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Rev. peru. biol.

ISSN 1561-0837
Universidad nacional Mayor de san Marcos
FacUltad de ciencias Biolgicas
volUMen 18 aBril, 2011 nMero 1
LIMA, PER
revista
PerUana de
Biologa
2
Rector
Dr. Pedro Atilio Cotillo Zegarra
Vicerrector de Investigacin (e)
Dr. Bernardino Ramrez Bautista
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Decano de la Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas
Mag. Martha Valdivia Cuya
Director Instituto de Investigacin en Ciencias Biolgicas Antonio Raimondi
Mag. Ines Grate
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Maximilian Weigend
Freie Universitt Berlin- Alemania
Sebastin Barrionuevo
Fundacin Miguel Lillo- Argentina
Luis Aguirre
Universidad Mayor de San Simn, Bolivia
Rodney Ramiro Cavichioli
Universidade Federal do Paran- Brasil
Hlio Ricardo da Silva
Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Carlos Frederico Duarte da Rocha
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro- Brasil
Fabrcio Rodrigues dos Santos
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais- Brasil
Suzete Rodrigues Gomes
Instituto Butantan- Brasil
Davor Vrcibradic
Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro- Brasil
Stefan Dennenmoser
University of Calgary, Canada
Roberto Melndez
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural- Chile
Pedro Alejandro Orihuela Diaz
Universidad de Santiago de Chile- Chile
Berta Calonge Camargo
Pontifcia Universidad Javeriana, Bogot, Colombia
Sergio Solari
Universidad de Antioquia- Colombia
Jos Mara Gutirrez
Universidad de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
Finn Borchsenius
Aarhus University- Denmark
Julissa Roncal
Aarhus University- Denmark
Juan Rigoberto Tejedo Huaman
Universidad Pablo de Olavide- Espaa
Arnaud Bertrand
IRD. Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement- Francia
Francis Kahn
IRD. Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement, - Francia
Jean-Christophe Pintaud
Institut de Recherche pour le Dveloppement- Francia
Mutsunori Tokeshi
Kyushu University - Japon
Francisco Alonso Sols Marn
Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico- Mxico
Ross Robertson
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute- Panam
Mnica Romo
Asociacin Peruana para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza- Per
Renato Guevara-Carrasco
Instituto del Mar del Per- Per
Csar Nquira
Instituto Nacional de Salud- Per
Reynaldo Linares-Palomino
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina- Per
Marcel Gutirrez-Correa
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - Per
Gretty K. Villena
Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina - Per
Gerardo Lamas
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos- Per
Pablo Ramrez
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos- Per
Diana Silva
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos- Per
Juan Tarazona
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos- Per
Armando Yarlequ
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos- Per
Manuel Tantalen
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia- Per
Nigel Pitman
Duke University- USA
Lucia Luna
University of Michigan- USA
Maria del Carmen Ulloa Ulloa
University of Missouri- USA
Blanca Len
University of Texas at Austin - USA
Kenneth Young
University of Texas at Austin USA
Paul Velazco
American Museum of Natural History, USA
1

Revista PeRuana de Biologa
Volumen 18 Abr il, 2011 Nmero 1
Rev. peru. biol. ISSN 1561-0837
Contenido
Trabajos originales
3 Sobre la identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974 (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
On the taxonomic identity of Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974 (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
Jos A. Ochoa
13 Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Additions to Gastropoda from the Peruvian sea
Carlos Paredes, Franz Cardoso, Paul Baltazar, Katherine Altamirano y Patricia Carbajal
19 Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae) en Crdoba, Argentina
Reproduction and diet of a population of Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae) in Cordoba, Argentina
Liliana Aun, Damiana Borghi y Ricardo Martori
27 Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Observando aves en el Per: 1963-2006
Hansjakob Lthi
91 Notas sobre la ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de los chorlos nevados Charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas, Per
Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus occidentalis in Paracas, Peru
Clemens Kpper, Edgardo Aguilar y Oscar Gonzlez
97 Revisin de las especies peruanas de Sebdenia (Sebdeniales, Rhodophyta) y descripcin de Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov. (Halymeniales,
Rhodophyta)
Revision of the Peruvian species of Sebdenia (Sebdeniales, Rhodophyta) and description of Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov. (Halymeniales,
Rhodophyta)
Cesar Acleto O. y Reina Ziga A.
113 Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios, Per; una comparacin entre bosques de tierra frme y de bajos
Necromass in forests of Madre de Dios, Peru: a comparison between terra frme and lowland forests
Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Alexander G. Parada, Jeremy J. Tern, Tim R. Baker, Ted R. Feldpausch, Oliver L. Phillips, Roel J.W. Brienen
119 Diversidad forstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua (Moquegua, Per)
Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichua (Moquegua, Peru)
Daniel B. Montesinos-Tube
Notas cientfcas
133 Presencia y distribucin de dos sub-especies de Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) en Costa Rica
Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Costa Rica
Jim Cordoba-Alfaro y Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller
135 Presencia de Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) en Atelocynus microtis (Canidae) de la Reserva de Biosfera de Manu, Madre de Dios, Per
Occurrence of Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) in Atelocynus microtis (Canidae) from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru
Manuel Tantalen y John Chvez
137 Nuevos registros de digeneos en Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae) de Iquitos, Per
New records of digeneans from Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from Iquitos, Peru
Manuel Tantalen, Nofre Snchez y Oscar Pineda Catalan
2
3

Identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Sobre la identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974
(Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
Jos A. Ochoa
On the taxonomic identity of Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974
(Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto
de Biocincias, Universidade de
So Paulo, Rua do Mato, travessa
14, 101, So Paulo, SP, 05508-900,
Brasil. Email: jaochoac2000@
yahoo.com
Presentado: 20/11/2010
Aceptado: 25/01/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
Se establece la verdadera identidad de Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974, un controversial escorpin an-
dino, previamente confundido con Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916. Ambas especies habitan en valles
interandinos del sur del Per, y pertenecen al subgnero Brachistosternus (Ministernus) Francke. Se presenta
una detallada redescripcin para ambas especies basada en la morfologa externa, patrones de pigmentacin y
caracteres del hemispermatforo. Se reportan tambin nuevos registros y una breve discusin sobre la ecologa
y distribucin de estas dos especies.
Palabras clave: Scorpiones, Bothriuridae, Brachistosternus, Per, Andes.
Abstract
The true identity of Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974, a controversial Andean scorpion previously confused
with Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916, is established. Both species inhabit inter Andean valleys of southern
Peru and belong to the subgenus Brachistosternus (Ministernus) Francke. A detailed redescription of both species
based on external morphology, pigmentation pattern and hemispermatophore features are provided. New records
for these species, along with brief discussions of the ecology and distribution are also reported.
Keywords: Scorpiones, Bothriuridae, Brachistosternus, Peru, Andes.
Introduccin
En 1974 fue descrita la especie de escorpin Brachistosternus
peruvianus Piza, para el departamento de Apurmac en el sur del
Per (Piza 1974), desde entonces la posicin taxonmica de esta
especie fue largamente considerada como incierta y su validez
fue cuestionada por varios autores (Francke 1977, Maury 1978,
Ochoa & Acosta 2002). La causa principal de esta confusin ra-
dica en que la descripcin original no presenta detalles sufcientes
que permitan discriminarla de otras especies dentro del gnero
Brachistosternus Pocock, 1893. Maury (1978) supone por algu-
nos datos de la descripcin, las fotos, y procedencia del material,
que poda tratarse de un sinnimo posterior de Brachistosternus
andinus Chamberlin, 1916, que habita los valles interandinos
en el departamento de Cusco (Ochoa 2005); no obstante, dicho
autor no tuvo acceso al material tipo de B. peruvianus, por tanto
no formaliz la sinonimia. Esta suposicin fue tomada como
vlida por Lowe & Fet (2000) en su Catlogo de escorpiones,
quienes errneamente ubican a B. peruvianus como sinnimo
de B. andinus, atribuyendo la sinonimia a Maury (1978).
Segn la descripcin original (Piza 1974), el material tipo
(un macho y una hembra sintipos) fueron depositados en la
Escuela Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz en Piracicaba
del Estado de So Paulo, Brasil, sin embargo, en el Catlogo de
Lowe & Fet (2000) mencionan errneamente que dicho material
estara depositado en el Museo de Zoologia de la Universidade
de So Paulo (MZUSP). Es muy probable que en la actualidad
dicho material se encuentre perdido.
La revisin de la coleccin de escorpiones del Museo de
Historia Natural de la Universidad del Cusco (MHNC), nos
permiti detectar algunos ejemplares etiquetados como Bra-
chistosternus peruvianus colectados en 1969 procedentes del
departamento de Apurmac. De acuerdo con O. Ochoa M. (com.
pers.), quien colect y envi el material a Piza, se remitieron
ejemplares de dos localidades del departamento de Apurmac:
series MHNC 107111 de la localidad de Pachachaca y series
MHNC 101104 de la localidad de Cunyac; por tal razn el
material tipo correspondera a una de las dos localidades. Lamen-
tablemente Piza (1974) no menciona localidad, fecha de colecta
ni nmero de serie. En el MHNC se encuentran parte del lote
correspondiente a la localidad de Pachachaca (series 112114,
116118, 123125), lo cual permiti, adems de material adi-
cional procedente de otras localidades en el departamento de
Apurmac, diferenciar B. peruvianus de B. andinus y confrmar
su status como especie vlida. Maury (1978) confunde ambas
especies probablemente porque no tuvo acceso a ejemplares
machos adultos de los verdaderos B. andinus, incluso el dibujo
que ofrece del hemiespermatforo (fgs. 11, 12 de Maury 1978)
sin duda corresponde a B. peruvianus.
En un trabajo anterior (Ochoa 2005) ya habamos conside-
rado ambas entidades como especies distintas, las cuales adems
presentan distribucin aloptrica en el sur del Per; ello fue
ratifcado posteriormente por Ojanguren Aflastro & Ramrez
(2009), quienes tuvieron acceso a la mayora de los especme-
nes estudiados por Maury. En el presente estudio presentamos
una descripcin detallada de ambas especies de acuerdo a los
estndares actuales.
Brachistosternus andinus y B. peruvianus, pertenecen al subg-
nero Brachistosternus (Ministernus) Francke, 1985 (Ojanguren
Aflastro & Ramrez 2009) el cual se caracteriza principalmente
por tener 9 a 13 tricobotrias ventrales y 5 tricobotrias externas
basales en la pinza del pedipalpo, patela con 3 tricobotrias
ventrales y 12 externas (falta la esb
2
); quelceros pequeos de
cuerpo corto con un solo diente subdistal en el dedo mvil.
El subgnero incluye dos especies ms: B. ferrugineus (Torell,
1876) y B. simoneae Loureno, 2000; la primera es una especie
que tiene distribucin chaquea en Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay
y SO de Brasil (Maury 1973, 1974, 1979; Acosta & Maury
1998; Acosta & Ochoa 2002; Ojanguren Aflastro & Ramrez,
4
Ochoa
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (Abril 2011)
2009); B. simoneae fue descrito para el estado de Gois en Brasil
en ambientes de Cerrado (Loureno 2000), aunque se sospecha
que se trata de un sinnimo de B. ferrugineus (A. Ojanguren
Aflastro y C. Mattoni com. pers.); mientras que B. andinus y
B. peruvianus, se encuentran presentes en valles interandinos del
sur del Per (Ochoa 2005).
Materiales y mtodos
El material mencionado en el presente trabajo corresponde
a las siguientes instituciones y museos: AMNH: American
Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; CDA: Ctedra
de Diversidad Animal I, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fsicas
y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Crdoba, Argentina.
FMNH: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA.
MHNC: Museo de Historia Natural, Facultad de Ciencias Bio-
lgicas, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco,
Per. ESALQ: Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz,
Universidad de So Paolo, Piracicaba, Brasil.
Para la terminologa de la morfologa general utilizamos los
trabajos de Vachon (1952) y Stahnke (1970); Prendini (2000)
para las carenas del pedipalpo: interno mediana (IM), digital (D),
dorsal interna (DI), dorsal mediana (DM), dorsal externa (DE),
dorsal marginal (DMA), dorsal secundaria (DS), externa (E),
externa mediana (EM), ventral externa (VE), ventral mediana
(VM), ventral interna (VI), proceso dorsal de la patela (DPP),
proceso ventral de la patela (VPP); Ochoa et al. (2010) para la
terminologa de las carenas del metasoma: dorsal submediana
(DSM), dorsal lateral (DL), lateral supramediana (LSM), lateral
mediana (LM), lateral inframediana (LIM), ventral lateral (VL),
ventral submediana (VSM), ventral mediana (VM). Para la ter-
minologa de la tricobotriotaxia seguimos el trabajo de Vachon
(1974), y Maury (1974) para el hemiespermatforo.
Las ilustraciones fueron realizadas utilizando un estereomi-
croscopio Leica con cmara lcida. Las medidas son presentadas
en milimetros siguiendo la metodologia de Sissom et al. (1990).
El mapa de distribucin fue generado con el programa DIVA-
GIS Version 5.4 (http://www.diva-gis.org/) superponiendo los
puntos y coordenadas de las localidades de colecta en una base
de datos digital del CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information
(CGIAR-CSI) disponible en http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org.
Taxonoma
Familia Bothriuridae Simon, 1880
BRACHISTOSTERNUS Pocock, 1893
BRACHISTOSTERNUS (MINISTERNUS) Francke, 1985
Brachistosternus (Ministernus) andinus
Chamberlin, 1916
(fgs. 211)
Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916: 179; Mello-Leito,
1931: 94, 1932: 34, 1945: 225; Aguilar & Meneses, 1970: 2;
Kovak, 1998: 101; Ochoa & Acosta, 2002: 2; Ochoa, 2005: 61,
tabla 2; Rein, 2007: 3, 7; Ochoa & Prendini, 2010: 43; Ojanguren
Afflastro & Ramrez, 2009: 188, 192, fgs. 1, 2, 3A.
Brachistosternus (Microsternus) andinus: Maury, 1973 (part): 251,
1974 (part): 81, 1978 (part): 23, fgs. 1-12, tabla I; Francke, 1977:
75; Del Castillo, 1986 (part): 90, 91.
Brachistosternus (Ministernus) andinus: Lowe & Fet, 2000 (part):
52; Ochoa, 2003: 55; 2005: 54, 58, 62, fg. 4; Ojanguren Afflastro
et al., 2007: 5, tabla 1; Ojanguren Afflastro & Ramrez, 2009:
188, 192.
Serie tpica. Holotipo hembra juvenil (MCZ 124), PER,
Departamento Cusco: Ollantaytambo [1315S 7215W,
2800 m], 20 julio 1911, R. Foote.
Diagnosis. Especie perteneciente al subgnero Brachistoster-
nus (Ministernus), dentro del cual la especie ms cercana es B.
peruvianus, con la que incluso fue confundida. Ambas entidades
se diferencian principalmente por detalles en el hemiespermat-
foro: la apfsis cilndrica es ms corta en B. andinus, en la que
Figura 1. Mapa de distribucin de Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916 (crculos) y Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974 (estrellas),
en los departamentos de Apurmac y Cusco en el sur de Per.
5

Identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (April 2011)
apenas sobrepasa el lbulo interno (fg. 9); mientras que en B.
peruvianus dicha apfsis es alargada y sobrepasa ampliamente el
lbulo interno (fg. 12); adems la lmina distal en B. peruvianus
es ms alargada y presenta una curvatura en la parte media, la cual
no es evidente en B. andinus. En cuanto a caracteres externos,
la principal diferencia radica en el nmero de dientes pectneos:
en B. andinus vara entre 2428 para las hembras y 2730 para
machos, mientras que en B. peruvianus, vara entre 34 y 36 en
hembras y entre 35 y 40 en machos; adicionalmente, el nmero
de tricobotrias ventrales de la pinza del pedipalpo vara en B.
andinus de 9 a 11 y en B. peruvianus de 11 a 13. Como datos
complementarios los ndices largo/alto del telson (media de 3,68
en y 3,25 en para B. andinus; 3,94 en y 3,65 en para
B. peruvianus); as como los de largo/ancho (media de 3,23 en
y 3,76 en para B. andinus; 3,32 en y 3,93 en para
B. peruvianus) y largo/alto de la pinza del pedipalpo (media de
2,74 en y 3,12 en para B. andinus; 2,90 en y 3,27 en
para B. peruvianus) presentan valores ligeramente mayores en
B. peruvianus. Por ltimo, en cuanto al tamao corporal, los
ejemplares de B. andinus son de menor talla, los adultos miden
entre 39 a 52 mm, mientras que en B. peruvianus entre 61 a
78 mm. Comparaciones con B. ferrugineus y B. simoneae ver
diagnosis correspondiente a B. peruvianus.
Redescripcin
Coloracin y patrn de pigmentacin: Color general amarillo
castao, con manchas cafs oscuras; patas y parte ventral del
prosoma y mesosoma amarillentas, peines blanquecinos. Caparax
en la mayora de los ejemplares con pigmento reticular hacia los
laterales y ngulos latero-posteriores, dejando en la parte me-
diana una amplia zona sin pigmento desde el borde anterior al
posterior, excepto la cpula ocular que es negruzca; no obstante
pocos ejemplares pueden presentar algunas manchas de pigmen-
to hacia el borde anterior y una pigmentacin tenue en toda
la zona central adyacente a la cpula ocular, pero el pigmento
lateral siempre es ms evidente. Tergitos IVI con dos manchas
laterales de pigmento, rea mediana sin manchas o con pigmento
tenue; en algunos ejemplares el borde posterior de cada tergito
suele presentar pigmento. Pretergitos pigmentados. Tergito
VII sin pigmento, o con ligeras manchas laterales. Segmentos
caudales IIV sin pigmentacin evidente, salvo tenues manchas
ventrales en los segmentos IIIIV que aparentan tres bandas
longitudinales que confuyen distalmente. Segmento caudal V:
cara dorsal y laterales con algunas manchas reticulares no muy
marcadas; cara ventral con abundante pigmento, con tres bandas
que confuyen en la mitad distal del segmento, acompaado de
retculo paramediano que tambin confuye. Telson con ligeras
manchas ventrales, aguijn oscurecido. Quelceros con pigmen-
to cerca de la base de los dedos, los cuales estn pigmentados.
Pedipalpos y patas con algunas manchas no muy evidentes y en
la mayora de los ejemplares la pinza es despigmentada.
Morfologa. Longitud total: machos 39,048,5 mm; hembras
hasta 52,8 (medidas de macho y hembra en Tabla 1).
Quelceros: Con un diente subdistal en el dedo mvil. Tegu-
mento liso con algunas setas ventrales en la base del dedo fjo.
Caparax: Borde anterior del caparax con una ligera prominen-
cia mediana; surco longitudinal anterior poco marcado, surcos
longitudinal posterior y laterales posteriores ms evidentes. C-
pula ocular ligeramente desarrollada, ubicada aproximadamente
en la parte central del caparax. Tegumento fnamente granuloso
en los machos, con grnulos ligeramente ms notorios en los
ngulos latero-posteriores, (hembras menos granulosas).
Pedipalpos: Pedipalpos (fgs. 68): Fmur con las carenas DI,
DE, IM, VI presentes pero obsoletas y con grnulos menores;
Figuras 2-5. Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916, macho (MHNC). 2-4. Segmento caudal V, 2, vista dorsal; 3, vista ventral, 4, vista
lateral. 5. Telson, vista lateral. Escala 1 mm.
6
Ochoa
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (Abril 2011)
Figuras 6-8. Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916, macho (MHNC). Pinza del pedipalpo derecho. 6, vista ventromedial; 7, vista ventral,
8, vista externa. Escala 1 mm.
Brachistosternus andinus Brachistosternus peruvianus
Macho Hembra Macho Hembra
Longitud total 41,6 46,7 69,7 64,1
Caparax, largo 5,4 6,5 8,5 8,8
ancho anterior / posterior 3,9 / 5,6 4,6 / 7,2 6,2 / 9,4 6,6 / 9,6
Mesosoma, largo 10,4 12,3 15,4 14,7
Metasoma, largo 25,8 27,9 45,8 40,6
Seg. I, largo / ancho 3,0 / 3,6 3,4 / 4 5,3 / 5,6 4,6 / 5,6
Seg. II, largo / ancho 3,5 / 3,1 3,6 / 3,6 6,3 / 5,0 5,4 / 5,0
Seg. III, largo / ancho 3,6 / 3,0 4 / 3,6 6,6 / 4,8 5,9 / 4,9
Seg. IV, largo / ancho 4,5 / 3,0 4,5 / 3,4 7,5 / 4,8 6,5 / 4,8
Seg. V, largo / ancho / alto 5,0 / 3,7 / 2,2 5,3 / 3,5 / 2,5 9,0 / 4,8 / 3,5 7,7 / 4,9 / 3,6
Telson, largo 6,2 7,1 11,1 10,5
Vescula, largo / ancho / alto 3,7 / 2,2 / 1,8 4 / 2,5 / 2,1 5,8 / 3,6 / 2,8 5,5 / 3,4 / 2,8
Aguijn, largo 2,5 3,1 5,3 5,0
Pedipalpo, largo total 15,7 15,7 27,4 22,9
Fmur, largo / ancho 3,9 / 1,3 3,7 / 1,5 7,1 / 2,5 5,7 / 2,2
Patela, largo / ancho 3,9 / 1,6 3,9 / 1,8 7,1 / 3,0 6,1 / 2,7
Pinza, largo / ancho / alto 7,9 / 2,3 / 2,7 8,1 / 2,1 / 2,6 13,2 / 4,0 / 4,5 11,1 / 2,8 / 3,5
Dedo mvil, largo 4,1 4,3 7,1 6,6
Tabla 1. Medidas en mm de un macho y una hembra (MHNC) de Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916 y Brachistosternus peruvianus
Piza, 1974.
7

Identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (April 2011)
patella sin carenas evidentes, superfcies lisas. Pinza ms robusta
en los machos, con apfsis espiniforme en la cara interna, carena
VM ligeramente evidente (sin grnulos), dedo mvil con 78
grnulos internos y 68 externos. ndice largo / ancho de la
pinza: , 3,003,53 (media= 3,23; n= 13); , 3,523,88 (me-
dia= 3,76; n= 10). ndice largo / alto de la pinza: , 2,582,92
(media= 2,74; n= 13); , 3,003,20 (media= 3,12; n= 10).
Tricobotriotaxia: Patrn tpico del subgnero Ministernus,
tipo C con neobotriotaxia aditiva: fmur con 3 tricobotrias,
una externa (e), una dorsal (d), una interna (i). Patela con 18
tricobotrias, 3 ventrales (v
1
v
3
); 12 externas, falta la tricobotria
esb
2
(et
1
et
3
, est, em
1
, em
2
, esb
1
, eb
1
eb
5
); dos dorsales (d
1
, d
2
);
una interna (i). Pinza con 33 a 35 tricobotrias: 911 ventrales
(V
1
V
11
); 12 externas en la mano, con 5 Eb (Et
1
Et
5
, Est, Esb,
Eb
1
Eb
5
); tres dorsales en la mano (Db, Dt, db); cuatro externas
en el dedo fjo (et, est, esb, eb); tres dorsales y dos internas en el
dedo fjo (dt, dst, dsb, it, ib). Nmero de tricobotrias ventrales
de la pinza del pedipalpo (n= 26): 9 (n= 3), 10 (6), 11 (17).
Patas: Tegumento liso, sin presencia de carenas. Nmero de
setas en el Tarso III (n= 33): dorsales del telotarso: 5 (n= 1), 6
(15), 7 (17); lateroventrales del telotarso: 4 (33); dorsales del
basitarso: 4 (4), 5 (29). La frmula ms frecuente fue 7-4-5 en
16/33 casos.
Tergitos: Tergitos IVI fnamente granulosos en , en es
liso. Tergito VII granuloso, evidenciando 4 carenas.
Peines: Nmero de dientes pectneos: 2730 (), 2428 ().
Frecuencia: (n= 34): 27 (n= 7), 28 (9), 29 (11), 30 (7); (n=
24), 24 (1), 25 (8), 26 (11), 27 (2), 28 (2).
Esternitos: lisos en las hembras (en los machos, al igual que
otras especies de Brachistosternus con granulacin roma en toda
la extensin del segmento).
Metasoma: Segmentos caudales IIV: carenas ausentes u ob-
soletas con grnulos pequeos, ligeramente menos evidentes en
las hembras; carena Dl completa en III, presente en la mitad
distal en el segmento III y con algunos grnulos distales en el
segmento IV. Carenas Lm completa en el segmento I, presente
en el tercio distal del segmento II y con unos pocos grnulos en
IIIIV. Carenas Lim slo estn en la mitad distal del segmento,
con algunos grnulos en IIIII y se encuentran ausentes en
IV. Carenas Vl y Vsm ausentes. Existe granulacin abundante
(ms evidente en el segmento I) en el espacio entre las carenas
DlLm, y algunos grnulos dispersos entre las LmLim. Cara
ventral de los segmentos IIII con una fna granulacin roma
en . Segmento caudal V (fgs. 24): cara dorsal con algunos
grnulos en la posicin de las carenas Dl; caras laterales con
grnulos esparcidos (en hay pocos grnulos), con una lnea de
setas en posicin de la carena Lm. Carenas Vl presentes en los
tres cuartos distales y con grnulos mayores en el tercio distal.
Faz ventral granulosa en los dos tercios distales (puede apreciarse
en algunos ejemplares la carena Vm confundida en medio de la
Figuras. 9-13. Hemispermatforo. 9-11, Brachistosternus andinus Chamberlin, 1916, macho (MHNC). 9-10, hemiespermatforo izquierdo; 9,
vista interna, 10, vista externa; 11, hemiespermatforo derecho, vista interna. 1213, Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974, macho (MHNC):
hemiespermatforo izquierdo; 12, vista interna, 13, vista externa. Escalas: 1 mm.
8
Ochoa
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (Abril 2011)
granulacin); carenas Vsm ausentes. Glndulas caudales peque-
as ubicadas en la parte central del segmento (fg. 2). Nmero
de setas del segmento V: dorsales laterales (n= 46): 1 (n= 23),
2 (23); laterales (n= 46): 7 (7), 8 (18), 9 (13), 10 (8); ventrales
laterales (n= 46): 7 (3), 8 (7), 9 (36); ventrales (n= 23): 5 (2),
6 (21), siendo la frmula ms frecuente 2-2-2 en 21/23 casos.
Telson: con algunos grnulos ventrales, aguijn corto (fg. 5).
Alto relativo del telson: ndice largo / alto: , 3,433,95 (media=
3,68; n= 12); , 3,133,41 (media= 3,25, n= 10)
Hemiespermatforo (fgs. 911): lmina distal ligeramente cor-
ta, lbulo distal corto. Apfsis cilndrica sobrepasa ligeramente
el lbulo interno, espinas en hilera bien desarrolladas, tringulo
basal en forma de una prolongacin digitiforme cubierta de
espinas cortas.
Distribucin y hbitat. Se distribuye en valles y quebradas
interandinas del departamento del Cusco entre los 2780 a 3350
m (fg. 1). Todas las localidades corresponden a la cuenca del ro
Vilcanota principalmente en el Valle Sagrado de los Incas. Bio-
geogrfcamente el rea de distribucin corresponde al Distrito
de Queshwa de Ceballos Bendez (1976) o la Provincia Serra-
na de Marn Moreno (1961), caracterizado por tener un clima
templado, con seis meses de lluvias, la vegetacin es arbustiva
y subarbustiva. Los ejemplares capturados fueron encontrados
principalmente debajo de piedras, generalmente medianas, en
lugares donde existe poca vegetacin; son abundantes en lugares
donde hay piedras amontonadas y en los cercos de piedra cerca
de los terrenos de cultivo. En la zona de Huacarpay se pudo
apreciar a ejemplares de esta especie consumiendo dipluros. Por
otro lado en algunas telas de la araa viuda negra (Latrodectus sp.)
se pueden encontrar restos de este escorpin. Brachistosternus an-
dinus puede ser encontrado junto con Tityus footei Chamberlin,
1916 (Buthidae), Orobothriurus wawita Acosta & Ochoa, 2000
(Bothriuridae) y Hadruroides mauryi Francke & Soleglad, 1980
(Iuridae). Debido a que Maury (1978) confundi B. andinus
y B. peruvianus, a las cuales trat como una sola entidad, la
distribucin que ofrece en dicho trabajo corresponde a la suma
de ambas especies.
Material estudiado. PER: Departamento Cusco: Pro-
vincia Urubamba: Ollantaytambo, [131515S 721545W,
2800 m], 15 noviembre 1979, O. Ochoa M., 3 (MHNC);
igual localidad, 14 marzo 1947, J.C. Pallister, 1 juv. (AMNH);
Wayracpunco, Ollantaytambo, [131446S 721732W, 2780
m], 20 marzo 1994, J.C. Chaparro & J.A. Ochoa, 2 , 3
(MHNC); Maras, 131949S 720923W, 3350 m, 01 no-
viembre 1992, O. Mujica, 7 , 4 (MHNC); igual localidad,
21 febrero 1992, O. Mujica, 4 , 8 , 2 juv. (MHNC); igual
localidad, 26 febrero 1994, O Mujica, 3 (MHNC); igual
localidad, 09 setiembre 1992, J.A. Ochoa, 1 juv. (MHNC);
igual localidad, 29-30 octubre 1997, O. Mujica & J.A. Ochoa,
3 (MHNC); Pumahuanca, 131719S 720735W, 3000 m,
29 febrero 1992, J.A. Ochoa, 01 (MHNC); Cattan, camino
a Pumahuanca, 131752S 720701W, 2910 m, 02 enero
2000, J.A. Ochoa, 1 (MHNC). Provincia Calca: Hacienda
Urco, ca. Calca, [131935S 715857W, 2945 m], 15 setiem-
bre 1939, K.P. & J. M. Schmidt, 1 , 1 (FMNH); Cerca a
Psac, 1325'36''S 715122W, 3116 m, 09 enero 1999, J.A.
Ochoa, 1 (MHNC); Psac, 132504S 715058W, 3000
m, 04 noviembre 1997, J.A. Ochoa, 1 (MHNC). Provincia
Quispicanchi: Huacarpay, ca. Lucre, [133630S 714401W,
Figuras 14-17. Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974, macho (MHNC). 14-17. Segmento caudal V, 14, vista dorsal; 15, vista ventral, 16,
vista lateral. 17. Telson, vista lateral. Escala 2 mm.
9

Identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (April 2011)
3100 m], 24 abril 1994, O. Ochoa M. & J.A. Ochoa, 10 ejm.
(MHNC); igual localidad, 21 mayo 1994, O. Ochoa M., 1 ,
6 (MHNC); igual localidad, 23 noviembre 1996, G. Vilca-
huaman & E. Minaya, 1 , 1 (MHNC); igual localidad, 27
setiembre 1992, O. Mujica, 1 (MHNC); igual localidad, 23
noviembre 1996, B. Quispe & A. Povea, 1 , 3 (MHNC);
igual localidad, 09 octubre 1993, O. Ochoa M. & J.A. Ochoa, 5
, 14 , 5 juv. (MHNC); iguales datos, 2 , 2 (CDA 164);
Piquillacta, [133659S 714256W, 3170 m] 08 octubre
1982, O. Ochoa M., 13 ejm. (MHNC); Lucre, [133804S
714410W, 3100 m, 24 enero 1981, M. Del Castillo, 1
(MHNC); Tipn, Oropesa, [133422S 714800W, 3200 m
aprox.], 05 noviembre 1992, J.A. Ochoa, 1 (MHNC); igual
localidad, 14 enero 1999, 1 , J.A. Ochoa (MHNC).
Brachistosternus (Ministernus) peruvianus Piza, 1974
(Figs. 1221)
Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974: 155; Maury, 1978: 23.
Brachistosternus (Microsternus) peruvianus: Francke, 1977: 75;
Del Castillo, 1986: 91.
Brachistosternus (Microsternus) andinus: Maury, 1978 (part): 2326
(error de determinacin).
Brachistosternus (Ministernus) andinus: Lowe & Fet, 2000: 52 (part)
[errneamente atribuyen la sinonimia de B. peruvianus con B.
andinus a Maury (1978)].
Brachistosternus (Ministernus) peruvianus: Ochoa, 2003: 56; 2005:
54, 58, 62, fg. 4; Ojanguren Afflastro et al., 2007: 5, tabla 1;
Ojanguren Afflastro & Ramrez, 2009: 192, 195.
Brachistosternus peruvianus: Kovak, 1998: 101; Ochoa & Acosta,
2002: 2; Ochoa, 2005: 61, tabla 2; Rein, 2007: 3, 7; Ojanguren
Afflastro & Ramrez, 2009: 188, 192, fgs. 1, 2, 3B, F.
Serie tpica. 1 macho, 1 hembra sintipos (originalmente
ESALQ). PER: Departamento Apurmac [Cunyac o Pacha-
chaca, nov. 1969], O. Ochoa M.
Diagnosis. Especie perteneciente al subgnero Brachistoster-
nus (Ministernus); se diferencia de la especie ms relacionada (B.
andinus) por la mayor longitud de la apfsis cilndrica y la forma
ms alargada de la lmina distal en el hemiespermatforo (fg.
12). El nmero de dientes pectneos y de tricobotrias ventrales
en la pinza tambin es mayor en B. peruvianus (ver diagnosis
correspondiente a B. andinus). Ambas especies (B. andinus y B.
peruvianus) se diferencian fcilmente de los otros dos integrantes
del subgnero (B. ferrugineus y B. simoneae) por la forma de la
pinza del pedipalpo, que es mucho ms delgada en las dos ltimas
especies. Adicionalmente B. ferrugineus presenta granulacin
fna en la cara ventral del segmento caudal V mientras que B.
andinus y B. peruvianus presentan grnulos mayores ubicados
en los dos tercios distales. En cuanto al hemiespermatforo, B.
ferrugineus presenta el tringulo basal con crestas esclerifcadas,
por el contrario en B. andinus y B. peruvianus el tringulo basal
tiene forma digitiforme y cubierta de numerosas espinas cortas.
Figuras 18-21. Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974. 18, hembra (MHNC), pinza del pedipalpo derecho, vista ventral interna. 19-21, macho
(MHNC), pinza del pedipalpo derecho. 19, vista ventromedial; 20, vista ventral, 21, vista externa. Escala 1 mm.
10
Ochoa
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (Abril 2011)
Redescripcin
Coloracin y patrn de pigmentacin: Color general desde
amarillo-pajizo hasta amarillo-castao, parte ventral ligera-
mente ms clara, peines blanquecinos. El caparax puede estar
despigmentado (salvo la cpula ocular que es negruzca), o puede
presentar manchas de pigmento en la parte central (alrededor
de la cpula ocular y hacia los laterales, donde pueden existir
tambin algunas lneas de retculo). Tergitos IVI en algunos
casos sin pigmento, en otros con un pigmento tenue de forma
irregular o con pigmento en los dos tercios anteriores. Preter-
gitos casi siempre pigmentados en su borde posterior. Tergito
VII, esternitos, segmentos caudales, telson, patas y pedipalpos
sin pigmento (excepto en algunos ejemplares que presentan
un pigmento tenue en la cara ventral del segmento caudal V).
Quelceros con manchas cerca de la base de los dedos; dedos
pigmentados.
Morfologa: Longitud total: , 61,270,0 mm; , hasta 78,0
mm. Medidas de un y una (MHNC) en Tabla 1.
Quelceros: Con un diente subdistal en el dedo mvil. Tegu-
mento liso con algunas setas ventrales en la base del dedo fjo.
Carapax: Borde anterior con una ligera prominencia mediana;
surco longitudinal anterior completo pero no muy marcado,
surcos longitudinal posterior y laterales posteriores ms evi-
dentes. Cpula ocular desarrollada, ubicada en la parte central.
Tegumento del caparax fnamente granuloso en la parte central y
hacia los laterales de la cpula ocular, ngulos latero-posteriores
con grnulos ms notorios y abundantes, tercio anterior liso. En
las hembras las granulaciones son menores.
Pedipalpos: (fgs. 1821): fmur con las carenas DI, DE,
IM, VI obsoletas y con granulacin menor; patela sin carenas
evidentes, superfcies lisas; pinza ms robusta en los machos
(fgs. 1819), carena VM marcada por un levantamiento del
tegumento, pero sin granulacin, con apfsis espiniforme en
la cara interna; dedo mvil con un fla de grnulos en el borde
medial de los dedos acompaada de 9 grnulos externos y 910
internos. ndice largo / ancho de la pinza: , 3,263,40 (media=
3,32, n= 3); , 3,834,17 (media= 3.93, n= 5). ndice largo /
alto de la pinza: , 2,822,97 (media=2,90; n= 3); hembras,
3,153,57 (media= 3,27; n= 5).
Tricobotriotaxia: Patrn tpico del subgnero Ministernus;
Tipo C con neobotriotaxia aditiva: Fmur con 3 tricobotrias,
una externa (e), una dorsal (d), una interna (i). Patela con 18
tricobotrias, 3 ventrales (v
1
v
3
); 12 externas, falta la tricobotria
esb
2
(et
1
et
3
, est, em
1
, em
2
, esb
1
, eb
1
eb
5
); dos dorsales (d
1
, d
2
);
una interna (i). Pinza con 35 a 37 tricobotrias: 1113 ventrales
(V
1
V
13
); 12 externas en la mano, con 5 Eb (Et
1
Et
5
, Est, Esb,
Eb
1
Eb
5
); tres dorsales en la mano (Db, Dt, db); cuatro externas
en el dedo fjo (et, est, esb, eb); tres dorsales y dos internas en el
dedo fjo (dt, dst, dsb, it, ib). Nmero de tricobotrias ventrales
de la pinza del pedipalpo (n =12): 11 (n= 4), 12 (4), 13 (4).
Patas: tegumento liso, sin presencia de carenas. Nmero de setas
en el Tarso III (n= 20): dorsales del telotarso: 6 (n= 2), 7 (18);
lateroventrales del telotarso: 4 (17), 5(3); dorsales del basitarso: 4
(1), 5 (19). La frmula ms frecuente fue 7-4-5 en 14/20 casos.
Tergitos: I-VI con granulacin evidente cerca al borde poste-
rior y hacia los laterales. Tergito VII bien granuloso, donde se
evidencian 4 carenas.
Peines: Nmero de dientes pectneos: 3539 (), 3436
(); el nmero de dientes mencionado por Piza (1974) en la
descripcin original es 35-40. Frecuencia: (n= 10): 35 (n= 1),
36 (1), 37 (4), 38 (3), 39 (1); (n= 12), 34 (4), 35 (7), 36 (1).
Esternitos: Esternitos lisos en las hembras y en los machos con
granulacin roma que cubre toda su extensin.
Metasoma: Segmentos caudales IIV: al igual que en B. an-
dinus, la mayora de las carenas estn ausentes u obsoletas con
granulacin pequea. Carenas Dl completas en III, presentes
en la mitad distal del segmento III, y slo hay unos pocos gr-
nulos en IV. Carenas Lm completas en I, presentes en la mitad
distal en el segmento II, en el tercio distal en III y con 3 4
grnulos distales en IV (en las hembras slo hay 2 3 grnulos
distales en III y en IV est ausente). Carenas Lim presentes en
la mitad distal en el segmento I, en el tercio distal en II, ausente
o con pocos grnulos en III y ausente en IV (en las hembras
est ausente en IIIIV). Carenas Vl y Vsm ausentes. Espacio
entre las carenas DlLm y LmLim con granulacin esparcida
especialmente en los machos, la cual es ms abundante en el
segmento I y con pocos grnulos en IV (a veces slo llega al
segmento III). Segmento caudal V (fgs. 1416): cara dorsal sin
granulacin. Caras laterales en los machos con pocos grnulos
esparcidos (en las hembras liso), carena Lm evidenciada por la
lnea de setas laterales. Carena Vl presente en los tres cuartos
distales, con los grnulos ms evidentes en la parte distal. Cara
ventral con granulacin esparcida en los dos tercios distales; la
carena Vm no es evidente. Glndulas caudales elpticas ubicadas
en la mitad del segmento (fg. 14). Nmero de setas del segmento
caudal V, dorsales laterales (n= 20): 1 (n= 16), 2 (4); laterales
(n= 20): 6 (1), 7 (18), 8 (1); ventrales laterales (n= 20): 7 (11),
8 (8), 9 (1); ventrales (n= 10): 5 (1), 6 (8), 7(1); frmula ventral
ms frecuente 2-2-2 en 8/10 casos.
Telson: Superfcie de la vescula con grnulos en la cara ventral
(fg. 17). Alto relativo del telson: ndice largo / alto: , 3,754,16
(media= 3.94, n= 3); , 3,523,84 (media= 3,65, n= 4).
Hemiespermatforo (fgs. 1213): lmina distal ligeramente
alargada, un poco curvada en su parte media; la apfsis ciln-
drica sobrepasa ampliamente la altura del lbulo interno y de
la apfsis laminar; concavidad capsular ligeramente extendida;
conjunto de espinas de lbulo basal, espinas en hilera y tringulo
basal como en B. andinus.
Distribucin y hbitat. Valles interandinos y caones pro-
fundos en la cuenca de los ros Apurmac y Pachachaca, en los
departamentos de Cusco y Apurmac, desde los 1900 hasta los
2700 m (fg. 1). La zona comprende ambientes xerofticos de
clima clido seco, lo que correspondera a los valles interandinos
clidos segn Ceballos Bendez (1976) o a la provincia de los
Montes Pluvifolios (Marn Moreno 1961). Brachistosternus
andinus es la especie cogenrica de distribucin ms cercana de B.
peruvianus, pero ambas especies estn separadas geogrfcamente
por una divisoria de aguas (en su mayor parte por encima de
los 4000 m de altitud). Esta divisoria corresponde a la cordillera
de Vilcabamba, la cual divide dos de las ms importantes cuencas
del sur del Per, la del ro Apurmac (donde se encuentra B. pe-
ruvianus) y la cuenca del ro Vilcanota donde se halla distribuido
B. andinus. Las localidades mencionadas para B. andinus en el
trabajo de Maury (1978) del departamento de Ayacucho deben
ser sujetas a confrmacin. En algunas localidades de Apurmac
11

Identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 003- 012 (April 2011)
B. peruvianus fue hallado junto con Tityus footei y Pachakutej
iskay (Acosta & Ochoa, 2001).
Material estudiado.- PER: departamento Apurmac:
Provincia Abancay: Pachachaca, cerca al puente de piedra;
aprox. 1900 m, 24 noviembre 1969, O. Ochoa M., 1 , 4 ,
4 juv. (MHNC 112114, 116118, 123125); igual locali-
dad, 133915S 725636W, 2000 m, 14 noviembre 1997,
O. Ochoa M. & J.A. Ochoa, 2 (MHNC); igual localidad,
23 diciembre 2007, J. Vitorino & J.A. Ochoa, 1 (AMNH);
Tamburco, 133656S 725233W, 2670 m, 15 noviembre
1997, O. Ochoa M. & J.A. Ochoa, 2 , 3 (MHNC);
Curawasi, 15 diciembre 1993, L. Valenzuela, 1 (MHNC);
Cconoc, [133149S 723855W, 1900 m], 18 octubre 1992,
O. Mujica & J.A. Ochoa, 1 , 2 , 1 juv. (MHNC); iguales
datos, 1 (CDA 165). Departamento Cusco: Provincia Anta:
ca. Limatambo [1331'49''S 7238'55''W, 2520 m], 05 abril
1992, J. Achicahuala, 1 (MHNC).
Agradecimientos
Agradezco a Oscar Ochoa M. por proporcionarme informa-
cin sobre la coleccin del MHNC; igualmente a Joyce Vito-
rino, John Achicahuala, Oscar Mujica y Juan C. Chaparro por
su ayuda en los viajes de colecta. A la Fundao de Amparo
Pesquisa do Estado de So Paulo, Brasil por el soporte fnanciero
(FAPESP 2010/00018-9). A Ricardo Pinto da Rocha por las
facilidades en el Laboratorio de Aracnologa de la Universidade
de So Paulo (IB/USP). Finalmente agradezco a la Direccin
General de Forestal y Fauna de Per (ex Instituto Nacional de Re-
cursos Naturales de Per (INRENA) por los permisos de colecta
061-2004-INRENA-IFFS-DCB, 106-2008-INRENAIFFS-
DCB, RD-0157-2010-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS.
Literatura citada
Acosta L.E. & E.A. Maury. 1998. Scorpiones. En: J.J. Morrone & S.
Coscaron, eds. Biodiversidad de Arthropodos argentinos.
Una perspectiva biotaxonmica. Ediciones Sur, La Plata.
Pp. 545559
Acosta L.E. & J.A. Ochoa. 2001. Two new species of Orobothriurus
Maury, 1976 from Argentina and Peru, with comments on
the systematics of the genus (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae). In:
V. Fet & P.A. Selden, eds. Scorpions 2001. In memoriam
Gary A. Polis. Burnham Beeches, Bucks: British Arach-
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Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Carlos Paredes
1
, Franz Cardoso
1
, Paul Baltazar
1
, Katherine Altamirano
1
y
Patricia Carbajal
2
Additions to Gastropoda from the Peruvian sea
1 Laboratorio de Biologa y Siste-
mtica de Invertebrados Marinos,
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas,
ICBAR, UNMSM, Apdo. 1100-58,
Lima 11, Per. Email: cparedesq@
unmsm.edu.pe
2 Unidad de Investigaciones en
Biodiversidad, Instituto del Mar del
Per IMARPE. Esquina Gamarra y
General Valle S/N Chucuito, Callao.
Presentado: 08/11/2010
Aceptado: 20/01/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
Se reportan por primera vez para el mar peruano seis especies de gasterpodos: Sthenorytis turbinus Dall, 1908,
Crucibulum (Crucibulum) umbrella (Deshayes, 1830), Favartia (Murexiella) lappa (Broderip,1833), Cantharus
(Cantharus) shaskyi Berry, 1959, Cantharus (Solenosteira) macrospira (Berry, 1957), Cancellaria (Bivetopsia)
haemastoma Sowerby, 1832. Se informa sobre la distribucin, el hbitat y comentarios relevantes acerca de
cada una de las especies.
Palabras claves: Mollusca, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, nuevos registros, Per.
Abstract
The following species of Gastropoda are recorded for the frst time for Peruvian waters: Sthenorytis turbinus
Dall, 1908, Crucibulum (Crucibulum) umbrella (Deshayes, 1830), Favartia (Murexiella) lappa (Broderip,1833),
Cantharus (Cantharus) shaskyi Berry, 1959, Cantharus (Solenosteira) macrospira (Berry, 1957), Cancellaria
(Bivetopsia) haemastoma Sowerby, 1832.
Keywords: Mollusks, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, new records, Peru.
Introduccin
Continuando con el inventario y la determinacin actualizada
de los moluscos marinos (Paredes et al. 1999; Ramrez et al.
2003; Paredes & Cardoso 2005; Paredes & Cardoso 2007; Pare-
des et al. 2008, 2009, 2010), y teniendo como objetivos: elaborar
catlogos ilustrados de las especies y organizar colecciones de
referencia en el Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, y el Laboratorio de Biologa y
Sistemtica de Invertebrados Marinos de la Facultad de Ciencias
Biolgicas; en esta oportunidad se da a conocer el hallazgo de
seis especies de gasterpodos de la subclase Caenogastropoda,
que son registradas por primera vez para el mar peruano.
Material y mtodos
El material revisado de cinco especies procede en su mayora
de colectas realizadas en las aguas tropicales de la Provincia Pe-
ruana, frente a los Departamentos de Tumbes y Piura, al norte
del Per. Una de las especies procede del rea de Pisco y fue
colectada por Hans-Wilhelm Koepcke.
El material biolgico fue fjado en el campo o en el labo-
ratorio, utilizando formol al 7% neutralizado con brax. Para
su conservacin y estudio, las muestras fueron lavadas con
agua corriente y luego conservadas en alcohol al 70%. Para el
ordenamiento supraespecifco se sigui a Skoglund (2002) y la
determinacin taxonmica se realiz utilizando la bibliografa
especializada. Las fotografas se tomaron utilizando una cmara
digital. El material est depositado el Laboratorio de Biologa y
Sistemtica de Invertebrados Marinos de la Facultad de Cien-
cias Biolgicas (LaBSIM) y el Museo de Historia Natural de la
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Taxonoma
claSe GaStroPoda
SuBclaSe caenoGaStroPoda
orden neotaenioGloSSa
SuPerFamilia Janthinoidea
Familia ePitoniidae
SuBFamilia ePitoniinae
Genero STHENORYTIS conrad, 1862
Sthenorytis turbinus (Dall, 1908)
Figura 1
Epitonium (Sthenorytis) turbinum Dall, 1908. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,
Harvard, Vol. 43, N 6, pp. 205-487, pls. 1-22 (Oct.); Keen, 1971:
436, fg. 665. Sthenorytis turbinus, Skoglund, 2002: 61.
Vuelta corporal grande y globosa, espira cnica con cinco
vueltas; abertura redondeada con labios brillantes; escultura axial
desarrollada consiste en doce costillas lamelares, cncavas y con
los bordes aflados, los interespacios son lisos. El color general
es blanco con una tonalidad griscea en los interespacios de la
vuelta corporal y las dos ltimas vueltas de la espira; el interior
de la abertura es blanco; el oprculo crneo tiene color marrn
negruzco y presenta ncleo casi central y pocas lneas espirales.
Longitud, 40,2 mm; dimetro 30,6 mm.
Material examinado: 2 lotes, 2 ejemplares.
Hbitat: Sublitoral, fondo rocoso arenoso, 110 550 metros
de profundidad (Keen 1971).
Localidades: Piura (Mncora), 107 122 metros.
Fecha: 10/09/2008, 12/12/2009.
Distribucin: Isla San Pedro Nolasco, Golfo de California
hasta las Islas Galpagos, Ecuador (Keen 1971).
Observaciones: Nuevo registro para el mar peruano
SuPerFamilia calyPtraeoidea
Familia calyPtraeidae
Genero CRUCIBULUM Schumacher, 1817
SuBGnero CRUCIBULUM, S. S.
Crucibulum (Crucibulum) umbrella (Deshayes, 1830)
Figura 2
Crucibulum umbrella Deshayes, 1830. Encyclopdie Mthodique.
Histoire Naturelle de vers, vol. 2. Paris. Pp.1-144.
Crucibulum (Crucibulum) umbrella, Keen, 1971: 465, fg. 827; Sk-
oglund, 2002:74; Gonzlez-Villarreal, 2005:31, fg. 44.
14
Paredes et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (Abril 2011)
Conchilla poco elevada con apex subcentral, margen crenu-
lado por las proyecciones de las costillas; escultura con 26 a 34
costillas radiales, los interespacios tan anchos como las costillas;
la copa interna est fjada bajo el apex y por uno de los lados. El
color de las conchillas es blanco opaco por fuera y por dentro, la
copa tambin es blanca. Dimetro 43,0 mm; altura 12,5 mm.
Material examinado: 1 lote, 2 conchillas varadas en la playa
arenosa (Kp. 1491).
Hbitat: Intermareal rocoso (Gonzlez-Villarreal 2005).
Localidades: Ica, Pisco (Laguna Grande).
Fecha: entre el 29 de diciembre de 1957 y el 2 de enero de 1958
Distribucin: Golfo de California hasta Panam (Keen
1971).
Observaciones: Las conchillas fueron colectadas por Hans-
Wilhelm Koepcke (1982), habiendo permanecido en el Museo
de Historia Natural. Nuevo registro para el mar Peruano.
SuBorden neoGaStroPoda
SuPerFamilia muricoidea
Familia muricidae
SuBFamilia muricoPSinae
Gnero FAVARTIA JouSSeaume, 1880
SuBGnero MUREXIELLA clench y Prez FarFante, 1945
Favartia (Murexiella) lappa (Broderip, 1833)
Figura 3
Murex lappa Broderip, 1833. Proc. Zool. Soc. London: p. 177.
Phyllonotus lappa, Dall, 1909: 219.
Murexiella lappa, Keen, 1971:519, fg. 990; Hendrickx y Toledano,
1994: 46; Mair et al., 2002: 21, lm. 14, fg. 4.
Murex lappa, Abbott, 1974: 175.
Favartia (Murexiella) lappa, Skoglund, 2002: 109.
Concha con espira pequea que alcanza aproximadamente la
cuarta parte de la longitud total; escultura presenta seis vrices
de las que se proyectan fuertes espinas cncavas y acanaladas
ventralmente; la abertura es oval con canal anterior desarrollado y
Figura 1. Sthenorytis turbinus.
Figura 2. Crucibulum (Crucibulum) umbrella.
15

Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (April 2011)
refejado dorsalmente en su tercio distal, el labio columelar es liso
y el externo crenulado por efecto de las espinas. Color externo
pardo claro y el interior de la abertura blanquecino ligeramente
violceo presenta lneas geomtricas que son producto de la
complicada escultura externa. Longitud, 40,3 mm.
Material examinado: 1 lote, 1 ejemplar.
Hbitat: Intermareal inferior y sublitoral hasta 20 metros de
profundidad (Keen, 1971).
Localidades: Piura (Baha de Paita), fondo areno rocoso.
Fecha: Ao 2004.
Distribucin: Guaymas, Mxico hasta Panam (Keen 1971),
Islas Galpagos, Ecuador (Finet 1985).
Observaciones: El material fue colectado y guardado por
personal del Laboratorio Costero de IMARPE. Nuevo registro
para el mar peruano.
Familia Buccinidae
SuBFamilia PiSaniinae
Gnero CANTHARUS rdinG, 1798
SuGnero CANTHARUS, S. S.
Cantharus (Cantharus) shaskyi Berry, 1959
Figura 4
Cantharus (Cantharus) shaskyi Berry, 1959. Notices of new eastern
Pacifc Mollusca III. Leafets in Malacol., vol. 1, N 18, pp.108-13;
Keen, 1971: 560, fg. 1106; Abbott, 1974:220; Hendrickx y Tole-
dano, 1994: 48; Skoglund, 2002: 123.
Conchilla con la vuelta corporal globosa y la espira de forma
similar tiene una altura aproximada equivalente a un tercio de la
longitud total, la sutura es bien defnida; abertura oval y canal
sifonal corto, el fasciolo sifonal est desarrollado; el labio columelar
es cncavo y el externo presenta estras; escultura consiste en 12
costillas axiales bajas que estn cruzadas por densas estras espirales
algo irregulares, algunas de las cuales son ms prominentes sobre
las costillas, presentando un patrn espiral blanco caracterstico.
Figura 3. Favartia (Murexiella) lappa.
Figura 4. Cantharus (Cantharus) shaskyi.
16
Paredes et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (Abril 2011)
El color general es pardo claro con lneas o manchas oscuras y
claras, interior de la abertura es blanco brillante en los labios y el
canal sifonal. Longitud 35,7 mm; ancho 22,7 mm.
Material examinado: 1 lote, 3 ejemplares.
Hbitat: Intermareal rocoso (Hendrickx y Toledano 1994).
Localidades: Piura (Mncora), fondo arenoso rocoso, 120
122 metros.
Fecha: 10/09/2008.
Distribucin: Frente a Baha San Carlos, Sonora, Mxico
(Skoglund 2002); Baha Asuncin, Baja California Sur, Mxico
(Luke 1995).
Observaciones: Nuevo registro para el mar peruano.
SuBGnero SOLENOSTEIRA dall, 1890
Cantharus (Solenosteira) macrospira (Berry, 1957)
Figura 5
Solenosteira macrospira Berry, 1957. Notices of new eastern Pacifc
Mollusca. I. Leafets in Malacol., vol. 1, N 14, pp. 75-82; Keen,
1971: fg.1121; Hendrickx y Toledano, 1994: 49-50.
Cantharus (Solenosteira) macrospira, Skoglund, 2002:124.
Segn Keen (1971), la conchilla es muy semejante a Solenos-
teira pallida, diferencindose por ser ligeramente ms corta para
su ancho, vuelta corporal desarrollada y espira corta con tres a
cinco vueltas; el canal sifonal es corto, amplio, y refejado hacia
la izquierda en su parte terminal; el fasciolo columelar est bien
desarrollado, el labio interno es liso y el externo crenulado; la
vuelta corporal presenta nueve costillas axiales reducidas que se
inician cerca de la base de la misma y terminan en los hombros;
Figura 5. Cantharus (Solenosteira) macrospira.
Figura 6. Cancellaria ( Bivetopsia) haemastoma.
17

Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 013- 018 (April 2011)
esta escultura se repite en las vueltas de la espira, y toda la con-
chilla presenta marcadas costillas espirales en toda la superfcie.
La coloracin general es pardo clara con manchas blancas y el
periostraco tiene color pardo oscuro, el interior de la abertura
es blanco amarillento. Longitud 38,5 mm; dimetro 28,0 mm.
Material examinado: 1 lote, 1 ejemplar.
Hbitat: Sublitoral areno fangoso, hasta 33 metros ( Hen-
drickx y Toledano, 1994).
Localidades: Tumbes (Puerto Pizarro), varado en la playa.
Fecha: 09/08/1992.
Distribucin: Extremo norte del Golfo de California (Keen
1971) hasta el sur de Baha Ballena, Costa Rica (Cruz 1996).
Observaciones: Nuevo registro para el mar peruano.
SuPerFamilia cancellarioidea
Familia cancellariidae
Gnero CANCELLARIA lamarck, 1799
SuBGnero BIVETIELLA Wenz, 1943
SuBGnero BIVETOPSIA JouSSeaume, 1887
Cancellaria ( Bivetopsia) haemastoma Sowerby, 1832
Figura 6
Cancellaria (Bivetopsia) haemastoma Sowerby, 1832. Proc. Zool.
Soc. London: 54; Keen, 1971: 651, fg.1464; Skoglund, 2002: 157.
Conchilla con amplia vuelta corporal y hombros prominen-
tes, inclusive en la corta espira, abertura pequea con un corto
canal sifonal, labio interno con estras basales y tres pliegues
desarrollados en la parte distal, labio externo crenulado; escultura
presenta costillas axiales no muy prominentes ampliamente sepa-
radas, y tambin suaves costillas espirales, el ombligo es estrecho
y profundo y el fasciolo sifonal bien desarrollado alcanza casi
la longitud de la abertura. El color general es pardo claro con
manchas o lneas oscuras; labios con un color rojizo anaranjado.
Longitud, 30, 8 mm; dimetro, 21, 4 mm.
Material examinado: 2 lotes, 12 ejemplares.
Hbitat: Sublitoral, fondo arenoso y conchuela.,
Localidades: Piura (Sechura, Vichayo, Parachique), 10 20
m de profundidad.
Fecha: 18/12/2007.
Distribucin: Islas Galpagos, Ecuador (Keen 1971).
Observaciones: Segn Keen (1971), ha sido considerada una
subespecie de Cancellaria (B.) chrysostoma, debido a la simili-
tud morfolgica. Actualmente es una especie vlida (Skoglund
2002). Nuevo registro para el mar peruano.
Agradecimientos
Los autores agradecen al Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos por el apoyo
econmico a nuestros proyectos de investigacin sobre diversidad
de moluscos marinos. Expresamos nuestro reconocimiento al
doctor Dimitri Gutierrez, Jefe del Laboratorio de Bentos Ma-
rino del Instituto del Mar del Per por habernos proporcionado
un ejemplar de Sthenorytis turbinus y el matrial de Cantharus
shaskyi. Igualmente agradecemos al biologo Isaias Gonzales, Jefe
del Laboratorio Costero del Instituto del Mar del Per en Paita.
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19

Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de MaBuya dorsivittata
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de Mabuya dorsivittata
(Squamata, Scincidae) en Crdoba, Argentina
Liliana Aun, Damiana Borghi y Ricardo Martori
Reproduction and diet of a population of Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata,
Scincidae) in Cordoba, Argentina
Departamento de Ciencias Natura-
les, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas,
Fsico- Qumicas y Naturales; Uni-
versidad Nacional de Ro Cuarto.
EP. N 9, RN 36 km 601, 5800 Ro
Cuarto, Crdoba, R. Argentina,
5800 Ro Cuarto.
Liliana Aun. Dpto Ciencias Na-
turales. UNRC. Telfono 0358-
4676428.
Email Liliana Aun:
Laun@exa.unrc.edu.ar
Email Ricardo Martori:
rmartori@exa.unrc.edu.ar
Presentado: 05/01/2010
Aceptado: 28/12/2010
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una
especie de lagarto vivparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Crdoba). La hembra de menor tamao, con folculos
yemados midi de LHC 41 mm. El tamao de la camada vari entre 5 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos
de menor tamao con espermatozoos en los testculos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlacin positiva
y signifcativa entre el peso de las gnadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001). En
los machos hubo una correlacin positiva y signifcativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R
2
=
0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002). El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacion con el periodo
de gestacin, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las ltimas fases, indicando un costo energtico
alto en los ltimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron prin-
cipalmente de Araneae (suelo) como tem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras) y Acridiidae como
tem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras) como tem fundamental
y de Tettigonidae como tem secundario. Hubo diferencias signifcativas en la seleccin trfca entre sexos.
Palabras claves: Mabuya, reproduccin, alimentacin, dimorfsmo sexual, Argentina.
Abstract
The reproduction and diet were studied in Mabuya dorsivittata a viviparous lizard from Alto Alegre (Crdoba).
The smallest female with yolking ovarian follicles measured (svl) 41 mm, and the smallest male with spermato-
zoa in the testes measures (svl) 31mm. The litter size was from fve to ten embryos. A positive and signifcant
correlation existed between the weight of the eggs or embryos and the reproductive state (B = 0,524, R =
0,254, P 0,001). In males there was a positive and signifcant correlation between the testicular volume and the
reproductive state (R
2
= 0,851, b= 0,929, P= 0,002). The mass of fat bodies in females and males was related
with the reproductive period, especially in the females, diminishing in the fnal phases of embryo development,
indicating a high energetic cost during the last months of embryonic growth. Regarding the diet, females fed
mainly on soil Araneae as fundamental prey, Scarabeidae, Araneae (others) and Acridiidae as secondary prey,
whereas males fed on Isopoda, Acridiidae and Araneae as fundamental prey and on Tettigonidae as secondary
prey. There were signifcant differences in trophic selection among sexes.
Keywords: Mabuya, reproduction, diet, sexual dimorfsm, Argentina.
Introduccin
Las especies del gnero Mabuya en Amrica del Sur son
vivparas. En estos lagartos el mayor suministro de nutrientes
para el desarrollo de los embriones se realiza a travs de la alta
especializacin de la placenta corionalantnica que los hace
nicos en Squamata (Fitch 1985; Shine 1985; Blackburn &
Vitt 1992). En Amrica del Sur, en la zona tropical, se han
efectuados estudios sobre reproduccin en algunas especies de
Mabuya como M. caissara (Vanzolini & Reboucas-Spieker 1976),
M. macrorhyncha (Vanzolini & Reboucas-Spieker 1976; Rocha
& Vrcibradic 1999), M. nigropunctata (= M. bistriata) (Vitt &
Blackburn 1991), M. heathi (Vitt & Blackburn 1983), M. frenata
(Vrcibradic & Rocha 1998) y M. agilis (Rocha & Vrcibradic
1999; Rocha et al. 2002), y recientemente una revisin de las
Mabuyas de Amrica del Sur (Vrcibradic & Rocha, 2011).
Mabuya dorsivittata Cope, 1862 (Squamata, Scincidae) es una
especie categorizada en Argentina como no amenazada (Lavilla
et al. 2000), pero este estatus se debe probablemente a la falta
de conocimientos sobre su comportamiento y biologa. El am-
biente natural de esta lagartija es el Espinal, un ecotono entre la
ecoregin chaquea y pampeana. Se caracteriza por ser un bosque
poco denso de rboles xerflos bajos de copas aparasoladas
(Bertonati & Concuera 2000), ambiente muy modifcado por
la tala y el avance de las fronteras agropecuarias, produciendo
la fragmentacin del paisaje y en consecuencia alteraciones en
las relaciones trfcas y declinacin de las poblaciones (Carey
et al. 2001).
En el presente trabajo se describen variaciones del ciclo
reproductivo y se analiza la dieta de una poblacin de Mabuya
dorsivittata en Argentina, con la fnalidad de aportar conocimien-
tos bsicos para establecer pautas de manejo de las poblaciones
nativas de esta especie en la regin del Espinal de Crdoba,
Argentina.
Material y mtodos
rea de estudio.- Este trabajo fue realizado en la localidad
de Alto Alegre, Dpto. Unin, Provincia de Crdoba, Argentina,
(3222S; 6253W) a 250 m de altitud sobre el nivel del mar,
situada dentro de la ecoregin el Espinal, en la zona templada
de Amrica del sur. La fora est constituida principalmente
por tres estratos vegetales, uno bajo representado por gramneas
que varan entre 5 y 15 cm de alto; uno medio por manchones
densos de cortaderas (Cortadeiras selloana), con una sucesin
vegetal estacional de Senecio pampeanus y Cardus spp., y un tercer
estrato con algunas especies arbreas como Prosopis alba, Geofroea
decorticans, Celtis tala, Lyceum cestroides y Schinus fasciculatus.
Esta zona en cuanto al clima se caracteriza por tener una marcada
estacionalidad en las precipitaciones y temperatura con precipi-
taciones medias anuales de 800mm. En verano las temperaturas
medias alcanzan los 26 C y en invierno las temperaturas medias
alcanzan los 10 C (Martori et al. 2005).
Anlisis de las muestras.- Los ejemplares de Mabuya dorsivit-
tata fueron capturados a mano durante tres aos consecutivos
de enero de 1998 hasta junio de del ao 2000. En el laboratorio
20
Aun et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (Abril 2010)
cada lagarto fue pesado en una balanza electrnica (0,01 g), y
se midieron el largo hocico-cloaca (LHC); alto de la cabeza
(ALC); ancho de la cabeza (AC) y largo de la cabeza (LC), con
un calibrador vernier (0,1 mm), para determinar la existencia
de variaciones morfomtricas entre sexos. Los animales fueron
anestesiados y prefundidos con formol al 10%. Luego se lavaron
y conservaron en alcohol al 80%. Estn depositados en la colec-
cin de ZVUNRC (44, 50 y 4 juveniles).
En los lagartos de ambos sexos se removieron las gnadas
para el anlisis reproductivo y los estmagos para el anlisis del
contenido estomacal.
En las hembras, se identifcaron y pesaron en una balanza
electrnica (0,01 g) los folculos yemados, huevos y embriones.
La presencia de huevos oviductales o embriones fue considerada
para estimar el tamao de la camada (segn Vcibradic & Rocha
1998). Se establecieron los siguientes estados reproductivos
para cada hembra, estado 1: ausencia de folculo yemado y de
huevo establecido en el oviducto ; estado 2: presencia de folculo
yemado y ausencia de huevo establecido en el oviducto; estado
3: huevos o sacos embrionarios en el oviducto (menos de 4 mm
de dimetro); estado 4: sacos embrionarios mayores de 4 mm,
embriones sin desarrollar; estado 5: embriones ocupando ms
del 50% del saco embrionario, ojos y patas evidentes y estado 6:
embriones a trmino (segn Rocha & Vrcibradic 1999).
A cada macho se le midi el ancho (A) y largo (L) del testculo
izquierdo con un calibre digital precisin de 0,1mm y se estim
el volumen testicular, mediante la frmula del esferoide:
V= 4/3 (1/2 L) X (1/2 A)
2
,

Donde L= largo y A= ancho (Dunham & Miles 1985).
Para evaluar la condicin reproductiva se escogieron 14
individuos. A los cuales se seleccion el testculo derecho para
realizar cortes histolgicos. Los tejidos fueron deshidratados en
etanol, aclarados en xileno, incluidos en parafna, cortados en
secciones de 4 m y coloreados con hematoxilinaeosina. Los
cortes histolgicos fueron analizados para determinar el estado
espermatognico de acuerdo a la clasifcacin de Ballinger y
Nietfeldt (1989). Esta clasifcacin fue adaptada a M. dorsivit-
tata de la siguiente manera:
Estadio 1: testculo diferenciado. masa gonadal ovoidal
rodeada por un epitelio, en seccin transversal, diferenci-
acin de tbulos seminferos slidos sin distincin de los
tipos celulares.
Estadio 2: Crecimiento testicular. Diferenciacin de clulas
germinales. Espermatogonias y espermatocitos, pero an no
hay diferenciacin de un lumen en el tbulo.
Estadio 3: Espermatognesis temprana (espermatognesis).
En este estadio hay diferenciacin de un lumen tubular,
presencia de espermatocitos 1 en el lmen y espermatocitos
2 en el lmen respectivamente.
Estadio 4: Espermiognesis (maduracin testicular).
Defnido por la maduracin o metamorfosis de espermtidas
a espermatozoides en el margen luminar.
Tambin se registraron el dimetro de los tbulos seminferos
(TS) y el alto del epitelio (AE). Para medir la altura del epitelio
seminfero se utiliz la imagen del tbulo obtenida en microsco-
pio y registrada en una cmara de video CCD y transferida a
un monitor para transformar la imagen real a imagen binaria
mediante una placa de adquisicin (frame grabber); se diferenci
el rea tubular total y el rea correspondiente a la luz del tubo
para medir la altura del epitelio.
Se extrajeron los cuerpos grasos de machos y hembras, lu-
ego fueron pesados en una balanza de precisin (0,001 g) para
establecer comparaciones entre los cuerpos grasos y la actividad
gonadal. Para el anlisis de los datos de actividad reproductiva se
calcularon los residuales de la regresin de los volmenes de los
rganos de los individuos adultos (gnadas, cuerpos grasos). Esta
tcnica refeja el ciclo real de las variables tomadas, al eliminar el
efecto provocado por el tamao corporal. El uso de transforma-
ciones a logaritmo de las variables produce regresiones lineares
asegurando su distribucin normal y reduciendo la dispersin
(Sokal & Rohlf 1981). Los residuales de los cuerpos grasos de
adultos fueron comparados con los residuales de los testculos
de los machos y con los residuales de las gnadas en hembras.
Mediante este anlisis de regresin se podr determinar el grado
de interaccin de las reservas en el ciclo reproductivo.
Se analiz el dimorfsmo sexual usando variables morfolgi-
cas: largo hocico-cloaca (LHC), con anlisis de varianza de
una va (ANOVA). El alto cabeza (ALC), ancho cabeza (AC) y
largo cabeza (LC) fueron comparados entre sexos mediante una
ANCOVA, considerando LHC como covariante. Este anlisis
se puede realizar siempre que las muestras cumplan con los
supuestos de normalidad y homogeneidad.
La masa del contenido estomacal se determin pesando los
estmagos llenos y luego vacos y se estim la diferencia, para
correlacionarlos con la masa corporal del predador.
Cada presa del contenido estomacal se identifc utilizando
una lupa estereoscpica binocular hasta el nivel de orden o fa-
milia segn las condiciones que estaba. Cada presa fue medida
en el largo y el ancho para calcular luego el volumen de las
mismas (en el caso de presas desarticuladas, el tamao original
fue estimado por comparacin con muestras de referencia).
Para esto se utiliz la frmula propuesta por Dunham (1983),
que es la ecuacin para el volumen de un esferoide ensanchado:
V= 4/3 (a/2) (b/2)
2
Donde a= largo y b= ancho. Para el item Araneae se diferen-
ciaron segn tela, suelo u otros, porque estos lagartos viven sobre
las cortaderas o se desplazan por el suelo segn sus actividades.
Se calcul la diversidad trfca acumulada para las muestras
con la fnalidad de ponderar la muestra mnima siguiendo el
criterio de Hurtubia (1973), que consiste en calcular la diver-
sidad trfca (H) para cada individuo utilizando la formula de
Brillouin (1965):
H= (l/H) x (log
2
N! log
2
N
i
!),
Donde N es el nmero total de organismos hallados en el
estomago de cada individuo y N
i
es el nmero total de presas de
la especie y en cada estomago. Tambin se analiz la numero-
sidad, el volumen y la frecuencia de ocurrencia de las presas
presentes en la dieta. Para obtener un panorama general de la
importancia de cada una de las presas se calcul el ndice IRI
(ndice de Importancia Relativa).
IRI= 100 * AL/AL
21

Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de MaBuya dorsivittata
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (April 2011)
Donde AL= %frecuencia de ocurrencia + %numerosidad por
categora + %volumen por categora (George & Hadley 1979).
Para establecer la jerarquizacin de la dieta se aplic al valor
IRI el criterio de categorizacin, que toma el valor ms alto del
ndice y porcenta a todos los dems valores a partir de l. Si el
porcentaje de la presa queda incluido entre el 100% y el 75%
se la considera fundamental, si se ubica entre el 75% y el 50%
se categoriz como secundaria, si se ubica entre el 50% y el
25% es accesorio y si se halla en menos del 25% se la considera
accidental (Montori 1992).
Para evaluar diferencias de dieta entre sexos, se realiz una
prueba de chi-cuadrado agrupndose los tems para cumplir
con los supuestos del test. Simultneamente se compararon los
ndices de similitud de dieta entre sexos obtenidos mediante
el ndice de Morisita-Horn. Para establecer diferencias entre
tamao de los individuos y el tamao de la presa se realiz un
anlisis de regresin considerando a la presa de mayor volumen
de cada estmago como variable dependiente y el tamao cor-
poral como variable independiente. Las variables morfolgicas
se analizaron mediante los estadsticos de dispersin, media, y
desvo estndar.
Resultados
Fenologa poblacional de M. dorsivittata
En enerofebrero del 1999 y en enero-febrero del ao 2000
fueron capturados cuatro ejemplares juveniles de M. dorsivittata
(con LHC menor de 30 mm). Tanto machos adultos (LHC)
X= 57,42; (31 72), n= 50, como hembras adultas (LHC)
X= 62,65; (41 94), n= 44, fueron capturados en todas las
estaciones (Fig. 1).
Ciclo Reproductivo
La hembra de menor tamao con folculos yemados midi
41 mm (LHC). El tamao medio de la camada (considerando
huevos en oviducto y embriones) X= 6,4 (5 10) n= 11. La
distribucin de los estadios reproductivos de las hembras
permiti defnir las principales fases del ciclo reproductivo de
las hembras, tal como se representa en la Tabla 1. Dieciocho
hembras colectadas durante los meses de enero, febrero, marzo
y abril no presentaban folculos yemados (estadio 1); 8 hembras
examinadas en los meses de febrero y marzo tenan los folculos
yemados (estadio 2); 8 hembras en abril, mayo, junio y agosto
tenan huevos en el oviducto (estadio 3). Las hembras colectadas
en septiembre, octubre y noviembre, contenan 5, 7 y 10 sacos
embrionarios de un tamao mayor a 4 mm (estadio 4), en tres
E
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30
40
50
60
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m
m
Machos
Hembras
Juvenil
Figura 1. Distribucin de tamao corporal y sexo de Mabuya dorsivittata durante el periodo de enero 1998 hasta junio 2000. Los crculos
representan a los machos, los cuadrados a las hembras y tringulos a juveniles (n=92)
Estadios
1 2 3 4 5 6
Enero 1 1
Febrero 12 5
Marzo 4 3
Abril 1 2
Mayo 1
Junio 4
Julio
Agosto 1
Septiembre 1
Octubre 2
Noviembre 2 3
Diciembre 2
Tabla 1. Distribucin de los estadios reproductivos de hembras de
Mabuya dorsivittata durante los distintos meses del ao. (n=45)
22
Aun et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (Abril 2010)
hembras colectadas en noviembre los embriones ocupaban ms
del 50% del saco embrionario; una de estas hembras contenan
6 embriones con un (LHC) X= 8 mm y un peso X= 48 mg y las
otras dos hembras con 8 embriones cada una con (LHC) X= 8,9
mm y un peso X= 52 mg, en todos estos embriones eran muy
evidentes las patas y los ojos (estadio 5). En dos hembras del
mes de diciembre y en una del mes de enero tenan 7 embriones
con un (LHC) X= 21 mm y un peso X= 285 mg cada embrin,
presentando escamas desarrolladas en todo el cuerpo (estadio 6).
En las hembras el peso de las gnadas versus el estadio re-
productivo correlacion positiva y signifcativamente: n= 27, b=
0,524, R= 0,254, p< 0,001. Se observa en los ltimos estadios
reproductivos un mayor incremento del peso gonadal.
La correlacin entre los residuales de la masa gonadal con los
residuales de los cuerpos grasos (r= -0,01 b= 0,13 P<0,1 n=27)
no es signifcativa. El macho adulto ms pequeo midi de LHC
31 mm y se confrm por la presencia de espermatozoides en
el lumen de los tbulos seminferos; esto determin el tamao
mnimo de madurez sexual.
En el anlisis histolgico de los testculos de 14 machos se
observ (ver Tabla 2): El estadio uno en julio; con clulas germi-
nales en el proceso de divisin, pero sin lumen tubular, y el alto
del epitelio de los tbulos seminferos de 24,31 m +/- 5,93 m.
El estadio dos, en los meses de junio, julio y octubre, alto de
epitelio de 39,49 m +/- 14,93 m, presenta lumen tubular y
espermatocitos primarios en el margen de la membrana basal.
El estadio 3, en los meses de enero y noviembre con un alto
de epitelio de 41,32 m +/-6,37 m, tbulos seminferos con
espermatocitos en el margen luminar. Estadio cuatro, en los me-
ses de febrero y marzo, altura del epitelio de 134,5 m +/-45,19
m, con espermtides metamorfoseando en el margen luminar.
El estadio cinco, en los meses de febrero y marzo con un
epitelio de 100,97 m +/- 40,07 m con espermatozoides en
el lumen. Por ltimo el estadio seis, en los meses de febrero y
marzo, alto del epitelio de 60,10 m.
La correlacin positiva y signifcativa entre el volumen tes-
ticular y el estadio reproductivo: n= 14, R
2
= 0,851; b = 0,929;
p< 0,002, nos indica que en los ltimos estadios reproductivos
el volumen testicular es mayor y est en correspondencia con la
presencia de espermatozoides en el lumen y con el aumento del
grosor del epitelio testicular.
Al analizar en los machos la regresin entre el LHC y el volu-
men testicular, se destaca una regresin positiva y signifcativa: n=
44 R
2
= 0,53; b= 0,735; p< 0,001. Indicando una tendencia que
individuos ms grandes poseen testculos mayores. En machos
la regresin de la masa de los cuerpos grasos y el volumen de los
testculos no es signifcativa, (n= 44), r= 0,002; b= 0,21; p< 0,31.
El ciclo reproductivo muestra una estacionalidad marcada siendo
junio, julio y agosto pre reproductivos; septiembre, octubre,
noviembre y diciembre y enero reproductivos; febrero y marzo
post reproductivos. Tanto machos como hembras muestran un
ciclo anual, estacional, sincrnico y asociado entre ambos sexos.
Dimorfsmo sexual en el tamao corporal
No se observa dimorfsmo sexual con respecto al tamao
corporal entre sexos adultos, el tamao corporal (LHC) medio
en machos fue de X= 57,42; (30 72), sd= 9,66 y n=50. En
hembras la media de (LHC) X= 62,65; (41 94), sd= 16,47 y n=
44. La diferencia de medias entre sexos no result signifcativa:
F
(1,87)
= 1,29; p= 0,257.
Dimorfsmo sexual de las proporciones ceflicas
Cuanto al largo de la cabeza, se observ que machos (X= 6,8
mm y sd= 0,77) y hembras (X= 6,77 mm sd= 1,26) son casi
iguales con respecto a esta variable (valores absolutos). Segn el
anlisis de Ancova la diferencia entre las medias fue signifcativa
(F
(1,87)
=8,72 y P= 0,003), lo que muestra que los machos tienen
cabezas proporcionalmente ms grandes.
Con respecto al ancho de la cabeza no se observan diferencias
entre sexos (Machos: X= 6,03 mm y sd= 1,23; Hembras: X= 5,98
mm y sd= 0,75. Segn Ancova la diferencia entre las medias no
es signifcativa F
(1,90)
= 2,51 y p= 0,11. En el anlisis del alto de
la cabeza se observaron diferencias entre sexos. Los machos con
X= 4,87mm y sd= 0,82 poseen cabeza mas alta que las hembras
con X= 4,68mm y sd= 1,07. El anlisis Ancova indica que la
diferencia entre las medias es signifcativa F
(1,80)
= 7,88 y p= 0,003.
Alimentacin
De los 90 estmagos de lagartos adultos examinados el 40%
no contenan alimento. La proporcin de estmagos llenos para
hembras fue de 51% y para machos de 66%. Se identifcaron
14 categoras de tem presa para machos y hembras. Los tems
pertenecen a 3 clases de artropodos (Aracnida, Crustacea,
Insecta). Araneae se agruparon segn los hbitos: tela, suelo y
otros; en la clase Insecta se consideraron los rdenes (Orthoptera,
Coleoptera, Homoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera),
llegando en algunos casos al nivel de familia.
Anlisis comparativo entre sexos
La diversidad trfica acumulada permite determinar el
tamao de muestra mnima necesaria. Para los machos de M.
dorsivittata la muestra mnima necesaria fue de 15 individuos y
para las hembras de 19 individuos.
Existen diferencias entre la dieta de los diferentes sexos; en
hembras el tem ms numeroso fue Isopoda con 24,07%. El
ms frecuente tambin fue Isopoda con 24,39% y el tem de
mayor volumen relativo fue Acrididae con 30,24%. Para el IRI
Isopoda representa el 18,50%, Acridiidae 16,43%, y Araneae
(otras) 14,97%. Para hembras segn el IRI jerarquizado se con-
sidera a Isopoda (100%), Acrididae (88,81%), y Araneae (otras)
(80,93%) como presa fundamental; Tettigonidae (68,53%)
Estadios
Meses 1 2 3 4 5 6
Enero 1
Febrero 1 1 1
Marzo 1 1 1
Abril
Mayo
Junio 1
Julio 2 1
Agosto
Septiembre
Octubre 1
Noviembre 1
Diciembre
Tabla 2. Distribucin de los estadios reproductivos de los machos
de Mabuya dorsivittata durante los distintos meses del ao. (n=14)
23

Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de MaBuya dorsivittata
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (April 2011)
como presas secundarias; Lepidoptera (51,06%) y Araneae
(suelo) (43,57%) como presas accesorias y el resto como ac-
cidentales (Tabla 3).
En machos los tems ms numerosos fueron Araneae (suelo)
(32%), El tem consumido ms frecuentemente fue Araneae
de suelo (39,13 %). Volumtricamente el ms importante
fue Acrididae (21,84%). Respecto al IRI, Araneae (suelo) con
21,29% fue el tem ms importante en la dieta. En cuanto al
IRIJ jerarquizado para los machos se considera a las Araneae
(suelo) (100%) como nica presa fundamental, Scarabaeidae
(65,68%), Araneae (otras) (60,69%), Acrididae (57,33%)
como secundarias; Ispoda (40,8%), Tettigonidae (40,6) y
Lepidoptera (38,96%) como accesorias y el resto como presa
accidental (Tabla 4)
El test de independencia rechaza la hiptesis de que las dietas
son iguales para machos y hembras. Con un valor crtico de re-
chazo de 28,3, con un a= 0,005 y con 12 grados de libertad. Se
rechaza la H
0
entre sexos, ya que el valor de X
2
= 61,741 supera al
valor crtico. Por lo tanto existen diferencias signifcativas cuanto
a la diversidad trfca entre sexos en Mabuya dorsivittata. El
mismo resultado se obtiene aplicando el ndice de solapamiento
de MorisitaHorn que registra un solapamiento del 60% entre
machos y hembras.
Tamao corporal y el contenido estomacal
La regresin entre el peso del contenido estomacal y el tamao
corporal fue positiva y signifcativa con b= 0,589 R
2
= 0,337; p<
0,001, n= 64 denotando que el consumo de alimento es mayor
en los individuos ms grandes.
Tamao corporal y el tamao de la presa
Se analiz la relacin entre la masa corporal del lagarto y el
volumen de la presa mayor encontrada en cada estmago. Se
utiliz la variable masa corporal ya que es una medida cbica
al igual que el volumen del tem. El resultado es una regresin
positiva y signifcativa con b= 0,39 R
2
= 0,136, p= 0,004, n= 51
o sea, el tamao de la presa est relacionado con la dimensin
del depredador (lagarto).
Discusin
Estructura de la poblacin.- La poblacin estudiada de
Mabuya dorsivittata muestra variacin temporal de tamaos
corporales, lo mismo ocurre en M. nigropunctata (= M. bistriata)
(Vitt & Blackburn 1991) y M. frenata (Rocha & Vrcibradic
1999), de Amrica subtropical y tropical, en las que se obser-
varon patrones estacionales en las distribuciones del tamao y
la edad de los individuos. En general se observa una tendencia
de nacimientos en la mayora de las especies de este gnero a
fnales de primavera. En nuestro anlisis en M. dorsivittata los
nacimientos se producen ms tarde, durante el verano; esto
puede estar relacionado a fenmenos de termorregulacin; en
Argentina el clima del centro del pas es muy fro con respecto
al norte de Brasil y Centro Amrica. En general las especies de
Mabuya producen los nacimientos durante la estacin clida y
hmeda, con la fnalidad de aumentar la probabilidad de super-
vivencia durante los primeros das de vida. En contraste, estudios
realizados en M. mabouya en Colombia (Ramrez-Pinilla et al.
2002) demuestran que aquella especie no posee patrones tem-
porales de distribucin de individuos o de tamaos, y animales
de diferentes tamaos pudieron ser colectados a travs del ao.
Madurez sexual.- Segn el anlisis gonadal realizado en M.
dorsivittata, se observa que el tamao de madurez sexual es de
31 mm en los machos y 41 mm en las hembras, siendo este
tamao de madurez sexual ms pequeo en comparacin con el
de otras especies de Sur Amrica, como M. agilis con un tamao
mnimo (LHC) para hembras de 49 mm y para machos de 46,5
mm (Vrcibradic & Rocha 2002) y M. frenata con 50,8 mm para
hembras y 58 mm para machos (Vrcibradic & Rocha 1998).
Actividad Reproductiva.- La actividad reproductiva fue
anual, marcadamente estacional, sincrnica y asociada en M.
dorsivittata. Tanto machos como hembras poseen un perodo
delimitado de actividad reproductiva que vara en duracin y en
ubicacin temporal segn el hbitat. A diferencia de M. macro-
rhyncha en Brasil (Rocha & Vrcibradic 1999), que algunas veces
posee un desarrollo embrionario asincrnico, M. dorsivittata
present un desarrollo embrionario sincrnico, encontrndose
todos los embriones y vulos en el mismo estadio reproductivo.
En machos y hembras de M. dorsivittata hubo una variacin
signifcativa entre la masa gonadal en los diferentes meses del ao.
Tabla 3. Taxa en el contenido estomacal de hembras de Mabuya dor-
sivittata, % N= Numerosidad porcentaje de la categora en el total de
las presas; % F= porcentaje de la Frecuencia de ocurrencia; % Vol=
porcentaje del volumen de la categora en el volumen total, IRI e IRIJ
representa los porcentajes del ndice de jerarquizacin de las presas.
Item presa N % F % Vol % IRI IRIJ
Araneae (tela) 3,70 4,87 4,06 4,01 21,72
Araneae (suelo) 9,25 12,19 3,90 8,06 43,57
Araneae (Otras) 16,66 19,51 10,93 14,97 80,93
Isopoda 24,07 24,39 9,74 18,50 100
Tettigonidae 9,25 12,19 18,43 12,67 68,53
Acrididae 9,25 12,19 30,24 16,43 88,81
Homoptera 0 0 0 0 0
Scarabaeidae 3,70 4,87 0,62 2,92 15,80
Tenebrionidae 3,70 2,43 0,14 1,99 10,79
Chrysomelidae 0 0 0 0 0
Lepidoptera 7,40 9,75 12,56 9,44 51,06
Diptera 1,85 2,43 0,31 1,46 7,90
Hymenoptera 7,40 4,87 4,52 5,33 28,86
Larvas 3,70 4,87 4,52 4,16 22,52
Item presa N% F% Vol% IRI IRIJ
Araneae (tela) 2 4,348 0,49 1,76 8,29
Araneae (suelo) 32 39,13 11,26 21,29 100
Araneae (otras) 12 26,08 11,92 12,92 60,69
Isopoda 8 17,39 8,22 8,68 40,80
Tettigonidae 6 13,04 14,40 8,64 40,60
Acrididae 8 17,39 21,84 12,92 57,33
Homoptera 2 4,34 0,42 1,74 8,214
Scarabaeidae 14 30,43 9,68 13,98 65,68
Tenebrionidae 2 4,34 0,35 1,73 8,12
Chrysomelidae 4 8,69 2,22 3,85 18,11
Lepidoptera 6 13,04 13,0 8,29 38,96
Diptera 0 0 0 0 0
Hymenoptera 0 0 0 0 0
Larvas 4 8,69 6,09 4,85 22,80
Tabla 4. Taxa en el contenido estomacal de machos de Mabuya dor-
sivittata, % N= Numerosidad porcentaje de la categora en el total de
las presas; % F= porcentaje de la Frecuencia de ocurrencia; % Vol=
porcentaje del volumen de la categora en el volumen total, IRI e IRIJ
representa los porcentajes del ndice de jerarquizacin de las presas.
24
Aun et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (Abril 2010)
Esto sugiere que la variacin en la masa gonadal est relacionada
con un ciclo de actividad reproductiva estacional.
La gestacin en M. dorsivittata se estima que dura 10 meses.
Este rango es el mismo que se ha observado en otras especies
de este gnero como M. heathi (Vitt & Blackburn 1983), M.
nigropunctata (Vitt & Blackburn 1991), M. frenata (Vrcibradic
y Rocha 1998), y M. mabouya (Ramrez-Pinilla et al. 2002) los
cuales duran entre 9 y 12 meses. Teniendo en cuenta el tamao
corporal M. dorsivittata es una especie que est en el grupo de las
Mabuyas chicas y de nidada grande (Vrcibradic & Rocha 2011),
aunque nosotros medimos un individuo de 94mm de LHC.
Dimorfsmo sexual.- En M. dorsivittata aunque existe una
leve diferencia entre el tamao de machos y hembras, estas
diferencias no son signifcativas. Un patrn comn en el gnero
Mabuya es que las hembras son ms grandes que los machos.
Este patrn ha sido observado en especies de Centro Amrica
como M. mabouya (Ramrez-Pinilla et al. 2002) y en especies de
Sudamrica como M. heathi y M. nigropunctata (Vitt & Black-
burn 1991), M. frenata (Vricibradic & Rocha 1998), M. agilis
y M. macrorhyncha (Rocha & Vrcibradic 1999). Segn Fitch
(1985), en especies vivparas, las hembras poseen cuerpos ms
largos para soportar el desarrollo de los embriones en el oviducto.
En cuanto al tamao de la cabeza, en M. dorsivittata se observa
que las medidas tomadas como largo y alto de la cabeza son
proporcionalmente mayores en machos con respecto a hembras.
Este patrn tambin se da en otras especies congneres como
M. nigropunctata (Vitt & Blackburn 1991) y M. frenata (Rocha
& Vrcibradic & 1999). Este tipo de dimorfsmo en el cual los
machos tienen medidas ceflicas ms largas que las hembras est
asociado a la seleccin sexual, aumentando as el xito reproduc-
tivo en machos, ya que tienen mayor fuerza para tomar la presa
en la cpula (Vitt & Blackburn 1991). Tambin ocurre que las
hembras tengan medidas ceflicas ms largas que los machos,
como es el caso de M. macrorhyncha (Rocha & Vrcibradic 1999)
y M. mabouya (Ramrez-Pinilla et al. 2002). Esto puede deberse
a la simple diferencia en el tamao del cuerpo.
Cuerpos grasos y reproduccin.- En los machos hubo una
correlacin negativa entre los cuerpos grasos y el estadio repro-
ductivo. Aparentemente esto explica que la energa invertida
durante el ciclo reproductivo proviene en parte de los cuerpos
grasos. Lo mismo ocurre en los machos de M. macrorhyncha y
M. agilis (Rocha & Vricibradic 1999) y M. mabouya (Ramrez-
Pinilla et al. 2002) donde se observ una correlacin negativa
entre la actividad reproductiva que coincidi con un decreci-
miento de los cuerpos grasos. En contraste en los machos de
las especies de M. heathi (Vitt & Blackburn 1983) y M. frenata
(Vrcibradic & Rocha 1998), no hubo correlacin entre el volu-
men testicular y la masa de los cuerpos grasos.
En las hembras la masa de los cuerpos grasos varan segn
los estadios reproductivos; se observ una correlacin negativa
entre la masa de los cuerpos grasos y la masa de las gnadas, lo
que permite inferir que a medida que la masa gonadal aumenta
de tamao, los cuerpos grasos disminuyen, siendo estos los
responsables del mantenimiento de la gestacin en hembras.
En el caso de M. macrorhyncha (Rocha & Vrcibradic 1999), M.
mabouya (Ramrez-Pinilla et al. 2002) y M. nigropunctata (Vitt
& Blackburn 1991); en las cuales se da el caso de que la masa de
los cuerpos grasos decrece en los ltimos estadios reproductivos.
Los patrones reproductivos de esta poblacin de M. dorsivit-
tata muestran que esta especie sigue en cierta medida el patrn
general del gnero, como por ejemplo la reproduccin estacional
y asociada al perodo de gestacin. Aunque difere en algunos
aspectos particulares como la poca de paricin que ocurre a
principios del verano, indicando un ajuste local a los patrones
comunes del gnero.
Dieta.- La dieta de M. dorsivittata est basada principalmente
en Araneae, Insecta e Isopoda. Todas estas presas son artrpodos
terrestres que habitan en el suelo y la vegetacin herbcea. M.
dorsivittata consume tanto presas activas como Orthoptera,
arcnidos, Coleptera y Lepidoptera, y gregarias como Isopoda
Hymenoptera todos eran de la familia Formicidae. La variedad
de presas consumidas sugiere que M. dorsivattata es un generalista
oportunista. Las dietas descriptas para otras especies de Mabuya,
se asemejan a los resultados de este trabajo. Vrcibradic y Rocha
(1996) describen la dieta de Mabuya macrorhyncha y Mabuya
agilis, siendo los principales tem consumidos Araneae, Orthop-
tera, Diptera e Isoptera. Vitt & Blackburn (1991) indica que de
M. bistriata consume Orthoptera, arcnidos, larvas y termites;
M. frenata consume artropodos siendo las termites el tem ms
importante (Vrcibrack & Rocha 1998). Vitt & Blackburn (1991)
estudiaron la dieta de Mabuya nigropunctata y determinaron que
el tem ms consumido fue Araneae y Orthoptera.
La diferencias en la dieta entre el presente trabajo y los
antes mencionados con respecto al no consumo de Isptera,
Formicidae y Colepteros puede deberse a que estas presas no
se encuentran bien representadas en el estrato herbceo que
frecuenta M. dorsivittata.
En el presente trabajo aunque existe una diferencia entre
machos y hembras en cuanto al tem fundamental, se considera
que los ms importantes fueron Araneae, Isopoda, Scarabaeidae,
Orthoptera y Lepidoptera.
Consumir presas que son relativamente grandes como Ara-
neae, Orthoptera, larvas, etc. puede ser una ventaja energtica.
As los benefcios de la energa ganada son maximizados y el
costo del procesamiento de comida es minimizado.
Existe variacin temporal en la dieta. La preferencia de cier-
tos tems presa en determinada estacin del ao, depende de la
abundancia de este y de su disponibilidad.
La regresin positiva y signifcativa entre el peso corporal del
depredador y el volumen de la presa mayor, se afrma sobre la
idea expresada por Huey y Pianka (1977) trabajando con otras
especies que el tamao de la presa est limitado por el tamao
del predador. Se encontr que machos y hembras se alimentan
distinto en cuanto a los tem presa.
Agradecimientos
Agradecemos a la SECYT de la UNRC que subsidio el
proyecto. Tambin deseamos expresar su agradecimiento a Fer-
nando y Cristina por su colaboracin en el trabajo de campo y
a todos los revisores por la lectura crtica del manuscrito.
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 019- 025 (Abril 2010)
27

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Hansjakob Lthi
Observando aves en el Per: 1963-2006
Allmendstr. 4, CH-4460 Gelterkin-
den, Switzerland.
Email: htluethi@datacomm.ch
Presentado: 03/11/2010
Aceptado: 23/03/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Abstract
In this paper we present the observations and sightings of birds carried out in 24 departments of Peru between
1963 and 2006. Information on the locations and altitudes is discussed for a total of 319 species from 62 fami-
lies, and for some species are reported behavior, phenology and songs. 83% of the observations were made
between 1963 and 1976 and 37% correspond to observations made in the Department of Lima.
Keywords: Birds; Peru; distribution; habitat; behavior.
Resumen
En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer los avistamientos y observaciones de aves realizadas en 25 Departa-
mentos del Per entre los aos 1963 y 2006. Informacin sobre las localidades y altitudes es comentada para
un total de 319 especies de 62 familias, adems para algunas especies se informa sobre comportamientos,
fenologa y cantos. El 83% de las observaciones fueron realizadas entre 1963 y 1976 y el 37% corresponden
a observaciones realizadas en el Departamento de Lima.
Palabras clave: Aves; Per; distribucin; habitat, comportamiento.
Introduction
As a teacher of Biology and German language at the Colegio
Pestalozzi in Lima, the author lived in Peru from 1963 to 1973. Fasci-
nated by the extraordinary diversity of Peruvian birdlife, he dedicated
a large part of his spare time to birdwatching. He was lucky to count
on the support of Maria Koepcke, a pioneering ornithologist of Peru.
Te author met her regularly at the Museum of Natural History to
discuss his newest sightings. Travelling the Peruvian territory by all
means of transports (and often by foot), he always had his binoculars
and his notebook to hand. Although his interest covered all aspects of
birdlife, he focused his attention on behavior related to reproduction,
including vocal emissions, courting, nest-building, breeding and caring
for the young. Since returning to live in Switzerland in 1973, he
has visited Peru several times, always aiming to enlarge his knowledge
of the Peruvian birds.
In 2009 encouraged by Manuel Plenge, the author began to select
and process the large amount of data, photos and drawings in order to
prepare this publication. Tis paper reports on the main sighting and
observations on 319 Peruvian birds made between 1963 and 2006.
Material and methods
Tis work follows the taxonomy and the order given in the List of
the Birds of Peru by Manuel Plenge (2010). Species which were dif-
fcult to distinguish in the feld have been excluded. Subspecies have
not been considered.
Vertical distribution: In a considerable number of species the re-
cords of minimum and maximum altitude exceed the data of Birds of
Peru (2007), referred to as BP; these fgures are highlightend in bold,
so are records concerning reproduction, as song activities, courting,
nest-building, breeding etc.
Vocal emissions: It was adopted the standards used in BP in a
slightly simplifed form. Due to the difculty of transforming birds
voices from the German to the English phonetic system, my notes
difer in many cases from the ones given in BP.
Sites indicated as south/north of Lima are within a range of 20 km
of Lima City. Lima City is referred to as urban Lima. Lima refers to the
Department of Lima. Districts of Lima are identifed with a slash, e.g.
La Victoria/Lima. Sites without altitude indication are below 200 m.
Photos and sketches by the author if not declared otherwise.
Glossary
lomas: fog vegetation area
totoral: community of Typha and Scirpus
gramadal: community of Distichlis and Sporobolus
quebrada: ravine; small tributary valleys of the Andes
Abbreviations
ad(s). adult(s)
alt. altitude
ca. circa/approximatly
ind(s). individual(s)
juv(s). juvenile(s)
occ. occasion/occasionally
NP North Peru
CP Central Peru
SP South Peru
Results
tinamiFormeS
tinamidae
1. Nothoprocta ornata
02/05/1964. Near Corpacancha, Junn, 4400 m: Group of about
6 inds. in open Puna grassland.
04/12/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4000 m: Ind.
in open Polylepis wood.
29/06/1969. Watershed between Concepcin and Comas, Junn,
4100 m: Group of 4 inds. in Puna grassland.
28/09/1970. Between Coracora and Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3500
m: Several sightings in Puna grassland and barren rocky slope. When
fushed, they emit a high-pitched ddd.
2. Nothoprocta pentlandii
Sightings
NP: Lambayeque (between Olmos and Abra Porculla), 600 m.
CP: Coastal Valleys of Lima: Huaura 3000-3600 m, Rmac 1900-
3000 m, Santa Eulalia 3000-3600 m, Mala 3500 m; most sightings
around 3000 m.
Habitat.- Semi-arid to humid montane scrub, humid montane
forest, patches of agricultural areas; once in an Eucalyptus grove.
16/06/1963. Above San Bartolom, Rmac Valley, Lima, 1900 m:
2 inds. fushed on the steep, scrub-covered slope. Tey hide some 200
28
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
m away. A third ind. with at least 6 young in tow stops after a few hur-
ried steps. With its crest raised it emits a soft call. Te young respond
to the luring ad. running for a short distance, then suddenly freezing
for a while (virtually becoming invisible) before starting to run again.
26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600 m: Sev-
eral ind. in montane scrub. In the afternoon (16:30), several inds. call
simultaneously: a soft., melodic tshewt.
08/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 3000-3600 m: Several
sightings in dense montane scrub with open, grass-covered patches;
several young in diferent stages of development (Fig. 1).
08/06/1968. Between Puquio and Chalhuanca, Ayacucho, 4200
m: Very numerous.
28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas near Incahuasi, Ayacucho,
3300 m: Hundreds of ind.; often in pairs or groups of diferent sizes.
17/07/1976. Between El Puerto Pass and Ocongate, Cusco, 4100
m: Very numerous.
12/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Lima/Junn, 4200
m: Extraordinary numerous; forming pairs even when gathered in
great numbers.
11/03/2003. Between Arequipa and Puno, 4000-4300 m: In large
numbers at diferent locations.
6. Merganetta armata
Behavior.- Males often climb rocks and boulders using their stif
tails for support (Fjeldsa et al. 1990) in midstream or on riverbanks
(possibly to express territorial claims).
21/07/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Male fying
upstream.
29/02/1964. Mala Valley, Lima, 1400 m: Male standing on a pebble
in shallow water. He glides into the water, frst swimming upstreams
along the riverbank then getting caught by the strong current, drift-
ing downstream. Occ. he disappears in the turbulent waters, suddenly
popping up again like a cork. Twice he niftily climbs up a boulder at
rivers edge. Meanwhile, a female appears at the same place, where I
had discovered the male before.- 500 m upstream another female is
sighted, swimming in midstream.
15/05/1965. Santa Cruz de Laya, Lurin Valley, Lima, 2000 m: 4 inds.
(2 males and 2 females) in a gorge of the fast fowing Rio Lurin. Tey are
engaged in a courting ritual (Fig. 2). Te males bob their heads back
and forth and approach the females in an agressive manner. Tere is occ.
a hissing sound, probably emitted by the males. Finally they withdraw,
some fying, some swimming - even diving - against the stream.
Figure 1. Fledgling of Nothoprocta pentlandii
Figure 2. Merganetta armata: courting display of two males and a female.
3. Tinamotis pentlandii
Two voice records, no sightings.
26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4700 m: Very
conspicuous song in a barren, scree-strewn landscape above Polylepis
wood: kee...kiaw; frst syllable hoarse and prolonged. Several separate
inds. calling in chorus: As soon as an ind. starts, it is joined by the others.
Te song may last several minutes. When approached, they fall silent.
09/09/1969. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima. 3800 m: Slope with
low scrub, scree and dispersed boulders. Chorus song between 7 and 9
am kewakewakewa. It begins all of a sudden, lasts several minutes and
ends as abruptly as it had begun. Te birds remain invisible.
anSeriFormeS
anhimidae
4. Anhima cornuta
19/01/1965. Rio Huallaga between Yurimaguas and mouth of Rio
Maran, Loreto: Pair on a sandy beach.
29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, ca. 50 km north of Pucallpa, Ucayali:
During a 6 hour-trip by boat about 12 ind. mostly in pairs; most nu-
merous on the shore of a swampy oxbow lake; occ. song.
anatidae
5. Chloephaga melanoptera
Sightings
CP: Ancash 4000-4300 m, Lima 3900-4500 m, Junn 4100-4500
m, Ayacucho 4000 m
SP: Ayacucho 3300/4200 m, Arequipa 4200 m, Cusco 4100 m,
Puno 4000-4900 m
Lowest record: Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m; highest
record: Ananaea, Puno 4900 m.
Behavior.- Mostly in pairs or small groups (as stated in BP) but
also gathering in large numbers, as shown in the following records:
26-29/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: About 200
ind. sighted on both days.
18/07/1965. Pair at the same place; very shy. Tere is probably a
breeding place at the upper end of the gorge, where there are many
holes and crevices. Boulders and rocks are marked with droppings.
26/03/1966. Beneath Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3300 m: Male
fying downstream, passing beneath a small bridge.
09/12/1972. Rio Maran, near La Unin, Hunuco, 3000 m:
Male swimming along the river bank against the strong current, occ.
by diving. On one occ. he climbs momentarily on a protruding rock.
14/07/1988. Achoma, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: 5-7 inds.
on a stretch of about 1 km of the Rio Colca; there are fast and quiet
fowing sections. Among the sighted inds. are two pairs. Male and
female elevate together when fushed. Behavior of a single male: He
swims, dives and occ. perches on one of the many polished, volcanic
boulders in and along the stream. In one occ. he climbs a 1,50 m high
boulder and slips down again in the next instant. For several minutes
he stays on the calm side of a big boulder in midstream, foraging on
algae, which cover the wet part of the rock.
29

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
7. Lophonetta specularioides
Sightings
CP: Ancash: Santa Valley (Lagunas Conococha 4050 m, Pachacoto
4000 m, Yanganuco 3900 m); Lima: Huaura Valley 4000/4800 m,
Chancay Valley 4300 m; Junn 4200-4400 m
SP: Ayacucho: Laguna Parinacochas 3300 m (on freshwater pond
alongside the alkaline lake)
Behavior.- Predominantly on standing water (lakes, lagoons,
ponds); on one occ. in a slow fowing stream. Mostly in pairs. Larger
gatherings (up to two dozens) at the following sites:
26+29/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash 4050 m.
29/06/1969+12/07/1979. Between Concepcin and Comas, Junn,
4400 m.
29/11/1972. Chancay Valley, Laguna Aguashuman, Lima, 4300 m.
07/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Junn, 4200 m.
8. Anas favirostris
Sightings
CP: Ancash 3900/4050 m (Fig.3), Lima 4000-4300 m, Junn
4100-4400 m
SP: Ayacucho 3300 m, Apurmac 2700 m ( Laguna Huampica,
Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas), Cusco 2800-3600 m,
3800-4300/4800 m.
28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300m: Hun-
dreds maybe exceeding one thousand on the alkaline lake itself, its
tributaries, on the shore and on small freshwater ponds.
18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Pair with 3 young
on a shallow lagoon, about 300 m long and 20-30 m wide. One third
is covered with reed and totora, the rest with foating waterweed. Te
family group goes instantly into hiding.
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Quite common on the
totora covered part of the bay of Puno; always in pairs.
10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Rio Pachacoto, Ancash, ca. 4000 m:
Not present on the Laguna Patacocha but in adjacent fooded area with
small lagoons; groups of 3-4 inds. Tree ads. with 5 dark grey young.
10. Anas bahamensis
Sightings.- From Tumbes to Arequipa; in small numbers on coastal
lagoons of Lima (Villa, Chilca, Puerto Viejo).
06/01/1964. Rio Vir, Lambayeque: 30-40 pairs on the lagoon at
the mouth of the river.
22/11/1966. Between San Juan and Villa, south of Lima: About
50 inds. in a mixed group with Anas discors in the middle of a lagoon
formed recently by irrigation. Occ. they rise together for a short fight
show over the lagoon.
11/01/1972. Bay of Paracas, Ica: About 50 inds. on a mudfat in
company of Phoenicopterus chilensis.
03/02/1972. Caman, Arequipa: Very numerous on a long stretched
lagoon in a mixed group with Anas georgica.
27/07/1979. El Salto north of Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 16 inds. on
a marshy lagoon at the edge of a mangrove thicket.
11. Anas puna
Sightings
CP: Ancash 4050 m, Junn 4100-4400 m, Huancavelica 4300 m.
SP: Cusco 3100/3600 m, Puno: 3800-4300 m.
20-27/01/1972. Near Putina north of Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3900-
4000 m: Next to Anas favirostris the most numerous duck of the region.
Ad. with young on Laguna de Checayani.
18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Two pairs on a long
stretched, shallow lagoon, one third covered with totora and reed, the
rest with foating waterweed. When foraging they dip their bills, at
most their heads, into the food-loaded water, humming along softly.
Tey grumble when alarmed.
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Common in the bay
of Puno; often in pairs or small groups (4-5 inds.), on one occ. pair
with 5 young.
12. Anas discors
Boreal migrant
22/02/1964. Paracas, Ica: 150-200 inds. in a shallow bay; they rest
on the shore or swim close to it.
11/03/1964. Laguna Villa, south of Lima: In the afternoon they
leave the totoral by and by. At 6 pm there are at least 10 inds. (4 males)
swimming in open water.
09/12/1964. Lagunas de Chilca, south of Lima: On two small
lagoons 3 resp. 1 ind.
17/01/1966. Lagoon near Piura: Very numerous.
22/11/1966. Between San Juan and Villa, Lima: About 40 inds. on
a newly formed lagoon by irrigiation in a mixed group with Anas baha-
mensis. Occ. they rise together for a short fight show over the lagoon.
11/01/1967. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: 9 inds. on a small lagoon.
13. Anas cyanoptera
18/07/1988. Between Urubamba and Ollantaytambo, Cusco,
2800 m: Extended marshland with a shallow lagoon at the edge of Rio
Urubamba: Group of 3 males and 4 females engaged in a courting
Figure 3. Anas favirostris.
23/07/1988. Laguna Lucre, southwest of Cusco, 3100 m: Very numer-
ous. An isolated group of 5 inds. is engaged in a courting display: Tey
are eagerly swimming around in a muddled crisscross . Occ. some ind.
(probably males) rise steeply out of the water, frst with their head lowered
to the breast, then stretching it with nape feathers raised, making the head
look larger. Some are simultaneously fapping their wings. Others dip their
heads into the water, then shake their plumage as they do when bathing.
9. Anas georgica
Sightings/Behavior
CP: Junn 4200-4400 m, Ancash 4050 m, Lima 4300/4500 m.
SP: Arequipa sealevel, Puno 3800/3900 m, Cusco 3600 m.
Mostly in pairs or small groups; occ. in larger numbers.
30/04/1967. Between Carhuacayn and Junn, Junn, 4300 m: Very
numerous on a medium sized lagoon.
03/02/1972. Caman, Arequipa: At least 20 inds. on a long stretched
lagoon in a mixed group with Anas bahamensis.
07/07/1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, Junn, 4200 m: Nu-
merous on diferent lagoons.
12/07/1979. Between Concepcin and Comas; Junn, 4400 m:
Numerous.
30
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
display. A male begins by moving his head up and down in front of
a female at a distance of 20-30 cm. Te female responds in the same
way. A male about 1 m away participates in a contained manner.
Te other females are seemingly not interested. Tere are occ. short
persecution runs.
23/07/1988. Laguna Lucre southwest of Cusco, 3100 m: 2 pairs.
14. Oxyura jamaicensis
28/06/1965. Laguna Yanganuco, Ancash, 3900 m: A single male
in open water.
30/04/1967. Lago de Junn, 4100 m: Male near shore; escapes by
diving.
19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, north of
Andahuaylas, Apurmac, 2700 m: About 12 inds. on the shallow,
algae-infested lagoon; no totora.
27/04/1969. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima: Laguna Milloc (4300 m)
about 20 inds. on the shallow lagoon; the majority in a sleeping position
(7:30 am), some are straightening their plumage. Quite numerous
on a small but deep lagoon (4500 m).
29/01/1972. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Rather numerous in the
bay of Puno; two or three together, often in company of Fulica ardesiaca.
12/07/1979. Between Concepcin and Comas, Junn, 4400 m:
Several inds. in company of other waterfowl.
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Common in the bay of
Puno; numerous young in diferent stages of development. Nest with
clutch (belonging to O. jamaicensis according to a native guide) in
totora thicket: Platform of about 20 cm in diam. Two cream coloured
eggs with irregular darkbrown streaks. Measures: 51x83/50x81 mm.
PodiciPediFormeS
PodiciPedidae
15. Rollandia rolland
Sightings
CP: Lima coast/4300 m, Junn 3400/4100 m.
SP: Apurmac 2700 m (> 19.06.68), Cusco 3100/3600 m, Puno
3800/3900m.
Regularly on the coastal lagoons of Lima: Chilca (4x), Conchn
(4x), Puerto Viejo (2x), Villa (1x), Cerro Azul (1x).
27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: 4 ads. and
1 juv. on one of the many small lagoons.
09/12/1964. Same place: 8-10 ads. on diferent lagoons, 1 juv.
19/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Pair with 3 juvs.
19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hda. Toxama, Andahuaylas,
Apurmac, 2700 m: Several ads. and some juvs. on the shallow, algae-
infested lagoon.
20-27/01/1972. Putina-Muani, Puno, 3900 m: Fairly common
on the many lagoons of the region; some juvs.
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo: Fairly numerous; 12 inds. on a single
lagoon; ads. with juvs.
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Fairly common in the
bay of Puno (even in the polluted part of it); singles, pairs, juvs.
16. Rollandia microptera
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: On a 5-hour-trip by
boat in the bay of Puno we sighted 5-6 single ind.
17. Podilymbus podiceps
Sightings
NP: Lambayeque: On the river mouth lagoons of Rio Jequetepeque
(Cajamarca) and Rio Vir (La Libertad).
CP: On the coastal lagoons of Lima: Between San Juan and Villa
(2x), Conchn (2x), on the river mouth lagoon of Rio Mala (1x).
18. Podiceps occipitalis
Sightings/Habitat.- Most sightings in the La Viuda-Region (Upper
Santa Eulalia Valley and Pampa de Junn) 4300-4700 m: 1-6 inds. in
diferent habitats: On a deep water lagoon in a barren, rocky environ-
ment as well as on shallow lagoons in Puna grassland.
Sightings outside La Viuda-Region:
30/07/1966. Laguna Sausacocha near Huamachuco, La Libertad,
3100 m: Pair.
19/06/1966. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, Andahuaylas,
Apurmac, 2700 m: Several ads., some with young on the small, shal-
low, algae-infested lagoon.
July 1979. Between Yauyos and Huancayo, 4200 m and between
Concepcin and Comas, 4400 m, Junn: Present on diferent lagoons.
PhoenicoPteriFormeS
PheonicoPteridae
19. Phoenicopterus ruber
26/02/1965. Paracas, Ica: 2 inds.
24-26/02/1966. Same Place: Daily in varying numbers (1-6 inds.).
13/02/1970. Same Place: 9 inds.
28-29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m: Probably
several thousands on the shallow, alkaline lake. Tey are dispersed over
the whole lake with a strong concentration near Incahuasi. At the end
of the dry season, the lake has reached a very low level. Tere are numer-
ous immature inds. Voice: a hoarse, gooselike gaggle, emitted especially
early in the morning. Teir movements are perfectly coordinated. When
approached, they all behave like one ind.: Tey start moving together,
change the direction together. Hundreds take fight at the same moment.
In fight they form focks of 20-30 ind. Tey spend the night standing
on one leg on the mudfat.
11/01/1972. Paracas, Ica: 400-500 inds. in loose groups, about 1/3
immature. About 100 inds. have settled on the shore.
18-29/01/1972. Puno-Juliaca-Putina-Muani, Puno, 3800-4000
m: Present in focks of up to 40 inds. on several of the many lagoons
of the region; two small focks in the bay of Puno.
08-09/07/1988. Paracas, Ica: In groups of 6-15 inds., together less
then 100 ind. When taking fight, they emit hoarse, coughing calls.
13/07/1988. Between Arequipa and Chivay, Arequipa, 4200 m: 9
inds. in extended marshland with countless lagoons.
12/03/2003. Between Arequipa and Puno, 4200 m: Small fock on
a lagoon in Puna grassland.
SPheniSciFormeS
SPheniScidae
20. Spheniscus humboldti
4-5/01/1964. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: At least
a dozen inds. in an isolated bay enclosed by vertical clifs. On both
days 3 or 4 inds. are cavorting in the water, while the rest is on shore
at the entrance (possibly also in the interior) of a cave. At 6.30 am all
are engaged in body-cleaning, be it on shore or splashing in the water.
Te latter turn occ. onto their back, scratching their belly with one
wing, a procedure they really seem to enjoy.
26/02/1965. Peninsula Paracas, Ica: 3 inds. at the base of a high
clif in peaceful company of about 300 sealions. One ind. swimming
near the clif in the rough surge.
12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Groups of
2 or 3 inds. swimming; pair only 500 m away form the port entrance.
25/02/1966. Same place as 26/02/1965: 8 resp. 4 inds. at two
neighbouring bays in company of numerous sea lions. Tey perch
motionless on boulders, warming up in the sun.
31

