics appropriate to the style and mood of the music. They compose
music that shows ability to develop musical ideas, use conventions, explore the
potential of musical structures and resources and fulfil a brief. They make critical
judgements about their own and others’ music using a musical vocabulary.

4.3 GRADE A

Candidates explore the expressive potential of musical resources and conventions


used in selected genres, styles and traditions. They sing and/or play music with a
sense of style, command of the resources used and making appropriate gradations
of tempo, dynamics and balance. They compose music that shows a coherent and
imaginative development of musical ideas and consistency of style and fulfils a
brief. They make critical judgements about their own and others’ music using an
accurate and extensive musical vocabulary.

In all grades, candidates must demonstrate aural perception and musical


knowledge and understanding in relation to the content set out in Section 3 of the
specification.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

5 GUIDANCE FOR TEACHERS ON THE


INTERNAL ASSESSMENT AND EXTERNAL
MODERATION OF COMPOSING
The composing component of the course provides opportunities for candidates to
manipulate, experiment with and organise the elements of music to create
something which is original for the candidate. A greater knowledge and
understanding of how music “works” can be fostered through the creative
processes which are an essential part of composing activities. The composing
component contributes to each of the aims stated in Section 1 of the
specification.

It is envisaged that, throughout the course, candidates will be involved in


composing activities resulting from a range of given and chosen briefs relating to
the areas of study. Towards the end of the course they will select two pieces
which they wish to submit for assessment purposes.

Differentiation will occur naturally in the composing component since candidates


will be given or will choose tasks which are appropriate to their individual
abilities. There is also opportunity for differentiation by outcome where various
levels of response may arise from a common brief.

Composing may be carried out as a group activity, but it will be necessary for the
teacher to identify and assess the contribution made by individual candidates
within the group and award marks accordingly.

Compositions must be submitted in the form of a written score and/or recording


on tape, CD or minidisc and be accompanied by a commentary in accordance
with the outline set out in the Scheme of Assessment in Section 2 of the
specification. Where recorded performance and a written score are provided, care
should be taken to ensure their correspondence. When discrepancy exists
between a score and recorded performance, the performance will take
precedence. Candidates who use the resources made available by music
technology are required to include, as part of their commentaries, details of the
equipment and/or programs they have used. Commentaries may be handwritten
or word-processed and must include a statement of authenticity which indicates
that the composition is the candidate’s own work.

All Candidates’ Record Sheets must indicate the performance time of submitted
folios. This should be between three and five minutes, excluding any spoken
commentary. Where a candidate has failed to produce a folio of three minutes’
duration, the teacher should assess the submitted work in the normal way, but
forward that folio with its accompanying commentaries and Candidate Record
Sheet in addition to the samples requested for moderation.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

5.1 ASSESSMENT

Since composing is a coursework activity, the candidate’s teacher is regarded as


the person best placed to make the initial assessment. In order to ensure
comparability of standards, the Council will operate a system of moderation by
inspection, by requiring schools to submit the work of identified candidates for
moderation by the appointed team which will have been trained in the
moderation procedures and application of the agreed standards.

Compositions should be assessed in relation to the standard which could


normally be expected from a 16-year-old candidate, as exemplified at the
Agreement Trials organised by the Council. Help by the teacher should not give
the work a more sophisticated quality than the candidate would be capable of
achieving. When making assessments, teachers must take into consideration the
degree of assistance given to the candidate and this should be reflected in the
marks awarded. Teachers should use the following information to assist them in
their assessment.

Each composition should be marked out of 60 marks, according to the following


criteria:

(i) creation/organisation and development of musical ideas (21 marks);

(ii) use of resources (including music technology where appropriate) to fulfil the
brief (18 marks);

(iii) sense of completeness in relation to the brief (21 marks).

Each commentary should be marked out of 20 marks according to:

• the appropriateness and relevance of information presented (17 marks); and

• the quality of written communication (3 marks).

