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Obj.

16 Trigonometric Functions
Unit 5 Trigonometric and Circular Functions

Concepts and Objectives


Definitions of Trigonometric and Circular Functions (Obj. #16) Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of angle . Find the function values of quadrantal angles. Identify the quadrant of a given angle. Find the other function values given one value and the quadrant

Trigonometric Ratio Review


In Geometry, we learned that for any given right triangle, there are special ratios between the sides.
opposite hypotenuse

sin A =

adjacent cos A = hypotenuse opposite tan A = adjacent

opposite

adjacent

Trigonometric Functions
Consider a circle centered at the origin with radius r: The equation for this circle is x2 + y2 = r2 A point (x, y) on the circle creates a right triangle whose sides are x, y, and r. The trig ratios are now (x, y) y r y sin = r x x cos = r y tan = x

Trigonometric Functions
There are three other ratios in addition to the three we already know : cosecant, secant, and cotangent. These ratios are the inverses of the original three: 1 r csc = = sin y 1 r sec = = cos x 1 x cot = = tan y

(x, y) r

Finding Function Values


Example: The terminal side of an angle in standard position passes through the point (15, 8). Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of angle . We know that x = 15 and y = 8, but we still have to calculate r:

r = x 2 + y2

(15, 8) 17

= 152 + 82 = 17
Now, we can calculate the values.

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Finding Function Values


Example: The terminal side of an angle in standard position passes through the point (15, 8). Find the values of the six trigonometric functions of angle .
y 8 sin = = r 17 x 15 cos = = r 17 tan = y 8 = x 15

r 17 csc = = y 8 r 17 sec = = x 15 x 15 cot = = y 8

(15, 8) 17

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The Unit Circle


Angles in standard position whose terminal sides lie on the x-axis or y-axis (90, 180, 270, etc.) are called quadrantal angles. To find function values of quandrantal angles easily, we use a circle with a radius of 1, which is called a unit circle. Notice what the different x, y, and r values are at the quadrantal angle points (x and y are either 0, 1, or 1; r is always 1).

Values of Quadrantal Angles


Example: Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for an angle of 270. At 270, x = 0, y = 1, r = 1.
1 sin270 = = 1 1 0 cos270 = = 0 1

tan270 =

1 = undefined 0

Values of Quadrantal Angles


Example: Find the values of the six trigonometric functions for an angle of 270. At 270, x = 0, y = 1, r = 1.
1 csc270 = = 1 1 1 sec270 = = undefined 0 0 cot 270 = =0 1

Identifying an Angles Quadrant


To identify the quadrant of an angle given certain conditions, note the following: In the first quadrant, x and y are both positive. In QII, x is negative and y is positive. In QIII, both are negative. (,+) (+,+) In QIV, x is positive and y is negative. II I III (,) IV (+,)

Identifying an Angles Quadrant


Example: Identify the quadrant (or possible quadrants) of an angle that satisfies the given conditions. a) sin > 0, tan < 0 I, II II II, IV b) cos < 0, sec < 0 II, III II, III II, III

Homework
College Algebra Page 512: 30-78 (3s, omit 63), 93-102 (3s) HW: 42, 54, 72, 78, 96, 102 Classwork: Algebra & Trigonometry (green book) Page 728: 77-78