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
01/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, km 230, Panamericana Norte:
Single ind. swimming close to the clif line.
10-11/06/1972. Punta San Juan (protected area) between Nazca and
Chala, Ica: Te peninsula is a refuge to a major colony of S. humboldti.
Tere are three seperate nesting sites (Fig. 4/5). According to the war-
den, there were 50-60 pairs breeding at the end of April. Considering
the presence of only 40-50 young, it is evident, that the colony has
been afected by the mass mortality of seabirds in the current year.
Site I is situated at the border of the plateau with about 25 nest-
ing caves, placed side by side at the same level. Te site is completly
abandoned. Tere are two abandoned clutches with two eggs each;
measures of one clutch: 57x75/54x71 mm. Te caves are 15-30 cm
high, 30-40 cm wide, 50-80 cm deep.
Site II consists of about 90 superposed nesting caves. It is situated
at the foot of the plateau, protected by high clifs (Fig. 6). Tere are
about 40 young of diferent sizes (20-40 cm), forming small groups of
up to 10 inds. Each group is in custody of an ad. In our presence the
young cluster together (Fig. 7) or seek shelter in a nesting cave. Teir
plumage is clogged with dirt and excrement. By bending forward, they
eject their droppings in a sharp jet, regardless of their fellow young.
In the afternoon (4 pm) the ad. population is engaged in feeding the
young. About 15 ads. are present, some climbing ashore, just return-
ing from their hunting trip. Te young communicate with a constant
cheeping, the ad. respond with a ventriloquist-like grumbling or a
strong trumpeting sound (probably alarmed by our presence). When
they feel menaced, they herd the young to the entrance of a refuge at
the base of the clif. Feeding ceremony: 2 or 3 young snuggle up to an
ad., whilst expressing their urgency to be fed with delicate bites. Ten
they force their bills sidewise into the slightly opend bill of the ad.
Site III is like site II situated at the foot of the plateau and
nearly inaccessible. It consists of about 12 nesting caves. We sighted
1 ad. and 3 young.
ProcellariiFormeS
Procellariidae
21. Macronectes giganteus
12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Ind. swim-
ming near the island.
22. Daption capense
12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Sporadic;
ind. within the port area.
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Exhausted ind.
on the beach (with no apparent injury).
23. Procellaria aequinoctialis
07/08/1976. Ancn, Lima: Ind. in the bay of Ancn approaches the
shore up to 100 m, then rests for a while between the boats.
24. Puffnus griseus
12/09/1965. Callao-Isla San Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Numerous;
singles or in loose focks.
Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:
29-30/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: P. griseus is
heavily afected: On a 300 m-section of the beach there are 82 fresh
carcasses; (2
nd
. place out of a total of 227 dead birds).
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: No dead P. griseus in a
total of 99 fresh carcasses on the 800 m long beach.
08/08/1972. Same place: 52 dead P. griseus out of a total of 312
carcasses (3
rd
place).
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: 2 dead inds.; only
a few other carcasses.
04/08/1983. Playa Conchn: A few dead inds.
hydroBatidae
25. Oceanodroma hornbyi
16/02/1972. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima,
800 m: Injured ind. found in a garden; some of the outer primaries of
one wing are missing. It dies four days later. Length: 23.5 cm (Fig. 8).
Figure 4/5. Punta San Juan: nesting sites of Spheniscus humboldti.
Section through nesting sites.
Figure 7. Clustering of young of Spheniscus humboldti.
ns
ns
2
0

-

3
0

m
II
I
N
I II
III
plateau
Pacific Ocean
Punta San Juan
(4) (5)
(6)
(7)
Figure 6. Adults of Spheniscus humboldti.
Figure 8. Oceanodroma hornbyi
32
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Pelecanoididae
26. Pelecanoides garnotii
21/09/1965. Callao-Isla S.Lorenzo, Lima (boat-trip): Numerous,
but only singles.
PelecaniFormeS
Pelecanidae
27. Pelecanus thagus
12/01/1972. Punta Lomas (protected area) between Nazca and Chala,
Arequipa: Large breeding colony (according to the warden 28 000 birds).
Some nests still contain eggs or recently hutched young (Fig. 9); the rest
of the young shows diferent stages of development (Fig. 10-12). Te
older ones are left without parental protection. Exposed to the merciless
sun, they try to cool temselves by panting constantly. If approached, they
emit eerie croaking sounds. During our presence (11 am-2 pm) there are
only a few feedings. (See also Phalocrocorax bougainvillii)
Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:
29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m sec-
tion of the beach 2 dead P. thagus out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses.
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: 15 dead inds. (one
dying) out of a total of 99 fresh carcasses on the 800 m long beach
(2
nd
place).
08/08/1972. Same place: 5 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses.
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: No dead P. thagus,
only a few carcasses of other species.
Sulidae
28. Sula nebouxi
22/02/1968. Between Casma and Tortugas, Ancash: About 6
inds. on a rocky reef together with Pelecanus thagus and Phalocrocorax
gaimardi.
29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m long
beach 5 dead inds. out of a total of 227 carcasses.
26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Numerous on a long sandbank.
28/07/1979. Between Mncora and Zorritos, Tumbes: About 20
inds. on a clif.
08/07/1988. Punta Pejerrey, Paracas, Ica: 2 inds. perched on a
shipwreck.
31/03/2003. Tortugas, north of Casma, Ancash: Singles and small
groups in fight over the bay.
29. Sula variegata
04-05/01/1964. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: In the
evening (until about 7 pm) there is an almost uninterrupted proces-
sion of S. variegata, Pelecanus thagus and Phalacrocorax bougainvillii
northward. Te birds are probably heading for their roosting place at
the Punta Guanera of Huarmey. Between 5 and 6 pm several hundred
inds. gather at a vertical clif. Tey spend the night crowded on narrow
ledges in company of a minority (10:1) of Phalocrocorax gaimardi. Te
next morning at 6 am most of them are still in a sleeping position.
Some are straightening their plumage, some are leaving the clif, others
are returning to it.
11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Very numer-
ous on the clifs and on the rocky reefs dispersed in the bay. Tey dive
as singles or in groups. In contrast to the normally practiced method
dropping from the sky like arrows they are performing a slightly
diferent technique: Single birds rise in a curve to a moderate height,
turn downward and hit the surface of the water in a fat angle. Tey rise
again a few moments later. One ind. manages to perform 47 diving-
fights in 5 minutes! (It had started before I began counting and it went
on when I stopped counting).
29-30/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m
long beach 97 dead inds.; 1
st
place out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses Figure 9-12. Young of Pelecanus thagus at different stages of de-
velopment.
(10)
(11)
(12)
(9)
33

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
of other seabirds. It is the most numerous species on the site. On one
occ. there is a mass gathering ofshore with spectacular, kamikaze-like
diving-fights.
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: 10 dead inds. (one dy-
ing) out of a total of 99 fresh carcasses (3
rd
place).
08/08/1972. Same place: 84 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses (2
nd

place).
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Only a few dead
inds., one dying.
08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Very numerous; accounts
for about 90% of all seabirds. Breeding: Nests on narrow ledges, each
containing 2-3 white fedglings.
Phalocrocoracidae
30. Phalocrocorax brasilianus
Sightings/Behavior
Coast: Tumbes, Piura, Lima, Ica.
Highland: Puno.
Eastern lowland: Ucayali, Madre de Dios.
Mostly in small groups, occ. in larger numbers.
April 1963. Playa Chira, Chorrillos: 100-150 inds. on clif and rocky
reef (birdrock) with smaller number of Pelecanus thagus, Phalocrocorax
bougainvillii and Phalocrocorax gaimardi. Feeding of several juvs.
21-22/02/1964. Peninsula of Paracas, Ica: In fight and on shore;
quite numerous at a shallow bay. A group of juvs. is warming up in
the morning sun by spreading its wings.
11/01/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Singles or small groups,
foraging near the shore; occ. fying upstream. (Recorded on three more
visits at the same place; up to 20 ind. on nearby rock reef; 09/03/1971:
many juvs.).
11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Resting and
roosting site at the southern end of the bay, where up to 30 inds.
gather on a slab.
08/08/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: Mass mortality of sea-
birds: Only one dead ind. out of a total of 312 carcasses.
28/01/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Close fock of
about 70 inds. circling over the lagoon; they depart in V-formation.
08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Breeding: Te untidy nests
are situated on exposed places on rocky reefs. Tey consist mainly of
large feathers.
31. Phalocrocorax gaimardi
Sightings/ Behavior
CP: Ancash, Lima (13 sightings out of 21), Ica.
Normally in small groups; in larger numbers at roosting and breed-
ing sites; often in close neighberhood with Sula variegata, another
clif-dweller.
23/11/1963. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: Food-carrying ind.
approaching rocky headland.
18/10/1964. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Food-carrying
ind. twice fying to nearby island.
24-28/02/1965. Peninsula Paracas, Ica: Several food-carrying inds.
fying along the clif.
25/02/1966. Same place: Large group of ads. and jusv. on an
extended slab in company of Spheniscus humboldtii and sealions. Its
feeding time.
29/0205/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte km
230, Ancash: Numerous on neighbouring clifs. Several ads. approach
the clif with nesting material (patches of seaweed). Tey disappear in
a dark crevice. Te nests, placed on narrow ledges, are made of seaweed
and mud. No records of eggs or young.
08/07/1988. Islas Ballestas, Paracas, Ica: Several ad. carrying nesting
material (stripes of seaweed). Nest sites: Narrow ledges protected from
direct sunlight (niches, crevices, caves).
Mass decease of seabirds 1972: 29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km
123, Lima: 2 dead Ph.gaimardi out of 227 carcasses.
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos: 5 dead inds. out of of 99
carcasses.
08/08/1972. Same place: 3 dead inds. out of 312 carcasses.
32. Phalocrocorax bougainvillii
21/01//1968. Punta Lachay/Las Salinas, south of Huacho, Lima:
Large colony of (according to the guard) 400 000 birds. From a
distance (we are not allowed to enter the protected area) they are
blackening the top of the peninsula. In the colony reigns a restless
coming and going. Some ind. carry long stripes of seaweed to their
nesting places.
12/01/1972. Punta Lomas (protected area), between Nazca and
Chala, Arequipa: Tere are only two small groups of breeding Ph.
bougainvillii (Fig. 13) at the edge of a large colony of Pelecanus thagus,
counting by the thousands. Te young are blackish, speckled with
white down. Only one feeding scene in three hours: Ad. besieged by
three young. According to the guard, P. thagus regularly harrass
Ph. bougainvillii by destroying their nests or stealing nesting mate-
rial. We witness the following scene: A P. thagus, sitting on its nest,
reaches out to a neighbouring nest of Ph. bougainvillii and using
its long bill as a rake draws a batch of feathers to his side. Unim-
pressed by the protesting Ph. bougainvillii, he repeats the maneuvre
a second and a third time. Te statistics reveal a dramatic decline
of breeding Ph. bougainvillii at Punta Lomas: 1965/66: 159 000,
1971/72: 1500 (probably the consequences of over-fshing in recent
years). Presence of non-breeding birds at the site: 11:30 none; 14:00
in midst of the breeding P.thagus some isolated groups; numerous
on rocky reefs and swimming ofshore; 16:00 arriving by very large
numbers at their roosting sites.
Figure 13. Phalocrocorax bougainvillii: adults and young
Mass mortality of seabirds 1972:
29/04/1972. Panamericana Sur, km 123, Lima: On a 300 m long
beach 30 dead inds. out of a total of 227 fresh carcasses (3
rd
place).
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, Chorrillos/Lima: On the 800 m long
beach 64 dead inds. (1/3 immature) out of 99 carcasses (1
st
place).
08/08/1972. Same place: 138 dead inds. out of a total of 312
carcasses (1
st
place).
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Only a few dead
inds. on a 1 km long beach.
34
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
ciconiiFormeS
ardeidae
33. Ixobrychus exilis
Seven records between 1963 and 1967 at the Totoral de Villa, south
of Lima: 1-3 inds. mostly at the edge of the totoral, occ. in the adjacent
marshland. When disturbed they take fight or escape into the interior
of the Typha-thicket, moving hurriedly from stem to stem.
06/08/1970. Conchn, south of Lima: Ind. at a small, newly
emerged totoral as a result of the construction of a crossroad.
34. Nycticorax nycticorax
Sightings/Behavior
NP: Coast of Tumbes and Piura.
CP: Ancash 3900 m, Junn 4000-4300 m (most numerous), Lima
coast/ 4300 m.
SP: Apurmac 1300/2400/2700/2800 m, Cusco 3100 m, Arequipa
3400 m, Puno 3800-3900 m.
Solitary or in small groups of up to 10 ind; often ad. with juv. Does
not mix with other herons.
22/11/1966. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: At dusk 3 groups
leave the totoral in short intervals: 1 ad.+1 juv./ 2 ads.+1 juv./ 3 ads.
A group of 6 inds. circles during 15 minutes over the marshland, occ.
emitting their caracteristic huoc.
17-22/06/1968. Rio Toxamayo-Rio Pampas, north of Andahuaylas,
Apurmac: 1 ind. at each of the following sites: Laguna Huampica 2700
m, Hacienda Toxama 2400 m, Rio Pampas 1300 m.
13-14/07/1988. Achoma, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: At dusk
(6 pm) a small group leaves an Eucalyptus grove at the Centro Vacacional
in direction of the nearby stream. Next morning at 7 am they return to
their roost. Before settling down, they draw some circles over the grove.
28/04/2006. San Bartolo, 50 km south of Lima: Juv. perches at the
edge of a roof at the seafront.
35. Butorides striatus
Sightings
Coast: Tumbes, Lambayeque, Ancash, Lima, Ica.
Regularly in totorales (Villa!) and estuaries.
Eastern lowland: Loreto, San Martn (up to 800 m), Hunuco,
Ucayali (most numerous in Yarinacocha/Pucallpa).
Behavior.- Mostly solitary; also in pairs and small groups. In eastern
lowland on two occ. climbing nimbly from branch to branch. Forag-
ing: Te neck retracted, body, head and bill in a perfect horizontal
position, B. Striatus wades cautiously and in slow motion through
shallow water (Fig. 14). Suddenly it freezes for some seconds, then
throws its head fashlike towards its prey.
26/09/1971. Rio Fortaleza, Lima: 2 ads. and 1 juv. in a hunched
position near the river mouth. Alarmed, they rise to their full size. After
taking fight, they emit their hoarse call.
36. Ardea cocoi
Sightings
At each of the following sites 1 ind.:
17/02/1967. Hacienda Mallares near Sullana, Piura: In fight.
11/01/1970. Rio Pachitea between Tournavista and Puerto Inca,
Hunuco.
29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, about 50 km north of Pucallpa,
Ucayali.
21/02/2003. Rio Leche, Bosque de Poma, Lambayeque.
22/03/2003. Rio Madre de Dios near Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios.
37. Ardea alba
Sightings/Behavior.- Along the coast from Tumbes to Arequipa;
in totorales, marshland and estuaries; very numerous in the ricefelds
of the north. Solitary or in focks of up to 100 inds.; often in mixed
groups with Egretta thula and Bubulcus ibis; less numerous in the
eastern lowland; preferably at oxbow lakes (Yurimaguas, Pucallpa,
Puerto Maldonado).
05/01/1964. Lower Santa Valley, Ancash: About 100 inds. in
fooded ricefelds; singles or in loose groups; some with elongated back
feathers. An ind., that has just caught a mouse, takes fight, to escape
some envious neighbours. At a safe place it waits till the mouse stops
dithering. Ten it lays the dead prey on the ground, grabs it again and
swallows it with a fip.
04-05/01/1966. Puerto Casma, Ancash: At 6 pm 60-80 inds. are
circling over the marshland at the river edge high in the air. By and by
they gather on some large trees to roost. Next morning at 7 am they
are foraging at the mouth of the Rio Sechn.
25+30/08/1968. San Juan de Mirafores, south of Lima: More
than 100 inds. - some with elongated feathers on the back - at a large
wastewater lagoon, which has been created a year ago in plain desert.
It teems with small fsh.
38. Philherodias pileatus
Single ind. at the following sites: Rio Llullapichis/Rio Pachitea,
Hunuco; Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali; Rio Utiquinilla, Pucallpa,
Ucacyali; Rio Madre de Dios, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios.
39. Egretta tricolor
02/01/1966+26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Fairly numer-
ous in the mangrove forest; solitary or in small groups of up to 8 inds.
40. Egretta thula
Sightings/Behavior.- Along the coast from Tumbes to Arequipa;
in totorales, marshland, estuaries and irrigated areas (ricefelds!); also at
the lower reaches of coastal rivers (Rio Jequetepeque up to about 400
m); on mudfats (Paracas), beaches and rocky headland adjacent to the
beach (mouth of Rio Mala); often in mixed groups with Ardea alba, but
in general more numerous.
Behavior.- Twice recorded rushing about in shallow water near the
shore with fapping wings (to fush small fsh, according to Fjeldsa &
Krabbe 1990). Courting display (or rivalry?): 2 or 3 ind. (probably
males) performing vertical jumps in front of each other (up to m)
with raised plumage on head and back; recorded twice in Sep, once in
March.Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: At dusk, about 60 inds. settle
down on the site to roost. A smaller group has already adopted its
sleeping position at the edge of the totoral.
41. Florida caerula
Sightings/Behavior.- Coast of Tumbes, Lambayeque, Lima and
Arequipa. Most numerous in the mangrove forest of Tumbes.
Lima: Solitary or in small groups in the totorales of Villa and Cerro
Azul and at the mouth of Rio Mala; often together with other herons.
threSkiornithidae
42. Eudocimus albus
Figure 14. Butorides striatus.
35

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
27/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Numerous; in groups of up
to 12 inds.
43. Plegadis ridgewayi
Sightings
CP: Ancash 4050 m, Junin 3600/4100-4600 m.
SP: Aycucho 3300 m, Apurmac 2700 m, Cusco 3000-3600 m,
Puno 3800-4300 m, Arequipa 4200 m.
Habitat/Behavior.- Lake sides, totora-covered lagoons, meandering
streams, marshland, pastures, felds. Common in southern highland;
often in pairs or focks of up to 50 ind.
19/06/1968. Laguna Huampica, Hacienda Toxama north of An-
dahuaylas, Apurmac, 2700 m: Flock of about 10 ind. together with
grazing horses.
15/03/2003. Below Abra La Raya, Puno, 4200 m: Conspicuous
gathering of 50-100 ind., crowded on a circular patch of barren ground.
44. Mesembrinibis cayennensis
29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, 50 km north of Pucallpa, Ucayali:
Ind. in fight over swampy oxbow lake.
45. Theristicus caudatus
20-23/01/1972. Putina, Puno, 3900 m: Twice 4 inds. at the same
site, foraging at the shore of a meandering stream. Without looking
up, they poke the humid ground incessantly with their long, curved
bill, occ. pouncing it forward forcefully. Two inds. in fight between
Putina and Muani.
46. Platalea ajaja
11/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 3 inds. foraging in shallow
water at the edge of the mangrove forest.
cathartiFormeS
cathartidae
47. Cathartes aura
Sightings.- Sightings above 2200 m (BP: only a vagrant to the
high Andes): Viuda-Carahuacayn, Junn, 4600 m; Zrate, Rmac
Valley, Lima, 3000 m; Fortaleza Valley/Santa Valley, Ancash, up to
4300 m; Chicama Valley, La Libertad, up to 3000 m; Huamachuco,
La Libertad, 3300 m.
29/0205/03/1970. Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte, km 230,
Ancash: Numerous, especially on the reef in front of the beach, together
with half a dozen Vultur gryphus. Tey calmly walk about in midst
of 300 sea lions. Up to 9 inds. foraging on a dead sea lion (Fig. 16).
48. Sarcorhamphus papa
Mid September 67: Between Rio Maran and Rio Cenepa, Amazo-
nas, between 500 and 1000 m: Ind. in fight over densely forested hills.
49. Vultur gryphus
Sightings
CP: La Libertad 100 m, Ancash 0/1600 m, Lima 0-4300 m, Ica coast.
SP: Cusco 2600/2700 m; east slope: Machu Picchu, Cusco, 3000 m.
Fourteen out of total of 41 sightings refer to the Coast; regularly
at the Peninsula of Paracas, Ica (Fig. 15); up to 5 inds. simultaneously.
Lomas of Lima: 3 sightings (Lachay, Atocongo, Pacta)
Coastal valleys of Lima: Huaura, Canta, Rmac-Eulalia, Mala; at
all altitudes up to 4300 m; regularly around Casta, Santa Eulalia Val-
ley, 3100 m.
25/05/1963. Watershed between Rmac and Lurin Valley, ca. 2000
m, Lima: Ad. and immature glide close over our heads along slope
with scarce vegetation. Teir enormous wings produce an impressive
sound. Te ad. fies the same stretch several times, turning his head
and long neck from one side to the other, watching out for some car-
rion. Mistaking it for a potential enemy, a scared vizcacha (Lagidium
peruanum) takes refuge beneath a slab.
07/01/1964. Panamericana crossing Jequetepeque Valley: Ind. circles
over a carrion at the road side. A mixed group of Cathartes aura and
Coragyps atratus and a single Caracara cheriway are already feeding on it.
07/02/1964. Playa de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Ind. feeding
on a dead dolphin together with 4 Cathartes aura.
Figure 15. Vultur gryphus.
25-27/03/1966. Quebrada Huachugua, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima,
3400-4000 m: 1-3 ind. almost permanently over montane scrub and
Polylepis wood, often scanning the ground at close range. At 8 am a
close group of 22(!) inds. pass by over a distant ridge.
05-12/09/1969. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Up to
4 inds. (ads. and immatures) almost daily over the village. Tey like
to soar in the thermal at the edge of the village over a 1000 m high
clif-like slope.
29/02-05/03/1970. Playa Caleta de Lobo, Panamericana Norte,
Ancash, km 230: Up to 6 ads. roost regularly on a reef in front of the
beach in close neighborhood with 300 sea lions (Fig. 16). In the morn-
ing, when the fog begins to disappear and the sun is breaking through,
they spread out their wings in a really majestic manner.
Cinclodes taczanowskii
Haematopus ater
Sula variegata
Vultur gryphus
Cathartes aura
Phalacrocorax gaimardi
Larosterna inca
Pelecanus thagus
Otaria flavecens
Leucophaeus pipixcan
Leucophaeus modestus
Haematopus ostralegus
Caleta de Lobo: territories of birds and sea lions
Figure 16. Colony of sea lions attracts Vultur gryphus and Cathartes aura.
36
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
acciPitriFormeS
Pandionidae
50. Pandion haliaetus
Boreal migrant
Sightings
Coast: Te main season is mid Nov to end of Feb with a clear cul-
mination in Jan; sporadic in June (3x), Aug (1x), Oct (2x). Regularly
present in Jan/Feb at the Peninsula of Paracas and the adjacent bays to
the south (Fig. 17-19).
Most records over bays and along beaches; occ. at rivermouths and
lagoons; twice over an artifcial lake in La Molina, Lima.
Eastern lowland: Rio Pachitea and Rio Utiquinilla (Pucallpa region).
31/11/1963. Parque Central, Mirafores, Lima: Ind. circling over
two high Araucaria. It settles on a lower branch and begins to gorge its
prey. Remains of fsh beneath the tree reveal, that it must be a regular
feeding place.
24-28/02/1965. Peninsula of Paracas, Ica: Appears daily over the
bay of Lagunillas; up to 3 inds. at a time. Only one succsessful dive
recorded. After emerging from the water, it stops in mid-fight, con-
tracts its wings and shakes its plumage forcefully. When in company,
P. haliaetus emits occ. a high-pitched peeping call.
acciPitridae
51. Gampsonyx swainsonii
Jan 1967. Near Jayanca, between Chiclayo and Olmos, Lambayeque:
Ind perched on top of a Prosopis pallida.
52. Chondohierax uncinatus
12-19/09/1967. Shaim, Rio Maran, between Chiriaco and mouth
of Rio Cenepa, Amazonas, 300 m: 2 inds. daily at a clearing, perched
on two bare-branched trees. Tey communicate for hours, emitting
two diferent calls: an extended hyaaa and an accelerated kliklikli.
28/02-05/03/1972 Around National Park of Cutervo, Cajamarca:
a) San Andrs de Cutervo, 2200 m: Ind. in fight.
b) At the edge of the N.P., 2400 m: Ind. temporary pair circling
over pasture, subsequently perching for a long time on a tree top.
Several times it is attacked by a single Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.
c) Between San Andrs and Scota, 2400 m: Ind. circling over a
steep slope.
53. Circus cinereus
Sightings
CP: Junn: Lake Junn, 4100 m; Huancavelica: Pisco Valley, Huay-
tar, 3600 m.
SP: Ayacucho: Laguna Parinacochas, 3300 m; Apurmac: Laguna
Huampica, Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas, 2700 m; Cusco:
Laguna Lucre, 3100 m.
Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; fies close to the ground with slow
wing beats; hovers clumsily.
54. Accipiter bicolor
16/02/1964. Amotape Mountains, 800 m, Piura: Ind. in deciduous
forest, collected by W. Markl.
55. Geranospiza caerulescens
13/01/1966. Zarumilla, Tumbes: Ind. perched on a tree in dense
dry forest.
56. Leucopternis schistaceus
28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martn, 300 m: Ind. perched on a high
tree at the edge of a ravine, emitting occ. a shrill call.
57. Buteogallus anthracinus
12/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Ind. in fight over mangrove
forest.
58. Buteogallus meridionalis
Sightings.- Coastal plain from Sullana (Piura) to Guadalupe (La
Libertad)
Habitat/Behavior.- Dry forest and rice felds; on one occ. together
with Larus pipixcan and Bubulcus ibis; more often found on the ground,
than perched on trees.
59. Geranoaetus melanoleucus
Sightings.- At any altitude from sea level to 4000 m; in NP and
CP mostly on the westslope, also Maran Valley.
NP: Lambayeque 500 m, Cajamarca 2500-2800 m, La Libertad
2400/2800/3200 m.
CP: Ancash 0/3000/3500/3700, Pasco 2600 m, Lima 0-3400 m,
Ica 1000m, Huancavelica 3700 m.
SP: Ayacucho 3200 m, Apurmac 3400 m, Cusco 2600-4000 m,
Arequipa 3400/3500 m. Figure 17-19. Pandion haliaetus with prey.
(17)
(18)
(19)
37

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; occ. in small groups of ads. or fam-
ily groups. Its broad-based wings and short, wedge-shaped tail, which
form together a compact triangle, allows it to glide endlessly along
slopes with minimal efort. In the lomas, where beetles and crickets
abound, it picks up its prey walking on the ground. G. melanoleucus
is often harassed by Falco sparverius (6 records). On one occ., an ind.
was attacked in fight by three hummingbirds.
12/06/1965. Between San Bartolom and Zrate, Rmac Valley,
Lima 2400 m: Ind. is perched on a tree, calling continuously. Attracted
by its conspecifc, another ind. settles on the tree and joins in the call-
ing. It leaves the perch after a short time. Te frst ind. continues to
emit its monotonous call.
27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima, 400 m: Up
to 5 ind. (ads. and immatures) gather on the seasonally green hills.
Te main attraction seems to be the abounding crickets (Fig. 21/22).
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: G. melano-
leucus is present all day long (up to 5 inds. simultaneously). Tey circle
in the air, perch on trees and boulders or pick up small prey on the
ground. Graceful fight-show (courting?) of two ads.: First, they fy
side by side; suddenly, one of them plunges into the depth, immediately
followed by its mate. Again, the frst makes a sharp turn to one side,
the partner follows it instantly. After two or three more playful twists,
the two fy for a distance together again. Ten the play begins anew.
Te agility of the rather heavy birds is amazing.
14/07/1988. Colca Valley, Cruz del Cndor, Arequipa, 3400 m: No
condors but a pair of G. melanoleucus appear over the canyon. Entering
the thermal, they soar incredibly fast. A few moments later they had
vanished in the vastness of the sky.
19/07/1988. Paucartambo, Cusco, 3000 m: Roost (or nesting place)
in a high clif over the river. Te entrance of the small niche and the
clif below are whitened by droppings.
60. Parabuteo unicinctus
08/01/1966. Near Olmos at the road to Bagua, Lambayeque, 600
m: Immature in deciduous forest perched on a tree.
27/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Pair perched on a Bombax tree.
19-21/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: Pair and 2 single
inds. on three diferent days and diferent times of the day; on each
occ. fying upstream.
25/02/2003. Urb. California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: Ind. perching
momentarily on a Eucalyptus tree.
61. Buteo magnisrostris
23/01/1970. Watershed between Tingo Mara and Aguayta,
Hunuco/Ucayali, 1600 m: One ind. in fight, another perched on
the roadside.
04/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Ind.
16/07/1976. Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios, 250 m: Two single
inds. on low perches at river edge.
17/07/1976. Between Quincemil and Marcapata, Cusco, 700-1700
m: Several records along the road; always singles on low perches; in one
occ. in the middle of the road with a prey.
62. Buteo platypterus
Boreal migrant
All sightings in Mirafores/Lima, in the months of Nov (1x), Dec
(3x), March (2x).
06/03/1968. Ind. circling for 5 min over a cotton feld
06/03/1969. Ind. soaring slowly over the same feld as exactly a
year ago!
02/12/1970. Ind. in fight over the Colegio Pestalozzi. Immediatly
afterwards, I found a primary of B. platypterus. in the school yard.
12/12/1970. Ind. settles on a tipa tree. Small birds in the neighbour-
hood are obviously alarmed.
05/11/1971. Ind. at the same place.
17/12/1972. Two ind. circling over the Colegio Markaham. A
nervous fock of Pygochelidon cyanoleuca pursues the pair at a respectful
distance. Some Columbina cruziana futter around anxiously, seeking
cover in the interior of a group of Eucalyptus trees.
63. Buteo polyosoma
Sightings.- (All records apply to the light morph only)
NP: Coastal plain of Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque; Cajamarca
3500, La Libertad 3300/3400 m.
CP: Ancash 0/3900/4000 m, Lima 0-3500/3900/4800 m, Junn
4100-4400 m, Ica sealevel.
SP: Ayacucho 3900-4200 m, Cusco 3500-3800 m, Puno 3900/4100 m.
Figure 20-22. (20-21) Geranoaetus melanoleucus. (22) Crickets:
abundant prey for G. melanoleucus.
(20)
(21)
(22)
38
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Highest record: Ticlio Pass Lima/Junn, 4800 m: Ind. close to the
summit.
19/10/1963. North of Chancay, Lima: Immature perches on a sandy
elevation 100 m from the shore. Suddenly, it plunges to the foot of the
slope, coming up with a small prey (possibly a lizard). Once returned
to the perch, it tears up the prey with a few jerkey movements and
swallows it. Afterwards it takes fight and perches in a similar place.
15-16/02/1964. Surroundings of Piura: Fairly common; within
a distance of 4 km, we record 6 diferent inds., one perched on a
telephone line, the others (3 an 2 inds.) circling over dry scrub with
scattered trees. Between Piura and Sullana: Ind. is gathering sticks
and branches on top of a telephone pole. According to W. Markl, it has
tried repeatedly to build a nest, but it has been destroyed subsequently
by the Telephone Company.
13/06/1965. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima: 2 ads. over the ridge above
the forest (ca. 3500 m). Immature circling over the forest (3000 m).
Suddenly it plunges down to a clearing, with its wings folded back and
talons stretched out. It returns without prey.
24/07/1965. Between Paramonga and Huarmey, Ancash: Ind. has
a short dispute in the air with a Geranoaetus melanoleucus.
29/07/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1600 m: Ind.
gliding along scrub-covered slope. Reacts to a harrassing Falco sparverius
by trying to avoid the intruder. It interrupts its fight occ. to hover.
06/08/1970. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima: Ad. and 2
immatures engage for quite a long time in an acrobatic fight-show:
Flying in a close formation, they perform abrubt turns and dives. Short
scenes of attack with zig-zag fights alternate with straight passages.
01/03/2003. San Borja/Lima: Ind. circling; frst record over urban
area of Lima.
FalconiFormeS
Falconidae
64. Micrastur rufcollis
23/03/2003. Posada Amaznica, Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios:
(Location: Observation Tower) Ind. snatches a big-winged insect
from a Cecropia-like leaf. It perches on a bare branch and begins to
feed on its prey. It calmly tears out small pieces and swallows them.
Te undigestable wings are discarded. After the meal, it cleans its bill
on the branch.
65. Caracara cheriway
Sightings.- Coastal plain from Tumbes to northern La Libertad.
Mostly solitary; up to 4 inds. together. When feeding on carrion, often
in company of Cathartes aura and Coragyps atratus.
14/02/1964. Near Lambayeque: Ind. settles at the edge of a shallow
pond. A group of Larus pipixcan dont take notice of the newcomer.
Jan. 1967. Rio Chamaya, Cajamarca, 900 m: Ind. on a fallow rice
feld together with numerous Crotophaga sulcirotris.
66. Phalcoboenus megalopterus
Sightings.- Troughout the Andes from Amazonas to Puno. Most
sightings in the Paramo- and Puna-zone; on both slopes of the Andes;
also in intramontane valleys.
Northernmost record: Between Abra Chanchillo and Leimebamba,
Amazonas, 3200 m. Lowest record: San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca,
2400m.
Highest record: Ananea, Puno, 4700 m.
26/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: Numerous; in
groups of up to 20 inds. at the shore of the lake; about half of them
immatures (Fig. 23) When searching for food, they scratch the ground
like chickens. Upper Santa Valley, 3900 m: Ind. perches on the straw
roof of a abandoned hut. When it took to the air, the prey was clearly
recognizable as a chick.
Mid Jan. 1967. Laguna Yanganuco, Ancash, 3900 m: Young perched
on a ledge in a vertical clif about 100 m above the ground. It is fed twice
by an ad. Te approaching ad. anounces itself with kwaaa-calls, the young
responds with squeaky sounds, that are reminiscent of a young pig.
18/02/1967. Machu Picchu, Cusco, 2700 m: Pair in fight, both
calling all the time without interruption: kwaaakwaa
06/07/1993. Between Chugay and Aricapampa, La Libertad, 3500
m: Pair in straight fight high over the Paramo, calling incessantly.
15/03/2003. Between Juliaca and Abra La Raya, Puno, 3800-4300
m: Fairly common; they like to perch on the telephone poles along
the road.
67. Falco sparverius
Behavior.- Hovers frequently; in updraught winds uses hanging
hover. Aggressive attitude towards other birds of prey and owls. Re-
corded attacks: Geranoaetus melanoleucus (4x), Buteo polyosoma (2x),
Falco femoralis (1x), Bubo virginianus (1x). When pursuing an enemy
in fight, it approaches it from above and behind passing close over its
head. It may pursue it over a long distance, persistently repeating the
attacks. Te attacked bird may be annoyed but obviously does not feel
Figure 23. Phalcoboenus megalopterus: adults and immatures.
39

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
menaced. Even so, F. sparverius occ. succeeds in expelling the much
larger birds from its territory.
29/02/1964. Viscas, Mala Valley, Lima, 1800 m: 3 inds. are attracted
by a Bubo virginianus, sitting in a niche of a clif at the edge of a dry
quebrada. Tey harrass it incessantly by passing near the niche as close
as possible, emitting their sharp killykillykilly-calls. Te only reaction
of the big owl: It shuts its eyes whenever the intruders pass.
02-07/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Ind.
lingers daily in the same habitat: pasture, small felds, hedges and scrub.
Perches preferably on a 3 m high pole, where it also feeds on its prey.
15/05/1965. Orcocoto, Lurin Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Ind. shoots
forth from beneath the roof of a church. Judging from the white
markings on the wall and the underside (!) of the roof, it just left its
nesting site.
29/07/1965. Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1800 m: 4 inds. (2 ads.
and 2 young) linger on a high, inaccessible boulder. Te older young
besieges the ad. by emitting begging calls. One of the young eventually
climbs about in the vegetation (e.g. Bromeliaceae), that covers the clif.
28/04/1967. Autisha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 2200 m: Mating
act in the middle of the road; female crouched with spread out tail.
28/09/1970. Pullo near Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3000 m:
A boy shows us two downy-white young, that he had taken from their
nest in a building of the village.
01-08/09/1972. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima. 3100 m: Pair
perching daily on a pole or on the cable of a newly constructed pow-
erline. Teir main prey are insects (crickets abound). Tey softly glide
to the ground, grab the prey with their bill, carry it back to the perch,
fx them with one foot and consume it in 3-4 bits.
68. Falco femoralis
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 3500 m
CP: Ancash 3900 m, Junn 4000-4400 m, Lima 3700-4000 m
SP: Ayacucho 3400 m, Arequipa 4000/4300 m, Puno 3900 m
Behavior.- Perches low on stones, boulders and poles; also on the
ground. Solitary or in pairs; occ. 3 inds. together. Pursuit fight low
over the ground. Likes to perch on a boulder when the sun rises with
fufed plumage and hanging wings, its back turned towards the sun.
01/10/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3400 m: Ind.
perches on the edge of a clif, warming up in the morning sun. It is
harrassed by Falco sparverius and subsequently by Colaptes rupicola.
After several attacks, the latter settles only a few meters away from
F. femoralis
69. Falco peregrinus
Boreal migrant
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Ica; 15 records (of a otal of
about 35) in the urban areas of Mirafores/Lima and San Isidro/Lima.
Main season: Nov-Feb (25 records); also in Oct (2), Mar (4), Apr (1).
Earlyest record: 18.10.; latest record 13.4.
06/01/1964. Mouth of Rio Vir, La Libertad: Ind. in the morning
mist, perching on a piece of driftwood at the beach. Tere are fresh
footprints in the sand and leftovers of a meal: Fresh ones of Larus
pipixcan (Fig. 24) and older ones of Sterna spec.
09/01/1966. Between Los Organos and Mncora, Tumbes: Ind.
pursuing for a short time Coragyps atratus.
20/11/1967. San Antonio, Mirafores/Lima: Te behavior of certain
birds indicates the presence of F. peregrinus: Uncommon calls of alarm
and an upset domestic dove in zigzag-fight. Moments later the feared
hunter appears with fast wing beats over the residential area.
Feb 1969. South of Paracas, Ica: Ind. hunting over Laguna Grande. It
steep dives in pursuit of a Sterna spec., which manages to escape several
times by zigzaging low over the water. Occ. F. peregrinus is very close
to its prey. After 2 or 3 min, the pursuer gives up.
Figure 24. Falco peregrinus: remains of Larus pipixcan; footprint.
09/03/1969. La Molina/Lima: Agricutural area: Cornfeld with
young plants bordered by long rows of mighty willows. An ind. steep
dives onto the feld almost touching the ground. Reason: Tere is an
injured Zenaidura auriculata (which the falcon had failed to grab in
the air earlier) anxiously jittering about. F. peregrinus repeats its attacks
several times, starting at a considerable height. It always fails to grab
the dove. Finally, I picked up the injured bird (it survived).
GruiFormeS
rallidae
70. Laterallus jamaicensis
07/02/1964. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Ind. fushed
at the edge of a lagoon; it fies poorly and goes immediately into hiding
in the totora thicket.
71. Pardirallus sanguinolentus
Sightings
NP: La Libertad sealevel
CP: Junn 3400, Lima 0-800/1600/1700/3200/3500 m, Ica 300 m
SP: Cusco 3600 m, Arequipa 2600 m, Puno 3800 m
Habitat.- Marshland, lagoons, totorales, river edges with dense
vegetation, irrigation channels, and felds.
Behavior.- Solitary or in pairs; at favorable places (e.g. Laguna de
Villa, mouth of Rio Mala) quite numerous. In general very shy; it does
not venture far from cover. When alarmed, raises tail and bobs with
head; prefers to run rather than to fy. Forages at any time of the day,
but preferably at dawn and dusk.
13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca, Ica, 300 m: Ind. foraging at the edge
of the totoral, a small oasis in the middle of high sand dunes. Distance
to the nearest irrigated feld about 5 km.
06/07/1972. Laguna Paca near Jauja, Junn, 3400 m: Ind. at the edge
of the large lagoon. Te shallow water is covered with a carpet of aquatic
plants, thick enough for P. sanguinolentus to walk on it. While foraging,
it comes across a carcass of a small bird. With its long bill it tears of tiny
bits and swallows them. Alarmed, it carries its prey into the nearby thicket.
18/07/1988. Lagoon near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Quite
numerous at the longstretched lagoon, with extended totora thicket.
Wading in the shallow water up to their bellies in search of food, they
poke avidly in the rich foating vegetation.
72. Gallinula chloropus
Sightings
Coast: Piura, La Libertad, Lima, Ica
Andes: Cajamarca, Junn, Cusco, Puno
Northernmost record in the Andes: Rio Crisnejos, between Caja-
bamba and San Marcos, probably below 2000 m.
40
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Behavior.- Gregarious; in pairs or groups of diferent size (e.g.
Laguna Villa 50-60 ind.); in very large numbers at Lago de Junn,
Laguna Lucre (Cusco) and at a lagoon near Piura. Feeds swimming or
walking on mudfats and in marshland.
27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Present on
many of the small lagoons. On one occ. a down-clad young disappears
with their parents in totora thicket.
07/02/1964. Same place: Juv.
25/08/1968. San Juan de Mirafores, south of Lima: Several ind.
on and at a large waste water lagoon in plain desert, that was created
a year ago. Tey probably immigrated from Villa, about 3 km away.
13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca, Ica, 300 m: Ind. on one of the
three tiny lagoons, surrounded by high dunes. Distance to the next
agricultural felds about 5 km.
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Numerous; ind.
stalking with raised tail, outer tail feathers spread-out.
28/07/1976. Mouth of Rio Vir, La Libertad: Juv.
28/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Numerous on an
extended lagoon. Family with 3 dark grey, downy young. Ad. adopts
menacing posture raising its white tail feathers.
17/02/1999. Laguna de Huacachina, Ica, 300 m: Several inds.; they
dispose of only a small patch of totora as a refuge and breeding site.
73. Fulica ardesiaca
18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Quite numerous on
a longstretched, partly covered by totora lagoon. Two pairs with 3 young
each: upperparts light grey, underparts whitish, bill blackish. When forag-
ing, they submerge their bill only slightly. While moving forward, they
pick up water weed and throw it away by swinging their head from one
side to the other. Te young try to imitate the ads. Once in a while, they
approach the ads. in order to beg for food, snatching it from their bill.
74. Fulica gigantea
Sightings.- Ancash 4000-4200 m, Lima 4300 m, Junn 4200 m,
Puno 4000 m.
26/06/1965. Laguna Conococha, Ancash, 4050 m: Numerous; soli-
tary, in pairs or loose focks in company with Chloephaga melanoptera.
Many of them are grazing on the lawn-like vegetation at the lake side.
Pair with 2 young is foraging on the lake.
10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Laguna Patacocha, Ancash, 4200
m: 17 inds. at the shallow lagoon, which measures about 100x200
m and is largely covered with aquatic plants (mostly Myophyllum).
F. gigantea and Lophonetta specularoides leave behind a net of narrow
trails on the thick green carpet. Out of 7 nesting-islands 3 or 4 are
occupied by breeding ads. Te nests consist of randomly piled up water
weed. Tey measure about one meter at the base and rise 20-30 cm
above the water. Calls: Growling and chortling sounds.
heliornithidae
75. Heliornis fulica
13/01/1965. San Ango, oxbow lake south of Yurimaguas, San
Martin, 200 m: Swimming ind. pecking at plants at the fooded edge
of the lake.
euryPyGidae
76. Eurypyga helias
16/07/1976. Lower Rio Tambo, Madre de Dios, 250 m: Ind. at
the sandy shore.
charadriiFormeS
charadriidae
77. Vanellus resplendens
Sightings.- Troughout the Andes from Amazonas (lowest record
2400 m) to Puno (highest record 4800 m); most frequently in the Puna
zone around 4000 m.
One record from the coast: Lagoon between San Juan and Villa,
south of Lima: Pair together with numerous shore birds (17.08.69).
Behavior.- Solitary, in pairs or loose focks, sometimes in very large
numbers (Lago de Junn, Laguna Parinacochas).
19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900 m:
Numerous on the rocky plateau with humid fats and dispersed small
lagoons, forming groups of up to 10 inds. When approached, they fy
low over our heads, emitting angry screams. Single ind. perched on
a boulder seems to act as a guard .
10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Laguna Patacocha, Ancash, 4100
m: Flock of 20-30 inds. performs graceful fight shows while scream-
ing persistently. After some turns over the lagoon, they pause, starting
anew after a short time.
78. Charadrius semipalmatus
Boreal migrant
Sightings.- Along the coast from La Libertad to Ica; regularly and
most numerous at the Peninsula of Paracas; from July to March (high-
est frequency in Feb); earliest record 09.07. Paracas, Ica; latest record
11/03.Villa, Lima.
Behavior.- In loose groups (on the ground) or close focks (in fight);
10-40 inds. often together with other shore birds. Forages on mudfats,
wetland and at river mouths. Rests on reefs and sledges. Performs grace-
ful fight shows. On one occ. a large fock suddenly splits up as if on
command into three groups.
79. Charadrius wilsonia
26/07/1979. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Common on beach and
mudfat. Pair probably breeding on a long sand bank tries to at-
tract my attention. When I stand still, it scurries around me. One of
them adopts a crouched position. When I approach it, it gets up with
hanging wings, performing some helpless hops. Ten it fies for a short
distance, just to start the ploy again.
80. Charadrius vociferus
Regularly in small groups of 2-6 inds. in fight over the urban areas
of La Victoria/Lima and Mirafores/Lima. Teir characteristic call can be
heard at any time of the day. Tey pass by, circle or wander about aim-
lessly for up to half an hour. Nocturnal calls: Numerous records from
Feb to Oct, e.g. First half of March 67: Calling in fight almost every
night, beginning at 18:30/19:00. No night records from Nov to Feb.
At the following sites, conspicuous behavior and anxious calls suggests
breeding activity: 22/11/1966 - 18/11/1967 Lagoon between San Juan
and Villa, south of Lima; 01/08/1976 Mouth of Rio Vir, La Libertad.
81. Charadrius alexandrinus
From the mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad to Chala, Are-
quipa. Mostly in pairs or small groups of up to 8 ind. Often together
with other shore birds.
19/11/1967. Playa Chira, south of Lima: Clutch of 2 eggs about
100 m from the shore. Te shallow scrape is lined out with small pieces
of shells and bordered with some large, rather casually arranged bird
bones (Fig. 25/26). Eggs: a light turquoise with numerous black and
a few grey dots; 23x34/22x31 mm.
Figure 25. Charadrius alexandrinus at breeding site.
41

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
29/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Quite numerous
at the shore, mostly solitary or in pairs. Two young in diferent stages
of development: No. 1 is a sand colored downy ball with speckles; its
wings measure 2-3 cm. It is amazingly fast on the run. No. 2 (not re-
lated to No. 1) is more developed. It tries to escape with a zig-zag run,
spreading its 7-8 cm long wings to maintain the balance.
82. Oreopholus rufcollis
27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta. 45 km south of Lima: Loose group
of about 10 ind. at the foot of the lomas; not shy (Fig. 27).
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: Ind. at the
sandy foothill.
29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3300 m: Very numer-
ous on a plain near Incahuasi. Tey do not form a close fock; each
ind. stays some meters apart from its neighbours. When alarmed, they
pause in a typically upright position.
Two ind. (diferent place, diferent date) with the same injurie: All
three toes of one foot are missing. Tey seem to be only slightly disabled.
31/01/1999. Playa Grande, Panamericana Norte, km 340, Ancash:
Up to 6 inds. on a fooded ledge with rich food supply.
recurviroStridae
85. Himantopus mexicanus
Sighted at coastal area of Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque and Ancash
on mudfats, wetlands, ricefelds and inundated fallow land; mostly in
small, occ. in large groups (about 50 near Santa Rosa, Lambayeque;
about 100 near Puerto Casma, Ancash)
Burhinidae
86. Burhinus superciliaris
15/08/1967. Limatambo/Lima: Ind. on partly asphalted waste land
(ancient airport); runs fast, fies reluctantly (Fig. 28).
19/04/1969. La Molina/Lima: Pair on a sandy plain at the edge of
agricultural felds; stuttering call, when taking to the air.
01/10/1970. Near Chala, Arequipa: Pair at the side of the road to
Chparra in the sand desert.
17-21/02/1999. Samaca, Rio Ica, 200 m: Occ. nocturnal calls.
Numerous foot prints on the sandy or muddy ground along the river
between patches of Tessaria and Prosopis.
21/02/2003. Batn Grande, Bosque de Poma, Lambayeque: Numer-
ous foot prints at the muddy shore of Rio Leche.
ScoloPacidae
87. Numenius phaeopus
Boreal migrant
Sighted from Tumbes to Tacna; from July to Apr, with no evident
peak. Earliest record 07.07. Caete, Lima; latest record 05.04. Puerto
Viejo, Lima. Mostly on sandy beaches, occ. on pastures or wetland
not far from the shore: solitary or in small groups, also forming large
focks of 30, 50 or up to 100 ind. Tey associate easily with other shore
birds. When fushed, they take refuge on reefs or rocky promontories.
24/09/1963. San Roque, Surco/Lima: Long stretched fock on their
way south settles in groups of 3 or 4 inds. in pasture with tall grass.
31/08/1968. Miraflores/Lima: Close flock of 16 inds. flying
southward over a cotton feld, calling incessantly weeweeweeTe
position of each ind. within the group changes during fight: Inds. at
Figure 26. Clutch of Charadrius alexandrinus.
Figure 27. Oreopholus rufcollis.
Figure 28. Burhinus superciliaris.
haematoPodidae
83. Haematopus palliatus
Sighted from Tumbes to Arequipa; regularly at the Peninsula of
Paracas; solitary, in pairs or small groups of up to 10 ind. Feeding on
sandy beaches, resting on dry ground not far from the shore.
11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Often in pairs
or small groups along the beach; a total of 30-50 inds. at a length of
several kilometers. When I approach a group, it withdraws inland,
then suddenly stops. Te birds almost disappear, thanks to their body
pattern. When fushed, they take to the air, emitting their alarm call:
kip-kip-kikikikip.
84. Haematopus ater
Recorded along the coast from Ancash to Ica; mostly in pairs; on
reefs or rocky promontories, but often feeding on the adjacent beaches,
attracted by Emerita.
42
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
the front, slow down, turning up at the rear and those from the rear
advance to the front.
11-17/02/1969. Between Paracas and Laguna Grande, Ica: Numer-
ous; mostly in loose groups of up to 30 inds. on diferent beaches. Tey
roost in close focks on rocky shore or on reefs. When fushed, their
standard call gets high pitched with a crescendo.
01/02/1972. Mouth of Rio Sama, Tacna: About 100 ind.; 4 of
them are bathing in the shallow lagoon at the river mouth. Tey dip
their heads into the water and throw it backward in an elegant sweep.
Occ. they crouch, with hanging wings, belly and breast submerged.
88. Bartramia longicauda
Boreal migrant
09/03/1971. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: About a dozen inds. on a
pebble-strewn area apart from the river.
89. Actitis macularius
Boreal migrant
Sighted from Tumbes to Ica on mudfats, beaches, along rivers
and irrigation channels and on river mouths; lower reaches of coastal
valleys of Lima.
East of the Andes recorded along rivers in San Martn, Ucayaly,
Hunuco and Pasco.
Recorded from July to April; peak in Jan; earliest record 27.07.
Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes; latest record 11.04. mouth of Rio Chilln,
Lima. In April, Aug and Sep some inds. in alternate plumage.
Highest records: Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima 1800 m; Lurin Valley,
Lima, 1800 m; Rio Paucartambo, Pasco 2600 m: Several inds. during
three days regularly along the stream.
90. Tringa melanoleuca
Boreal migrant
Most sightings along the coast, frequently around Lima; also in the
region of Lake Titicaca. Number of monthly records: Jan 8x, March 2x,
Aug 3x, Nov 1x; earliest record 01/08. mouth of Rio Vir, La Libertad;
latest record 09/03. mouth of Rio Mala, Lima.
11/03/1964. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Mixed group of T.
melanoleuca and Tringa favipes of about 40 inds.; some foraging at
the mudfat and in shallow water, some tiding up or bathing, the rest
sleeping with heads buried in their plumage.
25/08/1968. San Juan de Mirafores, south of Lima: Numerous
on newly created waste water lagoons in plain desert, together with T.
favipes, Larus cirrocephalus, Ardea alba and Egretta thula.
05/08/1983. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Mixed group of T. mela-
noleuca and T. favipes of 80-100 inds. feeding in shallow water and
adjacent mudfat.
91. Tringa favipes
Boreal migrant
Most sightings at the coast of Lima; also one in Puno and one in La
Libertad (mouth of Rio Vir). Recorded in Jan, Mar, Apr, Aug, Nov.
Particular records see Tringa melanoleuca.
92. Tringa semipalmatus
Boreal migrant
11/01/1966. Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: 2 inds, one feeding on mud-
fat, the other in fight together with 4 Numenius phaeopus.
29/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Ind. at the beach
together with 60 Numenius phaeopus.
30/09/1971. Mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad: Ind.
05/08/1983. Playa Conchn, south of Lima: 2 inds.
93. Arenaria interpres
Boreal migrant
Recorded from Lambayeque to Arequipa; on rocky as well as on
sandy shores. Groups of 10-30 inds.; may form large associations.
Sighted from Aug to Apr; peak in Feb. Earliest record 01.08. mouth of
Rio Vir, La Libertad; latest record 30.04. San Bartolo, Lima.
27/11/1983. Between Chilca and Mala, 80 km south of Lima:
Several groups of 8-12 inds. feeding on small reefs near the shore. Tey
scrutinize the countless holes and crevices of the periodically fooded
rocks. On two occ. a group is expelled from its hunting ground by a
single Cinclodes taczanowski, which is defending its territory.
16/09/1972. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: 3 inds. are feeding
on abundant crab carcasses. Tey push their bill beneath a crab shell,
turn it forward, grab the edible content and swallow it hastily. Te three
birds are eagerly at work, whirling around the dry remains of the crabs.
94. Aphriza virgata
Boreal migrant
10/01/1964. Pimentel, Lambayeque: Small group at the beach.
21/02/1964. Paracas, Ica: 2 inds., one bearing the basic, the other
one the alternate plumage; they forage on a rock within the tidal zone.
01/04/1964. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Numerous on the
beach and on nearby reefs in company of Numenius phaeopus. (4 days
later, A. virgata is absent)
12/09/1965. Callao/Lima: Numerous along the mole of the yacht port.
15/09/1965. Morro Solar, Chorrillos/Lima: Scattered ind. at rocky
shore.
22+24/02/1966. Lagunillas, south of Paracas, Ica: Flock of 30-40
inds. on a small reef.
13/02/1970. Same place: Large group.
95. Calidris alba
Boreal migrant
Recorded along Coast from Lambayeque to Ica; from July to Apr.;
peak in Sep; earliest record 09/07. Paracas, Ica; latest record 11/04.
mouth of Rio Chilln, Lima.
Often forming large groups of 100 or more inds.; associates with
other shore birds. C. alba can be found competing with Larus modestus
for food or defending its prey when attacked. Te sight of hundreds of
C. alba running for food with the rhythm of the waves is impressive.
When the waves ebb, the little birds turn around instantly, briefy taking
advantage of the exposed prey. When the wave surges again, they run in
the opposite direction. At some distance it looks like a fowing carpet,
moving forward and backward in perfect accordance with the sea.
96. Phaloropus tricolor
Boreal migrant
Sightings
Coast: La Libertad, Ancash, Lima, Ica
Andes: Aycucho 3300 m, Puno 3800 m
Out of 13 sightings 3 ocurred in Aug, 7 in Sep, 1 in Oct, 1 Jan,
1March; mostly on small, nearshore lagoons; normally 1-4 inds.; occ.
in larger numbers. Typical feeding display: While spinning around as
if sitting on a disc player, Ph. tricolor collects hastily the small prey, that
it has fushed to the surface.
thinocoridae
97. Attagis gayi
10/04/2003. Upper Santa Valley, Ancash, ca. 4000 m: Pair in open
Puna landscape; one of them goes into hiding, the other continues
picking seeds at the road side. Tey communicate with a soft whisper.
43