(i) Creation/organisation and development of musical ideas (21 marks)

1–7 marks 8–14 marks 15–21 marks

Some attempt to organise Some sense of organisation Ideas are created, presented,
musical ideas which are and ability to develop musical organised and refined in a
stated but remain undeveloped, ideas through the use of coherent manner, showing
either because the demands of common structural and some flair and imagination.
the brief are limiting, or the expressive devices.
demands are greater, but not Arrangements are well
met. Arrangements may be largely thought out and appropriate
accurate but limited in their for the intention.
Arrangements may contain a ability to present a new
number of inaccuracies or be perspective on the original.
largely note for note
transcriptions.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

(ii) use of resources (including music technology where appropriate) to fulfil


the brief (18 marks)
1–6 marks 7–12 marks 13–18 marks

Some attempt to match Purposeful and idiomatic use Flair and imagination in
musical content with the of timbral and textural exploiting the expressive
selected medium, but the resources which are potential of the chosen
composition may not fully consistent with the brief. resources to encompass
meet the candidate’s the brief.
intentions outlined in the brief.

(iii) sense of completeness in relation to the brief (21 marks)


1–7 marks 8–14 marks 15–21 marks

A basic understanding of The ability to maintain a Fluent and imaginative


balance and style, for example, chosen style within simple manipulation of structure and
in a short melody. A simple, structures, but perhaps, less style. At the top of the range,
straightforward brief may be consistency where the brief is the brief has been challenging
satisfactory realised or a more more complex, or there may and is imaginatively realised
complex brief insufficiently be competent realisation of with an appropriate balance of
fulfilled. a brief which makes moderate unity and variety. At the
demands on the candidate. lower end of the range the
brief has been challenging and
is competently realised.

Candidate’s commentary: the appropriateness and relevance of information


presented (17 marks)

1–5 marks 6–11 marks 12–17 marks

Commentary may be couched A full commentary which A full and analytical


in appropriate terms, using a uses appropriate music commentary which includes
simple musical vocabulary, terminology and relates well appropriate music
but be limited by the to the composition and area terminology and demonstrates
candidate’s incomplete of study, where appropriate. good knowledge and
knowledge and understanding Some ability to present a understanding, with an
of the area of study or brief critical appraisal of the ability to engage in critical
relating to the composition. composition. reflection.

Candidate’s commentary: the quality of written communication (3 marks)

1 mark 2 marks 3 marks

Mostly satisfactory, but may Satisfactory spelling, Good level of use of language
have minor errors. punctuation and grammar. and presentation of ideas.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

5.2 ROLE OF THE TEACHER

Teachers are required to record the marks awarded for each criterion and the total
marks for the folio on the Candidate Record Sheet, copies of which will be
supplied by the Council. Teachers are also required to sign the Candidate Record
Sheet and to outline details of any assistance which may have been given to the
candidate. This information is essential to the moderation process.

The total mark for each candidate must be submitted to the Council by 1 May in
the year of the examination. The Candidate Record Sheets for all candidates must
be sent to the Council at the same time as the coursework samples requested for
moderation.

5.3 ANNOTATION OF COURSEWORK

Internally assessed assignments must be annotated in detail in order to ensure


fairness for candidates and to assist with the moderation process. Annotation
should take the form of comments on the Candidate Record Sheet.

5.4 AGREEMENT TRIALS

Agreement Trials will be conducted annually, prior to the date of the


examination, where teachers will be briefed on the application of the assessment
criteria and will engage in trial marking.

5.5 SUPPORT SERVICE AND ADVICE

At any stage during the course teachers may contact CCEA if they require
advice, assistance or support regarding any aspect of internal assessment. CCEA
has made provision for a Moderator to support groups of centres. Arrangements
can be made for a Moderator to contact individual centres to discuss issues
arising from the internally assessed component.

5.6 INTERNAL CENTRE STANDARDISATION

Where there is more than one teaching group in the subject, the centre must carry
out internal standardisation of assessments before submitting them to CCEA. The
purpose of this exercise is to ensure, as far as possible, that each of the teachers
has applied the assessment criteria consistently when making assessments. As a
result of this internal standardisation it may be necessary to adjust the marking of
individual teachers to bring their assessments into line with those of the other
teachers in the centre and to match the standards established at the Agreement
Trial. Where such an adjustment is necessary the total/final mark recorded on the
Candidate’s Record Sheets should be amended.