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
98. Thinocorus orbignyianus
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 3500 m.
CP: Lima 3900 m, Junn 4100-4300m.
SP: Ayacucho 3400/3500 m, Cusco 4500m, Arequipa 4200 m,
Puno 4000 m.
19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900 m: Small
groups on rocky plateau; one fedgling.
02/05/1964. Near Corpacancha, Junn, 4200 m: Pair with fedgling
in Puna grassland.
99. Thinocorus rumicivorus
19/10/1963 / 11/09/1965 / 22/09/1967 / 24/08/1969. Lomas de
Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: Numerous; courting activity; fight
display: the ascent is followed by an even, curved descent. Song given
during fight display: tOgaratOgara;call on the ground: wotwot
28/01/1970. Divide between Canta Valley and Chancay Valley
(Trapiche-Huayn), Lima, 1500 m : Several voice records. Te nor-
mally barren hills are covered with lush vegetation due to extraordinary
rainfalls.
Stercorariidae
100. Stercorarius chilensis
Austral migrant
12/09/1965. Between Callao and Isla San Lorenzo, Lima: Several
sightings of 1-3 inds. on a boat trip.
laridae
101. Creagrus forcatus
Boreal migrant
08/09/1988. Bay of Paracas, Ica: 10-15 inds. swimming about 500
m from the shore; most of them in basic plumage.
102. Leucophaeus modestus
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, south of Lima: At 6 pm about 500 inds.
have gathered on a sandy plain about 100 m from the beach, probably
a roosting place. Tere is a busy coming and going. 8 dispersed inds. of
Leucophaeus dominicanus form part of the congregation. A L. modestus
arrives at the beach with a prey, that it has caught ofshore: a bright
coloured, blue and brown-orange crab. It lays the crab on the ground,
grabs it, shakes it strongly, drops it again. After repeating the procedure
several times, it manages without use of the feet to tear out piece
after piece of the crab meat. Afterward it goes about grabbing the empty
shell holding it up in a drinking position. It drops, grabs and holds it
up again. Finally it carries the shell about 20 m out to the sea. Tere,
the gull continues to play, laying the relic of its meal on the surface of
the water like a bowl. When it sinks, the bird retrieves it by submerging
its head. After some repetitions, it gives up and withdraws.
103. Leucophaeus pipixcan
Boreal migrant
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Tacna; coastal valleys of Lima:
Rmac Valley up to 800 m; Canta Valley one record at 1500 m. Te
frst focks arrive at the beginning of Nov, the last ones depart at the
end of Apr; one record in Oct (09/10, Pimentel, Lambayeque); one at
the beginning of May (Conchn, Lima)
Habitat/Behavior.- Most numerous at sand beaches and river
mouths, where they congregate by the thousands. Tey occ. take ad-
vantage of an upcurrent over the coastal plain, forming a kind of tube
or whirl up to a hundred meters high. Tey disperse after some time
and eventually reform at another adequate place.
05-08/02/1964. Playa Len Dormido, Panamericana Sur, km 90:
Daily 1000-1500 inds. at the 1200 m long beach. Tey appear at dawn
and disappear at dusk, probably to roost somewehre inland. During
the day, they rest on the sand within the dry area of the beach or they
swim outside the surge.
27/12/1965. Playa Conchn, south of Lima: Tousands on their
migration to the south: From 14:30 to 16:00 large focks pass by in
short intervals in chain or delta formation. Next day, same place, same
time: Te migration continues, but is less intense.
01/11/1972. Playa Len Dormido: Flying southward in large num-
bers from 12:00 to 15:00 in focks of 100-300 inds. constantly changing
their formation: from orderless clusters to chain- or delta-formations
(Fig. 30). Te largest delta-formation counts 80 inds. on each wing.
Flight altitude: 20-150 m. Only one ind. touches for an instant the
beach: to snatch away an Emerita from a startled Leucophaeus modestus.
Figure 30. Flight formation of
Leucophaeus pipixcan
29-30/04/1972. Playa Conchn, south of Lima: Very numerous;
probably on their way north. Te mass mortality of seabirds in 1972
seems also to have afected L. pipixcan: Among 227 dead birds there
are 9 carcasses of L. pipixcan. An unidentifed scavenger has left of
them only bare bones and plumes. Te other species have been left
untouched.
104. Chroicocephalus serranus
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 3500 m, La Libertad 2300 m.
CP: Ancash 4000 m, Junn 3800-4800 m, Lima 4200-4700 m,
coast of Ica.
SP: Ayacucho 3300 m, Apurmac 2800 m, Cusco 3000-3400 m,
Puno 3800-4300 m, Arequipa 4200 m.
Min. alt: Rio Chusgn, La Libertad, 2300 m; max. alt. Ticlio Pass,
Lima/Junn, 4800 m.
28-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 4200-4700 m: Breeding
activity on a lagoon at 4300 m: Tiny, cone-shaped nest islands; 3 of
them with grey, downy young. Some young swimming. At the nest,
that is next to the shore, the 2 young are permanently protected by
an ad. Some ads. are trying to scare of the intruders by circling and
screaming above our heads.
20-27/02/1972. Putina, Puno, 3900-4000 m: Common in the
wohle region; solitary or in small groups, with exception of Laguna
Checayani, where they occur in large numbers. Numerous nests near
the shore (Fig. 31), some on open, shallow water, some within the
rush belt. Two young are loudly begging for food, nodding their head.
Figure 31. Chroicocephalus serranus breeding.
44
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Several ad. nearby dont take notice.
09/07/1988. Bay of Paracas, Ica: Several inds., one in alternate, the
others in basic plumage.
105. Sternula lorata
21/01/1968. Near Punta Salinas, south of Huacho, Lima: Prob-
ably breeding activity. Numerous over desert plain. Alarmed by the
intruders, they fy close over our heads, screaming. Two ads. carry small
fsh in their bills.
13-14/02/1970. Lagunillas, Paracas, Ica: Numerous; they steep dive
from remarkable hight, snatching the prey from the surface without
actually submerging in the water. Tey swallow their prey in fight.
106. Larosterna inca
05/08/1983. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Several ind. bathing in fresh
water, strongly fapping their wings, prancing and shaking themselves;
they even turn onto their backs.
08/07/1988. Paracas, Ica: Numerous at Punta Pejerrey and the Islas
Ballestas; several immatures.
Mass mortality of seabirds 1972
23/06/1972. Playa Chira, south of Lima: 2 fresh carcasses out of
99 dead birds.
08/08/1972. Same place: 26 carcasses, most of them immatures,
out of 312 dead birds.
107. Chlidonias niger
Boreal migrant
18/11/1967. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Ind. circling over
marshland and lagoon.
rynchoPidae
108. Rynchops niger
Boreal migrant
Sighted on coast of Ancash, Lima and Ica from Oct to May, most
frequently in Feb and Apr; solitary or in small focks, also in large
associations.
11-17/02/1969. Playa Vineta, south of Paracas, Ica: Every day a
congregation of more than 500 inds. gathers on the beach, always
aligned head frst towards the often strong wind (Fig. 32).
110. Columbina cruziana
All records refer to the urban area of Mirafores/Lima (Fig. 33).
Te diagram shows, that in the mentioned area, there are two periods
of reproduction. Te main breeding season lasts from March to June,
the secondary from Oct to Dec.
columBiFormeS
columBidae
109. Columbina talpacoti
24/01 - 02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Very
numerous in second growth and cultivated areas. Nest in a plantation
on a tutumo tree, about 2 m above ground: a platform barely 10 cm
wide with two white eggs.
Figure 32. Rynchops niger.
Figure 33. 1-12: month/year; c: courting; n: nest-building; b: breeding;
f: feeding at nest; single record; --- observation period.
Courting.- Typical courting scenes:
a) Male and female are sitting very closely on the branch of a tree.
Teir bills hooked, they move their heads vehemently up and
down. In the following sequence, the male cuddles his mate by
plucking her throat and head, especially around eye and bill. It
is followed by a short mating act. Now its the turn of the female
to caress her mate, with the diference, that she plucks him more
softly. After that, both dedicate themselves to put their plumage
in order without taking notice of each other but always keeping
in touch.
b) Male and female are hopping and futtering around on the
ground. Te male is following his mate closely. Occ. it approaches
her with a short jump, followed by a bow and a short croaking
throat feathers raised, tail spread. Te female is not impressed
and goes on pitter-pattering around.
Breeding record (28/02 - 02/04/1969)
28/02. Ind. gathering nesting material in our garden. It picks up a
straw here and a twig there, carefully choosing the adequate
material. Finally it carries a ftting piece to the nesting site: a
horizontal branch of a high Euaclyptus tree 3-4 m above the
ground. For the moment, the nest consists just of a few stems.
02/03. In the morning: Te nest has obviously been completed.
Te loosely arranged, fragile construction measures 8-9 cm
in diameter and is 3-4 cm high. 6.30 pm: One ind. is sitting
on the nest, the other is present nearby.
03/03. Te frst egg has been deposited before 8.30 am. Te nest is
guarded the whole day.
04/03. Te second egg has been laid between 8.30 am and 6.30
pm. Te eggs measure 18x24/18x23 mm. During the next
two weeks the pair is dedicated to the breeding task, which
is shared by both sexes. (To identify the male, I relied on
his caracteristic croaking call.) Tey leave the clutch only for
short periods unprotected.
17/03, 7.00 - 7.45 am: Te breeding ad. is sitting motionless
for several minutes, plumage fufed, eyes half shut. Fully
awake, it begins to straighten ist plumage. During the next
12 min, it moves about in the nest, restlessly cuddling and
turning around. Occ. it plucks playfully at some protrud-
ing stems at the rim of the nest. For the rest of the time
it dozes along.
18/03, 9.45 - 10.15 am: Te breeding male is visited 6 times by his
mate. Each time, the same ceremony takes place: Te female
arrives from a nearby cottonfeld, carrying some nesting ma-
terial. She lands on an outer branch and approaches the nest
by foot. Occ. she is greeted by her mate by the characteristic
croaking call. Te female climbs immediatly onto the back
of her mate to deliver the stem or twig she has brought with
her. She does it in a somewhat ceremonious way, nodding her
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
c
---

n
b ---- ---- ----- - - --
f -- -
-- --
---

---
j --- ----

---

Reproductive periods of Columbina cruziana


45

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
head afectionately. Te male inserts the stem into the nest,
sometimes assisted by the female. Once the job is done, she
leaves again, only to return a few minutes later with a new
gift.
20/03, 9.30 am: Te female is breeding. As soon as the male ap-
proaches, she leaves the nest immediatly. Te male emits
a croaking call, approaches the nest cautiously and takes
over the breeding. 10.30 am: Te frst egg (marked red) has
cracked. With some vigorous movements, the fedgeling
manages to widen the gap.
21/03. Te second young has hatched between 3 and 6 pm.
24/03, 7.30 am: Te female is attending to the fedglings.
27/03, 9 am: Te male is sitting on the nest. After a while the
fedglings raise their head from beneath him. Te begging
gestures of the young are not attended by the ad.
29/03 Both fedglings have opened their eyes. Te frst born is
now more than double the size of its sibling. 9.30 - 10.45
am: Tree feedings recorded; both parents participate in
the task. Te fedglings occ. both at the same time are
besieging the feeding ad. by vehemently pushing their bill
sideways into its gorge. Te regurgitating process may last
several minutes.
01/04. Te older fedgling has left the nest (the day before it was
still there). Te younger looks underdeveloped.
02/04. Te second fedgeling found dead. Last feeding recorded the
day before.
Nest building: 2 days
Breeding: 17 days
Feeding at nest: 12 days
August 1970. Nest with two eggs on a date palm in a school yard,
3-4 m above the ground (Fig. 34)
Breeding: 16 days
Feeding at nest: 12 days
Oct/Nov 1970. Nest in a young Araucaria, about 2 m high (Fig.
35/36).
Nest building: 2 days
Egg deposition 23./24.10.; hatched 08./09.11.
Breeding: 16 days
Feeding at nest: 13 days
18/11/1974. Four tipa trees in a school yard with a total of 16 nests
(Fig. 37). All nests are occupied. Since the trees are just beginning to
bud, the nests are all visible. Minimal distance between two nests: 1.50 m.
111. Metropelia ceciliae
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 1500-2000/2700 m, La Libertad 1200/1500/1700 m
CP*: Ancash 2600-3900 m, Pasco 3400 m, Lima 800/1000-3900 m
SP: Ayacucho 3000-3800 m, Apurmac 1500-2500 m, Cusco 3000
m, Puno 3900-4000 m, Arequipa 3400 m.
*most frequently between 2000 and 3500 m.
Behavior/Habitat.- In pairs or small focks of up to 12 inds. in
semi-arid areas with columnar cacti, montane scrub, felds, pastures
and villages.
29/09/1971. Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Nest building ind.
at the edge of the village. It disappears with a long straw beneath a
curved tile of an adobe construction. A few minutes later, it picks up
the next piece on the adjacent pasture.
112. Metropelia melanoptera
Sightings/Behavior
CP: Lima 1500/2800/3000-4000 m
Figure 34. Columbina cruziana breeding.
Figure 35. Columbina cruziana: nest with clutch.
Figure 36. Columbina cruziana: nest with young.
Figure 37. Nest colony of Columbina cruziana.
5
5
4
2
school
46
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
SP: Ayacucho 3000-3800 m, Puno 3900 m, Arequipa 3000-4200 m
Often in pairs or small groups; very numerous and in large focks in
the region of Putina, Puno and between Puquio and Pausa, Ayacucho.
05/06/1972. Quebrada Tinajas, Lurin Valley, Lima, 1500 m: 2
separate pairs in a semi-arid area with numerous columnar cacti and a
dried out seasonal vegetation.
113. Patagioenas maculosa
16-17/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Ayacucho: a) Tarhuy, 3400 m:
Several inds. in montane scrub with small cultivated plots. b) Orongoy,
2800 m: Pair in a quebrada with dense vegetation.
June 1970/ July 1979. Beneath Yauyos, Caete Valley, Lima, 2700
m: Several inds. in lush river edge vegetation dominated by Salix
humboldtiana.
14/07/1988. Achomas, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: Group of
6 inds. foraging on a harvested wheat feld.
13/03/2003. Above Puno, ca. 4000 m: Ind. in a shady grove sur-
rounded by felds, hedges and scrub.
114. Patagioenas fasciata
Te following sightings refer to the humid montane forest of Zrate,
Rmac Valley, Lima, 2900-3100 m:
15/09/1963. Perched in groups of 3 or 4 inds. on tree tops. Occ.
they take to the air (as a group) describe an ample curve and return
to the starting point.
13/06/1965. Like 15.09.63, but no collective fights. Occ. owl-like
call. Leftovers on a stone beneath a tree: feathers and the contents of
the crop.
11-12/06/1966. Numerous; in the morning up to 5 inds. on top
of Oreopanax trees. Towards midday also in lower vegetation but not
on the ground.
07/07/1968. Numerous; exceptionally on the ground.
22-23/03/1970. Sporadic on tree tops; ind. in montane scrub at
2600 m.
Sightings outside Zrate:
03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m:
At dusk 4 inds. in a lush quebrada perched on a tree top.
14/10/1967. Surco, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2400 m: 8-10 inds. tem-
porarily on a Schinus molle, some perched in pairs in close proximity.
08/04/2003. San Luis, Callejn de Conchucos, Ancash, ca. 3400
m: Ind. fying over a rock-strewn slope towards a nearby patch of
humid montane forest.
115. Zenaida meloda
Vertical distribution.- Sightings exceeding the max. alt. stated by
BP (locally up to 1000 m):
NP: Casma Valley, Ancash up to 1400 m
CP: Santa Eulalia Valley up to 1800 m, Canta Valley up to 1700
m, Rmac Valley (Quebrada Tapicara) up to 1900 m, Caete Valley
up to 1600 m.
SP: Cotahuasi Valley, Arequipa 2000-2200m
Courting/Breeding.- Te courting and breeding period in Mira-
fores/Lima and Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima 800 m, lasts from June
to March. In the display fight Z. meloda rises steeply to the culmina-
tion point, then glides down with spread wings in a wide, fat curve.
Song activity is most intense in the morning, beginning before dawn.
It diminishes during the middle of the day and increases again in the
afternoon and lasts till dusk.
16/11/1972. Mirafores/Lima: From 5.30 to 6 pm about 50 inds.
gather in two giant bamboo bushes to roost. Tey share the place with
numerous Columbina cruziana and Passer domesticus.
Jan 1999. Mirafores/Lima: Breeding on a Spathodea campanulata,
about 5 m above the ground. In one occ. the unguarded nest is inspected
by 3 male (!) Molothrus bonariensis.
14/02/2003. Mirafoes/Lima: Nest building in a Bougainvillea that
spreads over a garden wall. Ind. gathers repeatedly twigs and branches
from within a bush (not from the ground). A mating ritual takes place
on top of the wall. It lasts about 15 min.
116. Zenaida auriculata
In CP recorded most frequently between 1500 and 3500 m in small
groups and medium sized focks of up to 100 ind.
31/07/1963. Near Ayacucho, 2900 m: Numerous in a quebrada
with creek and rich vegetation. Nest about 2,5 m high on a scrub
with two white eggs; loose platform made of stems and twigs, about
13 cm in diameter.
117. Leptotila verreauxi
Sightings
NP: West slope: Coast of Tumbes, Piura 800 m, Lambayeque 200-
600m, La Libertad 1500-2000/2400/2800 m
East slope: Cajamarca 300-2500 m, Amazonas 1600-2500 m
CP: West slope: Coast of Ancash, Lima 0/400 (lomas) /800/1400-
2600 m.
East slope: Junn 700 m, Ayacucho 600 m
SP: East slope: Apurmac 2400 m
24/07/1966. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1400 m: Nest in riparian wood
(mainly Alnus). Te nest is a rather strong platform made of twigs and
stems; diameter ca. 25 cm. An ad. and a well developed fedgling are
looking over the rim of the nest.
02-03/08/1966 Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400
m: Numerous in a quebrada with lush vegetation. During the day,
they perch on trees or hide in dense scrub. Late in the afternoon, they
forage on the ground at the edge of the thicket. When alarmed, they
open their tail like a fan, close it again and raise it at the same time.
Ten they lower it slowly to the original position.
03/07/1972. Villa del Progreso, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 700 m:
Common in secondary growth. Nest with 2 white eggs (28x21/30x21
mm) in a grass bush; loose platform made of dry grass; diameter 20-25
cm (Fig. 38).
Figure 38. Nest of Leptotila verreauxi.
PSittaciFormeS
PSittacidae
Te distinction of the two following species are based on geographic
distribution and habitat as described in BP.
118. Aratinga wagleri
Sightings
NP: La Libertad, Maran Valley, 1300 m
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Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
CP: Lima: Huaura Valley 2600 m, Canta Valley 1700 m, Santa
Eulalia Valley,1600 m, Caete Valley 2700/3200 m; Ica: Pisco Valley
1700/2200 m.
SP: Apurmac, Pampas Canyon 1300-2400 m
08-12/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600 m: Several
times recorded in focks of up to 20 inds. foraging in the cornfelds at
the outskirts of the village. In the evening they regularly perform a kind
of fight show: Tey take to the air from the mountain slope, then glide
back in a wide curve to the original place; after a while, they repeat
the fight. Nesting place in a vertical clif along the stream: About 20
holes are distributed over a length of 60 m, 6 to 10 meters above the
ground. Most entrances are marked with white droppings. Te clif is
exposed to the shade during the entire day (Fig. 39).
121. Forpus coelestis
Sightings/Habitat.- Tumbes, Piura 200-800m, Lambayeque 200-
400 m, Cajamarca 500-1000/1600 m and La Libertad 1500 m (Fig.
40). In small groups of up to 10 inds. in deciduous forest, semi-arid
vegetation with scrub and cacti, Prosopis and Bombax forest, riparian
vegetation.
Figure 39. Aratinga wagleri: breeding caves (arrow).
14-19/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Apurmac/Ayacucho: a) Puente
Santa Rosa, 1300 m: Numerous in an abandoned orchard at dusk and
at dawn; they screech permanently. Tey feed on pods of Acacia-like
trees. b) Between Orongoy and Cocas, 1400 m: 5 inds. roost in a rocky
clif high above the Pampas river. c) Below Hacienda Cocas: Numerous
in semi arid area with cacti and scattered trees. d) Hacienda Toxama,
2400 m: Flock of over 100 inds. at 5.30 pm fying upwards the valley.
27/06/1970. Beneath Yauyos, Caete Valley, Lima, 2700 m: In the
morning and in the evening fock of 10-15 inds. in montane scrub.
07/07/1979. Above Yauyos, Caete Valley, Lima, ca. 3200 m:
Between 6 and 6.30 am large fock of 100-200 inds. in fight over
mountain slope.
13/07/1997. Chagual, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 1300 m: Nu-
merous; they leave their roosting place in a dry quebrada with scattered
trees at 6.30 and fy down to the orchards outside the village. Tey
gather preferably on mango trees, although the fruits are not ripe yet.
119. Aratinga mitrata
20-23/07/1976. Limatambo, Cusco 2600-ca.3000 m: Numerous in
cultivated areas, montane scrub and river edge vegetation, where they
feed on the pods of Pisonia trees. Occ. in pairs, more often in groups;
focks of 100-200 inds. are not rare. Voice: During fight strident, noisy
screeches. When feeding, they temporarly fell silent, then they chatter
again. Tey emit two diferent calls: qyacqyacqyac and a whinny-like
noise. Tey do not mix the two calls.
17/04/2005. Region of Lamud, Amazonas: a) Karaja, 2400 m: In
the morning fock of about 20 ind. in a vertical clif (archeological site);
later over the humid montane forest below, screaming. b) Some ind. in
a cornfeld near the cavern of Quiocta (relic of humid montane forest),
ca. 2500 m. c) Flock in fight over Lamud, 2200 m.
120. Aratinga erythrogenys
14-15/02/1964. Hacienda Mallares, Sullana, Piura, 200-800m: In
semi-arid area with scrub and scattered trees and in deciduous forest.
Perches on high trees, like Bombax; very noisy.
Figure 40. Forpus coelestis.
122. Psilopsiagon aurifrons
Sightings
CP: Lima 0-800/1200/1900/2300/3200/3500 m, Huancavelica
1900-3300 m
SP: Arequipa 500 m, Puno 3800-4000 m
Max. alt.: Tree records, that exceed the 3100 m limit on west slope,
stated by BP: Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3200 m; Huaytar,
Pisco Valley, Huancavelica, 3300 m; Huarochir, Mala Valley, Lima,
3500 m.
Habitat/Behavior.- Frequently in medium sized focks of 10-25
and up to 50 inds. in montane scrub, river edge vegetation, felds,
orchards, lomas (Atocongo, Lachay). Tey feed on a great variety of
fruits and seeds, e.g. Casuarina and sunfower seeds, Schninus berries
corn and peaches.
Regular fights between (presumable) roosting and feeding places:
San Antonio, Mirafores/Lima: Repeatedly recorded in the morning
between 6.30 and 7.30 fying in south-eastern direction (possible
feeding places: Atocongo, Monterrico) and in the evening between 6
and 6:30 in the opposit direction (possible roosting places: Clifs of
Mirafores and Barranco).
Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: Similar phenom-
enon: Flocks of 10-30 inds. fying between 5 and 6 pm from their
feeding place (rich vegetation along irrigation channel and scrub
covered slope below) to the opposite side of the valley (El Bosque).
Return fights occ. recorded bewteen 7 and 10 am.
123. Bolborhynchus orbygnesius
13/061965. Zrate, Rimac Valley, Lima, 2900-3000 m: 2 or 3
small groups at the lower edge of the forest. Next morning 15-20 inds.
foraging fruits on a thorn bush.
26/06/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4100 m: 6 inds.
in fight over Polylepis wood.
14-15/06/1968. Pampas Canyon, Apurmac/Ayacucho: Group on
both sides of the canyon in dense vegetation (scrub and trees): near
Humaca, 3100 m and between Mollebamba and Orongoy, 3500 m.
cuculiFormeS
cuculidae
124. Crotophaga sulcirostris
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Lima; Tacna. Coastal valleys of
Lima: Chicama 1500-2000 m; Chancay 1200 m; Rmac 0-800/2200
48
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
m; Santa Eulalia Valley 1600/1800 m; Mala Valley 0-1700 m.
Behavior.- In small groups of up to a dozen inds. Tey forage on
the ground on pastures and felds; very often together with grazing
cattle (Fig. 41).
Voice.- Call: occ.starting with a low a qsewqsew followed by a sharp
qsYewqsYew or qsdaqsda. Collective song: a slightly ascending and
increasing heweeen.
04/08/1983. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: 0n
two occ. food carrying ind.
20/04/2005. Chamaya Valley, Cajamarca, ca. 800 m: Ricefelds and
dense vegetation at the foot of an arid mountain slope. Bulky nest on a
tree about 4 m above the ground. It is made of losely piled up branches
and twigs, 30-40 cm in diameter. Ad. arrives with a big grasshopper to
feed a nearly full fedged young.
StriGiFormeS
tytonidae
125. Tyto alba
03/01/1965. aa, Rmac Valley, Lima, 500 m: Dead ind. at the
road side.
13/11/1966. Tumbes: Ind. calls from a roof in front of the church
at 8.30 pm; ind. in fight.
02/05/1968. Callao/Lima: Ind. captured by workers of an industrial
mill (later released).
28/08/1971. Pisco, Ica: Dead ind. hanging from a power line at the
road to Tambo Colorado.
StriGidae
126. Megascops koepckeae
15/09/1963. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: At dusk ind.
perched on a lower branch of a big Oreopanax tree with raised ear tufts.
18/06/1965. Same place: Voice recorded between 6 an 6.30 pm:
oocoocooc; repeated 8 to 10 times; slightly ascending and increasing;
the last notes slightly falling and diminishing.
127. Bubo virginianus
28/02/1964. Viscas, Mala Valley, Lima, 1800 m: (9 am) Ind. fushed
on its roost on an Acacia in a dry, narrow quebrada. It settels about 100
m away in a small niche situated at a crumbling clif (Fig. 43). It stares
at me with its wonderful golden eyes. It raises and lowers nervously its
ear tufts. As a sign of alertness, it turns its head around and upward.
When I try to get closer, it rufes its plumage menacingly. Suddenly
a Falco sparverius settles on a cactus at the edge of the clif. Its high
pitched klklkl attracts two inds. of the same species. Tey start to
harrass the big owl by alternately plunging down the ravine passing
by the niche as close as possible and simultaneously emitting their ag-
gressive call. Te only reaction of B. virginianus: It shuts its eyes each
time the troublemakers fy past.
Figure 41. Crotophaga sulcirostris with grazing cattle.
Figure 42. Crotophaga sulcirostris waiting for prey.
Figure 43. Bubo virginianus.
Oct 1963. Sta. Catalina, La Victoria/Lima: Regularly but only
temporarly in a small untended park.
01-03/11/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Numerous
in pasture land boarderd with hedges and chirimoya trees.; mostly in
pairs. About 10 inds. together with Mimus longicaudatus on a recently
irrigated pasture, picking up small prey, that is trying to escape the food.
At dusk 7 inds. assemble on a dehydrated Acacia tree at the edge of a
thicket. I fushed them twice, but they always returned to their roost,
huddling against one another.
25/08/1968. Pachacamac, Lurin Valley, Lima: About a dozen inds.
are following a tractor, that is plowing a feld. Some are sitting on the
clods, observing the scene. Others hop or jump or walk crow-like in
order to pick up the varied prey, that the plow is bringing to light.
17/11/1968. Mala Valley, 100 m, Lima: 5 inds. are sitting beside a
burning heap of weed at the edge of a feld (Fig. 42). When they spot a
prey, that is trying to escape, they pounce on it, occ. 2 or 3 inds. at the
same time. Tey do not back away from the smoke, that occ. besieges
them. Tey stay just about 30 cm away from the slowly extending
fames. To grab a feeing insect, they will risk going even closer.
49

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
128. Glaucidium peruanum
Sightings
Piura: Amotape mountains, 700 m; riparian forest along Rio Chira,
near Sullana
Lima: Rmac Valley, 2300-2900 m; Santa Eulalia Valley, 1600 m;
Caete Valley, 2700 m; voice records in the urban area of Lima (at dusk)
and Urbanizacin California, Chosica, 800 m (from late afternoon till
early in the morning).
Habitat/Behavior.- In deciduous forest, riparian forest, montane
scrub, gardens. Old willows (Salix humboldtiana) seem to be the favorit
roosting places (3 records). When alarmed, it nervously raises and
fickers its tail. On two occ., two hummingbirds harass a roosting G.
peruanum. Tey succeed in displacing it.
129. Athene cunicularia
Sightings.- Coast and west slope: from Piura to Ica; Tacna. (Ancash
2200 m, Lima up to 1100 m). Highland: Junn 4100 m, Puno 3900 m.
Habitat.- Urban areas, felds, gramadales, lomas (Atocongo, Pacta),
sand or stone deserts at the edge of irrigated land, huacas (precolum-
bian adobe constructions; recorded at 6 diferent sites), dry valleys
with columnar cacti, arid montane scrub, puna grassland (Fig. 44/45).
April/May 1963. Pair perched regularly on 2-3 m high adobe walls,
occ. together with a third (probably young) ind.; horizontal burrow;
entrance about 15 cm wide. Numerous pellets at the foot of the walls:
some containing bones and hairs of small rodents, the others show
remains of diverse invertebrates.
27/04/1963. Ind. attacks and expells a straying dog.
14/07/1963. Clogged burrow; some fresh pellets.
04/02/1964. Pair perched on an adobe wall; juv. at some distance.
Tere are several newly created (some unfnished) burrows; one is 1.5
m long. At two entrances dispersed feathers of a small bird (remains
of a prey?); fresh pellets.
b) Dry quebrada above Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac
Valley, 800-1000 m:
08/08/1976. At 6 pm 2 ads. with 3 juvs.: 4 inds. pose immediately
above the entrance, the ffth perches on a columnar cactus nearby. One
by one they leave their perches and settle at some distance, except for
one of the juv. An ad. warns insistently until the young fnally with-
drews. During my presence, an ad. attacked me three times (Fig. 46).
Figure 44-45. Athene cunicularia in front of their burrow (photos by
Frank Frazier).
(44)
(45)
Behavior.- Solitary, in pairs or family groups (up to 5 inds.); on the
ground or on low perches like adobe walls, boulders and cacti; occ. on
trees (Prosopis, Casuarina). When alarmed it reacts in diferent ways: As
a sign of alertness, it turns its head nervously to all sides reaching nearly
360 as well as upward at an angle of about 90. Another expression of
alarm is its charcteristic warning call, a penetrant qyaaacqyacqyacqyac
often accompanied by alternatly stretching and crouching. When fully
raised, A. cunicularia reaches an impressive size thanks to its long legs.
To chase away an intruder from its breeding area, it feigns attack by
passing close over his head, screeching.
Breeding burrows
a) Huaca Limatambo in the middle of a cotton feld, La Victoria/
Lima:
Figure 46. e: entrance of burrow p: perch with droppings b: bottom
of the quebrada.
09/08/1976. 9 am: One of the juvs. crouching at the entrance of the
burrow with fufed plumage, the other perching on a nearby rock. An
ad. - alarmed by my presence settles next to its ofspring and begins
to warn. Eventually all three leave the place. Te ad. continues to call
in the background.
Numerous pellets: About consist nearly exclusively of bones and
hairs of small rodents. About are remains of invertebrates: a high
percentage of black ants (they feed on the columnar cacti); at least 3
diferent species of beetles; scorpions (3 out of 7 pellets) and one grass-
hopper. Measures of the pellets: 20-40 mm long, 12-13 mm in diameter.
03-17/07/1979. On three occ. a single ind. stays in the neighber-
hood of the burrow. Tey behave inconspicuously and depart silently.
Fresh pellets at the entrance of the burrow.
05/07/1983. No sign of life; only a few pellets and a complete
skeleton of a toad with dehydrated skin.
July 1988. Te breeding site described in 76 and 83 is abandoned,
the burrow destroyed. Two new sites at a distance of 300 m (one bur-
row) and 500 m (three burrows Fig. 47) have emerged.
Figure 47. 1-3: burrows (3 caved in, 1,5 m long); 4: scratched out
hollow; distance between burrow 1/2 and 2/3 about 2,5 m.
50
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Figure 48. Burrow of Athene cunicularia.
Figure 49. Burrow of Athene cunicularia; 1: pellets 2: perch 3:
entrance.
Measures (in mm): 10/26, 12/28, 11/27, 11/32, 11/30, 11/27,
13/34, 12/28, 12/27, 11/24, 11/28, 11/25, 11/17, 11/18
In addition dispersed single bones of a rodent: pelvis 32 mm, thigh
28 mm, mandible 20 mm.
130. Asio fammeus
05/01/1966. Mouth of Rio Sechn, Casma, Ancash: Ind. at 8 am
in extended gramadal. It criss-crosses low over the ground in search
of prey for quite a long time (Fig. 50).
Figure 50. Asio fammeus.
Figure 51. Steatornis caripensis.
At both sites I collected a total of 18 fresh pellets in 20 days.
Measures: Length: average 28 mm, min. 21 mm, max. 42 mm;
diameter (slightly oval) 10-12/12-14 mm.
Composition of the 18 pellets:
8 chitin (invertebrates) only
3 hairs and bones (rodents) only
5 chitin and bones (probably lizard), no hairs.
2 chitin, bones, hairs
Te chitin remains come mainly from scorpions, a small amount
from black beetles. Somewhat less than of the overall remains belong
to invertebrates. In the 15 pellets, that contained chitin, I found 21
scorpion stingers, up to 3 in one pellet.
Some striking differnces in comparison with the results of
09/08/1976: Te high percentage of scorpions, the low percentage of
rodents and the absence of ants.
Some singular remains: Longest hollow bone 23 mm, longest
mandible 17 mm, leg segment of a grasshopper 21 mm; remains of
scorpions: stingers up to 9 mm, pedipalps up to 11 mm.
15/02/1999. Two burrows about 500 m from the main irrigation
channel; entrances beneath a rock, about 4 m apart from each other. 7-8
perches close to the burrows marked with droppings. At the entrances
dispersed bones of small rodents, only few remains of invertebrates.
Five fresh pellets: One consists mainly of bones and hairs plus
remains of a scorpion, 2 pairs of elytra of a black beetle (7-8 mm).
4 pellets consist exclusively of chitin, mainly scorpions (each pellet
contains 1-2 stingers and 1-3 pedipalps) and a small percentage of
black beetles. Measures (in mm): 15/38, 10/25, 11/32, 13/34, 14/33.
c) Quebrada above Chosica, right side of Rmac Valley, 1100 m:
07/08/1983. Burrow in arid montane scrub with columnar cacti;
entrance beneath a rock (Fig. 48). Two boulders one 5 m the other
8 m from the entrance are strongly marked with droppings. An ind.,
perched on one of them, withdraws silently.
3
2
1
Numerous, partially decayed pellets. I examined 15 of them: Tey
consist exclusively of remains of invertebrates, mainly scorpions, fol-
lowed by a black beetle. Not a single bone!
d) Samaca, Rio Ica, 200 m:
17-21/02/1999. Numerous burrows in the transition zone between
river edge vegetation and sand desert. Two pairs perch regularly near
their burrows at a distance of about 400 m. Frequent calls at dusk and
during the night. Ind. perched for half an hour on Prosopis.
Composition of 15 examined pellets deposited near the entrance
of a burrow (Fig. 49):
9 chitin only (small brown scorpion)
5 hairs and bones only
1 hairs and bones and numerous elytra of a black beetle
caPrimulGiFormeS
Steatornitidae
131. Staetornis caripensis
29/02-03/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m:
Impressive cave at the foot of the Cordillera de Tarros. Te main en-
trance of the cave is at the edge of the dense humid montane forest.
We explored the cave at a length of 200-300 m. When we entered the
cave it was flled with the clicking sound and the hoarse vociferation
of hundreds of birds. Part of them were sitting on their nests, others
51

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
were criss-crossing the cave. Te nests (Fig. 52) - small platforms made
of silt - are precariously placed on the walls and the ceiling of the cave.
Some of the nests were dark coloured, indicating, that they were recently
built. We saw no signs of breeding activity nor presence of young.
Figure 52. Nest of Steatornis caripensis: oversight and section.
Figure 53. Steatornis caripensis leaving cave.
nc
nc
m
creek
main entrance
new clearing nc
m
cave
hut
field
forest
Figure 54. Location plan of the breeding cave of S. caripensis
How many birds live in the cave? Considering that we overlooked
some birds during the count and that the exodus lasted roughly two
hours, the cave accommodates well over a thousand guacharos.
caPrimulGidae
132. Chordeiles rupestris
25-31/071964. Juanjui, San Martn, 300 m: C. rupestris apears daily
at dusk, shortly after 6 pm. Tey fy in extended strings downstream.
Some stay behind, hunting over the Rio Huallaga.
13/01/1965. Yurimaguas, Laguna San Ango, 200 m: A fock of
100-200 inds. hunting at 11 am in midst of dense rainfall. Tey gather
temporarily in the canopy of an isolated tree.
23/07/1983. Huimbayc, Rio Huallaga, San Martn, 250 m: At
sunset (6 pm) a big fock appears over the river.
06/02/1999. Moyobamba, San Martn, 850 m: Tree sightings
on a boat trip on Rio Mayo: Two seperate groups of about 100 inds.
densely perched on the branches of driftwood. At late afternoon a
group hunting over the river.
133. Chordeiles acutipennis
Sightings/Habitat.- Coast of Piura, Lambayeque, Ancash, Lima,
Ica. Urban areas, sand dunes with Prosopis, riparian vegetation, river-
banks, totorales, fallow land
Behavior.- Hunting alone or in small groups of up to 10 inds. over
plazas, around street lighting at dusk and during the night. At daytime
resting on the ground (where it often goes undetected thanks to perfect
camoufage) or on low branches of scrub and trees.
Breeding.- On three occ. (Apr 1964 - 04/04/1966 - 23/04/1967) I
found a fully fedged young (Fig. 55) in a school yard in San Antonio,
Mirafores - evidence, that C. acutipennis is breeding on the fat roofs
of the school buildings.
Evening exodus (Fig. 53): Te frst birds left the cave around 7 pm:
01.03. at 19:04
02.03. at 18:57
03.03. at 19:00
Te exodus ended at about 21:30
Census:
29.02. 19:00-19:30 222 ind.
19:30-20:00 226 ind.
19:00-20:00 448 ind.
03.03. 19:00-19:15 159 ind.
19.15-19.30 99 ind.
19:00-19:30 258 ind.
Te birds they were clearly recognizable against the bright eve-
ning sky left the cave in pairs or small groups of up to 6 inds. Tey
often circled over the entrance before leaving the site defnitely. Tey
returned to the cave between 6 and 7 am. Half an hour before leaving
and half an hour after returning, odd sounds emerged from the depth
of the cave: hissing, shrieking, scrooping increasing in the evening,
diminishing in the morning.
27/03/1963. International Airport, Callao: Ind. hunting undis-
turbed by the noise and the bustle in the waiting hall of the airport
at midnight. Tere is plenty of prey futtering around the numerous
neonlights.
27/07/1963. Pisco, Ica: Te frst ind. appears at dusk (around 6
pm). Soon there is a second and a third ind. hunting over the plaza
and the adjacent buildings.
04/09/1963 - 11/03/1964. Laguna Villa, south of Lima: Te frst
ind. appears at 17:45/18:10. Later in increasing numbers hunting
over the totoral.
16/10/1963. Panamericana Sur, Hipdromo Monterrico/Lima:
Te apearance of C. acutipennis coincides with the disapearance of
Pygochelidon cyanoleuca, both insect hunters.
04/01/1964. Urbanizacin Santa Catalina, La Victoria/Lima: Ind.
calling at dawn (05:45).
11/01/1968 - 17/11/1968 - 23/11/1969 - 09/03/1971. Rivermouth
of Rio Mala (Fig. 56), Lima:
Figure 55. Fledgling of Chordeiles acutipennis
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Numerous on all occ.; up to 6 inds. at the same site; hidden on
sandy ground between pebbles (Fig. 59), beneath scrub or perched
on low branches (Fig. 58). In late afternoon 2 or 3 inds. chasing each
other in fight (Fig. 57).
Calls (recorded exclusively on 17/11/1968): During fight or on
the ground. When calling on the ground, C. acutipennis rises its head,
displaying its white throat. Song: a soft, cooing croocroocoorrr; call:
a chicken-like gwaagwaagwaa.
15/02/1972. Mirafores/Lima: Ind. hunting at dawn (05.45) with
the street lighting still switched on.
134. Nyctidromus albicollis
04/08/1963. Teresita (today San Francisco), Rio Apurmac, Aya-
cucho, 600 m:
Ind. netted on the beach of the river; length 23 cm.
14-20/01/1970. Panguana Research Station, Rio Llullapichis,
Hunuco, 300 m: Common; hunting at dusk over the stream. Song
and courting display performed on sandy ground in a clearing at dusk
and during the night. Song at normal level: hewthewthewt; excited:
hwewhwEEw. Te song is accompanied by awkward jumps, the white
tailfeathers conspicuously shining in the dark. If one gets too close to
a courting male, it emits an alarmed growl.
135. Caprimulgus longirostris
Sightings
Lima: Rmac Valley 800-1100/3000 m, Santa Eulalia Valley
1800/3300 m, Lomas de Pacta 300 m
Ayacucho: Between Puquio and Coracora in open Polylepis wood
at 4000 m
Voice.- Song: a soft, but far-reaching pEEewr emitted at irregular
intervals; when fushed a sharp, repeated ooc.
Te following records refer to the Quebrada California, Chosica,
Lima, 800-1100 m:
14/09/1963. On a foggy morning at 05:30, corresponding song of
two ind. at the edge of the partially irrigated area.
13/10/1963. Two breeding sites:
Site I at 1000 m on a steep slope with sparse vegetation (Fig. 60).
One white egg (19.5x22.5 mm) beneath a ledge. It lays on the bare
ground on a thin layer of dust in a subtly scratched out hollow (13 cm
in diam.). Te breeding ad. fushed at short distance.
Site II at 1100 m at a distance of about 300 m from site I on fat,
bare hilltop. Eggshell beneath a slightly crooked boulder. Diam. of the
hollow ca. 10 cm.
Figure 56-59. Chordeiles acutipennis. (56) Habitat, (57) in fight at dusk, (58) roosting, (59) an individual of Chordeiles acutipennis.
Figure 60. Nesting site of Caprimulgus longirostris (--- shaded area)
(56)
(57)
(58)
(59)
11/04/1965. Several ind. calling between 5 and 6 am. Te voice
emissions come form both sides of the dry quebrada. Last emission
at 5:50.
05/07 + 04/08/1983. On each occ. two inds. fushed. Tey spend
the daytime in the shade of rocks on the bottom of the quebrada.
136. Hydropsalis climacocerca
04/08/1963. Teresita (today San Francisco), Rio Apurmac, Aya-
cucho, 600 m: Male (broad white wing bands, white underparts) caught
in the net on the beach of the river; length 24 cm.
aPodiFormeS
aPodidae
137. Streptoprocne rutila
25/07-02/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m:
Appears occ. over the Fundacin Kaufmann.
06/03/1972. Cochabamba, Cajamarca, 1600 m: Large, loose group
hunting temporarily over the village.
10/03/1972. Cajamarca, 2600 m: Hunting in large numbers over
the airfeld.
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Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
138. Streptoprocne zonaris
Sightings
NP: La Libertad 1500/2400 m
CP: Ancash 3400 m, Lima* 100-3200 m, Pasco 2600 m, Hunuco
3100 m
SP: Cusco 3600 m
*Rmac/Santa Eulalia Valley at all levels from 200 (Vitarte) to 3100
m (San Pedro de Casta). No sightings over the urban area of Lima.
Behavior/Habitat.- Hunting solitary, in pairs and in small to large
(rare) focks over cultivated land, lomas, arid and semi-humid montane
scrub; also over villages.
31/08/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Turning up sev-
eral times at the sunbathed slope of the valley, hunting in company of
Aeronautes andecolus and Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.
24/09/1963. Lomas de Atocongo, south of Lima, 400 m: For a short
time big fock of about 100 inds. hunting over the ridge.
12/06/1966. San Bartolom, Rmac Valley, 1700 m: Close group
of about 20 inds. circling and soaring without wingbeat in a thermal.
139. Chaetura pelagica
Boreal migrant.- Te spearhead of Chaetura migration reaches the
urban area of Lima on the frst days of Nov, reaching its climax in mid
Dec and declining rapidly in the frst half of Jan. Only scattered records
in Lima outside main period (Oct 1x, Feb 2x, Apr 3x).
Records outside Lima: 11.02. Tambo de Mora, Ica; 21.01. Mo-
quegua, Moquegua, 1600 m; 17.02. Huacachina, Ica; 21.11./27.11.
Canta Valley, Lima 500 m; 27.12. Huaura Valley, Lima, up to 600 m.
Te following records refer to Mirafores/Lima:
04/11/1963. 6 pm: Hundreds of Ch. pelagica swirling around the
high-rise of El Pacfco before departing for their (unknown) roosting
place.
Nov/Dec 1968-1973. Daily in small groups of 5-10 inds. along
the tipa-lined anvenues, fying low over the tree tops. (Recorded at
the same period in other dirstricts of Lima: Ciudad de Dios, S. Isidro,
Jess Maria, La Victoria, Rmac, Comas and Callao)
First half of Jan 73 Daily over school area; occ. hunting in mixed
groups with Pygochelidon cyanoleuca; on one occ. permanently present
from 8 to 12 am, emitting chirping sounds.
04/01/1973. Flock of 200-300 inds. forming an impressive whirl
over the Centro Comercial of San Antonio.
140. Chaetura brachyura
15-16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700 m:
Hunting noisily in loose groups over deciduous forest.
13/01/1966. Matapalo, Tumbes: Hunting over Bombax forest.
141. Aeronautes montivagus
17-18/02/1967. Machu Picchu/Huayna Pichu, Cusco, 2400-2700
m: In close group over mountain top and hotel, screeching during fight.
142. Aeronautes andecolus
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 2800 m (northernmost record: Jequetepeque Valley),
La Libertad 1500/3300 m
CP: Ancash 100/3500 m, Lima 200-3600 m (at all levels), Huan-
cavelica 2000-2800 m, Ica 300-2000 m
SP: Arequipa 3400 m, Moquegua 1400 m
Behavior.- Occ. solitary, mostly in small or medium sized groups.
31/08/1963. Sta. Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Large group together
with Streptoprocne zonaris and Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.
15/09/1963. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Turns up in great
numbers together with Orochelidon murina as soon as the sunshine
reaches the forest. Tey hunt at canopy-level as well as high over the
forest, attracted by big swarms of mosquitoes.
01-03/11/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Appears daily
in the afternoon in company of O. murina, the latter hunting on a lower
level, the frst at medium and higher altitudes. Both disappear at dusk.
Second half of Sep 64 Ten times recorded at the same place and at
the same time of the day: Below aa, Rmac Valley, Lima, 500 m;
between 5 and 6 pm. Tey leave shortly before sunset.
03/10/1964. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1700 m: Appears at 3 pm
together with O. murina. Great swarms of mosquitoes over pasture land!
trochilidae
143. Colibri coruscan
Sightings/Behavior.- Most sightings in Lima; most frequently
between 2500 an 3500 m. Courting activity - song and fight display
as described in BP - recorded from mid March to the end of July; on
east slope of CP also in Feb (Huariaca, Pasco, 3000-3300 m)
05/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3200 m: Ind. bathing
in an irrigation channel, where the water fows over a slab.
12-13/06/1965. San Bartolom-Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima,
2000-3200 m: Te most numerous hummingbird in montane scrub
and humid montane forest. Courting activity from 6.15 am to dusk,
including at noon.
28/07/1967. Cajatambo, Pativilca Valley, Lima, 3400-3600 m:
Numerous in montane scrub. Courting activity early in the morning
at a sun warmed slope. - Ind. preening and straightening its plumage
after bathing in a irrigation channel (slab with shallow water).
02/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m:
Insect hunting ind. performing almost vertical leaps (3-5 m high), at
the edge of a creek.
26/06-03/07/1971. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600-3000 m:
Numerous in montane scrub. Shows a rather agressive behavior: attacks
and persues repeatedly Patagona gigas and on one occ. Falco sparverius.
144. Adelomyia melanogenys
29/07/1965. Huacamochal, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, ca. 2000
m: Ind. perched on a small tree.
28/09/1971. Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Ind. in a lush 4
quebrada perched on Alnus.
145. Polyonymus caroli
Sighted on three occ. in Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000/3100 m:
15/09/1963. Ind. netted at the edge of the forest; length 11,5 cm,
bill 2,5 cm.
12/06/1966. Ind. in open forest.
23/03/1970. Several sightings. Ind. bathing at a well at the upper
fringe of the forest. After the procedure lasting 2-3 min. it carefully
straightens its plumage, perched on a branche of a large Oreopanax.
146. Oreotrochilus melanogaster
(Identifcation of the female not based on physical characteristics
but on geographical distribution; see BP)
25-26/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima: a) 3500 m:
Female hunting insects over a bubbling mountain creek. She repeatedly
crosses the spray. To rest, she perches on polished stones or rather
clings to them in midstream. b) 3700 m: Female hunting low over
the ground in montane scrub. She rests occ. on a stone. c) ca. 4500 m:
Breeding female in a niche in a large boulder about 4 m above ground.
Te nest, a deep, thick walled cup, is 8-10 cm high. It consists mainly
of moss, draped with lichen (Fig. 61).
54
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
26/04/1969. Chumcha, 4100 m: Same scene as 25.03.66 at 3500 m
27/04/1969. Watershed between Sheque and Marcapomacocha,
Lima/Junn, 4700 m: Small lagoon with cushion plants. Male hopping
from plant to plant, performing short leaps to catch insects in the air.
147. Oreotrochilus estella
28/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 4300 m: Male perched on a
scrub at the edge of a lagoon.
01/07/1966. Hacienda Moyn, Rio Chusgn, La Libertad, 3600
m: Male on an overgrown clif.
19/01/1972. Ananea, Puno, 4700 m: Male perched on a protruding
beam of the church.
04/07/1993. Near Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3200 m: Male in
montane scrub with felds, perching in a shady grove (Fig. 62). It repeat-
edly leaps into the air, catching insects. Later feeding on a blooming
violet-red scrub with needle-like thorns.
149. Metallura phoebe
Sightings
NP: La Libertad 3500 m
CP: Ancash 3400-3900 m, Hunuco 3100 m, Lima 3000-4200
m (Coastal Valleys: Pativilca 3400 m, Huaura 3100/3800 m, Canta
3400/3700 m, Rmac 3000 m, Santa Eulalia 3300-4200 m)
19/04/1964. Marcahuasi, Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900
m: Quite numerous on the rocky plateau especially in shrubbery within
the prehispanic ruins.
27-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 3800 m: In light Polylepis
wood; often in pairs; occ. hunting insects over a turbulent stream.
28/06/1965. Yungay-Yanganuco, Ancash, 3500-3900 m: Quite
numerous in Polylepis wood along stream.
01/11/1965. Sheque-Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3600-4200
m: Several sightings in montane scrub and Polylepis wood.
29/07/1966. Marcahuamachuco, La Libertad, 3500 m: Rather
common in dense scrub vegetation covering the prehispanic ruins on
a mountain top.
30/09/1970. Slope of Nevado Sarasara, Ayacucho, 3700 m: Ind. in
scattered Polylepis wood; perched on a tree, it emits a guttural trill. It
leaves its perch twice, aproaching the visitor. It hovers for a moment
in front of me, then returns to the perch. (Similar curiosity recorded
on 01/11/1965).
150. Agleactis cupripennis
25-27/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3300-4300
m: Common in montane scrub and Polylepis wood.
29/07/1966. Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3300 m: Sightings in
montane scrub with scattered felds. When feeding on a blossom, it
often clings to it.
25/05/1967. Viso, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2900 m: Adult feeding
young, perched on a scrub. Te adult pokes its bill repeatedly into the
gorge of the young.
07/07/1968. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Several sightings
in the forest. Te fight display is a kind of dancing in the air: It hovers
for a moment, drops to a lower level, hovers again, turns around in full
circle, raises again etc.
24/25/04/1971. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600-4100
m: Omnipresent in Polylepis wood: perched on an outer branch of a tree
or feeding on blossoms especially Phrygilanthus. Ind. netted (Fig. 63).
07/04/2003. Laguna Purhuay, Huari, Ancash, ca. 3500 m: Com-
mon in montane scrub and Alnus forest around lake. Ind. sunbathing
on a branch, its back exposed to the sun, head turned aside, feathers
fufed; with hanging wings and spread out tail (Fig. 64). Tis attitude
is interrupted 4-5 times by briefy scratching the warmed up side of
the head (it is always the same side).
Figure 61. Oreotrochilus melanogaster breeding.
Figure 62. Oreotrochilus estella.
Figure 63. Agleactis cupripennis.
148. Metallura thyriantina
Four records (1963, 1965, 1966, 1970) in humid montane forest
of Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m:
15/09/1963. Ind. caught in the net at forest edge; length 9 cm,
bill 1,4 cm.
13/06/1965. Ind. singing, perched on a bare branch in the shade of
the forest: a high twitter alternating with a guttural rattle; head stretched
out, throat feathers fufed.
55