Full instructions about the details of the moderation procedures and the nature of
sampling will be issued by CCEA at the appropriate time.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

APPENDIX 1
OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING AND GENERATING EVIDENCE
FOR ASSESSING KEY SKILLS

The following table signposts and exemplifies the types of opportunity for
developing and generating evidence for assessing Key Skills that may arise
during a GCSE course in music. The opportunities are referenced to Section B of
the relevant Key Skills Specifications at Levels 1 and 2. The subject
exemplifications illustrate typical opportunities which may arise during the
normal teaching and learning process. These are only a small selection of such
opportunities and are not part of the Key Skills Specifications themselves. It is
for teachers and students to decide which parts of the course, if any, to use to
develop and assess Key Skills.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skill: Communication

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference

Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and Subject Exemplification


Evidence Evidence

C1.1 Take part in a one-to-one C2.1a Contribute to a Discuss own composition or


discussion and a group discussion about a performance with the teacher
discussion about different, straightforward subject. (Level 1) or participate in a
straightforward subjects. This must show you can: class discussion about a set
This must show you can: work or area of study
• make clear and relevant (Level 2).
• provide information that is contributions in a way
relevant to the subject and that suits your purpose
purpose of the discussion; and situation;

• speak clearly in a way that • listen and respond


suits the situation; appropriately to what
others say;
• listen and respond
appropriately to what • help to move the
others say. discussion forward.

C2.1b Give a short talk about Give a short presentation to


a straightforward subject the class on own composition,
using an image. using the composing
This must show you can: commentary as a basis, and
illustrating the presentation
• speak clearly in a way with musical and visual
that suits your subject, references where appropriate.
purpose and situation;

• keep to the subject and


structure your talk to help
listeners follow what you
are saying;

• use an image to illustrate


clearly your main points.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

C1.2 Read and obtain C2.2 Read and summarise Undertake some individual
information from two information from two reading and listening research
different types of documents extended documents about a related to a set work, its
about straightforward straightforward subject. composer or related area of
subjects, including at least One of the documents study (Level 1).
one image. should include at least one Summarise the relevant points
This must show you can: image. and use the information
This must show you can: appropriately within the
• read relevant material; composition commentary
• select and read relevant (Level 2).
• identify accurately the material;
main points and ideas in
material; • identify accurately the
lines of reasoning and
• use the information to main points from texts
suit your purpose. and images;

• summarise the
information to suit your
purpose.

C1.3 Write two different C2.3 Write two different Not applicable in terms of
types of documents about types of documents about generating two different
straightforward subjects. straightforward subjects. types of documents, but the
Include at least one image One piece of writing should skill can be developed
in one of the documents. be an extended document through writing commentaries
This must show you can: and include at least one for compositions.
image.
• present relevant This must show you can:
information in a form
that suits your purpose; • present relevant
information in an
• ensure text is legible; appropriate form;

• make sure that spelling, • use a structure and style


punctuation and grammar of writing to suit your
are accurate so your purpose;
meaning is clear.
• ensure text is legible and
that spelling, punctuation
and grammar are
accurate, so the meaning
is clear.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skill: Information Technology

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

IT1.1 Find, explore and IT2.1 Search for and select Explore a sound-bank and
develop information for two information for two different select appropriate sounds for
different purposes. purposes. composition, or sample and
This must show you can: This must show you can: store a range of sounds to
create a sound-bank identified
• find and select relevant • identify the information as appropriate for
information; you need and suitable composition.
sources;
• enter and bring in
information, using formats • carry out effective
that help development; searches;

• explore and develop • select information that is


information to meet your relevant to your purpose.
purpose.

IT1.2 Present information for IT2.2 Explore and develop Develop a composition using
two different purposes. information and derive new MIDI technology.
information for two
Your work must include at different purposes.
least one example of text, This must show you can:
one example of images and
one example of numbers; • enter and bring together
This must show you can: information using formats
that help development;
• use appropriate layouts for
presenting information in • explore information as
a consistent way; needed for your purpose;

• develop the presentation • develop information and


so it is accurate, clear and derive new information
meets your purpose; as appropriate.

• save information so it can


be found easily.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

IT2.3 Present combined Present an electronic


information for two different performance of finished
purposes. Your work must composition with computer
include at least one example print-out of the score and
of text, one example of data relating to some of the
images and one example sounds used.
of numbers.
This must show you can:

• select and use appropriate


layouts for presenting
combined information in
a consistent way;

• develop the presentation


to suit your purpose and
the types of information;

• ensure your work is


accurate, clear and saved
appropriately.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skill: Working with Others

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

WO1.1 Confirm what needs WO2.1 Plan straightforward Work with other members of
to be done to achieve given work with others, the class to form a group for
objectives, including your identifying objectives and ensemble performance and
responsibilities and working clarifying responsibilities, to select appropriate music
arrangements. and confirm working for performance.
This must show you can: arrangements.
This must show you can:
• check that you clearly
understand the objectives • identify the objectives of
you have been given for working together and
working together; what needs to be done to
achieve these objectives;
• identify what needs to be
done to achieve these • exchange relevant
objectives and suggest information to clarify
ways you could help; responsibilities;

• make sure that you are • confirm working


clear about your arrangements with those
responsibilities and involved.
working arrangements.