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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
151. Boissoneaua matthewsi
28/02/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2000 m: Fields and
pastures with scattered forest relics: Ind. feeding on banana blossoms,
occ. clinging to the inforescence.
02/03/1972. Same place, 2400 m: Ind. feeding on Fuchsia at the
edge of the humid montane forest.
152. Patagona gigas
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 2400 m, La Libertad (Maran Valley) 2400 m.
CP: Ancash 2600-3700m, Pasco 2600/3000-3300 m, Lima 1800-
4100 m (most frequently between 2600 and 3700 m).
SP: Ayacucho 3000-4000 m, Cusco 2700/3000/3800 m, Arequipa
3000-3500 m, Puno 3800 m.
Lowest record: San Bartolom, Rmac Valley, Lima, 1800 m (BP
2000 m).
Voice.- Call: a sharp qp often given in fight; song: a sputtering chatter.
28/03/1964. Surco, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2300 m: Numerous on
steep slope of montane scrub. On several occ. two inds. (probably ri-
valing males) engage in a kind of whirl dance and pursuit fight, some
times high up in the air. (Similar behavior: 02/08/1966, Aricapampa,
Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m).
01/11/1965. Sheque-Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600-
3800 m: Common in montane scrub. Ind. perched on a cactus,
capturing insects. After each foray it returns to the same perch (four
successful forays in a row).
03/12/1966. Same place, 3300-4100 m: Numerous in montane
scrub; some with yellow marks (pollen) on their forheads. Ind. repeat-
edly fying low over a creek, dipping its bill into the water, touching
the surface with its tail. One record in Polylepis wood.
06-12/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600-3600 m:
Common in riparian vegetation, felds and montane scrub. Favoured
feeding source: blooming Agavae. Often hunting insects at the edge of
the stream, perched on exposed branches. Ind. makes 8-10 forays in 5
min.; max. distance 20 m.
08/07/1979. Yauyos, Caete Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Ind. perform-
ing acrobatic twists, while hunting insects in the air. Does not return
to the perch after each foray, occ. stays hovering for some moments in
search of a new prey.
06/04/2003. Baos de Chavn, Ancash, 3300 m: Ind. appears twice
over torrential stream. It whirls around, hovers, bounces up and down,
like in a ballet performance.
153. Myrtis fanny
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 1600/2600 m, Lambayeque 200 m.
CP: Lima 100-3600 m.
Highest record: Huaura Valley, Lima, 3600 m (BP 3200 m).
21/07/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Up to 4 inds. si-
multaneously hunting insects over a shallow pond formed by the stream.
When they need a rest and they often do they perch on exposed
branches close to the water. Tey dont take any notice of each other.
01/09/1963. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima,
800 m: Male performing fight display, a kind of pendular dance in
front of a perched female.
13/10/1963. Same place: A dozen of M. fanny buzzing around
blooming Euclayptus trees, sometimes engaging in whirl dances or
pursuit fights.
19/10/1963. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m: Very
numerous on a cold, foggy day. Excellent food supply in lush herbal
vegetation with a high percentage of Lamiaceae. Up to 6 inds. perched
on small trees and Agavae.
154. Rhodopis vesper
Sightings
CP: Lima 0-500/900/1600-2600 m
SP: Ica 200 m, Moquegua 1500 m
Habitat: Regularly in gardens of La Victoria/Lima and Mirafores/
Lima, also in riparian vegetation, arid and semi-humid montane
scrub, lomas.
Behavior/Voice: Feeding on a great variety of blossoms; only two
records hunting insects. Emits a guttural tserrr,tserr, while moving from
blossom to blossom.
Mid Sep 1966. Chancay Valley, Lima, 500 m: 2 inds. circling and
hovering around blooming Salix, probably in search of insects.
Mid Oct 1966. La Victoria/Lima: Male and female feeding daily on
Hibiscus ( but never at the same time); on one occ. R. vesper is chased
away by Troglodytes aedon.
31/01/1972. Moquegua, Moquegua, 1500 m: 2 inds. in hotel gar-
den; male feeding on banana blossoms, female on Hibiscus, piercing
the fower from the side.
16/09/1972. Punta Hermosa, 45 km south of Lima: Several inds.
in a patch of vegetation in a dry valley, where they feed on numerous
trumpet- and cone-shaped blossoms.
04/08/1983. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, 900
m: Pair in dry quebrada feeding on a fowering columnar cactus. Later
hovering around a non-blooming specimen, prossibly searching for ants.
155. Thaumastura cora
Sightings.- Lima, Rmac Valley: 0/100/800/2000-2800 m; regular-
ly in gardens of Mirafores/Lima and Urbanizacin California, Chosica,
Lima. Only one record outside Lima: Casma Valley, Ancash, 1300 m.
Behavior/Voice.- Males often engage in rivalries and pursuit fights
emitting sharp calls (tsc) or an excited chatter. If they get very close,
they spread out their long tail feathers (90 and more). Song is given
from a perch and lasts several seconds: a hurried, squeezed, intermit-
tent chatter. Additional sounds emitted during fight: tstseretse or
qseeqseeqsdede.
01/05/1968. Outskirts of Mirafores/Lima: Meeting on two young
Salix at the edge of a cotton feld: Male settles on one of the trees. A
newcomer provokes him. Tey engage in a short aerial contest. Need-
ing a rest, each chooses its own branch on a seperate tree. Tats when
a third male shows up. He tries in vain to engage the two in another
contest. For a while, the three remain perched at a safe distance from
Figure 64. Agleactis cupripennis sunbathing.
56
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
each other. Occ. they communicate with a twitter: strere,strere,
their throat feathers glittering in the evening sun. Afterward, two
of them leave the site, pursuing each other. Te third moves on to a
neighbouring irrigation channel, where he starts insect hunting in a
jerky criss-cross fight.
Mid of Oct to end of Nov 1969. Mirafores/Lima: Male appears
regularly in our garden
09/11/1969. Same place: Male feeding on Coleus. In 1 min it visits
122 of the tiny blue blossoms; thats an average of two blossoms per
second! When feeding on Tropaeolum, it does not penetrate the blos-
som from the front, but from the side.
Second half of Feb 1972 Same place: Male sings daily in our garden,
perched on a bare branch of an Eucalyptus tree.
13/3/1972. Same place: Pair whirling the whole day long around
Eucalyptus, chattering in fight. Regularly heard and seen during the fol-
lowing week; occ. 3 and in one oportunity 4 inds. pursuing each other.
156. Campylopterus largipennis
28/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Ind. netted at forest edge; length 14 cm, bill 2,6 cm
02/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Hunuco, 800 m:
Ind. at forest edge.
157. Myrmia micrura
14-15/02/1964. Hacienda San Jacinto, Piura: Ind. repeatedly
perched on a dwarf palm within reach of a sprinkler.
158. Amazilia amazilia
Sightings.- Coast from Piura to Ica, up to 800 m; higher elevations:
Cajamarca 1600 m (east slope), La Libertad 1500 m (west slope).
Most records in gardens and parks of Mirafores/Lima.
Voice.- Call (often given in fight): a series of sharp whistles, like
tseetseetsuctsuc. Song consists of an intense, sustained chatter (wtsegege)
and a guttural trill (trrrut,trrut), emitted from a perch, often a bare
branch of a tree or a bush, occ. from a tree top. Attitude: With bill
slightly opened and aimed upward, the throat feathers intermittently
raised, it turns its head constantly from one side to the other.
Courting/Breeding.- Mirafores/Lima: Judging from the song activ-
ity, there seems to be two reproduction periods: one from February to
April, the other from July to October.
Oct. 1963. Mirafores/Lima: Ind. hunting insects by snatching
them from underneath the leaves of a tree, a method, that I have not
recorded since.
26/07 - 01/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500
m: Common in montane scrub and orchards around the Fundacin
Kaufmann. Nest-building and breeding on a Tuja tree about 3
m above ground. Te neatly done, cup-like nest is placed on a thin
branch, that serves as a precarious platform (Fig. 65/66). It consists
mainly of fne, vegetal fbers; the outside is camoufaged with moss
and lichen. Measures: Outer diam. 4 cm, inner diam. 2,5 cm, height
3 cm. Nest-building: Ind. arrives with nesting material. It settles in
the almost fnished nest and begins to reinforce the rim and the wall
by rapidly moving its bill up and down, resembling an old-fashioned
sewing machine. Before leaving again, it carries out a full turn, still
sitting in the nest, its body vibrating (possibly to consolidate the
nest and give it its fnal form). After completing the nest (27/08),
A. amazilia does not show up for four days. On 01/08. I found a
clutch of 2 white eggs. One of the ad. begins to breed immediately
(Observation discontinued).
26-28/02/1967. Mirafores/Lima: Ind. singing in our garden on
three consecutive days between 7.00 and 8.30 pm (on one occ. also at
4.00 pm) always using the same perch.
22/08/1967. Same place: Ind. feeding on Hibiscus (with curled up
blossom). To reach the nectar, it makes use of holes at the base of the
blossoms, that have been worked out primarily by Sporophila simplex.
01/05/1968. Same place: Ind. bathing in an irrigation channel
bordering a cotton feld. Its vigorous movements make the water
drops fy around.
July 1970. Same place: Despite an extraordinary damp winter, ind.
sings regularly on top of Eucalyptus, mostly around midday.
12/08/1970. Same place: Ind. approaches an abandoned nest of
Carduelis magellanica on a Casuarina. Poking into the nest, it extracts
a sizable batch of cotton and fies away with it.
November 1970. Same place: Ind. often foraging on the blue blos-
soms of a Salvia. Occ. it grabs hold of a blossom, but mostly moves
hurriedly from one blossom to the next. It manages to visit 27 blossoms
in 40 sec.
April 1971. Same place: Song given regularly between 6.00 and
7.00 am.
04-13/02/1972. Same place: Ind. sings daily on Eucalyptus.
09-14/07/1976. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley,
Lima, 800 m: Numerous; feeding on Lantana hedges, presently one
of the few blooming plants. Tey pause only a fraction of a second at
each of the tiny blossoms.
End of July 1988 Same place: Daily in the garden and the scrub
covered neighborhood, where A. amazila favors a 2 m high Lamiaceae
with orange-red blossoms. A feeding ind. does not tolerate others, that
try to feed at the same plant. Frequent pursuit fights are the result.
29/03/2003. Pariacoto, Casma Valley, Ancash, 1200-1400 m: Com-
mon in orchards and river edge vegetation. Ind. passes low over quiet
fowing creek, touching the surface of the water or slightly plunging
into it; then it disappears for a short time in the riparian thicket. Te
procedure is repeated 4-5 times.
Figure 65. Amazila amazila: nest with clutch.
Figure 66. Amazila amazila: breeding.
57

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
159. Amazilia franciae
08/07/1993. Chagual, Rio Maran, La Libertad, 1300 m: Ind.
perched on a lower branch of a tree, hunting insects; occ. foraging on
Passifora and a climber with greenish-yellow blossoms. It returns each
time to the same perch.
11/07/1993. Zarumilla/Pataz, La Libertad, 2700 m: Feeding on
Cactus, Pitcairnia, Eucalyptus and a climbing Leguminosae.
coraciiFormeS
alcedinidae
160. Megaceryle torquata
Sightings
Coast: Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Lima.
Amazonia: Loreto, San Martn, Hunuco, Ucayali, Madre de Dios.
07/01/1966. Mouth of Rio Jequetepeque, La Libertad: Ind. fshing
in brackwater lagoon. Also seen hovering over salt water near the beach.
09/03/1971. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima (only record in the Depart-
ment of Lima): Appears on three occ. over the lagoon bordered with
Typha, hovering about 4 m above the water; occ. calling tractractrac.
29/01/1973. Rio Utiquinilla, abaou 50 km northeast of Pucallpa,
Ucayali, 200 m: Common; mostly perched at the edge of streams and
oxbow lakes; also skimming low over the water, grabbing fsh, that
venture too close to the surface.
161. Chloroceryle americana
Sightings
NP: Lambayeque Coast, La Libertad Coast/300/500 m
CP: Lima: Lurin Valley 100/200/500/600/900/1100/1400/1500/
1700 m, Chancay Valley 500 m, Mala Valley sealevel/200 m, Caete
Valley 400 m.
Behavior.- Perched along streams and irrigation channels on branches
above ponds or slow fowing water, rarely higher than 2 m; also on stones
in midstream, on roots in the riverbank; on one occ. on a telephone wire.
02/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 200 m: Two seperate ind. in fight.
Te clear stream is teaming with small fsh. Regurgitated remains of
prey on a fat stone.
13/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 500 m: Ind. in fight; perch in
dense vegetation at the edge of the stream: the horizontal branch is
marked with droppings; underneath fshbones and scales.
22-23/06/1963. Lurin Valley, Lima, 600 m: Breeding site: Two
tunnels in a vertical clay wall bordering the stream, one occupied (Fig.
68) the other unused; three additional unfnished tunnels distributed
at a length of about 15 m, 1-1,5 m above the stream. An old tunnel,
partially destroyed by a landslide, contains eggshells, fshbones and lots
of crawfsh leftovers. Feeding activity between 7.00 and 8.00 am: Ad.
leaves the tunnel, its partner approaches the site, its bill charged with
food (probably small crawfsh). Aware of my presence, it approaches
the site reluctantly, fnally disappears in the tunnel. Male (Fig. 67+69)
and female caught in the net.
24/10/1964. Chancay Valley, Lima, 500 m: 2 inds. along irrigation
channel, pursuing each other, emitting sharp whistles.
19/01/1967. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: At a length of 2 km at least
2 pairs. Ind. darts vertically from its perch in pursuit of a prey. Shortly
afterward the same ind. fies low over the pond, barely touching the
surface, when catching fsh.
17/11/1968. Same place: Pair perched on a bush at the edge of the
stream. One of them emits a guttural call trctrctrc.
momotidae
162. Momotus momota
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 800 m: 2
seperate inds. in deciduous forest.
GalBuliFormeS
GalBulidae
163. Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis
02/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m: 4 inds.
perched quietly on a tree at the edge of a clearing. One of them returns
from a hunting foray with an insect. Before swallowing it, it turns and
shifts the prey circuitously in its long bill.
27/01 - 02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: (BP
maintains, that Pucallpa belongs to the distribution area of Galbal-
cyrhynchus purusianus, conceding that the two species approach one
another along central Rio Ucayali.) Rather common; it favors forest
edges along rivers and lakes. Mostly 2, 3 or 4 inds. together, perched
on a branch. In contrast to the motionless body, the head is constantly Figure 67. Male of Chloroceryle americana.
Figure 68. Chloroceryle americana: entrance of breeding tunnel.
Figure 69. Chloroceryle americana: left foot.
58
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
turning around, looking for fying insects. One ind. arrives with a drag-
onfy, another with a large beetle. To crash the rigid carapace, it bangs
its bill several times against the perch until it manages to swallow the
prey. Contact call: tseetsee-turrturr; alarm call: qYapqYap.
164. Galbula cyanescens
28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martin, 400 m: Ind. perched in a shady
quebrada.
18/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Lluallapichis, Hu-
nuco, 300 m: Ind. perched at the edge of the forest on an exposed
branch. It moves its head up and down or shifts it from one side to
the other. It performs several forays to catch fying insects. On one
occ. it returns with a large butterfy (Fig. 70). Twisting and turning it
in its bill, one of the wings breaks of, then the other. While the wings
are tumbling down slowly, the body of the butterfy is falling fast. But
before it reaches the ground, G. cyanescens catches it in the air. It returns
to the perch to swallow it in a swoop.
17/07/1976. Between Puente Inambari and Quincemil, Cusco, ca.
500 m: Ind. returns with an insect to its perch in the forest.
05/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m: Ind.
perched on the dead top of a tree.
PiciFormeS
caPitonidae
168. Capito aurovirens
24/01 - 02/02/1973. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Ucayali, 200 m: Several
sightings in humid forest. Calling ind. perched on a branch, twitching
its wings: crrrewcrrrew. - Chorus song given by a group perched on
a tree: One ind. begins, immediately followed by 2 or 3 others. Te
metronome like notes resemble the croaking of frogs. A sequence lasts
10-15 sec, then the group falls silent for quite a while.
169. Capito auratus
16/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Ind. at the edge of the forest capturing insects by climbing
skillfully through branches and lianas.
170. Eubucco richardson
16/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Llullapichis, Hnuco,
300 m: Ind. at the edge of the forest, hunting insects in dense foliage.
171. Eubucco versicolor
21/09/1968. Yaupi, Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, ca. 2000 m: 2 or 3
inds. in an isolated group of trees at the edge of the humid montane
forest, calling simultaneously: a soft purrr. One ind. collected by a local.
ramPhaStidae
172. Ramphastos tucanus
14-20/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis,
Hunuco, 300 m: Regularly near the station perched on high trees.
Distinctive song given individually or in duet. It consists of alternating
high (qewc) and low notes (qyac), both being repeated in an irregular
manner. Te performing ind. raises its bill in accordance with the high
notes, while accompanying the low ones by turning its head from one
side to the other.
173. Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis
21/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2300 m: Ind. on a steep slope
in a patch of humid montane forest.
174. Pteroglossus castanotis
24/01/1970. Fundo Helvetia, Tingo Maria, Hunuco, 800 m: Ind.
perched on a tree in a cofee plantation (Fig. 71).
Figure 70. Galbula cyanescens with prey.
Figure 71. Pteroglossus castanotis.
Bucconidae
165. Notharchus hyperrhynchus
24/03/1903. Posada Amaznica (observation tower), Rio Tam-
bopata, Madre de Dios: Pair in canopy perched on a dry branch.
166. Monasa nigrifrons
28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martn, 300 m: Several ind. on a bush
in dense vegetation at the edge of a forest creek.
14-20/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis,
Hunuco, 300 m: Common; they perch in trees individually or in
small groups, motionless. Lively and sustained song given in chorus.
As one ind. begins, others join in. Te song begins slowly and quietly,
becoming louder and faster (up to 15 notes in 5 sec), at the climax,
the chatter turns into a trill.
01-06/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Yurimaguas, Loreto, 200 m:
Quite numerous; hunting insects in the shady part of the forest as well
as in clearings; also perched on solitary trees; often several ind. together.
2 inds. perched very closely on a mighty Ficus tree at the edge of the
lake. Song: an uninterrupted chatter given in duet.
167. Chelidoptera tenebrosa
25-31/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martn, 300 m: Sporadic; in clear-
ings and at river edge. Breeding tunnel at river bank: Pair arriving
and departing.
31/01/1970. Puerto Inca, Rio Pachitea, Hunuco, 300 m: On a
limited trajectory of the river rather numerous. 2 or 3 inds. perched
conspicuously on stakes or dead trees, hunting insects.
03/07/1972. La Merced, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Ind.
hunting insects from a high pole.
59

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
05/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: 3
inds. in a group of trees surrounded by second growth. One of them is
hopping from branch to branch of a Cecropia, probably collecting ants.
175. Pteroglossus beauharnaesii
24/03/2003. Posada Amaznica (observation tower), Rio Tam-
bopata, Madre de Dios: Group of several ind. in canopy of humid forest.
Picidae
176. Picumnus sclateri
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700-800
m: Several sightings of foraging pairs in deciduous forest.
177. Picumnus dorbignyanus
20/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2000 m: Ind. perched on a
small tree in relic of humid montane forest.
178. Melanerpes cruentatus
30/06/1969. Mazamari near Satipo, Junn, 800 m: Several inds.
on a cleared slope on isolated dead trunks, often 2 or 3 inds. together.
Call: (trrr) gragragra.
13/01/1970. Hacienda Helvetia, Tingo Maria, Hunuco, 800 m:
Common; gregarious; on dead trunks in cofee plantation. 3 or 4
inds. together on the same trunk, that features many nest-holes. Two
ind. (pair?) have choosen a special hole for inspection. Te group is
quite busy, occ. emitting their resounding call. Ind. pecking at the
blossoms of Cecropia.
23/01/1970. Between Divisoria and Tingo Maria, Hunuco, 1400
m: Ind. on a tree in tea plantation.
03/07/1972. La Merced, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 1000 m:
Group in second growth wandering from tree to tree, occ. calling. When
foraging, they do not only climb upwards, backwards and sidewise but
also head down.
07/02/1999. Moyobamba, San Martn, 800 m: Ind. on top of a
dead tree, persistently preening its plumage.
179. Veniliornis passerinus
27-28/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martn, 300 m: Ind. on a river island,
drumming on a thin, dry trunk. It is driven away by Chrysoptilus punc-
tigula. Another ind. on a tree in cultivated plot.
180. Veniliornis fumigatus
30/07/1965. Between Hacienda Chuqizongo and Huaranchal,
Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1800 m: Ind. in montane scrub with
scattered trees.
31/07/1976. Baos Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca,
2800 m: Ind. on lichen-covered tree situated in a relic of humid
montane forest.
10-11/07/1993. Pataz, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2800 m: Ind.
in quebrada with lush vegetation. Another ind. inspecting a breeding
hole in a dead trunk of Agave. Te trunk (about 5 m high with broken
of top) features 5 holes, all on the same side (towards the valley); diam.
of the entrances ca. 4 cm.
181. Colaptes atricollis
Sightings
NP: Lambayeque 600 m; La Libertad, Maran Valley, 1200/2400 m.
CP: Lima sealevel/1300-3100 m*.
SP: Arequipa 2200/3400 m.
* Coastal valleys: Huaura 2600/2700 m, Canta 1600 m, Rmac/
Santa Eulalia 1700-3100 m, Lurin 1700/2400 m, Mala sealevel,
Caete 1300 m
Vertical distribution acording to BP 600-2800 m; difering records:
Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima, sea level; Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima,
3100 m; Pampamarca, Cotahuasi Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m.
Behavior/Voice.- Solitary or in pairs; foraging on trunks and
branches of trees; also on cacti and Agave; occ. on the ground. More of-
ten heard than seen. Resounding song: a slightly descending gugugu
Call: qyac or yEEap.
01-03/11/1964. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Heard and
seen in cultivated land with pastures, orchards and riparian vegetation
with old Schinus trees. Male caught in the net (Fig. 72).
Figure 72. Colaptes atricollis: left foot.
03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m:
Ind. on the ground beside a small creek, probing the humid ground.
17/11/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Pair engaged in courting
activity: First perched on a large Salix, then on Tessaria. Tey approach
each other up to 30 cm, calling intermittently, while performing a
metronome-like movement with their body (Fig. 73).
Figure 73. Colaptes atricollis: courting display.
05/04/1969. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1700 m: Fallen Alnus trunk in
riparian wood with breeding hole; originally about 5 m above ground
(Fig. 74).
Figure 74. Colaptes atricollis: section through breeding hole.
A
C
B
D
E
A= 5,5 6,3 cm
B= 9,0 10 cm
C= 36,5 cm
D= 3 4 cm
E= 6 8 cm
F= 20 cm
60
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
19/04/1970. Same place: 4 breeding holes in a live Alnus (Fig. 75).
Te holes are placed within the dead core of the tree. Te lowest one
is about 2 m above ground; distance between the entrances about 50
cm; diam. of the holes 5-6 cm, horizontal depth 10-11 cm.
14/07/1988. Achoma, Colca Valley, Arequipa, 3400 m: Pair on
pasture among numerous Vanellus resplendens.
05/07/1993. Huamachuco, La Libertad, 3000 m: Numerous in
the ruins of Viracochapampa, which are partially covered by dense
vegetation. Te conspicuous birds perch on the crumbling stonewalls,
on trees and bushes. Te resounding calls are ubiquitous: A series of
similar notes: qyacac, yacyacqyac, intensifed in fight.
19/01/1999. Llullapuquio, Jequtepeque Valley, Cajamarca, 3300-
3600 m: Occ. in Paramo and pasture land. 3 inds. engaged in group
display on a grass-roofed hut. A perforated wall of an uninhabited
adobe construction is visitited every once in a while by C. rupicola.
Te visiting bird may stay for several minutes. It pecks randomly at
the wall and inspects occ. one of the many holes (ca. 25). If another
ind. arrives, the frst generally leaves the site. Some inds. are gathering
on a nearby Sambucus.
18/03/2003. Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: 2 inds. nervously hopping
back and forth on the church roof.
10/04/2003. Pumapampa, Rio Pachacoto, Santa Valley, Ancash,
ca. 4200 m: Common in Puna grassland with Puya stand. 2 to 3 inds.
climbing on trunk and withered inforescence; ind. calling on top of it.
Group display on stone walls and rocks. A large number of C. rupicola
are attracted by an abandoned, roofess adobe house, covered with about
20 holes, two of them punctured. Tey approach the wall in small groups,
visiting the niches, some inds. slipping through the punctured holes.
184. Campephilus haematogaster
05/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: 2 ind.
on an isolated tree in pasture land at the edge of the humid montane
forest. Tey generally move upward with vigorous thrusts, but may
also move backward (Fig. 76).
Figure 76. Campephilus haematogaster.
Figure 75. Colaptes atricollis: Alnus with breeding holes.
182. Colaptes punctigula
27/07/1964. Juanjuy, San Martn, 300 m: Ind. on a river island
chases away a drumming Veniliornis passerinus.
183. Colaptes rupicola
Sightings
NP: Amazonas 2400 m, Cajamarca 3300-3800 m, La Libertad
1700/2500/3000-3800 m
CP: Ancash 3500-4200 m, Lima 2800-4200 m, Pasco 3300-3400
m, Junn 3500/4100-4500 m, Huancavelica 3500/4300 m, Ayacucho
2900 m
SP: Ayacucho 3000-3800 m, Cusco 3000-3600 m, Puno 3900-4300
m, Arequipa 3400/4000 m
Lower limit of distribution according to BP 2700 m. Records below
that level: Hacienda Chuquizongo, Chicama Valley, La Libertad 1700
m; Chachapoyas, Amazonas, 2400 m; Hacienda Cochabamba, between
Huamachuco and Rio Maran, La Libertad, 2500 m.
Habitat.- Puna and Paramo grassland, montane scrub, rocky pla-
teaus and rocky outcrops, Polylepis wood, pastures, cultivated plots,
villages, prehispanic ruins with scrub vegetation.
Behavior/ Voice.- Mostly on the ground; in pairs or small groups;
often perched on stones, rocks or walls; also on roofs, telephone poles,
Eucalyptus and other trees; group display with nearly vertically raised
bill; resounding calls, emitted single or in series; guttural trill.
01/10/1970. Laguna Parinacochas, foot of Nevado Sarasara, Aya-
cucho, 3400 m: Ind. harassing several times a Falco femoralis, perched
on a clif. After the unsuccessful attacks, it settles only a few meters
away from the intruder.
29/08/1971. Pisco Valley, Quebrada de Huaytar, Huancavelica,
3800 m: 3 inds. engaged in group display on a mighty boulder.
20-27/02/1972. Putina-Muani, Puno, 3900-4000 m: Common
in Puna grassland; also in villages. Putina: Ind. calling on top of the
church tower.
18/11/1972. Between Baos and Sta. Cruz, Chancay Valley, Lima,
3800 m: Pair leaves nest-hole at street side.
185. Campephilus rubricollis
01-03/07/1972. La Merced, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Pair
in abandoned plantation carving out a nest-hole in the trunk of an Avo-
cado tree about 4 m above ground; observed on three consecutive days.
PaSSeriFormeS
Furnariidae
186. Geositta peruviana
19/10/1963. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m:
Common in sand loma. Fresh burrow: Te scratched out wet sand is
dispersed evenly in the form of a fan (Fig. 77). In the neighbourhood
several unfnished burrows.
11/09/1965. Same place: Display fight (see BP); only few fresh
burrows.
24/08/1968. Same place: A digged up burrow 130 cm long and 55
cm deep. It is straight and shows no widening at the end; no nesting
material; possibly unfnished.
13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca near Huacachina, Ica: Numerous in
small isolated oasis surrounded by dunes; in light Prosopis wood, but
not in the adjacent desert.
11-21/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: Common in sand
desert adjacent to the riperian vegetation. Ind. performing display
fight.
61

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
187. Geositta tenuirostris
29/09/1970. Laguna Parinacochas near Incahuasi, Ayacucho, 3300
m: Fairly common on extended short-grass felds.
18/09/1971. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400 m: 3 inds. on
a bare plain with scattered trees.
188. Geositta maritima
Sightings
Lima: Canta, Rmac and Lurin Valleys between 600 and 1800 m
in dry quebradas with scarce vegetation.
25/03/1967. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1100-1300 m: Numerous in dry
quebrada with herbal vegetation (end of the rainy season). Solitary or
in small groupes. Song - a short guttural rattle - is heard everywhere as
well as a monosyllabic call. - Ind. carrying food.
11/08/1967. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1200-1700 m: In dry montane
scrub with columnar cacti. Large number gathering at temporary
creek to drink.
189. Geositta crassirostris
Sightings
Lima: Lomas de Lachay, Lomas de Pacta and Santa Eulalia Valley,
2700 m.
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima: Nesting place
in a crevice of a big rock. Both ads. participate in the feeding. Tey ap-
proache the site cautiously, before disappearing into the narrow crevice.
190. Upucerthia jelskii
Sightings.- Andes of CP and SP between 3300 m (Santa Eulalia
Valley, Lima) and 4200 m (Caete Valley, Lima).
29/04/1967. Chumcha, Sta. Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3800 m: Ad.
carrying food disappears in a crevice of a stone wall in montane scrub.
191. Upucerthia serrana
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca and La Libertad between 2800 and 3500 m.
CP: Ancash and Lima between 3300 and 4200 m.
Behavior.- Forages on the ground, running or hopping. It perches
on lower branches in Polylepis wood. When startled, U. serrana emits
shrieking calls.
25-27/03/1966. Chumcha, Sta. Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400 m: Ind.
disappears in a burrow on a scrub covered slope.
04/12/1966. Chumcha, 3900-4200 m: Fairly common in extended
Polylepis forest. Ind. carrying food.
19/11/1972. Baos, Chancay Valley, Lima, 3800 m: Ind. with a
batch of sheep wool. Warns loudly, hopping around nervously. Ten
fies to the opposite side of the valley.
192. Cinclodes fuscus
Vertical distribution.- BP states 2750 m as min. alt.; my lowest
records: Lurin Valley, Lima 1400 and 2000 m.
28/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 4200 m: Nest with young
hidden between two rocks at the shore of a small lake. Te narrow
entrance is at ground level. Both ads. participate in the feeding. Tey
gather their food at the silty shore.
24/07/1966. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1400 m: Ind. gathering food on
river edge in wet sand and between stones, also wading in shallow water,
occ. dipping its head into the water. In one occasion it comes up with
a big, black larva. It drops the prey and picks it up again several times
in a row until fnding the right position to swallow it. Ten it stands
for a long time motionless before resuming the search.
03/12/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3300 m: Several
food-carrying inds. A well developed young begging and fapping
its wings gets fed twice. Song activity begins at 5 am: a repeated
tseetseetseetrrr... Singing ind. rises its wings during song slowly until
reaching a vertical position.
193. Cinclodes taczanowskii
Behavior.- Often in pairs; always close to the sea-shore, gathering
food on washed over rocks without fear of heavy breakers; also on
sandy beaches. Conspicuous courting behavior: Singing and fapping
its wings simultaneously (occ. in duet), while posing on top of a rock.
Voice.- Voice.- a) excited trill in presence of partner, b) prolonged
whinny-like song during fight, c) a sharp tsec.
27/11/1963. Chilca, 60 km south of Lima: Ind. attacks twice a
group of Arenaria interpres, eventually chasing them away.
01/01/1964. Northern end of Playa Conchn, south of Lima: Pair
in an irrigation channel, one foraging, the other bathing in the shal-
low, clear water (provided by a nearby ground water well). It stands
breast-deep in the water, dipping its head again and again into it, at the
same time fapping vigorously its wings. After the bath, it perches on a
stone and proceeds carefully to tidy up its plumage: Te wing feathers
spread and turned to an upright position, it several times combes them
with its bill, putting each feather in its place. Te partner, meanwhile,
continues the search for food, wading Cinclus-like through the water.
Both emit occ. a contact call.
08/08/1972. Playa Chira, south of Lima: Ind. hunting small, about
1 cm long Emerita.
05-08/02/1964. Playa Len Dormido, 80 km south of Lima: Resi-
dent pair at the rocky end of the beach. Tey are searching for food
not only on the rocks but also on the beach, feeding on live as well as
dead Emerita. One ind. is busy pecking at a mussle whashed ashore. It
rips of large pieces, chews on them or tries to cut them up. Another
is holding an Emerita tight with one foot, while eating it gradually .
Whenever a third ind. appears, it is chased away by the pair.
194. Furnarius leucopus
Vertical distribution.- Max. alt: Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m
(BP below 2100 m)
11/01/1964. Near Batn Grande, Lambayeque: Pair in Prosopis
wood: Both participate in building a nest on a horizontal branch of
a tree about 4 m above ground. Tey are busy carrying construction
material to the site. Te nest consists of cow dung mixed with dry grass
and small pieces of wood (remains beneath nesting site).
13/01/1966. Matapalo, Tumbes: Common in Bombax wood. F.
leucopus frequents the numerous puddles, that have formed on the road
after rainfall. Tere, they fnd the material needed for nest-building.
17/01/1966. Near Zaa, Lambayeque: Numerous nests on old Salix
and Prosopis lining a rice feld (5 on a single willow)
195. Phleocryptes melanops
26/10/1963. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Small patch (about
10x10 m) of totora young growth with 6 nests in diferent stages. Te
Figure 77. Burrow of Geositta peruviana.
62
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
dark colour of one of them indicates, that it is under construction. Te
relatively low position of the nests ( at an average of 1 m) is due to the
height of the vegetation (about 1.5 m). Two nests are only 30 cm apart
from each other, another two about 40 cm.
It seems, that the male starts building several nests at a time, whereas
the female fnally chooses one of them for breeding. Some of the nests
are left unfnished or are not suitable for breeding. (Fig. 78-80).
Nest with clutch at the edge of totora patch, about 2,5 m high.
Te extremely robust, egg-shaped nest is suspended from fve stems of
Typha. Measures: 15 cm high, 10 cm wide: entrance 3 cm. Contains
three bluish-green, identical eggs, measuring 19x24 mm.
09/11/1963. Same place: Nests I-IV (Fig. 82) are situated at a height
of 2-2,5 m, nest V at 60 cm. Tey are suspended from three or more
stems of Typha; three nests with fedglings, two with eggs (two eggs
each). Minimal distance between two occupied nests: 20 m. In the
neighberhood of each occupied nest, there are one or two unfnished
ones. Exclusive building material seems to be Typha fbers, which in a
wet, half-rotten state are excellently suitable for weaving. Te studied
nests vary in height between 12 and 18 cm. Te entrances are between
2,5-3 cm wide and 1,6-2 cm high.
27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Several nests
in Scirpus covered, small ponds, 20-40 cm above water. At one place,
three nests are only 1 m apart from each other, one of them is under
construction. Ad. is leaving its nest, which is suspended from several
Scirpus stems, hanging in a slanted position close to the water surface.
18/11/1967. Totoral de Villa: Nest with clutch of three eggs near
the edge of a small patch of totora situated about 3 m high (Fig. 81).
13/02/1970. Laguna Orovilca near Huacachina, Ica: Present in the
totoral of this isolated, small oasis surrounded by dunes. Te nearest
cultivated land is about 5 km away.
15/01/1973. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Song activity
in the small ponds with Typha and Scirpus. Fresh nest at initial stage.
18/07/1988. Near Chincheros, Cusco, 3600 m: Present in small,
Scirpus covered lagoon. Ind. futters from stem to stem close to the
water surface, picking up small portions of algae and other foating
vegetal fbers, presumably using it as building material.
12/03/2003. Lago Titicaca, Puno, 3800 m: Ind. snatches insects
from the Limnaceae covered surface of the lake, hopping from stem
to stem.
Figure 79. Phleocryptes melanops:
atypical unfnished nest.
Figure 80. Phleocryptes melanops: unfnished and abandoned nests.
Figure 81. Phleocryptes melanops: at nest. Figure 78. Phleocryptes melanops: defective product of its nest-
building fervor.
63

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
198. Asthenes cactorum
Regularly sighted above Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac
Valley, Lima, 800-900 m in dry quebrada with columnar cacti:
24/09/1964. Ind. hunting insects in crevices of rocks, beneath
stones, in dry scrub and on columnar cacti.
Figure 82. Breeding area of Phleopcryptes melanops.
196. Cranioleuca antisensis
Sightings/Habitat.- West slope of CP: Lima: Chumcha, Santa
Eulalia Valley, 4200 m; Zrate, Rmac Valley, 3000 m; in Polylepis wood
and humid montane forest.
Behavior.- Combines the habits and skills of woodpeckers and tit-
spintails. Forages in branch thickets and trees overgrown with moss or
lichen. Climbs upwards on stems and downwards headfrst on slanting
branches. May also hang upside down in beards of lichen or moss.
When serching for hidden insects, it stabs its bill forcefully into cushions
of moss or inspects crevices in the bark.
11-12/06/1966. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima 3000 m: Common
in humid montane forest. Pair engaged in courting ceremony in the
interior of a tree. Male is perched on a horizontal branch. Te more
excited his song (see BP) gets, the more he opens his wings until they
reach a vertical position, rising at the same time single feathers of
the crest. Without interrupting the song, he hops around nervously.
Meanwhile the female goes about foraging without paying attention,
emitting a short call now and then. Only once she can not resist the
courting efort of the male: She sits down close to him, and for a short
moment their bills meet.
197. Asthenes pudibunda
Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m:
15/09/1963. Ind. hunting insects climbing about in a shrub on a
large boulder, which rises above the forest.
13/06/1965. Several inds. in scrub thicket at the edge of the forest.
11-12/06/1966. Several records in light forest and at forest edge;
also on the ground in company with fnches. Pair feeding on a lichen-
covered scrub, calling (26/04/1969)
Sheque-Chumcha, Sta. Eulalia Valley, Lima:
01/11/1965 - 03/12/1966. Several sightings in montane scrub,
3600-3800 m.
26/04/1969. Several sightings in Polylepis wood, 4100 m. Call: a
distinctive, incessant kewwhc, keewwhc.
Figure 83. Asthenes cactorum.
Figure 84. Asthenes cactorum.
11/04/1965. Song activity: soft trill. Call during fight: tsip or tsiAp.
29/08/1965. Courting activity: Intense, prolonged trill. Two or
three inds. chasing each other. Two males singing for a short time
vehemently on the same cactus, with their tails cocked.
11/04/1971. Pair collecting ants on columnar cactus (Fig. 83/84).
Te ants gather in great numbers on cacti, attracted by the juice that
oozes from the blossoms and branches.
31/07/1983 and 04/08/1983 Nine nests recorded in a small que-
64
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
brada in diferent state of conservation; no breeding activity (Fig. 85).
All are situated on columnar cacti at an average height of 1.5 m. Six of
them are placed between two columns (e.g. No. 3), two at ramifcation
(e.g. No. 9). Te nests are true fortresses. Te outside is protected with
spines (not single spines, but a kind of pin-cushion, found in great
numbers at the foot of the cacti). Te construction material consists
of twigs and branches 5 to 10 cm long (max. 20 cm). Te interior is
padded with brown cactus wool. Te nest as a wohle is nearly inde-
structible an amazing achievement for such a fragil bird!
Description of two nests:
N3 (Fig. 87): Height of cactus 1,7 m. Entrance tube: slightly as-
cending, length 14 cm, diam. in front 6-7 cm, at rear 4-5 cm. Te nest
is about 50 cm high, 15-17 cm wide in front and 25 cm on the side.
N9 (Fig. 86/88): Te tube-like entrance is 1,1 m above ground;
its diam. measures 4,5 cm. Height of the nest about 40 cm, width in
front 22 cm (Fig. 86).
Sightings in other areas:
01/10/1967. Hacienda Trapiche, Canta Valley, Lima, 900 m: Ind.
in semi-desert with columnar cacti and scattered scrub.
01/10/1970. Between Sndor and Chparra northwest of Chala,
Arequipa, 2000-2200 m: Several sightings; nests on columnar cacti.
199. Asthenes humilis
06/07/1993. Between Chugay and Aricapampa, La Libertad, 3500
m: Ind. hunting insects in Paramo grassland, often performing short
leaps in order to glean prey from stones or low vegetation.
200. Asthenes dorbignyi
29/09/1970. Slopes of Nevado Sarasara, Ayacucho, 3700 m: Fairly
common in sparse but extended Polylepis wood. Foraging in the trees,
only once on the ground. Often raising tail. Song begins with a dry
treetreetree followed by a descending tweetweetweetwee. Call: a fne
trill at the same pitch.
03/03/2003. Between Arequipa and Las Salinas, Arequipa, ca. 3500
m: Montane scrub with Polylepis. Bulky nests on scrub; no birds sighted.
Nests on two scrubs about 50 m apart, one with one, the other with
three nests (two on top of each other).
dendrocolaPtidae
201. Sittasomus griseicapillus
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, 700-800m:
Several sightings in deciduous forest.
202. Lepidocolaptes souleyetii
Sightings/Habitat
NP: Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque in semi-humid Bombax forest
and dry Prosopis forest up to 600 m.
Behavior.- Examines crevices in the bark of Prosopis by holding its
head in a slanted position. Tanks to its long and slender bill, it is able
to extract prey, that is inaccessible for other birds.
15/02/1964. Hacienda Mallares near Sullana, Piura, 400m: Begging
young on a Prosopis.
thamnoPhilidae
203. Sakesphorus bernardi
Sightings/Habitat
NP: Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad; in deciduous for-
est, semi-humid and dry forest and scrub. Highest record: Hacienda
Chuquizongo, Cicama Valley, La Libertad, 1700 m (BP: below 1200
m on west slope).
Behavior.- Perches quietly on branches, often rising crest, occ.
bobbing tail downwards. Very conspicuous vocal emissions (> BP).
12/01/1966. Near Puerto Pizarro, Tumbes: Pair in semi humid
vegetation with trees, scrub and cacti, hunting insects; twice feeding
each other. On one occ. female feeds male, on the other it is not clear,
who is feeding whom.
204. Myrmotherula axillaris
18/01/1970. Panguana Research Station, Rio Llullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Male netted at edge of primary forest.
205. Cercomacra cinerescens
17/01/1970. Panguana Research Station, Rio Lullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Pair netted in humid forest, 1 m above ground (BP: in midstory
and canopy; forages higher than other Cercomacra).
Grallariidae
206. Grallaria andicolus
Sightings
NP: Hacienda Moyn, Rio Chusgn, La Libertad, 3600 m.
CP: Lima: Huaura and Santa Eulalia Valleys (Chumcha) between
3300 an 4300 m.
Figure 85. Empty circle: nest decaying or unfnished; flled circle:
nest in good condition.
Figure 86. Asthenes cactorum, interior of nest 9
Figure 87- 88. Asthenes cactorum, nest 3 y 9.
s
t
e
e
p slope
ca. 300 m
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
8
Asthenes cactorum: location plan of nesting site
N3 N9
65

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
Habitat/Behavior.- Mostly on grass covered ground, open montane
scrub and sparse Polylepis wood. Shy; when aroused, takes cover im-
mediatly in thicket or on a tree.
Voice.- Because of its characteristic voice and its secretive behavior,
G. andicolus is more often heard than seen. Its melancholic trill psEEErrr
ascends slightly at the beginning and descends abruptly at the end. Song
activity begins early (Chumcha at 5.50 on a cold and foggy morning),
is most intense in the morning but lasts all day long.
melanoPareiidae
207. Melanopareia elegans
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 800 m:
Pair in deciduous forest (colected by W. Markl).
30/07/1965. Hacienda Chuquizongo, Chicama Valley, La Libertad,
1700 m: Ind. in scattered thorn scrub on the ground.
Jan. 1967. Olmos-Abra Porculla, Lambayeque, 700 m: Ind. in
deciduous forest on the ground.
tyrannidae
208. Myiopagis subplacens
15-16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700
m: Several sightings in deciduous forest.
209. Elaenia albiceps
BP states, that modesta winters on east slope, which is not consistent
with the following sightings:
24/07/1966. Lurin Valley, Lima, 1400 m.
10/06/1976 and 26/07/1988. Rmac Valley, Lima, 800 m.
Behavior.- Catches insects in fight or within canopy of trees. Un-
like other Tyrannidae it does not perch on exposed places, like treetops
but takes cover at the periphery or lower branches of trees from where
to start its sallies.
210. Camptostoma obsoletum
Sightings
NP: Piura 100-700 m, Cajamarca 1600 m, La Libertad sealevel and
Maran Valley 1300/2400 m
CP: Common on coast and in coastal valleys between sealevel
and 1000 m. Highest records: Rmac Valley 2600 m, Huaura Valley
2600 m.
Southernmost sighting: Rio Ingenio near Palta, Ica.
Voice
a) (tew) TEW tewtewtewtew: descending, accelerating and get-
ting weeker.
b) weeWEEW!: resembles the admiring whistle of a boy for a girl.
c) strong, prolonged trill.
d) weee... : soft, somewhat melancholic; serves probably as contact call.
Behavior.- Climbs and hops skillfully through interior of bushes
and trees collecting insects and larvae. Snatches its prey from beneath
the leaves by making short leaps or in futtering fight. Often rises and
lowers its crest in short intervals during feeding or singing. On one
occ. I observed an ind. on a rose bush, feeding extensively on aphids.
15-16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 600-
700 m: Common in deciduous forest.
11/04/1964. Rio Chilln near mouth, Lima: Nest with young
on Tessaria at river edge about 3 m above water: hemispherical bowl
mostly made of grass stems. It hangs precariously within the twigs.
Both ads. are feeding.
28/11/1965. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima,
800 m: Numerous in scrub along irrigation channel. Diferent vocal
emissions (a,b,c); 2 inds. occ. trilling together excitedly.
211. Serpohaga cinerea
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca (Cutervo) 2000 m
CP: west slope: Lima sea level up to 2700 m (Huaura Valley). BP
indicates 800 m as min. alt. Sightings below 800 m: Mouth of Rio
Chilln, Canta Valley; Caete Valley 400 m; Chancay Valley 500 m;
east slope: Pasco 2600 m, Junn 700/1000 m; Maran Valley: Ancash,
Baos de Chavn 3300 m (max. alt. acording to BP 3100 m).
SP: Cusco 2600/3000 m.
Sept. 1966. Rio Chancay, Lima, 500 m: Up to fve inds. gather on a
50 m-section of the shallow, pebble-strewn stream. Tey perch on stones
in the stream, catching insects in the air or on algae covered stones,
holding for moments on to the wet and slippery surface. Tey also
snatch insects form surface of the water. Warble-like song: tirrtirrtseer.
17-19/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2600 m: Solitary or
in pairs. Perching in shade of riverbank vegetation or on rocks. S.
cinerea fnds plenty of prey over the fast fowing, torrential river. Occ.
it snatches the mosquitoes right out of the spray. Call: A repeated
tsweetsweetswee...
19/03/2003. Ollantaytambo, Cusco, ca. 2600 m: Ind. at the edge
of an inca irrigation channel, later in the nearby terraces. In search
for food it hops along the rim of the stonewalls, often cocking its tail.
212. Euscarthmus meloryphus
Voice.- Reveals its presence by its distinctive and repeated call,
that consists of two to four notes, with the emphasis always on the
second one.
25/07- 02/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m:
Fairly common in hedges and montane scrub.
Jan. 1966 and Jan. 1967. Between Olmos and Abra Porculla,
Lambayeque, 600-700 m: Fairly common in deciduous forest; also
near Tumbes.
02-03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400
m: Several sightings in quebrada with dense vegetation.
213. Mionectes oleagineus
18/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Ind. netted in primary forest; length 11,5 cm, wings 6,5 cm.
214. Tachuris rubrigastra
Sightings
Coast: Lima: Regularly in Villa; also in Pachacmac, Conchn and
Puerto Viejo (70 km south of Lima); La Libertad: Mouth of Rio
Jequetepeque
Andes: Cusco: Laguna near Chincheros, 3600 m; Laguna Lucre,
3100 m
Habitat/Behavior.- Totorales; vivacious and curious; moves easily
through marsh thickets; climbs skillfully on stems of Typha and Scirpus,
gleaning insects from leaves and stems.
09/11/1963. Villa, south of Lima: Two ads. feed two nearly grownup
fedglings. While the ads. are gathering food in the adjacent marshland,
the young perch quietly at the edge of the totoral. On one occ., when
a fedgling tries to follow the ad., it is immediatly driven back to cover.
15/07/1993. Huanchaco, La Libertad: Fairly common in the artif-
cial, rectangular ponds, covered with Typha. Courtship display: Male
hangs upside down on a Scirpus stem, spreading its white-marked tail.
Two ads. are busy building a nest; occ. both are at work simultane-
ously, stufng Typha fbers (up to 10 cm long) into the rim of the nest.
Occ. one of the ads. cuddles into the nest and so it seems moves
its feet rapidly up and down (probably to strengthen the nest and to
adapt it to its body). Ad. breeding: Te nest is about 1 m above the
water, fxed onto two stems of Typha (Fig. 89).
66
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
23/04/2005. Same place: Two young are begging incessantly.
Tey move around hopping and futtering; vocal emissions of a third
invisible young.
218. Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea
02/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Ind.
perched on a liana at the edge of the humid montane forest. It catches
insects in the air, constantly surveying the surroundings by moving its
head to and fro or holding it at diferent angles.
219. Contopus cinereus
Sightings
NP: Piura 700 m, La Libertad 1500/2400/2800 m.
CP: Lima: 1600-3400 m (max. alt. acording to BP 2800 m).
Behavior.- Usually perching on an exposed bare branch, catching
insects exclusively in the air. Emits a two, occ. three syllable call often
after returning to perch. It serves probably to mark its territory. Char-
acteristic snapping sound of bill when catching a prey or as a warning.
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700 m:
Ind. in deciduous forest.
02/02/1964. Between Canta and Viuda-Pass, Lima, 3400 m: Ind.
netted in semi-humid montane scrub. Length: 13 cm; three outer tail
feathers 16 mm shorter then the rest (molt).
25/07- 02/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500
m: Most common tyrant in montane scrub with patches of pastures
and felds.
02-03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400
m: Several sightings in narrow quebrada with scrub and trees.
27/07/1968. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Ind. in close
neighbourhood to Ochthoeca leucophrys, temporarily perching only 5
m apart. Tey do not take notice of each other.
22/03/1970. Between San Bartolom and Zrate, Rimac Valley,
Lima, 2100 m: Semi-humid montane scrub. Nest built on horizontal
Figure 92-93. Contopus cinereus at nest, perched near nest.
Figure 89. Tachuris rubrigastra breeding.
Figure 90-91. Myophobus fasciatus
(92)
(93)
215. Todirostrum cinereum
15/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 650 m:
Ind. in deciduous forest.
Jan. 1967. Puente 28 de Julio, Rio Maran, Cajamarca/Amazonas,
500 m: Ind. hunting in riparian vegetation.
05/02/1999. Moyobamba, San Martn, 850 m: Second growth
with dispersed trees. Ind. gleans insects from foliage, occ. jumping or
futtering. Song: dewdewDdew in rapid succession.
216. Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum
31/07/1964. Juanjui, Rio Huallaga, San Martn, 300 m: Forest and
second growth; Ind. hunting in interior of a tree, hopping from branch
to branch, occ. leaping to catch insects in the air.
217. Myiophobus fasciatus
Records limited to Lima: On coast and in coastal valleys (Canta,
Lurin, Mala) up to 1600 m.
Prefers thickets and dense scrub near streams, rarely venturing into
the open.
Perches low (-2 m), often changing site.
05/05/1963. Canta/Arahuay Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Ind. netted in
riparian vegetation (Fig. 90/91).
67

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
fork of a branch of Carica, 2,50 m above ground, neatly built with grass
stems and other vegetal fbers; one stem protruding 12 cm tangentially.
Outer diam. 8 cm, inner diam. 4,5 cm, height 4 cm, depth 2,5 cm.
Two cream coloured eggs with dark and light purple-brown splatters,
accumulated around the equator. Sample egg: 13x17,5 mm. Male and
female are present. When we approache the tree, one of the ad. at-
tacks us, emitting three or four times a snapping sound. During our
presence, both ads. call often from nearby scrub and tree (Fig. 92-95).
Feeding.- Pyrocephalus rubinus feeds exclusively on insects and
similar small prey. Trees, scrub, reed, telephone wires, rocks or a clod of
earth serve as hunting perches. It often changes place within its territory.
Certain inds. stick to the same place for days, weeks or even months.
During four weeks an ind. was perching on a soccer goal post. One
ind. perched on the same tree often on the same branch in a long
row of Casuarinas during three months. P. rubinus catches its prey on
the ground, occ. in the air. When hunting in the air, it occ. pursues its
prey for a short distance in a zigzag fight. When snatching an insect
from the ground, it immediately returns to a perch to swallow it.
Te diagram refers to the urban area of Lima, especially La Victoria
and Mirafores. It shows, that two main periods of reproduction can
be distinguished: March to June and Sep to Nov. Te two periods may
overlap: When some couples are still feeding their young, others are
starting the next breeding cicle.
Figure 94-95. Contopus cinereus nest with clutch.
11/07/1993. Pataz, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2800 m: Ind.
perching on a creeper on rock surface. Returns after sallies to the same
place during at least 15 min.
220. Sayornis nigricans
Sightings
West slope: La Libertad 1500 m.
East slope: Cajamarca 2000 m, Ucayali 500 m, Hunuco 2100
m, Pasco 2600 m, Junn 800 m, Ayacucho 1200/1500 m, Apurmac
(Pampas Canyon) 1300 m.
Behavior.- Water-bound; prefers fast fowing streams. Perches on
rocks or pebbles in midstream or at river bank, also on bushes or trees.
Catches insects in the air by short sallies or leaps. May eventually pursue
a prey over a short distance, performing acrobatic turns.
221. Pyrocephalus rubinus
Sightings
Maximum altidude:
NP West slope: Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m. East slope:
Cajamarca, 2700 m.
CP West slope: Lurin Valley, Lima, 1400 m.
SP West slope: Moquegua, 1600 m.
(94)
(95)
Figure 97. Pyrocephalus rubinus: nests with clutch.
Courting.- Display fight and song: Male performs its display
fight usually from tree tops or outer branches of a tree. Te fight
may vary: either starting with a steep curve, levelling of at the top, or
discribing a broad, spiral-like curve. Te ascense is accompanied by an
uninterrupted song tsPREW-tsPREW-tsPREW... At the culmination
it turns back silently to the starting point, opening wings and lifting
tail several times. Song (without display fight) can be heard all year
round and at any time of the day. Song activity begins before dawn and
ends after dusk. In the city it is stimulated and therefore prolonged by
artifcial illumination. During courtship the male emits a sharp plp
or a snapping noise with his bill, e.g. in presence of a female. When
excited, he raises its crest.
Nest locations.- I have found nests exclusively on trees. P. rubinus
prefers horizontal branches near the periphery. Te nests are generally
placed in the fork of a branch. Considering fve nesting sites, the height
above ground varies between 2,5 and 6 m.
08/10/1963. Mirafores/Lima: Nest with clutch in a row of Casua-
rinas at the edge of a sportsfeld, about 3 m high, located precariously
at the outer part of a branch. It consists mainly of Casuarina needles,
as well as small twigs, cotton, some grass stems and wool threads. Te
inside is lined with downy chicken feathers, the outside is camoufaged
with spiders web. Measures: Inner diam. 4,5-5 cm, outer diam. 8,5-11
cm, height 3,5 cm, depth 2,5 cm. Te two eggs are dull-white with a
broad band of brown, grey and blackish splatters. Both eggs measure
14x18 mm. Nest later abandoned (Fig. 97).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
c

b
----
fn
fo
----



Reproductive periods of Pyrocephalus rubinus
Figure 96. 1-12: month/year; c: courting (song and display fight); n:
nest-building; b: breeding; fn: feeding at nest; fo: feeding outside nest;
single record; --- observation period .
68
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
31/01/1964. Near Chiclayo, Lambayeque: Two fedglings perching
side by side on a Prosopis. Both parents are busy feeding the young and
hunting in the neighbourhood.
Middle of June, 1969 Mirafores/Lima: Male feeding two young
on a telephone wire.
24/06/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m: Male
with two fedglings in a group of Caesalpinia.
03/05/1970. La Molina/Lima: Nest with clutch in a long row of old
willows, growing along an irrigation-channel. It is situated about 2,5
m high on a dry horizontal branch.Te densely woven nest consists of
twigs, stems, vegetal fber, grassroots and cotton. Te interior is padded
with feathers and wool. Measures: Inner diam. 5-5,5 cm, outer diam.
8-9 cm, height 4,5 cm, depth 3 cm. Te two eggs are whitish. Light
grey as well as light and dark brown splatters are arranged around middle
part; small stains on rest of the surface. Measures: 15x20/14x19 mm.
Nest later abandoned (Fig. 98).
10/11/1972, 17:00-18:00 (summary of protocol): In the meantime,
the young had hatched. Tough not visible, I assume that there were
two of them, as in all other recorded cases. During 22 min. (8 + 14)
the nest was occupied by the female. Eight feedings have taken place,
in fve opportunities the food was supplied by the male and directly
given to the young. On two occ. the food was frst presented to the
female, who standing on the rim of the nest immediaetly passed
it on to the young. Tree times fecal sacs were delivered and swallowed
by the parents.
222. Knipolegus aterrimus
29/07/1968. La Mejorada, Mantaro Valley, Huancavelica, 2800 m:
Ind. in an orchard, making sallies from a small tree. It snatches its prey
in the air or from the ground.
17/06/1968. Orongoy, Pampas Caon, Ayacucho, 2500 m: Ind.
in montane scrub.
21/07/1976. Limatambo, Cusco, 2500-700 m: Several sightings
from lush valley bottom to slope of montane scrub interspersed with
trees. Male perches on small, bare tree. Display fight: Performing
an acrobatic loop, it displays its white wing bars. Song given during
loop sounds like trewTSWEW. It jumps 1-1,5 m into the air, perform-
ing about two sallies per minute. Meanwhile, another male is singing
nearby.
06/07/1993. Pallar near Huamachuco, La Libertad, 2400 m: Ind.
in montane scrub.
223. Muscisaxicola favinucha
Austral migrant
29/06/1969. Between Comas and Concepcin, Junn, 4400 m:
Several ind. in Puna grassland.
07/07/1979. Caete Valley, Lima/Junn, 4500 m : In Puna grassland.
224. Muscisaxicola macloviana
Austral migrant
24/09/1963. Lomas de Atocongo, Lima, 400 m: In small groups
feeding in lush herbaceous vegetation.
27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta, 45 south of Lima, 400 m: Two loose
groups on hilltop with sparse vegetation.
14/081968. Lurin Valley, Lima, 100 m: Group of a dozen inds. in
a barren feld.
25/08/1968. Same place: Scattered inds.
30/08/1968. Mala Valley, Lima, 100 m: Several inds. in a freshly
plowed feld, thriving with prey.
02/10/1970. Chala, Arequipa: Ind. on the beach.
26/07/1988. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima,
800 m: Ind. on barren land with scattered irrigated plots. Uses rocks
as an outlook to chase insects, alternately hopping, running or fying
for a short distance.
225. Myiotheretes striaticollis
Sightings/Habitat
NP: San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m; Hacienda
Chuquizongo, Chicama Valley, La Liberatd, 1700 m; Hacienda Co-
chabamba, Rio Chusgn, La Libertad, 2500 m.
CP: Lima: Locally common in the tributary valleys of Rio Rmac
(Tapicara, San Bartolom, Surco, Matucana) between 2200 and 3000
m, in dry montane scrub and humid montane forest; Huaura Valley,
2700 m.
Voice.- Tree syllable song: peeBEEwee; one syllable calls: pew,
hew or ewt.
12/06/1966. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Ind. fying from
tree top to tree top, hunting insects in the air.
Figure 98. Pyrocephalus rubinus: nests with clutch.
Figure 99. Pyrocephalus rubinus: breeding.
06/03/1972. Cochabamba, Rio Chotano, Cajamarca, 1600 m: Dark
brown ad. feeding two fedglings on a pacay tree.
Mirafores/Lima: Breeding behavior of a couple of P. rubinus. Te
nest is situated 5-6 m high on a horizontal branch of a tipa tree, not
yet fully covered with leaves. Both ads. are sooty morphs. As only the
lighter coloured ind. is breeding, I suppose it is the female.
05/11/1972, 13:30-15:00 (summary of protocol): During the ob-
servation period the breeding female was fed fve times by her partner.
She normally recieved the food sitting on the nest. Occ. she left the
nest at the moment, when the male was approaching. Te food was
then delivered some meters away. Te nest was occupied by the female
during a total of 56 min., each session lasting 2 to 12 min. She left
the nest 9 times. During her absence, the male kept occ. an eye on it.
Returning to the nest, the female did not always sit down immediately
on the eggs, but paused on the rim of the nest, covering it with her rear
part and tail. On one occ. she dedicated herself during 5 min. to preen-
ing. During the whole period she often changed position. Occasionally
she poked her bill vigorously into the nest (a kind of maintenance?).
During the last 30 min the male did not show up (Fig. 99).
69

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
16/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Ind. on
the edge of humid montane forest. Perches on tree tops, tree stumps
or stones in pasture land. Raises occasionally its crest. Hunting also
during rainfall.
226. Polioxolmis rufpennis
30/07/1966. Laguna Sausacocha north of Huamachuco, La Liber-
tad, 3100 m: Several inds. perching on low scrub at lake side picking
up insects of the ground.
29/09/1970. Slopes of Nevado Sarasara, Ayacucho, 3700 m: Solitary
or in pairs in light Polylepis forest perching on top of trees. Feeding on
insects, they fy in most cases down to the ground; exceptionally they
capture their prey in the air.
29/08/1971. Pisco/ Huaytar Valley, Huancavelica, 3600-700 m:
Several inds. present in a very limited area of montane scrub. Two or
three at a time are hanging in the strong upcurrent over the slope.
Others are perching on top of scrubs or cacti. When hovering, some
ind. turn abruptly away, in order to pursue and capture prey in the
air. (According to BP, P.rufpennis captures prey exclusively of the
ground).
227. Tumbezia salvini
16/12/1964. Hacienda Mallares near Sullana, Piura, 300 m: Ind.
in a patch of Prosopis forest.
08/01/1966. Near Olmos on the road to Abra Porculla, Lam-
bayeque, 600 m: Ind. in deciduous forest.
228. Ochthoeca pulchella
17/09/1963. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Ind. netted
in a rock-strewn clearing at forest edge. Recorded at the same place:
12/06/1966.
229. Ochtoeca rufpectoralis
17/06/1968. Pampas Caon, below Orongoy, Ayacucho, 2800 m:
Ind. in dry montane scrub.
02/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Ind. at the
edge of humid montane forest. Catches insects in the interior of a tree,
making short sallies. Tree inds. in second growth, chasing each other.
230. Ochthoeca fumicolor
06/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600 m: Ind. in ripar-
ian vegetation with Alnus. According to M. Koepcke frst sighting in
Lima. Characteristic feature: two rufous wing bars, absent in similar
Ochthoeca oenanthoides. BP mentions for west slope only northwest.
31/07/1976. Baos Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca,
2800 m: Ind. in humid montane scrub.
231. Ochthoeca oenanthoides
Sightings/Habitat.- In Polylepis woods of CP: Laguna Yanganuco,
Ancash, 3700-900 m; Huaura Valley, Lima, 3800/4300 m; Chumcha,
Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900-4200 m. Also in Eucalyptus grove:
Baos, Chancay Valley, Lima, 3800 m.
Behavior/Voice.- Perches on bushes or lower branches of trees.
Song: gaddada-ddada.
232. Ochthoeca leucophrys
Sightings
NP: west slope 2800 m; east slope 2400-3500 m.
CP: west slope: Most sightings between 2500 and 3500 m; from
dry montane scrub (with cacti) to humid montane forest and Polylepis
wood. Max. alt. in coastal valleys: Huaura/Chiuchn 3400 m, Rmac/
Santa Eulalia 4100 m, Pisco/Huaytar 3400 m.
Min. alt. according to BP: 2400 m. Sightings below 2000 m: Santa
Eulalia Valley, Lima 1600/1700/1800 m; Rmac Valley, Lima 1800m;
east slope 2800-3500 m.
SP: west slope 3400 m; east slope 2400-3500 m.
Behavior.- Catches insects in the air and on the ground. Perches
low, rarely higher than 2 m on scrub, cacti, stones, stonewalls, hedges,
solitary trees or trees at forest edge. Marks its presence with a dry kp
or qyac while perching.
13/06/1965. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Fairely common
in humid montane forest. Several sightings of two or three inds. chasing
each other with considerable noise (courting activity?).
27/07/1968. Santa Eulalia Valley, 1600 m: Ind. in close proxim-
ity to Contopus cinereus, perching momentarily only 5 m apart. Tey
ignore each other.
233. Muscigralla brevicauda
Sightings/Habitat
Coast: Lima, Ica; felds, pasture, fallow land, lomas (Atocongo),
gramadales.
11/01/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Several inds. in pasture
land and barren felds. Song: tsprew-tsprew...
15/01/1973. Puerto Viejo, 70 km south of Lima: Extensive gramadal
with shrubbery. Display fight: Starting from a low scrub, ascends
gently in an undulating fight singing intermittently. Returns to perch
in silence (Fig. 100).
Figure 100. Muscigralla brevicauda: display fight: fight --- song.
234. Myiodynastes bairdi
15-16/02/1964. Hacienda Mallares, near Sullana, Piura, 200 m: Ind.
at the edge of cultivated land with scattered trees. - Several sightings in
the Amotape Mountains, 600-800 m in deciduous forest.
235. Myiodynastes maculatus
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 700 m:
Ind. in deciduous forest.
28/07/1964. Near Juanjui, San Martn, 400 m: Pair on a tree in
secondary growth.
20/01/1970. Research Station Panguana, Rio Llullapichis, Hunuco,
300 m: Ind. in secondary growth .
03/07/1972. La Merced, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Ind. on
a Cecropia trying to eat a big armored insect and eventually swallowing it
wholly after banging it several times against the branch on which it perched.
05/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junin, 800 m: Ind.
perching on an isolated tree, turning its head constantly in all direc-
tions, peering for prey. Catches insects in short sallies or gleans them
from leaves and branches.
236. Tyrannus niveigularis
11/01/1964. Near Batn Grande, Lambayeque: Ind. at the edge of
a Prosopis forest, hunting insects from exposed perches.
15-16/02/1964. Hacienda Mallares near Sullana, 300 m and Amo-
tape Mountains, 800 m, Piura: Fairly common in deciduous forest.
237. Myiarchus semirufus
29/01/1999. Archeological site of Sechn near Casma, Ancash: Ind.
perches on lower branches in extensive Prosopis forest.
70
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
238. Myiarchus tuberculifer
Sightings
NP: west slope: Baos de Yamagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca,
2800 m; Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1600 m; east slope: San
Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2000/2400 m; Pataz, Maran Valley,
La Libertad, 2800 m; west of Rioja, San Martin/Amazonas, 1200m.
CP: west slope: Monterrey, Callejn de Huaylas, Ancash, 3000 m;
fairely common in the coastal valleys of Lima (Huaura, Canta, Rmac/
Santa Eulalia) between 1500 and 3000 m; east slope: Rio Paucartambo,
Pasco, 2600 m; San Ramn, Junn, 800 m.
Behavior/Voice.- Perches motionless in half-shade of bushes and
trees, making short sallies in limited area. A melancholic, descending
call contrasts with a cheerful three-note song which includes a high
pitched last note.
20/07/1983. West of Rioja, San Martin/Amazonas, 1200 m: Ind. in
primary forest with nesting material (probably down feathers).
cotinGidae
239. Zaratornis stresemanni
Sightings/Habitat.- Restricted to two sites in Lima: Te humid
montane forest of Zrate, Rmac Valley, 2900-3100 m and the Polylepis
wood of Chumcha, Sta. Eulalia Valley, 3900-4300m m (Fig. 101).
m apart from each other (Fig. 105/106). Within 20 min. three inds.
approach two of the deposits. A fourth ind. probably disturbed by
our presence settles down on a Gynoxys, wiping of the seeds on a leaf.
All four regurgitate in irregular intervals 2, 3 or 4 seeds consecutively.
Sometimes the act proves to be arduous: By stretching the body into
an upright position, the seed is fnally thrown out only after a series of
convulsive movements. Warning call is emitted while perched at a
seed deposit; it ends with a soft rattle.
24-25/04/1971. Chumcha: In the quebrada above described 14
sightings in two days; only one outside the main area; always on tree
tops, only once two inds. together. Tree records of inds. feeding on
berries of Phrygilanthus, fve inds. regurgitating. No sign of breeding
behavior. Vocal emission during fight: khacceramkhackhac. Ind. net-
ted (Fig. 103/104).
Figure 103-104. Zaratornis stresemanni.
Figure 101. General view of Polylepis wood of Chumcha.
Figure 102. Zaratornis stresemanni.
26/03/1966. Chumcha: First proof of Z. stresemanni at this site. M.
and H.W. Koepcke collect the frst male specimens. (In Zrate they
had so far recorded only females). Several sightings between 3900 and
4300 m; one in semi humid montane scrub at 3300 m (Fig. 102). - Z.
Stresemanni likes to perch on top of Polylepis trees.
(103)
(104)
26/04/1969. Chumcha: Sightings limited to the densest part of the
forest: a u-shaped quebrada with creek. We observe 4 ind. regurgitating
seeds of Phrygilanthus, a parasit plant which thrives on Polylepis. Te
seeds are deposited mainly on tree tops (photos). Tey form big lumps
containing hundreds of seeds each. Occ. the seeds are distributed along
branches. We found three of these deposits on tree tops only 10-20
71

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
240. Ampelion rubrocristatus
13/06/1965. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Several sightings;
twice ad. with young on Oreopanax. Two inds. feeding on fruits on a
bush, afterwards chasing each other, emitting angry calls.
16/06/1968. Between Mollebamba and Orongoy, Pampas Caon,
Ayacucho, 3500 m: Ind. in humid quebrada with dense vegetation
(Gynoxys, Escallonia and other evergreen bushes and trees).
07/07/1968. Zrate: Ad. is followed by begging and chirping
young. Frog-like song: kweckwectractrackwec ...
22-23/07/1970. Zrate. 3 ind. (only one at a time) appear at a well
in a forest clearing. Te well serves as drinking and bathing place for
many other species of birds (Fig. 107).
Figure 106. Zaratornis stresemanni. Phrygilanthus seeds deposited
on Phrygilanthus.
07/04/2003. Laguna Puruhuay, near Huari, Ancash, ca. 3500 m:
Fairly common in lush vegetation (Alnus) at the lakeside and the tor-
rential outlet. Often perching quietly on a tree top, alone or in pairs.
Hunting foray or display fight (Fjeldsa 1990): Ind. ascends several
times from a perch on a tree top 2-10 m into the air by depicting a
gentle curve, then returns to the same place or another one nearby.
241. Rupicola peruviana
19/07/1983. Between Mendoza and Rioja, Amazonas, 1800 m:
Narrow valley covered with humid montane forest, partially lined
with clifs. Male perched on a lower branch. He observes the obeserver
attentively, constantly changing position. An occ. sunbeam brushing
his back or crest produces a burst of bright orange. His hoarse call ac-
companies us for some time.
tityridae
242. Pachyramphus albogriseus
15/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 650 m:
Ind. collected in deciduous forest by W. Markl.
corvidae
243. Cyanolyca viridicyana
16/07/1983. Tingo, between Chachapoyas and Mendoza, Ama-
zonas, 2400 m: Two inds. in humid montane forest, communicating
with each other at a distance of about 100 m.
244. Cyanocorax violaceus
19/09/1967. Rio Maran near mouth of Rio Cenepa, Amazonas,
ca. 300 m: Several sightings, mostly 2 or 3 inds. together, calling.
245. Cyanocorax mystacalis
Sighted in Tumbes, Piura and Lambayeque in Bombax and Prosopis for-
est; fairly common in deciduous forest; protesting noisily when disturbed.
08/01/1966. Hacienda San Jacinto, Piura: Common in garden;
food-carrying ind.
246. Cyanocorax yncas
January 1967. Rio Chamaya, Cajamarca, 700 m: Group of 5 inds.
in riparian scrub.
02-03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m:
Common in quebrada with creek and lush vegetation. In the evening
(5.30 pm) they leave the quebrada, ascending the dry, scrub-covered slopes
in pairs or small groups, calling constantly, either a high pitched kyakya
(popular name Quinquin) or a low pitched kyewkyew resembling a
hoarse horn. Also to be seen and heard in the morning between 7 an 8 am.
20-22/01/1968. Yaupi, Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 1500-2000 m.
Fairly common in humid montane forest and secondary growth; curi-
ous and noisy.
15/07/1983. Mendoza, Amazonas, 1600 m: Relics of humid for-
est surrounded by second growth and pasture land. Attracted by my
presence, two ind. come hopping down from a tree top until reach-
ing the lower branches, eying me curiously at a distance of about 10
m. By emitting a variety of noisy sounds, they gradually attract fve
conspecifc inds. Tey hop and bob around exitedly during about 10
min., demonstrating their rich vocal repertoire.
19/07/1983. Pucatambo, Amazonas/San Martin, west of Rioja,
1500 m: Very similar behavior in similar habitat as described above.
15/04/2005. Between Balsas and Abra Barro Negro, Amazonas,
ca.2500 m: Ind. in humid montane scrub with trees.
hirundinidae
247. Pygochelidon cyanoleuca
Sightings
NP: west slope: Lambayeque sealevel, La Libertad 1500 m; east
slope: Cajamarca 1600-2600 m, Amazonas 300/2300 m, La Libertad
1200/2400 m.
Figure 105. Zaratornis stresemanni. Large deposit of Phrygilanthus
seeds.
Figure 107. Ampelion rubrocristatus.
72
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
CP: west slope: mainly coastal plain 0-300 m; max. alt. Lima 2500
m; east slope: Ancash 3200 m, Hunuco 500/2700 m, Pasco up to
2500 m; Junin 1000-2200 m.
SP: east slope: Cusco 2400 m.
27/11/1963. Chilca, 60 km south of Lima: Hunting in large
numbers over brack-water lagoons and over the beach. Te slope of a
nearby sand-dune serves as gathering point and resting place. Tere
is a constant coming and going. Nest-building on a crumbling clif
only a few steps from the shore about 6 m above the ground. Some
protruding stems mark the nesting place in a crevice. Ind. arriving
several times with nesting material, in one occ. with a down, that it
had picked up on the shore.
17/12/1966. La Victoria/Lima: Nest-building in an unfnished
house. Ind. disappears with a long grass stem in a crevice in the wall.
Same activity observed over the following days.
12/09/1967. Chiriaco, Amazonas, 300 m: Hunting over the Rio
Chiriaco in company of Atticora fasciata, Tachycineta albiventer and
Progne tapera.
February 1968. Mirafores/Lima: Large number gathering at difer-
ent occ. on two telephone wires crossing the school yard. Te 100-200
inds. chirp and chatter all the time, restlessly coming and going. On
one occ. a certain number settles temporarily on the pavement, busily
pattering around.
25/08/1968. San Juan de Dios, south of Lima: Hunting in large
numbers over a large waste water reservoir in the desert. Several breeding
holes on the banks of a 2 m deep erosion channel. No breeding activity.
11/02/1970. Tambo de Mora, Ica: Several breeding holes in a clif
at the edge of the culitavted area. No breeding activity (Fig. 110).
Figure 108-109. Pygochelidon cyanoleuca.
Figure 110. 1: Entrance of nesting holes 2: irrigation channel 3:
cotton feld.
(108)
(109)
02/01/1972. Mirafores/Lima: Unusual gathering of about 100
ind. in the air. Tey behave excitedly and confused. Reason: A Falco
peregrinus is circling nearby. As soon as the enemy is out of sight, the
fock disbands.
17/12/1972. Mirafores/Lima: A pair of Buteo platypterus are circling
low over a group of Eucalyptus trees. A tense fock of P. Cyanoleuca fol-
lows them at a respectful distance. Occ. an ind. breaks away from the
group to harass the pair, shooting past them very closely.
17/02/1999. Huacachina, Ica: Nest with fedglings in an open
garage placed on a dangling part of reed mats. Both ads. participate
in the feeding.
248. Orochelidon murina
Sightings
NP: west slope: La Libertad 1500 m; east slope: Cajamarca 2600
m, La Libertad 2400/2500/3300 m.
CP: west slope: Lima 1000-4300 m; east slope: Ancash 2600-3400
m, Hunuco 3000/3400 m, Pasco 2500/3000 m; highest frequency in
CP between 2000 and 3500 m.
South Peru: east slope: Cusco 2400/3000/3500 m.
BP indicates 2200 m as min. alt. Sightings below 2200 m: Chicama
Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m; Huauara Valley, Lima, 1000 m; Santa
Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1700/1800 m.
15/09/1963. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: O. murina ap-
pears in large numbers, as soon as the sun rays reach the forest (about
8 am), at the same time large clouds of mosquitoes begin to fll the air.
01-02/11/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Tey appear
at about 4.30 pm sharing the rich hunting ground - pasture land and
riparian vegetation - with Aeronautes andecolus, fying 1-10 m above
the ground.
03/10/1964. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1700 m: Hunting in the
afternoon along with Aeronautes andecolus. Mosquitoe plague!
02-07/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Hunting
daily over the village. Probably breeding beneath the corrugated iron
roof of an adobe building.
31/10 - 01/11/1965. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 2600-4200 m:
Several small focks at diferent altitudes. Between 10 and 12 am hunt-
ing over Polylepis wood of Chumcha.
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Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
02-03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400
m: Hunting all day long over a lush quebrada and adjacent montane
scrub in company of Pygochelidon cyanoleuca. At dusk they disappear
and leave the place to the bats (with no temporal overlapping).
03-04/12/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400 m:
Shortly after sunset, a fock of 10-20 inds. gather on a small protrusion
of a clif warmed up by the sun. First they tidy up, then fuf them-
selves and some put their head into the plumage in a typical sleeping
position (Fig. 111).
at the holes suggests the beginning of the breeding season. On one occ.
three ind. in a row leave the same hole.
250. Progne murphy
18/10/1964 - 09/12/1964 - 29/12/1967. Puerto Viejo, 70 km
south of Lima: Pair hunting over the marshland with small lagoons.
09/08/1971. Playa Culebras betw. Huarmey and Casma, Ancash:
Male and three females (or immatutres?) hunting over a restricted area:
Tey steep dive onto the beach, dashing along close to the ground, then
turn back to repeat the manoeuvre.
251. Hirundo rustica
Boreal migrant
Sightings.- Coast of Lima: Earliest record 11.09.: Lomas de Lachay;
latest record 11.05.: Totoral de Villa. Highest concentration of sightings
in Oct/Nov: 15 of 32 overall records. Part of the recorded birds were
possibly on their way further south. Some focks registered in Mar/Apr
(8 records) were probably on their return fight.
Habitat.- Cultivated land, lomas, totorales, brack water lagoons,
waste water reservoirs, river mouths, beaches, giant garbage dumps
south of Lima (l965/66).
26/10/1963. Totoral de Villa, south of Lima: Hunting in great
numbers over the marshland. Towards 6 pm additional focks appear
obviously preparing to leave for their (unknown) roosting place.
22/11/1966. San Juan de Dios, south of Lima: Flocks of 20-30 inds.
hunting over felds and waste water lagoon. Tey rest temporarily in
great numbers on the slope of a sand dune. Tere is a busy coming
and going.
16/01/1966. Near Piura: Very numerous hunting over natural
lagoon and totoral. At sunset they gather on the nearby sandy ground
as a close fock.
252. Petrochelidon rufocollaris
18/11/1972. Chancay Valley, Lima, 400 m: Nesting colony under
the roof of an adobe house Fig. 113/114.Te fat roof made of caa
brava is about 3 m above ground and protrudes 1.50 m. Te colony,
Figure 111. Orochelidon murina roosting.
Figure 112. Orochelidon murina: nesting site in a cliff.
01-08/09/1972. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, 3100 m: At daytime,
they hunt over the village. In the evening, between 8 and 8.30 pm, they
gather at the school house to spend the night beneath the iron roof.
Tey leave the place in the morning between 6.30 and 7.00 am. Before
they start hunting, they stay for a while on the edge of the church wall,
probably to warm up.
06/04/2003. Baos de Chavn, Ancash, 3300 m: Hunting in the
morning over the stream. Several inds. aproach again and again a nest-
ing place in a horizontal crevice in a clif about 7 m above the stream.
Two ind. arrive with nesting material. One of them comes up with a
piece of moss, the other with a long grass stem. Te lively coming and
going suggests, that there are also young to be fed (Fig. 112).
249. Orochelidon andecola
01/10/1970. Parinacochas, Ayacucho, 3400 m: Numerous over the
heath-like grassland at the foot of Nevado Sarasara. Breeding holes in
an about 8 m high earth wall along a stream. Te activity around and
06/04/2003
Figure 113-114. Petrochlidon rufocollaris: nest-building activity in a
breeding colony.
74
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
counting about 200 nests, is getting prepared for the breeding season:
New nests are added to the old, partially decayed ones. Sitting in the
middle of their nests, the birds are adding horizontal layers by stringing
together bits of mud. Te constructing activity is accompanied by a
constant twitter and chatter. Te pear-shaped nests are 15-20 cm long.
Te rimmed entrances measure about 4 cm in diam. Te interior, as
some decayed nests reveal, consists of feathers, straws and strings. A
Passer domesticus is inspecting some unfnished nests, undisturbed by
P.rufocollaris.
troGlodytidae
253. Troglodytes aedon
Te following records refer if not declared otherwise to the
districts of La Victoria/Lima and Mirafores/Lima.
Habitat/Behavior.- Ubiquitous; perfectly adapted to the urban
habitat. Feeds on a broad variety of invertrebrates that thrive in parks,
gardens, beneath roofs, on walls, within the dense foliage of climbers
and the cracked bark of trees. As nesting site T. aedon setteles for any
kind of niche, hole or cavity; the only condition: to provide sufcient
protection to its ofspring.
Voice:
a) A conspicuous, vigorous and melodic song, a cascade of liquid
notes. It normally lasts 2-5 sec interrupted by short intervals. At the
height of courting activity a sequence may last up to 25 sec. Te short
intervals may be flled with a soft twittering. T. aedon is a tireless singer.
In summer it starts between 5.00 and 5.30 am, in winter an hour
later. Te song is emitted from an elevated site like a telephone or a
light pole, a television antenna, a wall, a fence or the edge of a house.
b) A rolling, repeated rrebrreb; with this often emitted call (e.g. while
foraging). T. aedon signals its presence or expresses a kind of warning
to all potential trespassers.
c) A sharp, penetrating pseepsee, expresses alarm, provoked in most
cases by a cat. With this call, it approaches the enemy to arms length,
trying to chase it away form its nesting site or some careless fedglings.
Te diagram shows, that courting and reproduction activity takes
place all year round. However it permits the distinction of two main
breeding periods. One cycle begins at the end of Nov and ends in
mid Apr, the following starts at the end of May and lasts till mid Oct.
male withdraws again, the female follows him.
Breeding records
a) 28/05 - 26/06/1963
28/05/1963. Clutch of 3 eggs in a store of sports equipment
protected by wire mesh (Fig. 116). Te bottom of the nest consists
mainly of piled up twigs (up to 18 cm long) and grass stems. It also
contains feathers (up to 9 cm long), cotton (next feld about 500 m
away), some leaves, a horse hair (45 cm long), spider web, a piece of
Papyrus, many scraps of paper and plastic (schoolyard!), some threads
and a string ball of a total length of 65 cm. - Eggs: creamy with brown
speckles, that concentrate collar-like around broad pole. Measures:
13,5x17,5/13,5x18,5/13,5x18 mm.
Figure 115. 1-12: month/year s: song activity n: nest-building b:
breeding fn: feeding at nest fo: feeding outside nest single record
--- observation period.
Figure 116. Troglodytes aedon: nest in a store of sports equipment.
Figure 117. Troglodytes aedon: nest beneath roof.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
s

n

b

fn
fo
---

---
--- --- --- --
-- --- --- --

---

- - - --

-- -

Reproductive periods of Troglodytes aedon
10/06/1963. Male perched on a small tree near deposit, singing.
He approaches the nesting site step by step, singing continuously, even
within the concealed nest.
11/06/1963. Two fedglings hatched, third egg sterile. Duration
of breeding: 16-18 days. One of the ads. stays for some days with the
young, to protect them. One week old, they emit their frst begging
sounds. Both parents take part in the feeding. On one occ. both ads.
arrive at the same time. One of them delivers its prey to the young,
then recieves the food from its mate and passes it along to the young.
Departing ad. occ. carries away fecal sacs.
26/06/1963. Te two young have left the nest. Feeding period: 15 days.
b) 19/12 - end of December 1963.
19/12/1963. Nest-building beneath the roof ridge of the above
mentioned store (Fig. 117). Ind. carrying nesting material.
Nest-building.- Te male is known to start several nests at a time.
He stufs any suitable cavity with nesting material. Its up to the female
to inspect the unfnished nests and to fnally choose the home of her
preference. Te following records are related to the nest selection ritual:
05/09/1964. Te ritual takes place in a large building of the ancient
terminal terrestre: A female, carrying a narrow leaf in her bill, perches
high up in a window opening. She is approached by a male singing
fervently. Te female now fies on to the next window, followed closely
by the male - and so on.
15/10/1965. See Breeding records g)
July 1972. Male singing in the garden, wings quivering. When the
female appears, he withdraws a short way, followed immediately by
his mate. Te male moves forward, the female follows him, then both
disappear. After 10 min. they show up again: Ahead the female, wings
trembling, with a warning rrebrreb, followed by the singing male. Te
End of December 1963. Male sings in the vicinity of the store. Occ.
the song is replaced by an intense twittering accompanied by trembling
wings, a behavior that is part of the nest selection ritual.
c) End of December 1963. An old nest in the cavity of a wooden
garden door is stufed with new material (Fig. 118/119).
ca. 29/12/1963. Deposition of 3 eggs. Te ads. seem irritated by
the two diferent positions of the door: it is shut at night and open
during the day. On one occ., one of the ads. attacks the car, when it
passes the door. Clutch later abandoned.
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Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
Figure 118. Troglodytes aedon: nest
in wooden garden door.
Figure 119. Troglodytes aedon: arriving at nest.
25/09/1965. Te rear part of the bamboo box is nearly flled with
loose nesting material. In the front part, a hollow becomes discernible.
15/10/1965. Male settles on the garden door and starts to sing im-
mediately, followed closely by a female, carrying a white down feather.
Te male moves towards the nest box, pausing on the door pole, then
on the fence, followed by his mate. Without further ado, both disap-
pear in the box, from where an intense twittering can be heard. Both
leave the box shortly afterward.
Second half of Nov After a pause of about 4 weeks, the nest-building
is taken up again. Te hollow is now very deep and furnished with soft
chicken down.
27-28-29/10/1965. Two eggs are deposited between 27. October
at 10.00 am and 28. Oct at 9.30 pm., the third egg between 28. Oct at
9.30 pm and 29. Oct 7.30 am. Breeding starts, when clutch is complete
(Fig. 121). During breeding time, male sings nearly every morning
(recorded as early as 5.15 am).
d) 01/03 - 17/03/1965.
01/03/1965. Clutch of 4 eggs in garden door ( c).
07/03/1965. Ad. arrives with winged insect.
10/03/1965. Female leaves nest, returns after some minutes with
downy chicken feather. Meanwhile, male approaches nest, hopping
and running along garden wall, singing vigorously.
12 -17/12/1965. Both ads. take part in feeding activity. In one occ.,
the incoming ad. passes food to its sitting mate.
e) Mid July 65. Brood in a food light at the edge of a tennis court,
about 8 m above the ground. Some feedings recorded; also the disposal
of fecal sacs.
f ) 06/10/1965. Clutch of 3 eggs in wooden garden door ( c,d).
g) 25/09/1965 - 01/01/1966.
Mid September. A segment of bamboo is ofered to T. aedon as
nest box. It is placed near the garden wall, half concealed by a climber,
1.20 m above the ground. It is 35 cm long and 10 cm wide and it has
a removable cover (Fig. 120).
Figure 120. Troglodytes aedon: piece of bamboo serving as nest box.
Figure 121. Troglodytes aedon: clutch in nest box.
14/12/1965. All three fedglings have hatched between 7 am and
6 pm. Tey are completly naked, except for some hairs on their head.
Tey look like pink cock-chafer grubs.
15/12/1965. 2
nd
day (summary of protocol): 15:40-16:40
Both ad. participate in the feeding. In 60 min they make 17 visits,
or one feeding every 3-4 min. In 6 diferent sessions one of the ads.
stays with the young during a total of 20 min. Tey do not leave the box
before having assured themselves that there is no undesirable witness
around (Fig. 122). If one ad. arrives at the box, while the other one is
guarding the young, it passes the food on to its mate. Occ. it waits for
the partner to leave. Te portions of food vary considerably. Tey consist
of one or several pieces of prey: winged insects, larvae, caterpillars. On
one occ., an ad. appears at the entrance of the box with a white fecal
sac and swallows it on the spot. During the whole observation period
there are no vocal emissions.
Figure 122. Troglodytes aedon: checking before leaving.
76
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
19/12/1965. 6
th
day: Te young open their eyes for the frst time.
Head and back are covered with white, hairy down. Quills appear on
the wings (Fig. 124).
Figure 123. Troglodytes aedon: having a watchful eye on its offspring.
Figure 124. Troglodytes aedon: 6 days old.
Figure 125. Troglodytes aedon: 10 days old.
Figure 126. Troglodytes aedon: 18 days old.
22/12/1965. 9
th
day: Te fedglings open their eyes. Te frst red-
brown feather-tufts appear on head, back and side. When I lift the lid
of the box, the fedglings duck and remain motionless (the days before,
they adopted a begging gesture with bills wide open).
23/12/1965. 10
th
day: Feather-tufts appear at the wings (Fig. 125).
25/12/1965. 12
th
day: Te tail feathers begin to develop.
27/12/1965. 14
th
day (summary of protocol): 09:30-10:30
8 feedings or one every 7-8 min. Te ads. do not stay any longer
within the box after the feedings there is either no space or no need
for it any more. Te fedglings now tweet, whenever the ads. arrive,
even before they touch the box. Twice the ads. appear without food,
presumably just to check, if everything is o.k. (Fig. 123). On two occ., a
fecal sac is disposed of. Te ads. do not communicate nor does the male
sing in the immediate neighbourhood of the nesting-site. Te food-
carrying ad. approaches the box slipping cautiously through the foliage.
20/12/1965. 7
th
day (summary of protocol): 13:55-14:55
7 feedings, or one every 8-9 min. Te young are being guarded by
one of the ad. in two seperate sessions for a total of 19 min. On three
occ. the food is passed on to the sitting partner. In general, the food
portions are larger than fve days earlier. On one occ., an ad. arrives
with a caterpillar, that obviously is too big for the fedglings, so it is
swallowed by the ad. itself. Twice an ad. leaves the box with a fecal sac.
21/12/1965. 8
th
day: First vocal emissions.
31/12/1965. Last presence of the three fedglings.
01/01/1966. All three have left the nest. Tey seem to be hiding
in the nearby ua de gato thicket. A food-carrying ad. appears now
and then, and warning calls can be heard (observation descontinued).
Breeding period: 16-18 days
Feeding period: 21 days.
h) 16 -20/10/1966.
16/10/1966. Ad. with 4 young in the garden. Two of them follow it
closely, begging defantly. Another young is perched on a rose bush, the
fourth is waiting on the ground. Apart from the begging call, they occ.
emit the familiar rrebrreb. Te ad. is completley absorbed by the feeding
business, with no time left to care about the safety of its ofspring. Maybe
there is no need of this, because the young fy quite well allready. Ads.
and juvs. recorded in diferent parts of the garden until 20/10/1966.
i) 28/01 - 02/02/1967.
28/01/1967. Ad. is feeding a young Molothrus bonariensis in
the garden. Its conspicuous and enduring begging call: tsyAptsyAp.
Generally, the feedings take place in the interior of bushes or trees.
Tey consist of larvae, moths and caterpillars. When a cat arrives at the
scene, both ads. are highly alarmed, emitting both kinds of warning:
pseepsee or rrebrreb. Te Molothrus-young then curbs its begging call
to a whispering tsetsetse. Last feeding 18:45.
02/02/1967. Te young M. bonariensis is still being fed. Perched
on the garden door or on top of a hedge it begs continuously. Te
food-carrying ad. tries to lure it regularly to a safe place as e.g. into the
ua de gato thicket.
k) 27/02 - 13/04/1967.
27/02/1967. First record of an ad. entering the new bamboo nest-
ing box installed on the 10.01.67 (same place as g). Te randomly
placed material consists of grass stems, grass roots, twigs, a dry leaf,
77

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
06/02/1966. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley,
Lima, 800 m: Nest with young in segment of bamboo similar to the
precedent record, except that the entrance is on the side and not at the
end of the stake. Both parents feed. Occ., the male sings on top of the
garden wall immediately after feeding.
28/07/1967. Cajatambo, Pativilca Valley, Lima, 3400 m: Ind.
extracts black insect or spider out of a crevice in adobe wall and
disappears with it beneath the roof.
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m: Ad.
with 2 young in the rocky part with scattered trees.
End of February 1970. Urbanizacin California: Ad. feeding young.
04/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m:
Brood in the interior of an abandoned chapel inside a broken candle
holder (Fig. 127). Te female is breeding, while the male is singing
vigorously, perched in an open window. Tree eggs: 19x15/18.5x14.5/?
mm.
spider web, cotton threads and a wool pad.
09/03/1967. Nest completed: the deep scrape is densely lined with
feathers and hair (horse and human).
11-13/03/1967. Tree eggs deposited at 24 hour intervals before 7
am (last control the evening before).
27/03/1967. Two young hatched: 1
st
before 7.30 am, 2
nd
between
7.30 am and 0.30 pm.
28/03/1967. 3
rd
young hatched before 7.30 am.
13/04/1967. All three leave the nest. Te ads. remained silent
through most of the reproduction period. Shortly afterwards, the male
begins to sing again.
Breeding period: 15-17 days
Feeding period: 17-18 days
l) 12-27/08/1967.
12 - 13/08/1967. Tree eggs deposited in the garden door (
c,d,f ).Tis time, T. aedon accepts that the door is open during the day
and closed at night. Male sings regularily, even on top of the door. He
starts at 6.30 am despite the damp and foggy weather.
27/08/1967. All three fedgelings hatched.
Breeding period: 15-16 days
m) Mid December 1968. Brood in the hollow top of a street lamp.
Several feedings recorded.
n) 24/02 - 02/03/1969.
24-26/03/1969. Nest with young on the fat roof of a two-story
house beneath a water tank. Te male is busy marking and defending
his territory. Within a limited range he often changes his song perch.
About 100 m away there is another singing male. Feeding the young
is the main task of the female. She accounts probably for 3 out of 4
feedings. Judging from the size of the prey - e.g. a cricket or a 2-3 cm
long caterpillar - the fedglings must be quite developed. Several times
a fecal sac is disposed of.
02/03/1969. Male singing on the edge of the roof at sunset (6.30
pm). Meanwhile the female is searching for food in the adjacent cotton
feld. Suddenly, she is surrounded by 3 young. She leads them imme-
diately out of sight. Later: the female interrupts her food-hunting
job and takes a dust bath. Te hollows are probably the work of Passer
domesticus. She obviously takes delight in nuzzling into the hollow,
wings and tale spread out. Occ., she submerges her face sidewise into
the powder-like dust.
o) 25/02/2003. Fully fedged young on the lawn in a patio bordered
with bushes and climbers, begging metronome-like psepsepse. Both
parents take part in the feeding. All of a sudden, a pair of Pyrocephalus
rubinus lunges at the young. Te clash, accompanied by a vehement
clamor, lasts only a few seconds. Before an ad. T. aedon can intervene,
the intruders retreat and eventually disappear into their own territory
in the neighbouring garden.
Breeding statistics (La Victoria, Mirafores):
Number of eggs: 3 (5x), 4 (2x)
Breeding period: 15-18 days
Feeding at nest: 15-21 days
Breeding records outside La Victoria and Mirafores
16/06/1963. Above San Bartolom, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2000 m:
Ad. feeding young in a narrow quebrada with riparian vegetation.
02/05/1964. Canta Valley, Lima, 3400 m: Food-carrying ind. in
montane scrub.
07/05/1964. Monterrico/Lima: Nest with young in a horizontal
bamboo stake, that is part of a roof construction. Both ads. participate
in the feeding. On one occ., the male sings nearby - his bill jammed
with food.
Figure 127. Troglodytes aedon: brood
inside a broken candle holder.
7 cm
1
2
0

c
m
Nest
254. Campylorhynchus fasciatus
Sightings.- Max. alt. on west slope, acording to BP 1500 m.
Sightings above 1500 m: Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500-2000
m; Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m; Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley,
Cajamarca 2800 m.
26/09/1971. Sechn near Casma, Ancash: Pair on Prosopis, most
of the time foraging quietly. Suddenly one of them starts screaming,
immediately followed by its partner. For a short time, both engage in
a raspy duet, then fall silent as abruptly as they had begun.
21/02/2003. Bosque de Poma, Batn Grande, Lambayeque: Com-
mon; ind carrying nesting material to a seemingly complete nest with
lateral entrance, situated in the outer branches of a Prosopis.
PolioPtilidae
255. Polioptila plumbea
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to La Libertad, also Maran Valley
(Chagual, 1250 m); Lima.
15 - 16/02/1964. Near Hacienda Mallares, Sullana, 300 m, Piura:
Quite common in scrub at the edge of cultivated land; also in the
Amotape Mountains, 600-800 m, in deciduous forest.
End of January 1966. Between Puente Trapiche (Canta Valley) and
Quilca (Chancay Valley), Lima, 1000 m: Two ind. in dry montane
scrub with cacti.
19/08/1967. Quebrada Tinajas, Lurin Valley, 2200 m: Southern-
most and highest record on west slope; pair in dense montane scrub.
cinclidae
256. Cinclus leucocephalus
Sightings.- Between 1800 and 3500 m
NP: La Libertad, Maran Valley
CP: west slope: Lima: Rio Huaura, Chancay, Chilln, Rmac, Santa
78
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Eulalia, Lurin, Caete; east slope: Pasco, Rio Paucartambo; Junn, Rio
Mantaro
South Peru: Cusco, Rio Urubamba
19/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2000 m: Probably courting
behavior: An ind. chases another in fight. Te pursuer then poses on
a fat stone in midstream. He patters about, holding his head and bill
straight upwards. Te other ind., only an arm length away, remains
passive.
turdidae
257. Catharus fuscater
03 - 04/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m:
Two sightings on the edge of the National Park. Ind. carrying moss
to a nesting site situated in a patch of bushes surrounded by pasture
land.
10/07/1993. Pataz, Maran Valley, La Libertad 2300-2800: Quite
numerous in some quebradas with rich vegetation.
258. Turdus chiguanco
Breeding records
02/02/1965. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3100 m: Food-
carrying ind.; nest probably in a low scrub outside village.
12/03/ 1966. Quebrada Huancapuna, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2300 m:
Food-carrying ind. perching in an inaccessible rock face.
25/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3000-4000 m:
In two occ., food-carrying ind. in montane scrub.
23/02/1967. Arequipa, 2400 m: Ind. in a park, jamming its bill with
worms, then departing to the nesting site on a high Eucalyptus tree.
28/04/1967. Opica, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 2400 m: Food-
carrying ind.
20/01/1972. Muani, Puno, 3900 m: Nest in an unpenetrable
cypress; twice food-carrying ind.
31/01/1972. Torata, Moquegua, 2200 m: Nest with young on a
Salix on river bank, 3-4 m above the water. Both ads. take part in the
feeding.
259. Turdus serranus
04/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Group of
about 10 ind. in a forest relic, foraging on a tree with cherry-like fruit.
Tey begin at the top, gliding down by and by, feeding eagerly on the
plentiful fruit. Occ., they move on to the next tree.
mimidae
260. Mimus longicaudatus
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Ica. Max. alt. in the coastal val-
leys of Lima: Canta 2100 m, Rmac 2200 m, Lurin/Quebrada Tinajas
2800 m. No sightings in the urban area of Lima until 1999.
Behavior/Voice.- Mostly in small groups of up to 10 inds., gather-
ing conspicuously on bushes, trees (Fig. 128) or telephone wires. M.
Longicaudatus is the most talented singer on the coast. Te melodious
and varied song is often given in groups. A stanza lasts 2-5 min, inter-
rupted only by short intervals. Te song can be heard at any time of
the day. M. Longicaudatus sings regularly at mid day, even on hot days,
when other species fall silent. Rainfall seems to stimulate song activity.
28/10/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1800 m: Numerous; feeding
on the berries of Schinus molle. Together with Crotophaga sulcirostris on
a fooded pasture with plenty of prey.
30/08/1968. Mala Valley, Lima, 100 m: Perched in small groups
on bushes along newly plowed feld. Some hopping on the ground,
in search of food.
07/11/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Te whole day long vivid
song activity. - Pair engaged in nest-building. In a perimeter of 50-100
m they gather dry twigs and branches, some exceed the length of the
birds. In 8 min. they execute 6 fights. Te nest is located in a bush
thicket 3-4 m above the ground.
12/03/1972. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m: Food-
carrying ind. approaching a high cypress; another one is feeding on fgs.
15/09/1973. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Very numerous. Tree
ind. perched on a branch of a tree: Young between two ad. fapping
its wings and begging loudly.
25/12/1972. Urbanizacin California: Ind. with nesting material
(branch).
17-21/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: Common. Food-
carrying ind. warning persistently. It fnally swallows the prey itself, in
order not to reveal the nesting site, which probably lays in an extensive
Prosopis thicket.
motacillidae
261. Anthus lutescens
Sightings/Habitat.- Coast of Lambayeque (1x), La Libertad (1x),
Lima (23x) Gramadales near river mouths and lagoons; lomas, culti- Gramadales near river mouths and lagoons; lomas, culti-
vated felds.
Figure 128. Mimus longicaudatus.
Figure 129. Anthus lutescens.
Song.- consists of two parts: an ascending tsirtsirtsir and an even
slreee... In relation to the display fight part one corresponds to the
rising phase and part two to the gliding phase. Part one may also be
emitted between dislpay fights on the ground. Song (without display
fight) consists of two or three repetitions followed by a pause.
Song activities in diferent habitats:
Lomas (Lachay, Pacta): (June) Aug-Oct
Gramadales (Villa, Chilca, Puerto Viejo, mouth of Rio Vir): Sep-Feb.
Cultivated felds (Mirafores/Lima): Nov-Feb.
December 1967 - March 1968. Outskirts of Mirafores/Lima: 2-3
pairs present on a cotton feld, measuring about 100x200 m. Te
feld was cleared of weed in mid Jan, when plants were about 30 cm
tall. As a consecuence, a possible brood would have been destroyed.
Nonetheless, the song activity goes on until the end of Feb; presence
recorded until mid Mar.
79

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
thrauPidae
262. Schistochlamys melanopis
05/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m:
Ind. in second growth.
263. Cissopis leveriana
Max. alt.: 1800 m between Abra Tapuna and San Francisco (Rio
Apurmac), Ayacucho.
264. Hemispingus melanotis
31/07/1976. Baos Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca,
2800 m: Fairly common in humid montane forest. Two or three ind.
together; very lively. On one occ. feeding on a tall, dry Salvia.
265. Thlypopsis ornata
Sightings/Habitat.- Between 2600 and 3000 m from relative dry
montane scrub with Escallonia to humid montane forest.
West slope: Baos Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca;
Monterrey, Callejn de Huaylas, Ancash; Chiuchn, Huaura Valley,
Lima; Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima.
East slope: Rio Paucartambo, Pasco.
Behavior.- Hopping and slipping incessantly through branches and
foliage of bushes or trees in search of insects.
266. Ramphocelus nigrogularis
It is suspended from diferent stems and is interwoven with leaves of
tall grass. On the outside it is draped with withered leaves, the inside
is lined with stems and other vegetal fbers. Both eggs measure 16x21
mm. Colour: Light-turquoise with a ring of black splatters around
the broad pole.
267. Thraupis bonariensis
Sightings.- Mainly on west slope of Central Peru between 1500
and 3000 m. Max. alt. 3800 m, Huaura and Chancay Valleys, Lima;
min. alt. 800 m Rmac Valley, Lima.
31/08/1963. Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 1600 m: Group of males
and females of at least fve inds. in river edge thicket on a Schinus tree,
feeding on berries. To reach the food, they move about skillfully in the
thin, hanging branches.
23/01/1967. Monterrey, Callejn de Huaylas, Ancash, 3000 m:
Several inds. in cultivated area, some feeding fruits of Prunus serotina.
Song: TSEEtsew. - Male gathering nesting material. It rips of a dry
stem of grass, then picks up a small twig and carries both to a nearby
P. serotina tree.
Nest with eggs on a Tuja tree in hotel garden, about 3,5 m high,
close to the trunk (Fig. 132). Outside: Strong, bulky construction
made of dry twigs. Inside: Deep scrape lined with soft grass stems.
Outer diam. about 18 cm, inner diam. about 8 cm. Tree elongated
eggs; lightgreen, densely strewn with light and darkbrown splatters and
conspicuous sepia-brown streaks. Specimen: 18x28 mm. I observed
the female breeding on three occasions; the male showed up twice.
Figure 130. Male of Ramphocelus nigrogularis.
13 - 20/01/1970. Panguana Research Station, Rio Llullapichis, Hu-
nuco, 300 m: Common in second growth and at river edge. Rivalry
of two males: Tey attack each other in the air, swirling around. After
landing on a scrub, one of them submits himself by hanging upside
down from a branch. Te other takes a dominant position right above
his rival. Both remain in unchanged position for at least one minute.
When the defeated male fnally escapes, the winner tries to peck him.
Nest in a grass and bush thicket, about 1,60 m high (Fig. 131);
simple, thin-walled, oval cup. Inner diam. 5,5/8,5 cm, depth 5 cm.
Figure 131. Ramphocelus nigrogularis: nest with clutch.
Figure 132. Thraupis bonariensis: nest with clutch.
06-12/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, 2600 m, Lima: Common
in the cultivated areas, as well as in the adjacent semi-arid montane
scrub. Female on a peach tree in an abandoned orchard, snatching a
small piece of an unripe fruit. She carries it to a young on a nearby
orange tree, which begs incessantly tseetseetsee... 3400 m: Male perches
on a scrub, feeding young. During the following song, he rises his head
up to a near vertical position. Considerable number of fedglings
recorded in the same area.
10/07/1988. Paucartambo, Cusco, 3000 m: Male in an Eucalyptus
grove on a 50 cm high Solanacea with violet-blue blossoms and orange
fruits, tearing of small pieces of leaves (Fig. 133). It chews them before
Figure 133. 1: whole plant 2: intact leaf 3: nibbled leaf.
80
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
swallowing. On one specifc plant, nearly all leaves have been nibbled.
(When crumbled, the leaves emit a pungent smell.)
268. Anisognathus lacrymosus
08/01/1965. Near Chachapoyas, Amazonas: Fairly common in
humid montane forest between 2500 and 3000 m; foraging in trees.
02/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Ind. at
the edge of humid montane forest, feeding on white berries on a tree.
269. Tangara viridicollis
28/02/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Pair on
Cecropia in pasture land with relics of humid montane forest, pecking
away avidly at the club-shaped Cecropia fruits.
270. Tangara cyanicollis
05/08/1963. Between Abra Tapuna and San Francisco (Rio Apur-
mac), Ayacucho, 1300 m: Ind. in orchard.
05/02/1999. Near Moyobamba, San Martin, 850 m: Several sight-
ings in second growth.
271. Tangara vassori
28/02/1972. Between Scota and San Andrs de Cutervo, Caja-
marca, 2600 m: Pair in thicket of humid montane forest (relic).
02/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, 2400 m: Ind. on a tree at
the edge of humid montane forest, feeding on small berries (or buds).
272. Conirostrum cinereum
Behavior.- Moves restlessly about in blossoming trees, bushes and
ornamental plants, emitting a constant whisper. Often in pairs or small
groups. Picks and gleans insects from top and underside of leaves.
Examines blossoms in search of prey and nectar.
Voice/Reproduction.- Song activity starts in Mirafores/Lima at
the end of Aug, getting more intense through Sep/Oct, reaching its
height in Nov and declining in Dec. Te frst clutch coincides with the
blooming of trees and bushes in gardens and parks. Courting activity
reaches another, though minor height in Feb (second clutch?). Song
is a simple twitter. Te sequence of 4-6 notes is repeated several times.
16/12/1963. Mirafores, Lima: Full-fedged young in school yard.
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 600-900
m: Common in deciduous forest.
26-29/02/1964. Mala Valley, Lima, 700-1700 m: Recorded regularly
in riparian vegetation and all kind of shrubbery. An incessant tseetsee
reveals its presence.
27-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 3800 m: Sporadic in light
Polylepis wood and scrub, especially Ribes.
07-14/02/1966. Huariaca, Pasco, 3000-3300 m: Regularly in
montane scrub with Agavae and Eucalyptus.
30/07 - 04/08/1966. Hacienda Cochabambe, Rio Chusgn, La
Libertad, 2400 m: Common; especially on blooming Gravilea. Also in
vegetable garden, where it picks insects from the underside of leaves. It
even manages to cling to the plain heads of cabbage.
23-31/08/1968. Mirafores/Lima: Ind. sings daily in the garden at
the same time (7 pm) on the same tree.
24/02/1969. Mirafores/Lima: Singing ind. in a cotton feld. It
often changes its perch, fying from one cotton shrub to another, at a
distance of 5-10 m.
273. Oreomanes fraseri
Sightings/Habitat.- In Ploylepis wood between 3700 and 4200 m
in Lima (Huaura Valley, Santa Eulalia Valley) and Ayacucho (slope of
Nevado Sarasara).
Behavior.- Oreomanes fraseri produces a rustling noise when examining
the paper-thin layers of Polylepis bark, which can be heard at quite a distance.
24-25/04/1971. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900-4100 m:
Fairly common in extended Polylepis forest. It starts singing at 5.45 am on
a cold, foggy morning. Song: an excited, two pitched chatter or twitter.
274. Xenodacnis parina
27-29/11/1964. Huaura Valley, Lima, 3800 m: Characteristic bird in
light Polylepis wood. Vigorous and varied song; call: wutwut... or wetwet.
01/11/1965 - 26/03/1966 - 04/12/1966 - 26/04/1969 -
24/04/1971. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3900-4100 m:
Sporadic in Polylepis wood, preferably on Gynoxys, where it gleans insects
from the underside of the leaves. Single males, pairs or mixed groups.
16/06/1968. Between Mollebamba and Orongoy, Pampas Canyon,
Ayacucho, 3500 m: Male on Gynoxys in dense montane scrub with trees.
275. Diglossa sittoides
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca, Contumaz, 2700 m.
CP: Lima between 3000 and 3500 m: Huaura, Canta and Santa
Eulalia Valleys.
276. Diglossa brunneiventris
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca 3400 m.
CP: west slope between 3000 and 4200 m: Ancash: Pativilca Valley;
Lima: Rmac Valley and Santa Eulalia Valley; east slope between 2600
and 3300 m: Ancash: Callejn de Conchucos; Pasco: Paucartambo Valley.
SP: Arequipa: Cotahuasi Valley, 3400 m; Cusco: Paucartambo Val-
ley, 3000-3500 m; Puno: Isla Taquile, 3800 m.
Behavior.- Diglossa brunneiventris is a true fower-piercer: It for-
ages predominantly on fowering bushes and trees. To reach exposed
fowers, it performs acrobatic acts.
25/04/1969. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, 4000 m: Ind. on a
climber with trumpet-shaped, salmon coloured fowers in Polyleps
wood. Clinging to the stem of the fower, it introduces its bill into the
calyx to reach nectar and/or insects.
17-19/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2600 m: Quite numerous
in bush forest. It shows a predilection for a red-violet Leguminosae. Song
activity begins at 5.30 am and lasts until dusk. Song: an inarticulate,
hasty trill, emitted from half hidden perches, lasting a few sec.
INCERTAE SEDIS
277. Coereba faveola
11/01/1964. Near Batn Grande, Lambayeque: Ind. in Prosopis
wood, picking a piece of cotton out of a decaying nest, presumably
to use it for a new one.
02/07/1972. San Ramn. Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Ad.
foraging in red blossoms of an oropel tree, followed everywhere by a
begging and chirping young.
28/01/1973. Yarinacocha/Pucallpa, Loreto, 200 m: Ind. with nest-
ing material (vegetal fber) in second growth.
278. Tiaris obscurus
12/07/1993. Chagual, Rio Maran, La Libertad, 1250 m: Com-
mon in dry scrub, orchards and riparian vegetation. Often in small
focks. Song a repetitious twitter.
20/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: Ind. in riparian vegeta-
tion, singing on top of a Tessaria.
279. Saltator aurantiirostris
Sightings
NP: west slope: Cajamarca 2700/2800 m; La Libertad 1500 m; east
slope: Cajamarca 2100-2600 m; La Libertad 2600-3000 m.
81