WO1.2 Work with others WO2.2 Work co-operatively Arrange times for individual
towards achieving given with others towards and group practice. Ask
objectives, carrying out tasks achieving identified for advice and guidance from
to meet your responsibilities. objectives, organising tasks teacher as necessary.
This must show you can: to meet your
responsibilities.
• carry out tasks to meet This must show you can:
your responsibilities;
• organise your own tasks
• work safely, accurately so you can be effective
follow the working in meeting your
methods you have been responsibilities;
given;
Key Skills Specification Part B Reference
• ask for help and offer • carry out tasks accurately
support to others, when and safely, using
appropriate. appropriate working
methods;

• support co-operative
ways of working, seeking
advice from an
appropriate person when
needed.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

WO1.3 Identify progress and WO2.3 Exchange Discuss and agree points of
suggest ways of improving information on progress and interpretation, balance and
work with others to help agree ways of improving style in ensemble
achieve given objectives. work with others to help performances.
This must show you can: achieve objectives.
This must show you can:
• identify what has gone
well in working with • provide relevant
others; information on what has
gone well and what has
• report any difficulties in gone less well in
meeting your working with others,
responsibilities and say including the quality of
what you did about them; your work;

• suggest ways of • listen and respond


improving work with appropriately to progress
others to help achieve reports from others;
the objectives.
• agree ways of improving
work with others to help
achieve the objectives.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skill: Improving Own Learning and Performance

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

IOLP1.1 Confirm IOLP2.1 Help set short-term Plan for progress during
understanding of your targets with an appropriate instrumental lessons or
short-term targets, and plan person and plan how these during experimental
how these will be met, with will be met. composition exercises.
the person setting them. This must show you can:
This must show you can:
• provide accurate
• make sure targets clearly information to help set
show what you want to realistic targets for what
achieve; you want to achieve;

• identify clear action points • identify clear action


and deadlines for each points for each target;
target;
• plan how you will use
• identify how to get the your time effectively
support you need and the to meet targets,
arrangements for including use of support
reviewing your progress. and arrangements for
reviewing your progress.

IOLP1.2 Follow your plan, IOLP2.2 Take responsibility Set a target date for learning
using support given by others for some decisions about a new piece of music or
to help meet targets. your learning, using your creating a composition
This must show you can: plan and support from related to an area of study.
others to help meet targets. Identify a number of interim
• improve your performance This must show you can: targets within the time-frame
by studying a and revise as necessary.
straightforward subject • improve your
and learning through a performance by: studying
straightforward practical a straightforward subject
activity; and learning through a
straightforward practical
• work through your action activity;
points to complete tasks
on time;

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference

Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and Subject Exemplification


Evidence Evidence

IOLP1.2 (cont) IOLP2.2 (cont)

• use support given by • use your action points to


others to help you meet help manage your time
targets; well and complete tasks,
revising your plan when
• use different ways of needed;
learning suggested by
your supervisor, and make • identify when you need
changes, when needed, support and use this
to improve your effectively to help you
performance. meet targets;

• select and use different


ways of learning to
improve your
performance, working for
short periods without
close supervision.

LP1.3 Review your progress LP2.3 Review progress with Evaluate progress with teacher
and achievements in meeting an appropriate person and during the on-going activity
targets, with an appropriate provide evidence of your and write an evaluation of the
person. achievements including how process as part of the
This must show you can: you have used learning from composition commentary.
one task to meet the
• say what you learned and demands of a new task.
how you learned, This must show you can:
including what has gone
well and what has gone • identify what and how
less well; you learned, including
what has gone well and
• identify targets you have what has gone less well;
met and provide samples
of evidence of your • identify targets you have
achievements; met and evidence of your
achievements;
• identify what you need to
do to improve your • identify ways to further
performance. improve your
performance.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skill: Problem Solving

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

PS1.1 Confirm your PS2.1 Identify a problem and Identify a number of ways of
understanding of the given come up with two options approaching a composition
problem with an appropriate for solving it. brief and decide which would
person and identify two This must show you can: be the most suitable ways
options for solving it. of proceeding.
This must show you can: • identify the problem,
accurately describing its
• check that you are clear main features, and how
about the problem you to show success in
have been given and how solving it;
to show success in solving
it; • come up with different
ways of tackling the
• identify different ways of problem;
tackling the problem;
• decide which options
• decide, with help, which have a realistic chance of
options are most likely to success using help from
be successful. others when appropriate.