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
CP: west slope: Ancash 3100/3700 m; Lima 2800-4200 m; Huan-
cavelica 2800/3000 m; east slope: Ancash 3100/3200 m; Hunuco
3100 m; Pasco 2600-3300 m.
SP: west slope: Arequipa 3400 m; east slope: Ayacucho 3400 m;
Apurmac 3200 m; Cusco 2500-3500 m.
Min. alt: Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500 m (BP 2100 m).
Max. alt.: Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4200 m (BP
4000 m).
Habitat.- Contrary to the statement of BP not found in more
humid habitats, I recorded S. aurantiirostris in humid montane forest
(Zrate, Lima; Yumagual, Cajamarca)), in Alnus dominated river edge
vegetation (Contumaz, Cajamarca) and in Polylepis woods (Yanganuco,
Ancash; Huaur Valley and Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima).
Voice.- Song: A vigorous, melodic sequence of varying notes with
diferent lengths, often emitted from conspicuous perches as rocks,
hedgerows, scrub, Opuntia, lower branches of Eucalyptus. Te song
activity begins in Feb and lasts until Sep (no records for June).
18/11/1972. Chancay Valley, Lima, 3800 m: Pair in mountain scrub
(with Ribes) feeding on fruit of a climber with salmon coloured fower.
280. Saltator striatipectus
Sightings
NP: west slope: Piura 200 m; east slope: Cajamarca 1600/1800 m
CP: west slope: Ancash 100 m, Lima 0-800 m, Ica 200 m; east
slope: La Libertad 1200 m
15/02/1964. Hacienda San Jacinto, Piura, 200 m: Nest with
young on a Citrus tree about 3 m high, placed in the fork of a branch.
A nearly grown-up fedgeling is sitting on the rim of the nest. Both
ads. are around.
06/03/1972. Cochabamba, Rio Chotano, Cajamarca, 1600 m:
Common in cultivated area with hedgerows. Ind. singing on top of
a bamboo.
July 1983. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima,
800 m: Daily song in the garden. Calls: tsc and very characteristic
tsigraa... Male sitting on a window sill repeatedly attacks his mirror
image a supposed rival in a window pane, interrupted occ. by short
song outbursts. Te attacks may last as long as a quarter of an hour.
08-09/07/1993. Chagual, Rio Maran, La Libertad, 1200 m:
Common in orchards and scrub. Several inds. singing simultaneously
in the morning. Complete song consists of four notes; a low pitched
note alternates with a high pitched one: trewtsYEwdewtsYdew, the last
two notes occ. missing; also emitting a quiet trill, like tsetrrr...tsetse.
19/02/1999. Samaca, Ica valley, 200 m: Ind singing in the morning
on a Tessaria.
emBerizidae
281. Zonotrichia capensis
Sightings.- Coast and Andes; most frequent on the coastal plains
and between 2300 and 3800 m; only three records between 500 and
1500 m; also on the east slope.
Te diagram refers to the coastal area of Lima. It shows, that the
courting activity starts in June, reaches its height in Sep and continues
until Feb. Te proper reproduction period begins in Aug and lasts
until March (April).
Habitat.- Coast: lomas, felds, gardens and parks. Andes: montane
scrub, riparian vegetation, felds, orchards, villages, humid montane
forest, Polylepis wood; on the east slope Z. Capensis is common in
secondary growth and cultivated areas.
Voice.- Te vocal emissions vary individually and geographically.
Te song consists mostly of three to four parts: A low, one- or two-note
introduction (tsew or tew), a vigorous, sustained central part (tswYew),
followed by some declining, accelerated and repetitive notes, ending - in
certain regions - by a trill. Te song is often incomplete, occ. reduced to
the central part. Some inds. have two or three song variations, repeating
each of them several times. Z. capensis can be heard from dawn to dusk,
but is most active early in the morning and late in the afternoon. In the
cities - stimulated by the artifcial illumination - it is not uncommon
to hear it at night (09.03.66+25.03.66); sings also during rainfall.
Occ. several males engage in a kind of song contest.
28/10/1963. Mirafores, Lima: Brood in a hedge of pomegranates
bordering a schoolyard, about 1.70 m above the ground. Te hemi-
spherical nest is thick-walled and strongly built. Outer diam.14-18
cm, inner diam. 5,5 cm, height 9-10 cm, depth 4,5 cm. It consists
predominantly of grass stems. Te outside is camoufaged by dry leaves
and a few pieces of paper. Te interior features a dense layer of human
hair. Te four light blue-green eggs with brownish speckles difer
slightly in colour and size: 24.5x19/20.2x18/21x17.5/? mm. Shortly
after the 28 Oct, the brood was abandoned.
08/01/1964. Near mouth of Rio Reque, Lambayeque: Common
in riparian vegetation. Nest in a patch of reed, made of grass-stems,
about 30 cm above the ground (Fig. 135). Egg: whitish with irregularly
strewn brown and lilac dots.
Figure 134. 1 - 12: month/year; c: courting activity (song); n: nest-
building; b: breeding; fn: feeding at nest; fo: feeding outside nest;
single record; --- observation period.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
c

n

b
fn
fo


---


---
Preproductive periods of Zonotrichia capensis
Figure 135. Zonotrichia capensis: nest with clutch.
07/03/1964. Mirafores, Lima: Young Molothrus bonariensis pursues
its stepmother, begging uninterruptedly.
11/09/1965. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m:
Intense courting activity on a foggy day. Males in aggresive mood,
spreading occ. their tailes.
09/03/1966. Parque Central, Mirafores/Lima: Singing at night in
mighty Ficus trees, illuminated by foodlight.
Mid of March 66 Mirafores, Lima: Nest (A) with 3 eggs, report-
edly found in bamboo (Fig. 136). Comparison with another nest (B)
of unknown origin:
Nest A Nest B
Outer diam. 10-12 cm 11-12 cm
Inner diam. 5 cm 5,5 cm
Height 6,5 cm 7 cm
Depth 4 cm 4,5 cm
82
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
Figure 137. Zonotrichia capensis: nest with clutch.
building activity in a hedge of pomegranates. Both ads. participate
by contributing dry leaves, stems and twigs. When an ind. discovers
my presence it immediately drops a full load of stems. No activity
during the following two days.
29/11. Two eggs have been deposited before 3 pm.
30/11. Ad. breeding at 10 am.
01/12. 3
rd
egg deposited before 12:30.
05/12. Hutch abandoned. Eggs greenish with brown spots:
24x19/21x16/21x16 mm.
28/02/2003. San Borja/Lima: Ind. foraging in a small garden
beneath ornamental plants, where it scratches vigorously in the earth,
pausing from time to time, looking for prey.
Figure 138. Phrygilus punensis: nest with nestling.
Material: Te interior of both nests is lined with hair (mostly hu-
man), the walls consist of grass stems and grass roots. B features some
small leaves. Both nests are built upon a base of lose material: A features
several leaf veins of Parkinsonia (up to 47 cm long), small leaves and
grass roots. Te base of B consists of grass stems and rhizomes, leaves
(up to 13 cm long), some pieces of paper and dry blossom.
Eggs of nest A difer in form, color and size:
I. longish, light blue-grey with a few fne dark brown spots;
26x18,5 mm.
II. roundish, light grey-beige with brown and beige spots; 23,5x19
mm.
III. roundish, light blue-grey with brown and beige spots, condensed
around broad pole; 23x18 mm.
25-27/03/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3300-3900
m: Common in montane scrub, also in Polylepis wood; intense song
activity; several times at night in complete darkness.
03/12/1966. Same place: Faint song activity.
03-ca.13/03/1967. La Victoria/Lima: Male appears daily in the open
garage, attracted by his own image, refected in one of the wheel caps.
He promenades in front of it and occ. jumps against his mirror image,
mostly twice in succession. Te clicking sound is largely audible. Te
attacks, which do not seem to be an act of aggression, but merely a
refex, may last 15-30 min.
27-29/07/1967. Cajatambo, Pativilca Valley, Lima, 3400 m: In
large numbers in the grainfelds surrounding the village.
17-18/02/1967. Machu Picchu, Cusco, 2400 m: Nest-building
behind the hotel in a dense grass bush. Te female is carrying small
twigs to the concealed place as inconspicuously as possible, while her
mate is singing incessantly from a nearby perch.
27/08/1967. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima: Nest with
young in a densely foliated Carica, about 2.20 m above the ground.
An ad. keeps watch.
Mid November 1967. Mirafores/Lima: Ind. foraging in the garden
(maybe gathering food for young), scratching in a chicken-like manner
amongst dry leaves or standing with both feet upon a clod and turning
it upside down by jerkely jumping backwards.
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400 m: Most
common species in the park-like area with rocks and trees. Food-
carrying ind. hopping around in a Caesalpinia. Nest with 3 eggs
on the ground beneath a low scrub in the open zone without trees (Fig.
137). It is made of grass stems and lined with wool. Te rim is draped
with moss. Outer diam 13 cm, inner diam. 6 cm, depth 4,5 cm. Te
light green eggs are strewn with light and dark brown spots. Tey vary
in degree of the background color and the arrangement of the spots.
Measures: 21,5x16/23x16/22x16 mm.
25/11 - 05/12/1969. Mirafores/Lima: 10:30-13:00: Intense nest-
Figure 136. Zonotrichia capensis: nest with clutch.
282. Phrygilus punensis
Sightings
NP: west slope: Cajamarca 2800/3200 m; east slope: Cajamrca
2600 m.
CP: west slope: Ancash 3000-3600 m; Lima 3000-4300 m; east
slope: Pasco 3000-3300 m; Hunuco 3100 m.
SP: Arequipa 3400 m; Cusco 3000 m; Puno 3900-4100 m.
25/05/1967. Viso, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Small village con-
sisting of adobe houses. Nest with young beneath roof of corrugated
sheet iron; ad. feeding.
26/04/1969. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400 m: Steep
slope with lush vegetation (semi-humid montane scrub). Tick-
walled, densely woven Nest with only one fedgling on an Opuntia
(Fig. 138/139). Horizontal distance from slope 1.5 m. Nest consists
83

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
of delicate roots and stems on a base of coarse twigs and branches.
Interior: sheep (?) wool with some horse hairs. Outer diam. approx.
15 cm, inner diam. 8 cm. After feeding, ad. deposits a fecal sac on top
of another Opuntia about 200 m away.
07/04/2003. Acopalca near Huari, Ancash, 3300 m: Female
gathering nesting material on the ground, then departs with a tuft
of small stalks.
283. Phrygilus fruticeti
Sightings
NP: Cajamarca, 2700/3400 m; La Libertad, 2800-3600 m
CP: Ancash, 3000-3500 m; Lima 2200-4200 m (most frequent
between 3000-3800 m)
SP: Arequipa, 3400-3500 m; Puno, 3900 m
Habitat.- Semi-humid montane scrub with cacti; felds and pasture
land with hedgerows and stonewalls; Polylepis wood.
Courting/Breeding.- Te main courting period in Lima begins in
Feb and ends in June. A second, less active period, lasts from August
to November. Young recorded in Apr, May, June and Dec.
Voice.- No other bird in the montane scrub zone is such an eager
and tireless singer as Ph. fruticeti During the mating season it can be
heard all day long, even on foggy or rainy days. Males emit their dis-
tinctive song a cascade of blurred notes from conspicuous perches,
such as rocks, bushes or cacti. Tey sing occ. during gliding phase of
(display?) fight.
31/10 - 01/11/1965. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3600-
3800 m: Tere is an increase of song activity before sundown ending
shortly thereafter (17:45-18:15). Morning song begins (timidly) shortly
before sunrise.
16/05/1970. Casta, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3400 m: Song ev-
erywhere. Begging young in montane scrub with Opuntia. Ad. warns
repeatedly with a metallic pck. Male with nesting material. Up to
fve males can be heard at the same time. Some of them get occ. into
territorial disputes.
24/04/1971. Chumcha, 3600-3800 m: Intense song activity in
lush montane scrub. Neighbouring males do not sing simultaneously.
When one of them stops, another begins. Te songs may overlap with
those of other ind. farther away (Fig. 140/141).
01-08/09/1972. Casta, 3100-3900 m: Numerous in montane scrub
with Opuntia. One of the few species to be heard, esp. in the morning
and in late afternoon. 3800 m: Short, but general outburst of song
activity at sunrise (07:15).
284. Phrygilus alaudinus
Sightings
Figure 139. Nestling of Phrygilus punensis.
NP: Cajamarca, 2800/3000m; La Libertad 1800 m
CP: Lima, 400-2000 m (most records in the lomas)
SP: Cusco, 3600 m; Puno, 3900 m
10/10/1965. Lomas de Pacta, 45 km south of Lima: Fairly com-
mon; lively courting activity Song emitted when perched on a stone,
during display fight (Fig. 142) or even when feeding on the ground.
Figure 140 - 141. Phrygilus fruticeti.
Figure 142. Phrygilus alaudinus: display fight.
84
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
285. Diuca speculifera
Sightings
CP: Lima: Huaura Valley 4200 m; Canta Valley 4500 m; Santa
Eulalia Valley 4400-4700 m
SP: Puno: Ananea, 4800 m.
286. Xenospingus concolor
17-21/02/1999. Samaca, Ica Valley, Ica, 200 m: On two occ. ind.
in riparian vegetation, hopping leisurely through Prosopis thicket, ex-
amining foliage in search of insects. Song: A slightly ondulating series
of short, intermittent syllables. Juv. on Prosopis.
287. Incaspiza pulchra
Sightings/Habitat
Lima: Rmac Valley, 1800/2200 m; Lurin Valley, 1600-2200 m; in
dry montane scrub with cacti, Jatropha and Carica and scree-strewn
slopes with scarce vegetation.
Voice.- Whistle (see BP) sometimes followed by a trill at a lower pitch.
25/05/1963. Above Ricardo Palma, left side of Rmac Valley, Lima,
1800-2000 m: Fairly numerous in an arid quebrada with sparse vegeta-
tion. Often in pairs; foraging on seeds on the ground. (Probably) young
hidden in scrub, begging.
26/09/1964. Quebrada Tinajas, Lurin Valley, Lima, 2000 m: Ind.
feeding on unripe cactus fruit.
288. Poospiza caesar
12/06/1968. Between Illahuasi and Rio Pampas (Puente Santa
Rosa), Apurmac, 3000-3200 m: Several sightings in the dense montane
scrub with scattered patches of agricultural felds. Melodious song
emitted from elevated perch.
20/07/1988. Paucartambo, Cusco, 3000 m: In dense montane scrub
with cacti at the edge of the village.
289. Poospiza hispaniolensis
Sightings.- Mainly on west slope of Central Peru: Ancash 1300 m;
Lima 0-2400 m (Canta, Rmac, Mala Valleys)
15/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 600 m:
Female gathering food on the surface of a cracked rock, slipping in
and out of the crevices.
27/03/1964. Urbanizacin California, Chosica, Lima, 800 m:
Numerous in dry scrub with Acacia and rich vegetation along irriga-
tion channel. Often in pairs. When fying from scrub to scrub, they
seek cover immediately. Males singing on low perches. One of them
straightens his plumage after every sequence. Te same procedure
recorded two weeks later at the mouth of the Rio Chilln.
290. Volatinia jacarina
Te diagram and the following records refer to gardens and parks
of La Victoria/Lima and Mirafores/Lima.
Courting.- Courting activity takes place year round. Te proper
reproduction period (breeding and feeding at nest) lasts roughly from
Sep to June, probably including two or more reproduction cycles . Te
display fight of V. jacarina should be called more properly display leap
- considering its height of 30-50 cm. It is generally performed from
low perches, as poles, bushes or grass stems, occ. from trees or edges
of roofs; also on the ground (especially in the presence of a female).
Te song - emitted with or without leap - consists of a short, pressed
sequence that sounds like tswryew. It is repeated 20-30 times per
minute. Tree or four males may gather for a kind of song competition
(min. distance between two ind.: 10 m).
Nesting sites.- Volatinia jacarina prefers hedges, bushes and creepers
to build its nest; mostly below 2 m above ground (lowest site 30 cm,
highest about 4 m). I have found nests on the following plants: Gera-
nium 0,9/0,5 m, lluvia de oro 2/2,5 m, bamboo 1,6 m, rose 0,5/1/1,2
m, pomegranate 2/2/1 m, Acacia dealbata 4/4 m, Fuchsia 0,8m, Vicia
0,9 m, cotton 0,30 m, Nerium 2 m.
Reproduction statistics
Number of eggs/young: 2 (6x), 3 (4x)
Nest-building 6-7 days
Breeding 10-11 days
Feeding at nest 10-14 days
End of March/Beginning of April 1963, La Victoria: Lively courting
activity in a cotton feld. Songs and display fight on top of the cotton
bushes. Mixed groups of males and females pursuing each other. Male
and female feeding young.
27/04/1963. Same place: Male feeding Molothrus bonariensis
double his size. Another ad. feeding its own breed.
May 1963. Mirafores: Brood in a garden on Geranium close to a
brick wall, 90 cm above the ground. Te thin walled nest consists of
loosely aligned grass roots, inside lined with horse hair. Two eggs with
dark brown spots, concentrated around broad pole (Fig. 144), laid 04-
05/05/1963; hatched 17-18/05/1963 (Fig. 145); fedged end of May.
Figure 144. Volatinia jacarina: nest with cluch.
Figure 145. Volatinia jacarina: nestlings 3-4 days old.
Figure 143. 1-12: month/year; c: courting activity (display fight and
song); n: nest-building; b: breeding; fn: feeding at nest; fo: feeding
outside nest; single record; --- observation period.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
c

n
b
fn
fo


--
---
---
--
--
---
--- --
--
- -- --

--- --

-- --

-- --

--

Preproductive periods of Volatinia jacarina
85

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
01/10/1963. La Victoria: Pair on lawn; male approaches female in
a provocative manner, singing excitedly.
Beginning of Nov 1963 Mirafores: Pair beneath a hedge. Te male
grabs a small leaf and hops ahead of the female. He seems to invite her
to follow him (and build a nest?).
11/04/1964. Mouth of Rio Chilln, Lima: Female feeding a nearly
full grown Molothrus bonariensis.
Breeding record 08/12/1964 - 03/01/1965, La Victoria:
08/12/1964. Pair lingering in a lluvia de oro at their future nest-
ing site.
10/12/1964. Summary of protocol, 14:30-16:30
Nest-building in full swing. Te main task of the male is to provide
the nesting material, as grass stems and grass roots (Fig. 146). 13 of
15 entries made in two hours correspond to the male. If the female
is present, he passes the material to her; if she is absent, he fxes it
only superfcally. He often anounces his arrival with song and fight
display at the edge of the roof or on the garden wall. He repeats the
ceremony, when leaving the site. Te female, sitting in the nest most
of the time, is occupied with properly fxing the material, provided
to her by her mate. By turning constantly around, she gives the nest
its accurate form and size. On two occ. she returnes to the nest with
pieces of cotton (Fig. 147) and fxes them on the outside. Call emitted
by both genders: A sharp tsc or tshewc, that possibly serves to establish
or maintain contact. Te building phase lasted about 6 days, with
decreasing intensity towards the end.
16-17/12/1964. 1
st
and 2
nd
egg laid before 7.30 am at a 24-hour
interval; 12x14/11,5x14,5 mm. Only the female is breeding; nest is
occ. left unguarded.
26-27/12/1964. Te young hatch between evening of 26 and morn-
ing of 27 December.
Both ads. participate in the feeding. Te male is the main provider
of food. Guarding and protecting the young is the exclusive task of the
female. Te food in most cases is not carried in the bill, but stored in
the crop (Fig. 148).
When the male approaches the nest, he occ. emits despite the fully
crammed throat his courting song. He anounces his coming with a
soft tsictsic and his mate answers likewise. A mutual greeting ceremony
follows, consisting of an excited and rapid series of tsictsictshewctshewc.
While the male regurgitates the food, the female fies away. Te young
stay unguarded for some minutes, until the female returns from her
food-hunting trip. Before and during the feeding, the young emit beg-
ging sounds. If they are warned by the ad., they fall silent immediately.
28/12/1964. Feeding protocol 13:40-14:25
feeding and leaving
feeding and staying
leaving
+ present
absent
13:42
13:50
14:02
14:13
14:19 +
Feeding every 9 min, male and female alternating
01/01/1965. Feeding protocol 13:15-14:05
13:18
13:22 +
13:27 +
13:31 fs
13:33
13:40
13:45
14:04
fs: fecal sac
Feeding every 6-7 min; male fve, female three entries.
03/01/1965. Tense moment on the edge of the roof: A singing and
rattling Troglodytes aedon perched between two pairs of V. jacarina, only
4 m apart. Our V. Jacarina pair does not hesitate to drive away both
intruders. On two occ., T. Aedon gets inadvertently into the vicinity
of the Volatinia-brood. Both ads. attack the alleged enemy with hue
and cry. T. aedon is not really impressed.
20/08/1965. La Victoria: Ind. on a blooming Poinsettia. It dips
its bill into the tiny cups, flled with nectar ( Sporophila simplex). Figure 146. Volatinia jacarina: male nest-building.
Figure 147. Volatinia jacarina: female nest-building. Figure 148. Volatinia jacarina: male and female feeding at nest.
86
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
12/12/1965. La Victoria: Brood on Acacia dealbata in a vertical
crutch. Daily begging calls.
15/12/1965. Same place: Full-fedged young gets fed repeatedly
by a female.
16/12/1965. Same place: Two females feeding at the same time;
one of them young at nest, the other her almost grown-up ofspring.
On one occ., both females feed consecutively at nest.
05/03/1969. Mirafores: Nest-building in a cotton feld, 30 cm
above the ground. At the moment, the nest consists only of a few
grassroots, draped with some patches of spiderweb.
17/08/1971. Mirafores: Female on a bare-branched poplar, picking
out nesting material of a seemingly unused nest. She disappears with
it to a neighbouring garden.
28/02/2003. San Borja/Lima: Male gathering nesting material.
He successfully manages to form a loop out of a long vegetal fber.
291. Sporophila luctuosa
05/04/2003. Chavn de Huntar, Ancash, 3200 m: Group in a
cornfeld, feeding on the seeds of a 1 m-high Brassicacea. To reach the
pods, they cling to a nearby corn leaf.
08/04/2003. San Luis, Ancash, 3000-3300 m: Fairly common
in the rich montane scrub with Genista. Song: A varied sequence of
whistles, trills and fricatives.
292. Sporophila nigricollis
05/03/1972. Scota, Cajamarca, 2100 m: Male singing in a hedge-
row. Hamonious song, resembling that of Sporophila telasco.
05/07/1972. San Ramn, Chanchamayo Valley, Junn, 800 m: Ind.
in second growth.
293. Sporophila simplex
Sightings.- Lima: Canta Valley 500 m, Rmac Valley 800 m; Ancash:
Nepea Valley, 200 m.
Habitat.- Gardens and parks, fallow land, scrub and bush vegetation
along cultivated felds and irrigation channels.
Behavior.- Gregarious; in focks of up to 30 inds.; occ. in company
with other fnches. Forages mainly in low vegetation as scrub and weed;
also on the ground.
Voice/Courting .- Song: A rich, varied chatter of diferent length,
beginning with a soft introduction, followed by a more intense middle
part, decreasing at the end or ending with a rushing sequence. Uses
all kinds of perches, like bushes, trees, grass stems, stakes; also singing
in fight. Song activity begins in Mirafores/Lima in Sep, reaches its
culmination in Oct and ends in Dec. In Chosica, Rmac Valley, Lima
(Urbanizacin California, 800 m) there seem to be two courting seasons:
Jan to April and Aug to Oct.
Feeding.- Apart from seeds and grains, S. simplex has developed at
least in the gardens and parks of Lima a special liking for nectar. It
has found ingenious ways to reach the sought-after juice, as the fol-
lowing examples demonstrate:
1) Ind. visits repeatedly the blossoms of Poinsettia, dipping its bill
into the tiny bowls flled with nectar, then rising its head slightly in a
drinking manner. Occ. it cleans its bill from the sticky stuf by rubbing
it of on a branch ( Volatinia jacarina).
2) Ind. visits repeatedly the pierced blossoms of Hibiscus (Fig.
149). Te holes must be the work of S. Simplex, created to reach
the otherwise inaccessible nectar. Amazilia amazilia is also making
use of them.
3) Small group in orchard with blooming peach trees; ind. feeding
on nectar.
4) Ind. on a red Salvia, plucking the fowers and squeezing the
nectar-flled end ( Carduelis magellanicus).
294. Sporophila telasco
Sightings.- Coastal valleys from Lambayeque to Ica up to 800 m
(Rmac Valley); east slope: Chamaya Valley, Cajamarca, 800 m.
Habitat.- Riparian vegetation, dry scrub with Acacia, fallow land,
cotton, rice and corn felds, totorales, gardens and parks.
Voice/Courting.- Pleasant, uninterrupted chatter, that lasts several
seconds; emitted from scrub, grass stems, corn and cotton plants, Acacia
trees and telephone wires; also in fight. Song activity begins in Nov,
is most intense from Jan to Mar and ends in April.
20/02/1967. Nest with egg outside Lima in a tall grass bush about
1,5 m above ground. A light, transparent structure made of grass stems,
grass roots and panicles mixed with some patches of cotton. Outer diam.
7 cm, inner diam. 4 cm, height 5,5 cm, depth 4,5 cm. Egg: white with
black dots, forming a ring around broad pole; 12,5x17,5 mm.
295. Catamenia analis
Sightings.-
NP: Maran Valley, La Libertad, east-facing slope, 2400 m (BP:
in intramontane valleys not below 3000 m on east-facing slope)
CP: west slope: Ancash and Lima from sealevel to 3500 m; east
slope: Junn 3000-3300 m
SP: Cusco and Apurmac 3000-3300 m
Behavior.- Gregarious; sometimes in mixed groups with Sporophlia
telasco and Sporophila simplex. Constantly roaming about in low veg-
etation (bushes, herbs, grass) in search of seeds; also on the ground.
09/04/2003. San Luis, Ancash, 3000 m: Male uses special technique
to get at the seeds on top of 1 m-high grass stems: He alights on a
spike, tearing it down to earth by its own weight. Hastily, he begins to
pluck the seeds. First he has to free them from the indigestible cover by
nibbling and turning them in his bill. After having repeated the catch-
in-fight procedure, he manages to reach a spike from a nearby scrub.
296. Arremon abeillei
17/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 800 m:
Ind. in undergrowth of deciduous forest.
297. Atlapetes latinuchus
Sightings
NP: west slope: Yumagual 2800 m and Chetilla 2800 m, Jequete-
peque Valley, Cajamarca; east slope: Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La
Libertad, 2400 m; between Scota 2000 m and San Andrs de Cutervo
2400 m, Cajamarca.
Habitat.- Humid montane forest, riparian vegetation and second
growth.
Figure 149. Sporophila simplex: feeding on nectar.
87

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
298. Atlapetes rufgenis
28/06/1965. Between Yungay and Yanganuco, Ancash, 3000-3600
m: Several sightings in the humid montane scrub.
299. Atlapetes albiceps
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 600-800
m: Fairly common in deciduous forest; often in pairs or small groups.
January 1967. Between Olmos and Abra Porculla, Lambayeque, 700
m: Ind. in deciduous forest, avidly scratching the ground.
300. Atlapetes nationi
Sightings.- Lima; most records between 2500 an 3500 m; min. alt.
2100 m, Rmac Valley; max. alt. 4200 m, Santa Eulalia Valley
Behavior.- Not shy; often on the ground in search of food, scratch-
ing noisily in dead leaves.
Habitat.- Dry and semi-humid montane scrub, humid montane
forest, Polylepis wood, cultivated areas with hedges and stonewalls; near
and occ. within villages. A. nationi thrives in lush montane scrub with
cacti and scattered trees.
15/09/1963. Zrate, Rmac Valley, Lima, 3000 m: Ind. feeding on
Oreopanax blossoms.
03/12/1966. Chumcha, Santa Eulalia Valley, Lima, 3300 m: Ind.
examining horse or donkey droppings during several minutes.
24/04/1971. Chumcha, 3900 m: Ind. in Polylepis wood feeding on
a Phrygilanthus berry. It squeezes the fruit, until the sticky seed drops
out, then swallows the rest.
cardinalidae
301. Piranga fava
Sightings
NP: east slope: San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m; Ari-
capampa, Marann Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m.
CP: west slope: Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600 m; Colca,
Fortaleza Valley, Lima, 2500 m; Chancay Valley, Lima, 1800 m; Lurin
Valley, Lima, 600/1500 m.
302. Pheucticus chrysogaster
151); female breeding. Nest consists of dry twigs, grass stems and other
vegetal fbers. Smooth interior contrasts with tangled outside. Inner
diam. 8,5 cm, outer diam. 25-30 cm, depth 5 cm. Eggs: Turquois with
light and dark brown spots and uniform brown patch on broader pole.
Sample egg: 19x30 mm.
Figure 150. Female of Pheucticus
chrysogaster.
Figure 151. Pheucticus chrysogaster: nest with clutch.
Sightings
NP: west slope: 200-1000/2800 m; east slope: 1500-2800 m
CP: west slope: 1000-3500 m (most frequent between 1700-3200
m); east slope: 2600-3400 m
SP: west slope: 2200-3400 m; southernmost record: Torata, Mo-
quegua (BP: Distribution map shows Ph. chrysogaster reaching only
to northern Arequipa).
Habitat/Behavior.- Orchards and small cultivated plots, pasture
land with hedgerows, Eucalyptus groves, humid montane scrub, ripar-
ian vegetation, second growth, deciduous forest. Fruit and seed eater:
Schinus molle, Salix humboldtiana, Acacia macracantha, Prunus serotina.
23/03/1970. Between San Bartolom and Zrate, Rmac Valley,
Lima, 2300-2600m: Song and breeding activity in lush montane scrub.
Male with nesting material (long grass stem). 2300 m: Nest with 3
eggs on a horizontal branch of Carica at 1,80 m above ground (Fig.
303. Pheucticus aureoventris
11/06/1968. Hacienda Toxama, north of Andahuaylas, Apurmac,
2400 m: Numerous in orange and chirimoya orchards.
14/06/1968. Between Puente Santa Rosa and Mollebamba, Pampas
Caon, Ayacucho, 1800 m: Male in dry but dense montane scrub
with scattered trees.
21/07/1976. Limatambo, Cusco, 2500-2900 m: In dense montane
scrub.
Parulidae
304. Parula pitiayumi
16/02/1964. Sauce Grande, Amotape Mountains, Piura, 600 m:
Small group in deciduous forest near water hole.
305. Wilsonia canadiensis
Figure 152. Wilsonia canadiensis.
04/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m: Ind.
foraging in an isolated patch of humid montane forest. It pursues a
white moth in zigzag-fight, catches and swallows it, perched on a bush.
306. Geothlypis aequinoctialis
03/08/1966. Aricapampa, Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2400 m:
Ind. in a quebrada with dense vegetation foraging on the ground.
01/10/1967. Canta Valley, Lima, 500 m: Female on a Casuarina at
the edge of a peach orchard.
17/11/1968. Mouth of Rio Mala, Lima: Male in an extended patch
of Tessaria.
307. Myioborus miniatus
05/01/1965. Between Olmos and Abra Porculla, Lambayeque, 1500
m: Ind. foraging in scrub and deciduous forest.
88
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
29/07/1965. Huacamochal, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1700 m:
Several sightings in montane scrub.
28/09/1971. Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Ind. in an Eucalyptus
grove, busily hopping from branch to branch in search of insects. It
spreads in fight its long black and white tail. Pair in scrub thicket,
hopping around and spreading their tails. Te outer tail feathers are
shining in the semi-darkness (part of courting display?).
31/07/1976. Yumagual, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca, 2800 m:
Fairly common in humid montane scrub and forest relic. Attracted by
a swarm of insects, that are swirling over a fresh cow dung, ind. jumps
for prey from a low perch or from the ground.
20/07/1983. Pucatambo, west of Rioja, Amazonas/San Martn,
1600 m: Ind. foraging in canopy of primary forest.
308. Myioborus melanocephalus
Several nests hanging over the clif above the cave of Steatornis caripensis.
Several sightings of ind. carrying nesting material (on one occ. the
fber is about 1 m long). Ind. drinking water from the cavities of a
Bromeliaceae. Afterwards it plucks out some leaves, throws them away,
goes on to the next plant, chooses the proper material carefully and
fies away with it toward the nesting site above the cave.
01-06/10/1972. Laguna San Ango, Rio Pachitea near Yurimaguas,
Loreto, 200 m: Common; nest-building activity in breeding colony.
Tere is a constant coming and going. Birds arrive with new material
(fbers up to 50 cm long), others depart in the opposite direction (there
seems to be a unique source).
21/07/1983. Rio Negro, west of Rioja, San Martn, 800-1000 m:
Several sightings in primary forest and plantations. Ind. on a bare tree
with orange blossoms. It moves leisurely from one blossom to the next,
dipping its bill into the calyx, then rises its head in a drinking manner.
312. Cacicus chrysonotus
18/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2600 m: 3 inds. roaming
through secondary forest on a mountain slope.
313. Icterus mesomelas
07-09/07/1993. Chagual, Rio Maran, La Libertad, 1200 m:
Not rare; in scrub, dry forest and orchards. Pair on an Orthopterygium
huacui tree. Te male approaches the female with deep bows and steeply
raised tail. Te female responds with the same gestures. Te courting
ceremony takes place in silence and lasts a few minutes. Group of 5-6
inds. on a fruit tree, warning and clamoring constantly. Melodic song:
A rapid series of two-pitched sequences, consisting of 3-4 syllables.
314. Dives warszewiczi
Sightings.- Most records in Central Peru between 1500 and 2300
m (up to 3000 m). Not recorded in the urban area of Lima until 2003
Voice/Courting.- Dives warszewiczi is one of the most avid singers
of the west slope. Out of a total of 37 records, 27 are related to song
activity. Te sonorous, gurgling song is occ. accompanied by bows or
curtsies, especially when a female is present. D. warszewiczi sings year
round. Nonetheless, song activity gets more intense in May, reaches
its hight in July and lasts until Oct. A minor courting season occurs
from Jan to March.
28/03/1964. Surco, Rmac Valley, Lima, 2300 m: Common; nest
on an isolated Eucalyptus tree. Food-carrying ad., singing occ. with
crammed bill. During the absence of the ad., the young occ. raise their
heads above the rim of the nest.
06-12/06/1967. Chiuchn, Huaura Valley, Lima, 2600 m: Common
in the cultivated areas of the valley and along stream. Food-carrying ind.
17-19/09/1968. Rio Paucartambo, Pasco, 2600 m: Small group
roaming through riparian vegetation, jump-gleaning for insects.
02-03/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2500 m: Ind.
at the edge of the humid forest and in second growth.
22/01/1999. Chetilla, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca, 2800 m:
Several inds. foraging in riparian thicket.
309. Basileuterus nigrocristatus
29/09/1971. Contumaz, Cajamarca, 2700 m: Ind in riparian
vegetation (Alnus).Vivacious; even when sitting on a branch and sing-
ing, it stirs restlessly to and fro.
10/07/1993. Pataz, east slope of Maran Valley, La Libertad, 2700
m: 3 ind. in a quebrada with brook and dense vegetation.
22/01/1999. Chetilla, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca, 2800 m:
Ind. foraging in lush riparian vegetation.
310. Basileuterus trifasciatus
25/07 - 02/08/1965. Coina, Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1500
m: Fairly common in a quebrada with abundant vegetation. Often in
small groups of 4-5 ind. (Coina is possibly the southernmost point of
distribution.)
22/01/1999. Chetilla, Jequetepeque Valley, Cajamarca, 2800 m:
Several ind. move incessantly through thicket of lush riparian vegeta-
tion in search of insects.
icteridae
311. Psarocolius angustifrons
12/01/1970. Rio Pachitea, between Tournavista and mouth of Rio
Llullapichis, Hunuco, 300 m: Courtship and nest-building in a
breeding colony: Singing male performing its acrobatic display (Fig.
154). A nearby female is avidly gathering nesting material. She picks
out fbers of an old or abandoned nest, chooses carefully the most
suitable ones by clinging to a branch, sometimes head down, even on
one foot. Te male is hopping about eagerly, trying in vain to attract
the attention of the female. Meanwhile, she goes about her business,
fying to and fro, carrying nesting material to the new nesting site on
the other side of the tree.
01-05/03/1972. San Andrs de Cutervo, Cajamarca, 2400 m:
Groups of up to 10 ind. at the edge of the humid montane forest.
Figure 153. Myioborus melanocephalus.
Figure 154. Psarocolius angustifrons: courting display.
89

Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (April 2011)
315. Molothrus bonariensis
Sightings.- Max. alt. on west slope: Haciendae Chuquizongo,
Chicama Valley, La Libertad, 1400 m; on east slope between Cutervo
and Scota, Cajamarca, up to 2200 m.
Behavior.- Gregarious; often in small groups or focks of 10 to
20 inds., gathering by the hundreds at their roosting sites (totorales,
parks). Often roaming about in separate groups of males and females,
foraging on pastures among grazing cattle; single record of an ind.
perched on horses back.
Courting/Reproduction.- Song activity is most intense from July
to Nov and to a lesser extent from Jan to Mar. Records of young, fed
by their foster parents:
Volatinia jacarina 27/04/1963 - 11/04/1964
Zonotrichia capensis 07/03/1964
Troglodytes aedon 24/02/1965
Judging from these dates, the main reproduction season is from
February to April.
07/01/1968. Mirafores, Lima: Two females alight on a garden wall.
Tey adopt an upright position, tail slightly cocked, wings hanging.
After some steps, they return to the normal position. Before raising
again, they bow deeply over the rim of the wall. During the ceremony,
that lasts 2-3 min, the two remain in touch, pattering around in
silence without taking notice of each other. Te same ritual recorded
Nov 72. Similar behavior between two males ( in presence of other
males) Dec 72 and Jan 73.
10/01/1999. Mirafores: Tree males (!) examining the nest of a
breeding (momentarly absent) Zenaida meloda.
21/02/2003. Chiclayo, Lambayeque: Large numbers of M. bonar-
iensis gathering at dusk on some trees lining a busy shopping street.
New focks arrive constantly and disappear in the dense foliage. Teir
twittering mingles with the noise of the trafc. Tree bare trees are
blackened with birds.
22/03/2003. San Borja/Lima: Female on a garden wall observes
attentively a nearby pair of Volatinia jacarina. Occ. she curiously
extends her neck.
316. Sturnella bellicosa
Sightings.- Coast from Tumbes to Tacna. Max. alt. San Luis,
Callejn de Conchucos, Ancash, 3000 m.
Habitat.- Fields, pastures, fallow land, lomas, totorales, estuaries,
gramadales, scrub with cacti and trees, deciduous forest.
Voice/Behavior.- Melodious song, ending with very characteristic
guttural sound, emitted from low perches or during descending phase
of fight display. Song activity recorded from Aug to Mar.
08/06/1963. Villa, south of Lima: Numerous; fying to and fro
between totoral and gramadal. Males perch on low elevations on the
ground, from where they start their fight display. (04.09.63: Song
activity until dusk)
27/11/1963. Lagunas de Chilca, 65 km south of Lima: Lively
courting activity; food-carrying male.
24/08/1969. Lomas de Lachay, 70 km north of Lima, 400m: Nu-
merous in high zone with lush vegetation; 5-6 singing males within a
radius of 100 m.
FrinGilidae
317. Carduelis crassirostris
Sightings.- Polylepis woods in Lima (Huaura Valley, Santa Eulalia
Valley) and Ayacucho (slopes of Nevado Sarasara)
318. Carduelis magellanicus
Sightings
NP: west slope: 0-100 m/ 1500-2900 m; east slope: 2500 m/3400 m
CP: west slope: 0-3800 m; there are two zones of higher population
density: 0-1000 m and 2000-3500 m (only one record between 1000
and 2000 m); east slope: 3000-3300 m
SP: west slope: 3000-3700 m; east slope: 2300 /3000 /3400 m
Voice.- Song: A hurried chatter on a modest tone scale. It may last
some short interruptions included for a minute or more.
Te diagram and the following records refer to the urban zone of
Mirafores/Lima.
Figure 155. 1-12: month/year; s: song activity; nb: nest-building;
b: breeding; ny: nest with young; fo: feeding outside nest; single
record; --- observation period.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
s
nb
b
ny
fo


-- --

--


Preproductive periods of Carduelis magellanicus
Te courting season begins in July, reaches its height in Sep and
lasts until Nov. Te main breeding season is in Oct/Nov.
09/10/1963. Tree nests in a row of Casuarinas bordering a
sportsfeld.
Nest I: About 7 m high on horizontal outer branches. Male ap-
proaches the unfnished nest with a mop of cotton.
Nest II: At about the same height, but placed on the inner branches.
Both sexes are present. Female settles on the nest and remains
there for a few minutes.
Nest III: A thick-walled bowl about 4 m above ground with three
nearly full-fedged young. In contrast to nest I and II, it is
situated at a narrow angled crotch of the trunk. Te outside
consists mainly of Casuarina needles, grass stems and grass
roots. Te inside consists of cotton, some hairs and threads
and a few feathers. Measures: Outer diam. 9 cm, inner diam.
5 cm, height 4,5 cm, depth 3 cm.
03/11/1968. Male in company of a young. Te ad. is feeding on a
Tagetes fower ( Feeding)). Later: Ad. and young on nearby garden
wall, young begging with trembling wings. Ad. regurgitates a food
package, releasing it in the wide open throat of the young.
October 1970. Brood about 6 m high on a Casuarina . Feedings re-
corded between the 13. and the 23. Oct. Both ads. participate. 24. Oct.:
A full-fedged young leaves nest and lands safely on a lower branch.
Feeding.- Although C. magellanicus is predominantly a seed eater
with a particular liking for Casuarina seeds in the Lima area, it feeds occ.
on nectar: Pair shows up repeatedly in our garden, feeding on Tagetes.
Tey cling to the swaying fower heads, plucking them to pieces. Tey
pull of one petal after the other, sucking out the nectar (so it seems)
of each of them in an amazing speed, then throw them away, petals
whirling all around. Te male consumed 42 petals in one minute. Te
pair worked on the fowers for about ten minutes.
Pair appears occ. on a Spatodea campanulata. Tey feed on the
plentiful seeds packed into the boat-like pods. Each seed is embedded
in an extremely thin membrane. Te birds pick up a package of seeds by
either perching on the pod or if necessary approaching it from beneath
by hovering. Carefully nibbling on the seeds, they manage to free them
from the undesired membrane.
319. Carduelis atrata
Sightings.- Lima/Junn 3300-4400 m; Puno 3900-4100 m
24-25/04/1971. Chumcha, Stanta Eulalia Valley, Lima, 4100 m:
Nest with fedglings at the edge of the Polylepis wood. It is well con-
cealed in a tangle of roots of Gynoxys protruding from a clif at 1,80
m above the ground. Te thick walled, soft bowl, mainly made of moss,
90
Lthi
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 027- 090 (Abril 2011)
contains at least two (probably a few days old) fedglings. Feeding at
7 am on a cold, foggy morning. Ad. seems to regurgitate the food.
After a minute it leaves the nest, its partner stays behind to protect the
young. Ind. with lichen-like nesting material on a Polylepis tree.
Song activity begins at 6 am. Te pleasent twitter consists of a series
of clearly seperated two-syllable tones.
Acknowledgment
I would like to express my gratitude to Manuel Plenge for his sup-
port, to Claudia Lthi and to Clare Juredieu for proof-reading the
manuscript and to Wolfgang Hofmann for his companionship on so
many birdwatching trips.
Literature cited
Fjelds, J. & Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Zoological
Museum, University of Copenhagen and Apollo Books,
Svendborg, Denmark. 880 pp.
Mayer A. 2011. Phenology and Citizen Science. BioScience. 60(3):
172-175.
Plenge M.A. 2010. (Online). List of the Birds of Peru. Lima, Peru.
<http://www.sernanp.gob.pe/sernanp/archivos/biblioteca/
publicaciones/Lista_%20aves.pdf> access 20/12/2010.
Schulenberg T.S., D.F. Stotz, D.F. Lane, J.P. ONeill & T.P. Parker III.
2007. Birds of Peru. Princeton University Press. 656 pp.
91

Ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Notas sobre la ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de los chor-
los nevados Charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas, Per
Clemens Kpper
1
, Edgardo Aguilar
2
y Oscar Gonzlez
3
Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of snowy plovers
Charadrius nivosus occidentalis in Paracas, Peru
1 Museum of Comparative Zoo-
logy, Department of Organismic
and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard
University, Cambridge, MA 02138,
USA. ckuepper@oeb.harvard.edu
2 Grupo Aves del Per-Pisco.
Buenos Aires 318 San Andrs,
Pisco. Ica, Per. edgardoaguilarh@
yahoo.com
3 Grupo Aves del Per. Gmez
del Carpio 135, Barrio Medico,
Lima 34. Peru. Direccin Actual:
School of Natural Resources and
the Environment, 103 Black Hall,
University of Florida. Gainesville,
Fl 32611. USA. pajarologo@uf.edu
Presentado: 17/11/2010
Aceptado: 21/02/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
El chorlo nevado es un ave playera endmica de las Americas, la cual tiene tres subespecies. En Sudamerica
la subespecie occidentalis se encuentra a lo largo de la costa del ocano Pacifco. Aunque se conoce su com-
portamiento reproductivo, demografa poblacional y xito reproductivo en Norteamerica, poco se sabe de estos
parmetros ecolgicos de la subespecie occidentalis. En octubre de 2008 estudiamos la ecologa reproductiva
del chorlo nevado en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Ica, sudoeste del Per. Los chorlos nevados fueron
encontrados en todas las nueve playas arenosas y humedales costeros visitados. De acuerdo con los conteos
estimamos que la poblacin en Paracas consiste en por lo menos 500 chorlos nevados. Hubo evidencia de
actividad reproductiva en seis de los nueve sitios. La mayora de la actividad de crianza fue observada en
Playn/Mendieta, alrededor de un charco salado temporal. Encontramos dos nidos y diez familias en toda
la reserva. En total se capturaron y marcaron 24 polluelos, ocho machos y siete hembras. Las familias eran
atendidas por ambos padres. Hasta el fnal del estudio 21 de los polluelos haban perecido. Durante el perodo
de estudio ninguno de los polluelos marcados alcanzaron la edad de volantn de 25 das y solamente con-
frmamos que un polluelo en una visita posterior llego a volantn. Nuestras observaciones destacan algunos
problemas observados durante el perodo reproductivo del chorlo nevado, tambin sugerimos acciones para
contrarrestar las amenazas identifcadas.
Palabras clave: Aves playeras, Reserva Nacional de Paracas, Charadrius nivosus (alexandrinus), ecologa,
reproduccin, conservacin.
Abstract
The snowy plover is a shorebird endemic to the Americas. It consists of three subspecies. In South America the
subspecies occidentalis is found along the coast of the Pacifc ocean. Although breeding behaviour, popula- Although breeding behaviour, popula-
tion demography and reproductive success are well established in North America, little is known about these
ecological parameters for occidentalis snowy plovers. In October 2008 we studied breeding ecology of snowy
plovers in the National Reserve Paracas, Ica, Peru. Snowy plovers were found at all nine sandy beaches and
coastal wetlands visited. Based on counts we estimate the population in Paracas to consist of a minimum of
500 snowy plovers. Evidence for breeding activity was found at six of nine sites. Most breeding activity was
observed at Playn/Mendieta, surrounding a temporal salt lagoon. Two nests and ten families were found in
the entire reserve. In total 24 chicks, eight males and seven females were captured and marked. Families were
tended by both parents. Twenty-one of the chicks had perished by the end of the study. During the intense study
period none of the marked chicks reached the fedgling age of 25 days and only one chick was confrmed to
have fedged during a subsequent visit. Our observations highlight threads during the snowy plover reproduc- Our observations highlight threads during the snowy plover reproduc-
tive period that need to be addressed through conservation management and we suggest direct actions to
counter the threads identifed.
Keywords: Shorebirds, National Reserve Paracas, Charadrius nivosus (alexandrinus), ecology, reproduction,
conservation.
Introduccin
El chorlo nevado (snowy plover, Charadrius nivosus) es un
ave playera pequea con poblaciones residentes y migratorias
en Norte y Sur America (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Hayman et al.
1986). Los chorlos nevados eran considerados como parte de
los chorlos de Kent (Kentish plover) Charadrius alexandrinus
hasta que un estudio reciente revelo profundas diferencias tanto
genotpicas como fenotpicas entre los chorlos nevados de Eurasia
y los americanos (Kpper et al. 2009).
Tres subespecies del chorlo nevado -nivosus, tenuirostris y
occidentalis- son reconocidas actualmente (Hayman et al. 1986,
del Hoyo et al. 1996, Funk et al. 2007, Kpper et al 2009). En
Sudamrica, la subespecie occidentalis se distribuye a lo largo de
las costas de Ecuador, Per y Chile (Bullock 1936, Gonzlez et al
1998, Pizarro-Solari 2004, Santander et al. 2006, Torres-Nez
2007, comunicacin personal de Ernesto Mlaga). El plumaje es
el criterio principal por el cual se defne las subespecies: (1) los
chorlos de la subespecie occidentalis tiene un antifaz ms grande
que las subespecies nivosus y tenuirostris adems, (2) Los machos
y hembras aparentan ms similitud en el plumaje reproductivo
que las otras dos subespecies americanas (Gorman 2001).
Los chorlos nevados y sus congneres los chorlos de Kent
tienen un sistema de reproduccin muy fexible (Lessells 1984,
Warriner et al. 1986, Szkely & Lessells 1993, Amat et al. 1999,
Kosztolnyi et al. 2009). Ambos padres incuban los huevos,
pero cuando nace un polluelo usualmente uno de los padres
abandona la nidada para aparearse nuevamente (generalmente
la hembra). En una sola poblacin reproductiva, puede haber
poliandria, poliginia y monogamia. El cuidado de los polluelos
puede ser realizado por uno o ambos padres. Los sistemas de
reproduccin pueden variar entre poblaciones y dentro de las
poblaciones (Kosztolnyi et al. 2009). Distintas variables como
oportunidades de un nuevo apareamiento, presiones de depre-
dacin y disponibilidad de recursos han sido asociadas con esta
variabilidad (Szkely et al. 1999, Amat et al. 1999, Kosztolnyi
et al. 2006).
Los sitios de anidacin de los chorlos nevados se pueden
encontrar en playas arenosas y alrededor de charcos salados
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (Abril 2011)
temporales en zonas templadas y subtropicales. Esta preferencia
de hbitat se ha convertido en una problemtica para la especie
debido a que playas arenosas no perturbadas son muy raras por
su uso en actividades de recreacin humana u otras actividades
econmicas. En las ltimas dcadas las poblaciones de esta ave
estn declinando en Norteamrica y Europa (Stroud et al.
2004, Page et al. 2009). La perturbacin por actividades de
recreacin en las reas reproductivas infuencio en los fracasos
reproductivos de chorlos playeros observados en playas de Cali-
fornia (Ruhlen et al. 2003). Esta declinacin ha llevado a que los
chorlos nevados estn bajo proteccin estricta en Norteamrica,
donde las poblaciones del Pacifco estn protegidas bajo el Acta
de especies amenazadas (US Endangered Species Act, USFWS
1993). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de la abundancia, tendencias
poblacionales y comportamiento de los chorlos sudamericanos,
los cuales son genticamente diferentes de otros chorlos nevados
(Funk et al. 2007).
En el presente trabajo nosotros estudiamos la ecologa repro-
ductiva de los chorlos nevados en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas
(RNP) en Ica, Per. La RNP es parte del desierto costero pacifco
entre Per y Chile; uno de los sitios ms secos del mundo (Brack
y Mendiola 2000). Las temperaturas son moderadas con poca
variacin durante el ao (promedio 18,9 C) y la precipitacin
anual es menor de 2 mm (Craig and Psuty 1968). Se observa
una importante interaccin entre el ecosistema marino de la
corriente de Humboldt y los organismos costeros (Catenazzi &
Donelly 2007). Muchas aves playeras usan la reserva como un
sitio de invernada (Dufy et al. 1981); de estas aves, el chorlo
nevado es una de las pocas especies que se reproduce en Paracas.
Este estudio tuvo como objetivos (1) identifcar los sitios
de reproduccin de los chorlos nevados (2) contar los chorlos
nevados para estimar su tamao poblacional, (3) estudiar los
movimientos de adultos y juveniles mediante el marcado de in-
dividuos (4) investigar el xito reproductivo y el comportamiento
de cuidado parental de las familias de chorlos y (5) identifcar
amenazas para la poblacin reproductiva.
Material y mtodos
El trabajo de campo en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas - RNP
(1352S, 7616W) fue del 03 al 25 de octubre de 2008. Los sitios
potenciales de anidacin fueron identifcados (1) utilizando im-
genes satelitales disponibles en Google Earth ubicando humedales
y playas adecuadas (Fig.1), (2) por informacin proporcionada
por guardaparques de la RNP, (3) por nuestras observaciones
previas en la RNP. En cada lugar contamos el numero de chorlos
y registramos signos de actividad reproductiva como machos
cortejando, nidos vacios, nidos con huevos o familias, chorlos
cuidando polluelos durante observaciones breves. Usamos los
mtodos de campo de Szkely et al. (2008), adaptados a las
condiciones locales. Las observaciones usualmente se llevaron a
cabo en las primeras horas de la maana (6 11 am) y en la tarde
(5 7 pm) cuando haba poco viento. Buscamos reas con nidos
caminando y ahuyentando chorlos que incubaban, buscando
en el suelo por nidos o identifcando chorlos incubando desde
un carro o escondites mviles. Cuando un nido fue encontrado
medimos el largo de los huevos usando un escalmetro al 0,1
mm, determinamos la edad de la nidada haciendo fotar los
huevos en agua y tomamos la posicin geogrfca de los nidos.
Los nidos se marcaron con una seal aproximadamente a 15
metros de distancia.
Los chorlos adultos se capturaron utilizando dos mtodos,
con redes de neblina y con trampa de embudo. Con el primer
mtodo, las redes de neblina de aproximadamente 50 m se
pusieron en cuatro sitios donde encontramos chorlos en abun-
dancia. Los chorlos fueron capturados en la noche o en maanas
nubladas. El segundo mtodo, consisti en colocar trampas de
embudo en (1) el nido, (2) usando pichones un atrayente para
capturar adultos en reproduccin. Cada adulto se marcaba con
una combinacin nica de un anillo de metal y tres anillos de
color para identifcarlos luego en el campo. Medimos el tarso
(hasta 0,1 mm), longitud de ala (hasta el milimetro, usando el
mtodo de la mxima cuerda alar), masa corporal (hasta 0,5 g).
Los polluelos fueron anillados luego de nacer en el nido o
cuando eran cuidados por los padres. Cada polluelo fue marcado
con un anillo de metal y un anillo de color; les medimos el tarso
(0,1 mm)y la masa corporal (0,1 g).
Buscamos las reas que podran ser adecuadas para el ani-
damiento de familias y chorlos marcados. En cada encuentro
anotamos la combinacin de color y el sexo del chorlo marcado,
y la posicin geogrfca utilizando un GPS con la posicin del
observador y estimamos la distancia en la que se encontraba el
chorlo. Cuando se volvan a avistar las familias, tambin anota-
mos el nmero de los polluelos y las combinaciones de color de
los anillos de todos los miembros de la familia presentes.
Resultados
Censos de chorlos nevados en reproduccin.- Visitamos
nueve sitios que aparentaron ser adecuados para la reproduccin
de los chorlos nevados. En seis de los nueve sitios encontramos
evidencia de actividad reproductiva (Tabla 1, Fig. 1).
Paracas
Lagunillas
Yumaque
Sequion
Lago del Muerto
Otuma
Playn/Mendieta
Laguna Grande
Lago
Flamenco
Baha de
Paracas
Ayacucho
Huancavelica
Lima
Arequipa
0 30 km
O
c
e
a
n
o