PS1.2 Plan and try out at PS2.2 Plan and try out at Engage in the composing
least one option for solving least one option for solving process in line with chosen
the problem, using advice and the problem obtaining option, setting out intentions
support given by others. support and making changes as part of the composing
This must show you can: to your plan when needed. commentary.
This must show you can:
• confirm with an
appropriate person the • confirm with an
option you will try for appropriate person the
solving the problem; option you will try for
solving the problem, and
plan how to carry it out;

• plan how to carry out this • follow your plan,


option; organising the relevant
tasks and making
• follow through your plan, changes to your plan
making use of advice and when needed;
support given by others.
• obtain and effectively use
any support needed.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Key Skills Specification Part B Reference


Subject Exemplification
Level 1 Activity and Level 2 Activity and
Evidence Evidence

PS1.3 Check if the problem PS2.3 Check if the problem Write a full commentary on
has been solved by following has been solved by applying the composing brief in line
given methods, and describe given methods, describe with the requirements of the
results, including ways to results and explain your specification.
improve your approach to approach to problem solving.
problem solving. This must show you can:
This must show you can:
• check if the problem has
• check if the problem has been solved by accurately
been solved by accurately applying the methods
applying the methods you you have been given;
have been given;
• describe clearly the
• describe clearly the results and explain the
results of tackling the decisions you took at
problem; each stage of tackling
the problem;
• identify ways of
improving your approach • identify the strengths and
to problem solving. weaknesses of your
approach to problem
solving, and describe
what you would do
differently if you met a
similar problem.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

APPENDIX 2
MARK SCHEMES AND GUIDANCE ON PERFORMING

This section is intended to provide teachers with information which will form the
basis for assessing the performing component by the Council’s visiting assessors.
It provides guidance which may be useful in determining the performance levels
of candidates. It may also help teachers guide candidates towards appropriate
choices of music for their performance programmes.

Mark Scheme for Individual Performance

Candidates’ individual performances will be marked out of a total of 60 marks


which are allocated according to the criteria, in the following manner.

(i) Technical control of the instrument or voice (21 marks);

(ii) Expressive interpretation of the music (24 marks):

• tempo and dynamics (12 marks);

• phrasing, and quality of tone (12 marks);

(iii) Sense of style and communication (15 marks).

Criterion (i) relates to the technical demands of the candidate’s chosen music.

Criteria (ii) and (iii) relate to the candidate’s response to the expressive
characteristics of the music.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

(i) Technical control of the instrument or voice (21 marks)


1–7 marks 8–14 marks 15–21 marks

Accuracy in controlling: Accuracy in controlling: Accuracy in controlling:

• a restricted pitch range, • a more extended • a range of approximately


for example, a fifth to an pitch range, for example, a tenth to two octaves or
octave; an octave to a tenth; pitching more difficult
intervals;
• simple rhythms and • more difficult rhythms
melodic passages, for and/or melodic passages, • rhythmic variety and/or
example, mostly minims, for example, dotted melodic passage work,
crotchets and quavers and crotchets, quavers and for example, mixed note
mostly conjunct semiquavers or disjunct values, some syncopation
movement; movement; or semiquaver passages;

• basic articulation • more refined articulation, • more difficult articulation,


requirements, for example, for example, staccato for example, some
slurring. and/or legato. ornamentation or
chromaticism.

(ii) Expressive interpretation of the music in relation to:

• tempo and dynamics (12 marks)


1–4 marks 5–8 marks 9–12 marks

Limited ability to select or Correct tempo chosen and Correct or appropriate tempo
maintain a tempo which mostly maintained in line chosen and maintained in line
reflects the composer’s with the composer’s with the requirements of the
direction, or is appropriate for direction, or chosen tempo is music.
the style or genre. maintained but does not quite
reflect the requirement, for
example, a little too fast or
too slow.

Some success in interpreting Mostly appropriate selection Selection or interpretation of


the basic dynamic or interpretation of a a dynamic range and
requirements of the music. dynamic range which is gradations which effectively
consistent with the mood of colour the music.
the music.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

• phrasing and quality of tone (12 marks)


1–4 marks 5–8 marks 9–12 marks

Some ability to convey Musical meaning is Musical meaning is realised


musical meaning through a conveyed through an through a well-developed
basic sense of phrasing. adequate sense of phrasing. sense of phrasing.

Tone quality is mostly Acceptable quality and Sufficient variety of tone


acceptable but there may be consistency of tone to to explore, interpret and
some inconsistency. realise expressive content. realise the expressive
potential of the music.

(iii) Sense of style and communication (15 marks)


1–5 marks 6–10 marks 11–15 marks

Limited understanding of the Some ability to select and An understanding of stylistic


stylistic features of the music. maintain a style which is convention and nuance in the
consistent with the music. music.

Limited awareness of the Some sense of commitment A strong sense of purpose


communicative dimension and ability to relate to the and ability to convey a
in performance. listener. personal response which
realises the composer’s
intentions or is consistent with
the style or genre.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Mark Scheme for Ensemble Performance

Candidates’ ensemble performances will be marked out of a total of 60 marks


which are allocated according to the criteria, in the following manner.

(i) Control of the technical demands of the ensemble piece (21 marks);

(ii) Sense of ensemble in relation to:

• balance between parts (12 marks);

• pitch/intonation and phrasing (12 marks);

(iii) Response to other members of the ensemble (15 marks).

Criterion (i) relates to the technical demands of the candidate’s chosen ensemble
piece.

Criteria (ii) and (iii) relate to the candidate’s response to the expressive
characteristics of the ensemble piece and to the other members of the group.

(i) Control of the technical demands of the ensemble piece (21 marks)

The candidate is likely to demonstrate control by participating in a performance


of ensemble music which includes some, but not necessarily all, of the features
identified within each mark range.
1–7 marks 8–14 marks 15–21 marks

Accurate contribution to: Accurate contribution to: Accurate contribution to:

• a moderate tempo; • faster/slower tempi • fast/slow/contrasting


tempi and/or ensemble
• simple rhythms and • more difficult rhythms gradations of tempo;
melodic passages, for and/or melodic passages,
example, mostly minims, for example, dotted • more complex rhythmic
crotchets and quavers and crotchets, quavers and and/or melodic passage
mostly conjunct semiquavers or disjunct work, for example, mixed
movement; movement; note values with
syncopation or semiquaver
• mutually supportive parts • parts which have some passages;
and straightforward independence and/or
entries; some difficult entries; • parts which are mostly
independent and/or
• simple, straightforward • more difficult or entries which are more
articulation requirements, independent articulation difficult;
for example, slurring. requirements, for example,
staccato and/or legato • more complex articulation
playing. requirements, for example,
ensemble passage work at
a fast/slow tempo.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

(ii) Sense of ensemble in relation to:

• balance between parts (12 marks)


1–4 marks 5–8 marks 9–12 marks

Simple, mutually supportive Some success in achieving Good dynamic balance and
dynamic requirements met, dynamic balance and in a well-developed sense of the
but a limited sense of the demonstrating awareness of ensemble texture, and the
need for dynamic balance the ensemble texture by candidate’s role within it,
between parts. meeting more difficult or by contributing sensitively to
independent dynamic more complex dynamic
requirements. requirements such as
ensemble dynamic gradations
or nuance.

• pitch/intonation and phrasing (12 marks)


1–4 marks 5–8 marks 9–12 marks

Mostly accurate pitch but Accurate pitch and/or Accurate pitch and/or
there may be problems with intonation (perhaps a few intonation throughout the
intonation and a limited sense minor slips) and a sense of piece and a well-developed
of phrasing in candidate’s phrasing in candidate’s own sense of phrasing in
own part. There may be part. There will be some candidate’s own part. There
limited awareness of how the understanding of how the will be a good understanding
candidate’s part relates to the candidate’s part relates to of how the candidate’s part
piece as a whole. the piece as a whole. relates to the piece as a whole.

(iii) Response to other members of the ensemble (15 marks)


1–5 marks 6–10 marks 11–15 marks

Some awareness of what is Perception of what is Sensitivity to what is


happening in other parts, but happening in other parts, and happening in other parts, and
limited ability to make some attempt to make a prompt response to
adjustments during the appropriate adjustments adjustments needed during
performance or to take the during performance. There performance. There will be
initiative during performance. will be some ability to take confidence and ability to
the lead and support other take the lead and support
parts as necessary. other parts as necessary.

Discussion with the visiting assessor (20 marks)

1–6 marks 7–13 marks 14–20 marks

Ability to comment on simple Ability to comment on the Ability to comment


and straightforward features music and some related perceptively on the music and
of the music and its aspects of performance, and related aspects of performance
performance and to identify to relate them, appropriately, and to relate them, in some
a superficial relationship with to related the area(s)of study. detail, to the related area(s)
the related area(s) of study. of study.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

TECHNICAL GUIDANCE FOR NON-ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTS

The following guidance may be used by teachers to supplement the information


given in the mark scheme for the performing component for those candidates
who play non-orchestral instruments.

Irish Traditional Instruments which may include the Harp


Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

A range of pieces such as A more varied programme, Slow airs and more difficult
ballads and/or marches. including jigs and reels. jigs and reels.

Simple ornamentation such as More complex ornamentation, A wide range of appropriate


grace-notes and cuts. such as simple turns, slides ornamentation, such as rolls,
and double grace-notes. cranns and triplet grace-notes.

Drum-kit

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Ability to maintain a steady Ability to co-ordinate three Independent use of hands and
bass beat and superimpose limbs to produce a range of feet, and the ability to move
complementary rhythms on complementary rhythms fluently between all pieces
two other pieces of the kit. and timbres. of the kit to create a wide
range of complementary
rhythms, timbres and textures.

Scottish Bagpipe

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

A range of pieces such as A more varied programme, A varied programme


simple tunes and/or marches; including slow airs, reels and including more complex slow
strathspeys; airs, reels, strathspeys and/or
piobaireachd;

some ability to tune drones; some ability to focus on the ability to focus on the
quality of tone by reasonably quality of tone by tuning
accurate tuning of drones and drones, understanding the
handling of reeds; function of the bridle and by
setting the chanter reed;

some ability to co-ordinate competent control of breath fluent breath, finger and
breath, fingers and arm fingers and arm pressure to arm co-ordination to match
pressure; ensure appropriate phrasing; technical requirements;

limited evenness of tone and tonal balance between open good tone with clear
simple tonguing to produce and pinched notes, and tonguing and ability to
slurred and separate notes. competent tonguing to sustain more extended
produce staccato and legato phrases.
short legato phrases.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Electronic Keyboard

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Limited manipulative control, More extended right hand Fluent use of the right hand
for example, right hand positions accompanied by a with competent left hand use
playing within a sixth, wider range of single finger of a harmonic range which
accompanied by spaced out chords in the left hand; includes some more complex
single finger chords in the left chords;
hand.

the ability to synchronise competent use of the facilities


melody and accompaniment available on the keyboard,
with more frequent chord for example, changing voices
changes. and accompaniment patterns
during performance.

Accordian (treble and bass keyboards/free bass keyboard/piano or button key)

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Ability to co-ordinate hands, Some ability to use registers Competent use of registers to
and the use of reeds to vary pitch, octaves and/or
control pitch and tone (not tone production when
appropriate to all instruments appropriate;
or pieces);

a wider range of pitch and control of registers to vary


correct finger control (Free pitch/octaves over a wider
Bass instruments); range (Free Bass instruments);

use of fundamental and major more extended use of chord ability to use the full range
chord rows (Stradella Bass rows, for example, of chords (Stradella Bass
systems), counter-bass, minor and 7th systems);
chord rows (Stradella Bass
systems);

bellows technique to produce bellows technique to produce bellows technique to produce


adequate articulation of more precise tone, some quality tone, varied
sound, simple phrasing and a varied articulation and a articulation, sustained
restricted dynamic range. wider dynamic range, phrasing and a wider dynamic
for example, p–f. range.

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CCEA GCSE in Music – From September 2001

Guitar

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

limited manipulative control, more extended left hand fluent use of the left hand to
for example, open strings, positions to produce a wider produce more complex
simple chords; range of chords and/or some chords, for example,
ability to co-ordinate melodic augmented and diminished,
patterns with appropriate and/or the ability to
accompaniment; co-ordinate more complex
melodic and accompaniment
patterns;

limited control volume and some use of volume and competent use of volume and
effects devices on electric/ effects controls on electric/ effects controls on electric/
amplified instruments; amplified instruments; amplified instruments;

simple strumming techniques. accompaniment techniques competent use of a range of


such as finger-picking. right hand techniques.

45