P
a
c

f
i
c
o
Pennsula de
Paracas
Figura 1. Mapa de los reas de conteo y reproduccin del chorlito
nevado Charadrius nivosus occidentalis en la Reserva Nacional de
Paracas, en octubre 2008. Los cuadrados representan lugares donde
se observo al chorlo nevado pero no se hallo signos de reproduccion.
Los crculos grises representan sitios donde hubo comportamiento
reproductivo (machos en cortejo, nidos vacios) pero no se hallaron
huevos o polluelos. Los crculos negros representan sitios donde
encontramos huevos y/o polluelos.
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Ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (April 2011)
El sitio con la mayor actividad reproductiva y el mayor
nmero de chorlos estimado fue Playn/Mendieta. Los chorlos
en cortejo se encontraron en barrizales extensos y campos pe-
dregosos alrededor de una laguna temporal que fue creada por
inundacin del mar despus del terremoto de 2007. Enfocamos
nuestros estudios en la ecologa reproductiva y el xito repro-
ductivo en esta rea.
Capturas.- Capturamos en total 39 chorlos nevados (siete
hembras, ocho machos y 24 juveniles). Tres chorlos adultos
fueron capturados en el nido mientras incubaban, cuatro chorlos
adultos fueron capturados usando sus cras como carnada y ocho
chorlos adultos fueron capturados con redes de neblina. Todos
los pichones excepto dos que fueron anillados en el mismo nido
fueron capturados en el territorio reproductivo. Las principales
medidas corporales se dan en la Tabla 2.
Ecologa reproductiva.- Los machos y hembras de los chorlos
nevados durante el periodo reproductivo tienen ornamentos
negros en la cabeza, pecho y ojos. Los chorlos adultos de ambos
sexos estuvieron ornamentados durante el periodo de estudio
en Paracas. Esto sugiere que la estacin reproductiva ya haba
empezado cuando inici el estudio. Tambin frecuentemente
encontramos parejas de chorlos nevados comiendo juntos. A
pesar de una bsqueda intensiva solo encontramos dos nidos
con huevos, ambos en Playn/Mendieta. En uno de los nidos
los huevos eclosionaron, mientras que el otro fue abandonado
por los padres das antes de la eclosin. Contrasta los pocos
nidos activos (n= 2) que encontramos con ms de 80 cubetas
de nidos vacios.
Marcamos pichones de diez familias. Polluelos y adultos de
ocho familias fueron marcadas en Playn/Mendieta, de una
familia en Lagunillas y de una familia en Lago del Muerto. Con
excepcin de dos familias, todas estaban compuestas de ambos
padres. No se pudo determinar el sexo de los padres solitarios
que cuidaban polluelos. Pocas familias volvieron a ser avistadas.
Observamos diferencias en los patrones de cuidado de pi-
chones de los chorlos nevados de Paracas en comparacin con
otras poblaciones de chorlos; todas las familias de Paracas fueron
biparentales con uno de los padres usualmente cerca cuidando
los polluelos mientras que el otro estaba alimentndose a cierta
distancia (n= 16 observaciones). El padre alerta mostro un com-
Sitio Localizacin geogrfca Fecha
Nmero de chorlos
nevados
Evidencia de actividad reproductiva
Sequin

S 135052, W 761835 07 Octubre 37
5 machos en display
Varios nidos vacios
3 parejas copulando
Lago Flamenco S 141024, W 761545 08 Octubre 9
1 macho en display
2 nidos vacios
Laguna Grande S 140828, W 761612 08 Octubre 45 ninguno
Lago del Muerto S 135937, W 761614 04 Octubre 65
>10 machos en display
3 nidos vacios
1 familia con un pichn
Lagunillas S 135333, W 761851 04 Octubre 28
3 machos en display
1 familia con dos pichones
Otuma S 135959, W 761516 24 Octubre 115 ninguna
Baha de Paracas S 135145, W 761609 25 Octubre 28 ninguna
Playn/Mendieta S 140159, W 761539 09 Octubre 72 (150)*
>10 machos en display
80 nidos vacios
2 nidos
8 familias
Yumaque S 135439, W 761655 05 Octubre 6 2 nidos vacios
Tabla 1. Sitios de importancia para la reproduccin de chorlos nevados Charadrius nivosus occidentalis en la Reserva Nacional de Paracas.
*Puntos de conteo a lo largo de transecto a travs del sitio de reproduccin. Los conteos cubrieron aproximadamente el 50% del rea total del sitio. La cantidad
total estimada se da en parntesis.
Longitud de tarso [mm] Masa corporal [g] Longitud de ala [mm]
Adultos
Machos (n= 8) 25,7 0,97 38,0 2,88 109 2,77
Hembras (n= 7) 25,0 0,65 40,8 3,45 110 2,03
Juveniles (n= 24)
Encontrados en el nido 18,8 0,11 7,3 0,14 No medido
Encontrados luego que la familia dejo el nido 20,1 0,78 8,2 3,15 No medido
Tabla 2. Caractersticas morfolgicas de chorlos nevados Charadrius nivosus occidentalis capturados, adultos y juveniles, en Paracas. Se
muestra la media y la desviacin estndar.
94
Kpper et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (Abril 2011)
portamiento de defensa territorial mientras que el padre distante
aparentaba no ser territorial. El padre que no estaba en guardia
solo venia a asistir en defensa de la familia cuando los polluelos
eran atacados por otros chorlos nevados adultos o perturbados
por los humanos o predadores potenciales (n= 9 observaciones).
En tres de las cuatro familias que fueron encontradas ms de una
vez, distintos padres estaban cuidando los polluelos durante las
diferentes observaciones.
Hasta el fnal del estudio no observamos ningn pichn
que se independice. Tres de 24 pichones anillados (12,5%) se
reavistaron al fnal del periodo de estudio. Estos pichones fueron
de dos familias, una en Playn/Mendieta y otra en Lagunillas.
Los machos de otras dos familias fueron reavistados solos en
el rea pocos das luego de haber sido vistos con sus pichones.
Al reavistar ambos machos no estaban cuidando pichones y
no mostraron ningn comportamiento defensivo cuando nos
aproximamos, por lo que asumimos que los polluelos haban
muerto (Szekely et al. 1999). Aparte de los chorlos que fueron
capturados mientras anidaban solo un chorlo fue reavistado a
pesar de revisar a ms de 200 chorlos despus de terminar la
captura. Este chorlo, un macho, fue reavistado en Lagunillas a
250 m cerca del sitio de su captura luego de cuatro horas de
haber sido soltado.
Amenazas.- El xito reproductivo observado fue bajo. Los
depredadores potenciales que se observaron en las reas de
anidacin fueron gaviotas, halcones y zorros. La perturbacin
humana fue un problema, en Playn/Mendieta frecuentemente
vehculos eran conducidos por la playa atravesando las reas
de reproduccin, amenazando destruir los nidos y matar a los
polluelos. Tambin fueron observados motociclistas manejando
por las reas de reproduccin y espantando a las aves playeras
que descansaban.
Durante el periodo de estudio las playas fueron usadas por
extractores para secar algas, las cuales luego son vendidas como
insumos de fertilizantes o productos farmacuticos. El impacto
de esta actividad sobre la reproduccin del chorlo nevado podra
ser evaluado en prximos estudios. Por otro lado las algas extra-
das atrajeron muchos insectos los cuales podran ser alimento
para las familias de chorlos y las aves que descansan, sin embargo,
no observamos a ningn chorlo usando este recurso alimenticio.
Discusin
Nuestro estudio marca la importancia supraregional de la
Reserva Nacional de Paracas para la subespecie occidentalis del
chorlo nevado. Nuestros resultados sugieren que en la RNP se
asienta una importante poblacin de chorlos nevados. Se conoce
muy poco sobre la reproduccin y la abundancia de los chorlos
nevados en Sudamerica; los encuentros con chorlos anidando
son raros (Bullock et al 1936, Vilina et al 2009). Los chorlos
nevados de la subespecie nivosus en el hemisferio norte han sido
mejor estudiados y su poblacin se estima en 18000 individuos
en los EE.UU y Mxico (Page et al. 2009); aunque muchos
de los chorlos nevados norteamericanos anidan tierra adentro.
A diferencia de otras especies de aves costeras de Paracas, los
chorlos nevados no solo usan las playas, sino que tambin pueden
ser encontrados en barrizales alejados y cuerpos de agua inter-
nos en toda la RNP y donde son probablemente inadvertidos.
En el presente trabajo encontramos chorlos en todas las playas
arenosas, lagunas y cuerpos de agua internos que visitamos.
Basados en los censos y reavistamientos de chorlos marcados
con anillos de colores, consideramos que la poblacin total de
chorlos nevados tiene un mnimo de 500 individuos en toda la
RNP. Tambin observamos dos chorlos adultos anillados en la
misma zona donde fueron capturados despus de dos aos, en
rea de Lagunillas.
El plumaje y las medidas estructurales del cuerpo tales como
la longitud del tarso y de las alas del chorlo nevado en paracas
fueron muy similares a los de la subespecie nivosus que anida en
el noroeste de Mxico (Kpper et al. 2009). Esto apoya el punto
de vista que las dos subespecies pueden estar poco diferenciadas,
lo cual tambin se encontr cuando se analizaron marcadores
genticos neutrales (Funk et al. 2007). Sin embargo, la ecologa
reproductiva fue muy diferente. Primero, mientras los chorlos
nevados tienen un periodo reproductivo muy intenso, la activi-
dad reproductiva en la RNP fue muy pobre. Muchas hembras
de nivosus produjeron varias nidadas (hasta 4) por estacin y
muchos chorlos estuvieron anidando en ese tiempo (Kpper et al.
2007a & datos no publicados). A pesar que observamos muchos
machos y hembras en parejas solo una pequea fraccin se estaba
reproduciendo en durante nuestras observaciones en Paracas.
Segundo, los chorlos nevados en el noroeste de Mxico son
comnmente poliandricos con la hembra abandonando la
familia pocos das luego de la eclosin los huevos y los machos
inusualmente proveen el cuidado de los polluelos solos. En Pa-
racas se encontr que fue predominante el cuidado biparental.
Estas diferencias pueden ser causadas por la calidad del ambiente
de reproduccin. El ambiente reproductivo en el noroeste de
Mxico parece ser mas rico en alimento mientras que los recursos
alimenticios son escasos en el desierto costero de Paracas (Pero
ver Erckmann 1983). Sin embargo, nuestros datos slo se referen
a una parte del periodo reproductivo de los chorlos nevados de
Paracas, porque es muy probable que la estacin reproductiva
sea ms larga. El cuidado parental vara entre las estaciones en
los chorlos nevados y de Kent; por lo que el comportamiento de
cuidado parental puede variar luego de la estacin reproductiva
(Kosztolnyi et al. 2006, Kpper et al. 2007a).
El bajo xito reproductivo observado en la RNP es una
amenaza importante para los chorlos nevados. La actividad de
reproduccin fue pobre y solo 3 de los 24 polluelos marcados
fueron observados vivos al fnal del estudio. Dos semanas luego
del estudio uno de los 3 polluelos sobrevivientes fue encontrado
muerto en Lagunillas, mientras que solo reavistamos un polluelo
que alcanzo ms de 25 das. Las causas de esta alta mortalidad
deben ser reconocidas como un punto crtico en el manejo de
la poblacin del chorlo nevado.
Recomendaciones
Investigacin.- Luego de establecer que un gran nmero de
chorlos nevados usan la Reserva Nacional de Paracas, se debe rea-
lizar un estudio ms intensivo del xito reproductivo del chorlo
nevado en ese lugar. Este estudio debe determinar la duracin
de la estacin reproductiva, estudiar el xito reproductivo y el
comportamiento de los chorlos nevados en ms detalle.
Se necesita establecer si la actividad reproductiva y el xito
reproductivo son mayores en distintas ocasiones del ao y en-
tre diferentes aos. Los chorlos nevados son aves longevas que
pueden vivir aproximadamente hasta 15 aos (Page et al. 2009).
Debido a las difciles condiciones ambientales y la variabilidad
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Ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 091- 096 (April 2011)
interanual el xito reproductivo y actividad reproductiva en la
RNP puede cambiar entre los aos y algunos chorlos podran
criar solamente cuando las condiciones sean favorables, por lo
que se necesita un estudio a largo plazo para conseguir suf-
ciente informacin para un plan de conservacin efectivo para
la poblacin.
Los chorlos nevados se pueden encontrar en las orillas marinas
de la RNP todo el ao. Sin embargo, no est claro si las aves
observadas eran residentes y las mismas aves permanecen en los
sitios cada ao o si ellas se estn moviendo a lo largo de la costa
peruana y diferentes chorlos nevados estn utilizando la RNP
para pasar el invierno y reproducirse. Entonces el marcaje con
colores de los chorlos y su monitoreo permitiran entender sus
movimientos, as como estimar el tamao poblacional.
Las diferencias de comportamiento, las cuales son muy mar-
cadas entre distintas poblaciones de chorlos nevados merecen
especial atencin. Un estudio comparativo de poblaciones y la
manipulacin experimental podran probar la hiptesis de que
la disponibilidad del recurso afecta la ecologa reproductiva de
los chorlos.
La conservacin de la poblacin del chorlo nevado en la RNP
implica un estudio del fujo gentico entre distintas poblaciones
del Per, los resultados ayudaran a la conservacin supraregional
de esta subespecie y podr ser usado para la revisin de planes
de accin para otras especies.
Acciones de Conservacin.- La alta perturbacin de las pla-
yas causada por humanos, probablemente ha causado un exodo
de las familias de chorlos y puede forzarlos al uso de territorios
para anidacin menos perturbados; pero tambin menos favo-
rables en recursos alimenticios. Recomendamos que el uso de la
playa durante la estacin reproductiva sea severamente limitado.
El trnsito de vehculos 4X4, motos y bicicletas deberan ser re-
gulado para evitar la perturbacin de las nidadas y mortalidad de
chorlos. La regulacin y el uso de caminos bien sealizados debe
ser en en especial en sitios de importancia reproductiva para el
chorlo: Lagunillas, Lago Muerto, Playn/Mendieta y Sequin.
Las seales en los sitios de reproduccin deben ser usadas para
sensibilizar la conciencia ambiental de la gente local y los turistas.
El Lago del Muerto y el Sequin albergaron un gran nmero
de aves migratorias y parecen ser buenos sitios para ecoturismo.
En nuestro estudio Playn/Mendieta fue el sitio ms impor-
tante para anidar en la RNP. Sin embargo, algunos indicadores
sealan que el uso del lugar para actividad reproductiva fue
solamente ocacional y causada por una inundacin temporal.
Hacia el fnal de nuestro estudio el agua se evaporo completa-
mente y queda por investigar si los chorlos aun usan este sitio
para reproduccin. Otros sitios adecuados para anidar que
pueden albergar a una sustancial poblacin nidifcante son los
sitios de extraccin de sal (salinas). Los sitios de extraccin de
sal a menudo proveen un hbitat adecuado para los chorlos (C
Kpper, datos no publicados). Las Salinas de Otuma, un sitio
activo de extraccin de sal se localizan a pocos kilmetros al norte
de Playn/Mendieta y se necesita establecer su importancia para
los chorlos nidifcantes.
Las algas varadas en las playas son una parte importante de
la red trfca del desierto costero (Catenazzi & Donelly 2007).
Modifcaciones en las biomasas de esas algas varadas podran
tener consecuencias directas sobre la biodiversidad terrestre de
la RNP. As mismo el incremento de la actividad extractiva y de
las reas de secado de las algas podra tener repercusiones sobre
las zonas usadas por los chorlos. Recomendamos como muy
importante la realizacin de un estudio de impacto ambiental
de la extraccin de algas a pequea y gran escala antes que se
permitan planes de extraccin de algas ms extensivos dentro
de la RNP.
Agradecimientos
Agradecemos al Profesor Tams Szkely, Universidad de Bath,
Inglaterra, por su consejo y apoyo durante este estudio. Scott
Robinson y su equipo de la Universidad de Florida proveyeron
comentarios adicionales para mejorar este manuscrito. Mario
Mighty de la Universidad de Florida ayudo en el diseo del
mapa. Ernesto Mlaga provey informacin valiosa del chorlo
nevado anidando en el sur del Per. El permiso de investigacin
fue otorgado por INRENA (042C/C-2008-INRENA-IANP). El
estudio fue apoyado fnancieramente por National Geographic
e INCORE.
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Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Revisin de las especies peruanas de Sebdenia (Sebdeniales,
Rhodophyta) y descripcin de Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov.
(Halymeniales, Rhodophyta)
Cesar Acleto O.
1
y Reina Ziga A.
2
Revision of the Peruvian species of Sebdenia (Sebdeniales, Rhodophyta) and
description of Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov. (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta)
1 Museo de Historia Natural,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de
San Marcos, Av. Arenales 1256,
Apartado 140-434, Lima 14, Per.
Email: cesaracleto@yahoo.com
2 Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas,
Universidad Ricardo Palma, Av. Be-
navides 5440 Surco, Lima 41, Per.
Presentado: 18/10/2010
Aceptado: 22/01/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
Seis especies de Sebdenia Berthold 1884 han sido registradas para la fora marina del Per: Sebdenia afue-
rensis, S. chinchensis, S. heteronema, S. lapathifolia, S. limensis y S. polydactyla (Howe 1914, Dawson et al.
1964, Acleto 1980). En el presente estudio reevaluamos las especies peruanas de Sebdenia, basndonos en
la observacin de especmenes tipos y el material existente en el herbario San Marcos (USM). Concluimos
que la nica especie de Sebdenia es S. fabellata registrada antes como S. polydactyla, las cinco especies
restantes corresponden al gnero Cryptonemia las que se describen e ilustran como combinaciones nuevas
y como especie nueva a Cryptonemia anconensis.
Palabras clave: Per, Sebdeniales, Sebdenia, Halymeniales, Cryptonemia, taxonoma.
Abstract
Six species of Sebdenia have been recorded for the Peruvian marine seaweed: Sebdenia afuerensis, S.
chinchensis, S. heteronema, S. lapathifolia, S. limensis and S. polydactyla (Howe 1914, Dawson et al. 1964,
Acleto 1980). In the present study, we re-evaluated the Peruvian species of Sebdenia on the basis of type
specimens and herbarium material of the Herbarium San Marcos (USM). We concluded that only Sebdenia
fabellata previously identifed as Sebdenia polydactyla is present in our marine fora. The last fve species
correspond to Cryptonemia genera and are described and illustrated as new combinations and Cryptonemia
anconensis as new species.
Keywords: Peru, Sebdeniales, Sebdenia, Halymeniales, Cryptonemia, taxonomy.
Introduccin
Las contribuciones preliminares al conocimiento de las
algas marinas del Per (Howe 1914, Taylor 1947, Dawson
et al. 1964, Acleto 1973, 1980) muestran al gnero Sebdenia
representado por las 6 especies siguientes: S. limensis (Sonder)
Howe, S. lapathifolia (Ktzing) Howe, S. heteronema Howe, S.
afuerensis Taylor, S. chichensis Taylor y S. polydactyla (Borgesen)
Balakrishnan
El registro de las especies de Sebdenia Berthold 1884 en la
fora marina del Per se inici con la descripcin de Euhymenia
limensis por Ktzing (1849), basados en los especmenes de-
positados en el Binder Herbariun en Hamburgo, especmenes
que segn Sonder procedan del Per por la anotacin Callao
di Lima, sin nombre del colector, ni fecha de coleccin. Esta
especie fue posteriormente transferida a Halymenia limensis
(Ktzing) Sonder l866, luego a Sarcodia limensis (Ktzing) De
Toni 1900 y fnalmente a Sebdenia limensis (Ktzing) M.A.
Howe 1914, basados en los caracteres considerados por Berthold
1884 para Sebdenia.
Howe (1914), adems de S. limensis (Sonder) Howe, cit
a S. lapathifolia (Ktzing) Howe, colectada en Paita (Hassler
121, 1872; Rijksherbaium, Leiden (L), Netherlands) y tambin
a S. heteronema Howe, colectada en Sechura (abril-08-1907,
Coker 157).
Para Per, Taylor (1947) describi dos nuevas especies; S.
afuerensis W.R.Taylor, colectada en las islas Lobos de Afuera
por Schmitt en 1937 y S. chichensis W.R.Taylor, colectada en
las islas Chincha por Schmitt en 1937.
Dawson et al. (1964) en un compendio forstico registraron
para la fora marina del Per las especies siguientes de Sebdenia:
S. limensis (Sonder) Howe, S. afuerensis Taylor, S. lapathifolia
(Ktzing) Howe y S. chinchensis Taylor, incluyendo como sin-
nimo de S. limensis a S. heteronema Howe.
Acleto (1980) registr por primera vez para la fora marina
del Per S. polydactyla (Borgesen) Balakrishnan (considerado
sinnimo de Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson por
Schneider & Wynne,1991).
Guevara (1989) realiz un estudio sobre la morfologa y es-
tructuras reproductivas de S. limensis (Sonder) Howe y encontr
caracteres que corresponderan a las Halymeniaceae.
Lewis (1990) estudi el tipo de Euhymenia limensis Ktzing
1849, basnimo de Sebdenia limensis (Sonder) Howe, y estable-
ci una nueva combinacin de Cryptonemia (Halymeniaceae):
Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis, donde incluy como
sinnimos a Sebdenia limensis (Ktzing) Howe, Sebdenia chin-
chensis Taylor, Callymenia guaymasensis Dawson (= Cryptonemia
guaymasensis (Dawson) Dawson), Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto
y Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto.
En el presente trabajo, las especies peruanas de Sebdenia son
revisadas en observaciones de especmenes tipos y el estudio de
material existente en el herbario San Marcos (USM).
Material y mtodos
Gracias a la gentileza de los curadores de los Herbarios que
a continuacin se indican, se han estudiado los Tipos de las
especies de Sebdenia registradas para la fora marina del Per,
no as el de Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson.
98
Acleto & Ziga
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
Herbario Ann Arbor, Michigan (MICH) los tipos citados
por Taylor l947: Sebdenia afuerensis Taylor y Sebdenia chichensis
Taylor.
New York Botanical Garden (NY) el tipo referido por Howe
1914: Sebdenia heteronema Howe, adems el tipo de Chrysymenia
? lobata Howe.
En el Herbario Leiden (L) el tipo de Sebdenia lapathifolia
(Ktzing) Howe e indirectamente el tipo de Sebdenia limensis
(Sonder) Howe, ahora Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis
1990, depositado en el National Herbarium of Victoria (MEL).
Se estudiaron tambin los ejemplares que se conservan en el
Herbario San Marcos (USM) del Museo de Historia Natural de
la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Los caracteres vegetativos y reproductivos fueron observados
en secciones transversales de 20 a 30 m de espesor logradas
con el micrtomo de congelacin o con una cuchilla de afeitar;
teidas con anilina azul al 1%, acidifcada con HCl al 1% y
montadas en preparados temporales con glicerina al 50%. Las
ilustraciones que se incluyen en este trabajo corresponden a los
autores.
Los dibujos se hicieron usando una cmara clara, para las
fotos de los ejemplares herborizados se uso una cmara fotogr-
fca Canon EOS 500 con lentes de aproximacin, con pelcula
fotogrfca de 35 mm, las microfotogrfcas se tomaron con un
microscopio Leitz provisto de un adaptador para la Cmara
fotogrfca Canon EOS 500.
Resultados
El estudio de los Tipos y ejemplares de herbario de las 6
especies de Sebdenia nos permiten reconocer en 5 de ellas (S.
limensis (Sonder) Howe, S. lapathifolia (Ktzing) Howe, S.
heteronema Howe, S. afuerensis Taylor y S. chichensis Taylor) las
caractersticas del gnero Cryptonemia (Halymeniaceae), cuyas
especies tienen el talo laminar parenquimatoso, zona cortical con
2 a 3 hileras de clulas pequeas fotosintticas, zona medular con
flamentos entrecruzados hialinos, algunos con contenido denso
y refringente. Gametofto femenino con sistemas de ampollas
de la rama carpogonial y de la clula auxiliar, cistocarpo con
ostiolo no elevado, carcteres propios del gnero Cryptonemia
segn Chiang (1970).
Por el contrario S. fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson sera la
nica especie del gnero Sebdenia por presentar el talo cilndrico
frme a subcilndrico, de textura elstica, corteza con 4 a 6 hileras
de clulas pequeas fotosintticas y la zona medular con clulas
ganglioideas entrecruzadas con flamentos hialinos, sin flamen-
tos refringentes, sin sistemas de ampollas de la rama carpogonial
y de la clula auxiliar, cistocarpo con ostiolo ligeramente elevado
sobre la superfcie del talo.
En consecuencia las cinco especies reconocidas como Crypto-
nemia son descritas como combinaciones nuevas y una especie
nueva de Cryptonemia.
As Sebdenia limensis (Sonder) Howe, cuyo tipo Euhymenia
limensis Ktzing, estudiado por Lewis (1990) es Cryptonemia
limensis (Ktzing) Lewis. Dawson et al. (1964) al describir S. li-
mensis tomaron principalmente lo anotado por Howe (1914,160
162) y aadieron ms datos e ilustraciones correspondientes a
ejemplares distintos al tipo Euhymenia limensis Ktzing. Estos
ejemplares estudiados ms los colectados en los ltimos aos,
as como el tipo de Chrysymenia lobata Howe corresponden a
Cryptonemia, la misma que se describe en el presente trabajo
como Cryptonemia anconensis Acleto et Ziga sp. nov.
Por otro lado, los tipos de S. heteronema Howe y S. lapathifolia
Taylor, ms los ejemplares de herbario estudiados son similares y
se renen en una sola especie: Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe)
Acleto et Ziga comb. nov., excluyndose de ser sinnimo de
Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis y de S. limensis (Sonder)
Howe segn Dawson et al. (1964).
Sebdenia chinchensis Taylor, fue considerada por Lewis (1990)
como sinnimo de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis. La re-
visin del tipo y ms ejemplares de herbario nos muestra que son
diferentes y en consecuencia la nominamos como Cryptonemia
chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Ziga comb. nov., incluyendo
como sinnimo a Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto.
El tipo de Sebdenia lapathifolia (Ktzing) Howe, es un ejem-
plar membranceo con caracteres vegetativos y reproductivos
propios de Cryptonemia (Halymeniaceae) y la denominamos
Cryptonemia lapathifolia (Ktzing) Acleto et Ziga comb.nov.
Taxonoma
Phylum rhodoPhyta
claSe FlorideoPhyceae
orden halymenialeS
Familia halymeniaceae
CRYPTONEMIA J.aGardh
Cryptonemia anconensis Acleto et Ziga sp. nov.
Sebdenia limensis (Sonder) Howe 1914: 160-162. Dawson et al.
1964: 57-58, pl. 37, fg. B, pl. 52, fg. A, pl. 53, fg. A. Ramirez
1982: 18-19, Figs. 11, 30.
Chrysymenia (?) lobata Howe 1914: 129, pl. 53, fg. 41. Dawson et
al. 1964:71, pl. 66.
Figs. 1 8
Tallus laminaris, membranaceus, ad tactum mollis, intense
roseus vel rubescens, oblongus vel suborbicularis, usque ad 25 cm
altus, 16 cm latus, disco rhyzoideo praeditus, stipite brevi, non plus
quam 0,5 cm longo. Lamina in 4 8 lobulis expansa, omnino
subpalmata, lobulis oblongis lanceolatis vel digitiformibus in eodem
plano dispositis, 3 10 cm longis, 1 4 cm latis in parte basali, apice
gradatim acuminato, in extremo obtuso, lobuli majores ipse duplicato
lobulati, margine integro aut dentato aut appendicibus marginalibus
spathulatis dentiformibusve cum vel sine constrictione basi praeditis.
Structura multiaxialis, sectione transversali 60 110 m lata in
dimidio thalli; Cortex: cellulis 1 2, exterioribus photosyntheticis,
ovoideis vel angularibus, 3,5 4 m diam. 4,5 6 m longis.
Subcortex: stratis 2 3 cellularum pyriformium, fusiformiumve
ellipsoidearumve 10 16,5 m longarum 6 10,5 m diam.
contento granulari denso, axibusque majoribus parallellis faciei;
Medulla haud compacta, flis hialynis paucis, 3 4,5 m diam.,
aliquot flis contento denso refringenti. Carpogonius et cellula
axillaris in distincto systemati ampullarum zonae corticalis locati.
Ampulla rami carpogonici parva, omnino conica, ramis principa-
libus secundariisque propiis generis. Ampulla cellulae axilaris satis
conspicua in zona subcorticali, utrinque laminae posita, conica,
amplissima, zonam medularem expandens, flo principali cellulis
10 12 ovoideis, flisque secundariis 4 6, cellulis 6 8 ovoideis;
Cellula auxiliaris e basi rami secundarii oriens, ovoidea, 6 9 m
99

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
diam., partem centralem ampullae occupat. Cystocarpus maturus
ovoideus, massa carposporarum in centro, pericarpio laxo circum-
cinctus, ex flis medullaris contiguis constructo. Tallus in maturitate
expanditur et conspicue erigitur utrinque usque ad 180 m diam.,
per ostiolum extrorsum aperiens. Plantas masculas non observavi.
Tetrasporophytum plantis cystocarpicis simile; Tetrasporangia in
zona corticali partis mediae laminae principalis vel lobulorum secun-
dariorum superposita, e secunda cellula corticali lateraliter orientia,
ovoidea, 18 19,5 m longa 5 9 m diam., cruciatim divisa.
Talo laminar, membranceo, suave al tacto, rosado intenso
a rojo, de contorno oblongo o suborbicular, alcanza hasta 25
cm de alto por 16 cm de ancho, con un disco rizoidal y estpite
corto, no ms de 0,5 cm de largo, se expande originando 4 8
lbulos, en conjunto subpalmados, lbulos oblongo lanceolados
o digitiforme en un plano, de 3 10 cm de largo y 1 4 cm de
ancho en la parte basal, pice acuminado gradualmente, obtu-
so, los lbulos mas grandes con lbulos similares, margen liso
entero o dentado, o con proliferaciones marginales espatuladas
o dentiformaes con o sin constriccin en su base (Figs. 1 4).
Estructuralmente es multiaxial, en seccin transversal de 60
110 m en la parte media del talo; corteza con 1 a 2 clulas, la
ms externa fotosinttica, ovoides a angulares, de 3,5 4 m de
dimetro por 4,5 6 m de largo, subcorteza con 2 3 estratos
de clulas piriforme, fusiforme o elipsoidales de 10 16,5 m
de largo por 6 10,5 m de dimetro con contenido granular
denso y con sus ejes mayores paralelos a la superfcie; mdula
no compacta con pocos flamentos hialinos, de 3 4,5 m de
dimetro, algunos flamentos con contenido denso, refringente.
El carpogonio y la clula auxiliar se localizan en sistemas de
ampollas diferentes en la zona subcortical. La ampolla de la
rama carpogonial es pequea, cnica en conjunto, con ramas
principales y secundarias caractersticas. La ampolla de la clula
auxiliar es muy notoria se ubica en la zona subcortical a uno
Figuras 1 4. Cryptonemia
anconensis Acleto et Zuiga sp.
nov. (1) Tipo de Chrysymenia
(?) lobata Howe 1914. (2) holo-
tipo de Cryptonemia anconensis
sp. nov. Ejemplar cistocrpico,
Acleto 1188. (3, 4) morfologa
de ejemplares tetraspricos M.
E. Guevara 0106 y 010 respec-
tivamente.
2
3 4
1
100
Acleto & Ziga
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
u otro lado de la lmina, cnica de gran tamao que expande
la zona medular, con el flamento principal de 10 12 clulas
ovoides y 4 6 flamentos secundarios, con 6 8 clulas ovoides;
la clula auxiliar se origina en la base de una rama secundaria,
de forma ovoide, mide 6 9 m de dimetro y ocupa la parte
central de la ampolla (Figs. 5 7). El cistocarpo maduro es
ovoide, con la masa de carposporas en el centro, rodeado por un
pericarpo no muy frme formado por los flamentos medulares
contiguos, al madurar se expande y eleva notoriamente en el talo
alcanzando hasta 180 m de dimetro y se abre externamente
por medio de un ostiolo.
No se ha observado ejemplares masculinos entre los estudiados.
El tetrasporofto es morfolgicamente similar a las plantas
cistocrpicas. Los tetrasporangios se ubican en la zona cortical
de la parte media de la lmina principal o lbulos secundarios, se
originan lateralmente de la segunda clula cortical, son ovoides
y miden de 18 19,5 m de largo por 5 9 m de dimetro,
tienen divisin cruciada (Fig. 8).
Hbitat: Esta especie habita en el sublitoral de fondo arenoso
consolidado, de 5 hasta 15 m de profundidad, est presente
durante todo el ao.
Localidad tipo: Baha de Ancn (125), Prov. y Dpto.
Lima, Per.
Holotipo: Per, Prov. y Dpto. Lima, baha de Ancn, 28
octubre 1966, C. Acleto 1188 Herbario San Marcos (USM)
ejemplar cistocrpico.
Etimologa: El epteto especfco anconensis, est vinculado
con Ancn, baha localizada a 40 km (125) al norte de la ciudad
de Lima, localidad tipo de la especie.
Material estudiado: PER, Dpto. Lima, Prov. Chancay:
playa El Paraso, 19 noviembre 1960, C. Acleto 189 (USM),
Prov. Lima: Pucusana, 1 octubre 1962, C. Acleto 634 (USM)
(planta cistocarpica); baha de Ancn, 30 marzo 1963, C. Acle-
to 665, 666 (USM); baha de Ancn, 20 abril 1963, Dawson
24445 (USM); baha de Ancn, 8 febrero 1964, C. Acleto 773
(USM); Prov. Callao: La Punta, 18 octubre 1964, C. Acleto 831
(USM); Prov. Lima: baha de Ancn, 25 octubre 1964, C, Acle-
to 849 (USM) (planta tetrasprica); baha de Ancn, 28 Oct.
1966, C. Acleto 1188 (USM), (planta cistocrpica, holotipo);
baha de Ancn, 18 mayo 1982, C. Acleto 2100 (USM)(planta
tetrasprica); baha de Ancn, 25 junio 1988. M. E. Guevara
005, 008, 009, 011, 030 (USM). CHILE, Antofagasta: baha de
Mejillones del Sur (ALGIOA, Franzani 449); isla Santa Maria,
M. (Ramrez 426). I Regin Arica: La Capilla (FUA Vilaxa 018).
Observaciones: Desde 1964 hasta el presente, numerosos
ejemplares de Sebdenia limensis (Sonder) Howe similares a
las ilustraciones de Dawson et al. (1964) han sido colectados
entre Ancn y Pucusana, Departamento de Lima. No hubo
duda acerca de la denominacin de los ejemplares colectados
y herborizados, sin embargo, en 1984 se observ un ejemplar
(Acleto 1188, USM) correspondiente a una planta cistocrpica,
con sistema de ampollas de la rama carpogonial y de la clula
auxiliar propios del gnero Cryptonemia (Halymeniaceae) si-
guiendo el criterio de Chiang (1970). Este hallazgo preliminar
dio origen al estudio de M.E. Guevara (1989) que incluy los
ejemplares depositados en el Herbario San Marcos (USM), su
propia coleccin y los ejemplares citados para Chile por M.E.
Ramrez (1982); sus observaciones reafrmaron que los caracteres
vegetativos y reproductivos no correspondan a los de Sebdenia,
sino ms bien a Cryptonemia de las Halymeniaceae.
Al reanudar nuestros estudios sobre las especies de Sebdenia
del Per, S. limensis mereci nuestra mayor atencin. Lewis
(1990) dilucid que la verdadera S. limensis es aquella que tiene
como basnimo a Euhymenia limensis.
Santelices et al. (1989) estudiaron ejemplares de Cryptone-
mia colectadas en la costa norte de Chile: Antofagasta, bahia
de Mejillones del Sur (SGO.095608, 095609, 0956010,
Figuras 5 8. Cryptonemia anconensis Acleto et Zuiga sp. nov.
(5) Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico: ampolla de la clula
auxiliar, carposporas y flamentos del cistocarpo. Escala = 20 m,
Acleto 1188. (6) Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico: ampolla
de la clula auxiliar, clulas fotosintticas de la corteza, flamentos
medulares hialinos y otros con contenido refringente. Escala = 20 m,
Acleto 1188. (7) Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico: ampolla
de la clula auxiliar (caux), Acleto 1188. (8) Seccin transversal del
talo asexual con tetrasporangios divididos cruciadamente (ts. p.), M.
E. Guevara 010.
5
6
7
8
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Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
Figuras 9 10. Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Zuiga
comb. nov. (9) Tipo de Sebdenia ? chichensis Taylor. (10) Holotipo
de Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto, ejemplar cistocrpico, Acleto 834.
9
10
0950011), compararon stos con el tipo de Chrysymenia (?)
lobata Howe, depositado en el New York Botanical Garden,
ejemplar nico, incompleto y tetrasprico colectado en la
baha de Ancn, Feb. 13, 1907, Coker 99 p., Departamento
de Lima. Los caracteres integrados de esta especie y de los
ejemplares chilenos dieron lugar a una nueva combinacin
Cryptonemia lobata (Howe) M.E.Ramrez. Santelices et al.
(1989) no citan los ejemplares de Sebdenia limensis estudiados
por M.E. Ramrez (1982) y no citan ningn ejemplar peruano
adems del holotipo. No existen hasta el presente registros de
ms ejemplares en nuestra fora.
El holotipo de Chrysymenia (?) lobata Howe 1914, fue tam-
bin estudiado por nosotros y corresponde en sus caracteres
vegetativos y reproductivos al gnero Cryptonemia: corteza
con 2 a 3 hileras de clulas fotosintticas pequeas, mdula
flamentosa con algunos flamentos engrosados de contenido
refringente y esporangios divididos cruciadamente. Comparado
este holotipo con los numerosos ejemplares de Sebdenia limensis
(Sonder) Howe, segn Dawson et al. 1964, concluimos que
corresponden a una especie nueva: Cryptonemia anconensis
Acleto et Ziga sp. nov., especie endmica de la costa central
del Peru, incluyndose como sinnimo slo al holotipo de
Chrysymenia (?) lobata Howe y excluyndose a los ejemplares
chilenos estudiados como Cryptonemia lobata (Howe) Ramrez,
pues aun siendo incompletos alcanzan 35 cm de alto y 20 cm
de ancho, o ms de 50 cm de alto y 30 cm de ancho, de 60
120 um en seccin transversal, talo rojo prpura de textura
frme y gruesa segn Santelices (1989).
Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Ziga,
comb. nov.
Basnimo: Sebdenia ? chichensis Taylor 1947: 74-75, pl. 10, fg. 1.
Dawson et al. 1964: 56-57, pl. 50, chinchensis. Cryptonemia
chiangii Acleto 1973: 35-38, fgs. 108-112. Cryptonemia limensis
(Ktzing) Lewis 1990: 99-103, fg.3
Figs. 9 17
Planta de talo laminar, rosado intenso o rojo prpura; consiste
de un rizoide parenquimatoso del cual nacen una a varias lmi-
nas primarias, espatuladas u oblongo-lanceoladas (Figs. 10, 11
y 12), provistas de un estpite corto y compreso; tienen la base
cuneada, angosta, con una costa media, notoria y corta, pronto
desaparece al expandirse en una lmina delgada; suave en las
formas juveniles o ligeramente rgidas en las formas adultas; de
margen entero, ondulado o crespado, frecuentemente erosiona-
do, alcanzan hasta 22 cm de altura por 11 cm de ancho en su
porcin ms amplia; las lminas primarias llevan ramifcaciones
marginales, espatuladas u aovadas, de base cuneada y angosta;
delicadas, simples y de margen entero o grandes, divididas en
2 5 lbulos marginales, con el borde ondulado o crespado;
en todos los casos, con el pice notoriamente emarginado.
Estructuralmente es multiaxial; en seccin transversal de 89
110,4 m de espesor; la corteza est constituida por dos capas
de clulas fotosintticas, ovoides o cilndricas, de 3 7,2 m
de dimetro y 3 4 capas de clulas subcorticales, ovoides, de
9 36 m de dimetro, las ms internas son maciformes y con
el protoplasto granular; la zona medular es muy angosta y est
compuesta por pocos flamentos, entrecruzados, oblicuamente
o periclinamente, intercalando entre ellos escasos flamentos con
el contenido protoplasmtico refringente.
El sistema reproductivo femenino se distribuye en la zona
cortical de las lminas primarias, generalmente en la zona media,
en ambas superfcies. La rama carpogonial y la clula auxiliar
se localizan en ampollas separadas. La ampolla de la rama car-
pogonial (Fig. 14) es ms pequea que la ampolla de la clula
auxiliar, de forma cnica en conjunto y ramifcada, las clulas de
los flamentos primarios y secundarios son generalmente ovoi-
des, de contenido uniforme y denso, la rama carpogonial tiene
dos clulas, el carpogonio es cnico, con un tricogino de base
ligeramente constricta, robusto y corto, no alcanza la superfcie
externa. La ampolla de la clula auxiliar (Figs. 13 16), es muy
notoria por su tamao y forma cnica, el flamento primario
consta de 10 15 clulas ovoides, algunas son compresas,
102
Acleto & Ziga
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
Figuras 13 17. Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Zuiga comb. nov. (13) Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico mostrando la
forma y posicin de la ampolla de la clula auxiliar (caux) Acleto 834 y flamentos auxiliares (fa). (14) Ampolla de la rama carpogonial, carpo-
gonio (car). tricogino (tr) Acleto 834. (15) Formacin del cistocarpo: clula de fusin (cf), flamento de conexin (fc), gonimoblasto inicial (gi)
y carposporas (csp). Acleto 834. (16) Ampolla de la clula auxiliar (caux) y flamentos auxiliares (fa). Acleto 834. (17) Seccin transversal del
tetrasporofto, tetrasporangio con divisin cruciada (tsp). Acleto 1179.
Figuras 11 12. Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Zuiga comb. nov. (11) Ejemplar tetrasprico, Acleto 1179. (12) Ejemplar tetras-
prico, Acleto 2446.
11 12
103

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
prolongadas en las uniones de las clulas adyacentes entre las
basales, a cilndricas en el pice; con 4 5 flamentos secun-
darios de 7 10 clulas, algunos con ramifcaciones de tercer
orden de 3 8 clulas. Las clulas, terminales de los flamentos
convergen en el vrtice del cono y las ltimas son generalmente
cilndricas, son varias veces ms largas que anchas. La clula
auxiliar se ubica en la base de un flamento secundario y deriva
de la tercera o cuarta clula del flamento primario, en la mayora
de los casos se ha observado que es grande hasta de 29 m de
dimetro, cnica, de base ancha y vrtice redondeado. No se ha
observado las fases iniciales en el desarrollo del gonimoblasto.
Sin embargo, se ha visto, que la clula auxiliar (Fig. 15), luego
de vinculada por el flamento de conexin, se alarga y aumenta
de tamao, los flamentos se separan ligeramente y descienden
en la zona medular, aumentando el tamao y la forma cnica de
la ampolla original y consecuentemente origina el hinchamiento
del talo en esta zona, la clula auxiliar se localiza en el fondo de
la cavidad, conectada con las clulas vecinas de la ampolla, alar-
gadas considerablemente y con un contenido protoplasmtico
homogneo y denso. El gonimoblasto inicial, se origina de la
parte media superior de la clula auxiliar, es robusto, pedicelado
y orientado hacia el centro; a partir de este, se constituyen los
otros por divisiones sucesivas, hasta formar una agrupacin
masiva, las mas externas se transforman en carposporangios. El
gonimoblasto maduro ocupa el centro del cistocarpo cnico y
est rodeado por un pericarpo defnido de clulas alargadas y se
comunica al exterior por medio de un ostiolo notorio.
No hemos observado las plantas masculinas de esta especie.
Las plantas tetrasporofticas (Fig. 11) son muy similares mor-
folgicamente a las femeninas. Esta similitud se hace ostensible
en las lminas juveniles de ambas, la cuales tienen la forma ovada
o espatulada, con un corto estpite, simple, de borde entero y con
el pice notoriamente emarginado. Sin embargo, diferen ligera-
mente por su mayor tamao y la rigidez de su talo cuando secas.
En seccin transversal, la corteza tiene idntica organizacin, solo
la zona medular es ms amplia y ocupa la mitad del espesor total y
est constituida por numerosos flamentos entrecruzados oblicua
o periclinalmente. Los tetrasporangios (Fig. 17), se ubican en la
zona cortical media de las lminas primarias o de otros rdenes,
se originan lateralmente de la segunda o tercera clula cortical;
son ovoides, orientados hacia la superfcie, de 19 21,6 m
de longitud, por 12 m de dimetro, divididas cruciadamente.
Material estudiado: Per, Dpto. Ica, Prov. Chincha, islas
Chincha, 15 Jan. 1935, W.L. Schmitt (390-35), en Herb. Wm.
Randolph Taylor, estril (MICH). Dpto. Lima, Prov. Callao:
La Punta, 18 Oct. 1964, C. Acleto (834), 15739 (cistocrpica)
(USM) Holotipo de Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto (Fig. 10) Dpto.
Ica, Prov. Nazca, Punta San Juan, 13 abril 1966, C. Acleto 1079
(USM) Dpto. Lima, Prov. Lima, Barranco, 23 abril 1995, C.
Acleto 2446.
Observaciones: En la descripcin de esta especie Taylor
(1947, p. 74) existe un error tipogrfco en el epteto especfco
que est referido a la localidad tipo: islas Chincha, en vez de Seb-
denia ? chichensis Taylor (Fig. 9), se nomin Sebdenia chinchensis
Taylor tal como fue corregido por Dawson et al. 1964: 56-57.
El examen del holotipo depositado en el Herbario Ann Arbor,
Michigan (MICH), muestra que tiene caractersticas vegetativas
propias de Cryptonemia. Taylor (1947) hizo notar la existencia
de flamentos refringentes en la parte media de la zona medular.
El tipo y otros ejemplares de Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto
1973, depositados en Herbario San Marcos (USM), descritos
e ilustrados con amplitud en sus caracteres vegetativos y re-
productivos son similares a los de Sebdenia chinchensis Taylor,
proponindose sea nominada por prioridad como Cryptonemia
chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Ziga, comb. nov., siendo Cryp-
tonemia chiangii Acleto, sinnimo. Cryptonemia chinchensis
(Taylor) Acleto, et Ziga comb. nov. no debe ser incluida como
sinnimo de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis, tal como lo
propone Lewis (1990: 99-104, fg. 3).
Cryptonemia limensis est representada por otros ejemplares
solitarios, delicados, orbiculares en conjunto, con las ramas que se
adhieren frmemente a las cartulinas del herbario mientras que los
ejemplares de Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et Ziga
comb. nov. est representada por ejemplares gregarios, frmes,
espatulados en conjunto, no se adhieren totalmente a las cartulinas
del herbario. Se aproxima morfolgicamente a C. obovata de la
cual se diferencia por su mayor tamao, textura ms rgida, ra-
mifcaciones abundantes y lminas amplias de pice emarginado.
Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Ziga,
comb. nov.
Basnimo: Sebdenia heteronema Howe 1914, 163, pl. 58. Dawson
et al. 1964, 57-58 como Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor 1947, 75,
pl.10, fg. 2. Dawson et al. 1964, 55, pl. 49.
Figs. 18 25
Talo membranoso frme, de color rojo violceo brillante,
alcanza ms de 30 cm de altura y 25 cm de ancho, lmina prin-
cipal de contorno oblongo, dividida subpalmadamente una a
varias veces, subdicotomamente a irregular, las ramas angostadas
hacia los pices, redondeados, con proliferaciones marginales o
superfciales pequeas de 0,5 a 3 cm de tamao, suborbicular,
reniforme, generalmente ssiles o con pednculos cortos y con
margen entero o irregular. Talo de 90 120 m en seccin
transversal en las partes superior y media respectivamente,
diferenciada en una corteza de 3 hileras de clulas pequeas,
fotosintticas, de 4 8 m de dimetro y 4 16 m de longi-
tud, con pared celular defnida; zona medular compuesta por
muchos flamentos delgados, de 5 7 m de dimetro, conte-
nido homogneo, entrecruzados apretadamente, ramifcados y
originados de las clulas subcorticales, algunos flamentos de la
parte media con extremos engrosados, contenido homogneo y
refringente (Figs. 21, 22). Tetrasporangios en ambas cortezas se
originan lateralmente de la base de la tercera clula subcortical,
mide 15 21 m de largo por 9 m de dimetro, con divisin
cruciada (Figs. 23 y 24).
No se han observado ejemplares cistocrpicos, ni masculinos.
Material estudiado: Tipo de Sebdenia heteronema Howe,
1914 (Fig. 19), dragado a 5 pies de profundidad en la baha de
Sechura, Prov. Sechura, Dpto. de Piura, abril 8, 1907, Coker
157 p. espcimen tetrasprico depositado en el herbario del New
York Botanical Garden (NY); Matacaballo, Sechura, Provincia
de Sechura, Dpto. de Piura, Acleto 1994, (USM), ejemplar
tetrasprico. Tipo de Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor 1947 dragado
a 35 40 m en la Baha Norte de las islas Lobos de afuera,
Provincia de Sechura, Dpto. de Piura, enero 17, 1935, Schmitt
392A, espcimen depositado en Herbario Ann Arbor, Michigan
(MICH) (Fig. 18).
104
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
cuenta como un carcter que justifque una segregacin genrica
y por extensin los caracteres vegetativos afnes de las especies de
Sebdenia deben ser ms estudiados, de igual modo lo relacionado
con el desarrollo del cistocarpo.
Las observaciones de Howe (1914), la reafrmamos al estudiar
el Tipo de Sebdenia heteronema y el nico ejemplar adicional
Figuras 20. Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Zuiga, comb. nov. ejemplar tetrasprico Acleto 1994.
18 19
Figuras 18 - 19. Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Zuiga, comb. nov. (18) Tipo de Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor. (19) Tipo de Seb-
denia heteronema Howe.
Observaciones: En la descripcin que hace Howe (1914, p.
164) acerca de los flamentos refringentes presentes en la zona
medular de Sebdenia heteronema afrma que estos son general-
mente rectos, algunas veces curvados, irregularmente hinchados
y pueden ser observados con nitidez a travs de la corteza en
observacin externa, su presencia -agrega- debe ser tomado en
105

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
conservado en el Herbario San Marcos (USM, Acleto 1994) y
por extensin a lo observado en las otras especies peruana de
Sebdenia, excepto S. fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson.
Dawson et al. (1964, p. 58) consideraron que Sebdenia hete-
ronema debe ser sinnimo de Sebdenia limensis (Ktzing) Howe
(=Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis), puesto que algunos de
los ejemplares estudiados tienen expansiones y prolongaciones
marginales y superfciales similares al Tipo de Sebdenia hetero-
nema (Fig. 19), y expresan tambin que es difcil distinguir de
Sebdenia limensis de otras especies como Sebdenia afuerensis y
Sebdenia ? chinchensis.
Lewis (1990) al estudiar Euhymenia limensis Ktzing, ba-
snimo de Sebdenia limensis (Ktzing) Howe, reconoci que
corresponde a una combinacin nueva: Cryptonemia limensis
(Ktzing) Lewis. Luego de estudiar el Tipo de Sebdenia ?
afuerensis opina que parece corresponder al Tipo de Sebdenia
heteronema, ambas en seccin transversal de la parte vegetativa
tiene caractersticas de las Halymeniaceae. En este estudio reafr-
mamos estas caractersticas vegetativas propias de Cryptonemia
(Halymeniaceae) y reconocemos como combinacin nueva a
Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Ziga, comb. nov.
y como sinnimo Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor (Figs. 18 25).
El nico ejemplar de Cryptonemia heteronema existente en
el Herbario San Marcos, corresponde al colectado en la playa
Matacaballo, Sechura, Acleto 1994 (USM) (Fig. 20). Este
ejemplar es laminar, con una base cuneada, angosta de 3 mm de
ancho hacia el disco basal, mide de 32 cm de largo por 25 cm
en la parte ms ancha, con el extremo distal ramifcado, con 5
lbulos laminares laterales, cada una tiene la misma forma que la
lamina principal, en conjunto es de forma palmada. Cada lbulo
Figuras 21 - 25. Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Zuiga, comb. nov. (21) Seccin transversal del talo de Cryptonemia heteronema
(Howe) Acleto et Zuiga con flamentos medulares de contenido denso y refringente. Escala = 20 m, Acleto 1994. (22) Seccin transversal
del talo del tipo de Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor, con flamentos medulares de contenido denso y refringente propio de Cryptonemia, Escala =
20 m. (23) Seccin transversal del talo del tipo de Sebdenia heteronema Howe, tetrasporangios corticales con divisin cruciada y flamentos
medulares con contenido denso y refringente (fmr). (24) Seccin transversal de Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto et Zuiga, tetraspo-
rangios en la zona cortical, algunos flamentos medulares de contenido denso y refringente (fmr), Acleto 1994. (25) Seccin transversal del
talo del tipo de Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor, algunos flamentos medulares con contenido denso y refringente (fmr).
21
22
23
24
25
primario, tiene a su vez lbulos secundarios de forma similar,
bifurcado a trifurcado, con el pice agudo o ampliamente redon-
deado; el borde generalmente ondulado o con denticiones fnas e
irregulares, con ramifcaciones lingiformes a espatuladas en los
mrgenes cercanos a la base. En seccin transversal el talo laminar
a nivel del tercio medio mide de 66 110 m; corteza con 4
hileras de clulas, mdula flamentosa, con flamentos delgados
de 5 7 m de dimetro, suavemente entrecruzados, algunos
flamentos refringentes largos, de igual dimetro o ensanchados
en sus extremos. Este ejemplar nico tiene tetrasporangios en
ambas cortezas, miden de 10 20 m de dimetro por 7,5 m
de largo, se originan lateralmente de la tercera clula subcortical.
Cryptonemia lapathifolia (Ktzing) Acleto et Ziga,
comb. nov.
Basnimo: Halymenia lapathifolia Ktzing 1866, Tab. Phyc. Vol.16,
pl.99. Sebdenia lapathifolia (Ktzing) Howe 1914, P. 162. Taylor
1947, p. 57, pl. 51.
Figs. 26 30
Talo membranceo, lanceolado-elongado de 35 cm de largo y
6 cm de ancho, mrgenes subentero, ligeramente ondulado con
lbulos cortos o dientes esparcidamente de la base al pice; en
seccin transversal de 110 205 m; corteza con 2 a 5 hileras de
clulas fotosintticas, dispuestas en hileras anticlinales, las ms
externas de 4 8 m de dimetro por 8 15 m de longitud,
poligonales en vista superfcial y con la pared celular defnida,
consistente; zona medular con flamentos delgados hialinos, de
3 7 m de dimetro, sueltos a compactos, con pocos flamentos
de contenido refringente. Cistocarpos inmensos entre la zona
subcortical y la mdula ligeramente elevada hacia la superfcie
106
Acleto & Ziga
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
externa, carposporas formando una masa globosa de 55 85 m
de dimetro incluidas en un pericarpo defnido (Figs. 28, 29).
Material estudiado: Per, Dpto. Piura, Prov. Paita, Paita,
Hassler 121, ejemplar (cistocarpico) depositado en la coleccin
del Rijkherbarium, Leiden (L), Netherlands (Fig. 27). Desde
aquella poca hasta el presente no se ha registrado otros ejem-
plares de esta especie en nuestra costa.
Observaciones: El ejemplar estudiado tiene las caractersticas
vegetativas y reproductivas propias de Cryptonemia. La mdula es
flamentosa, con algunos flamentos medulares refringentes. Las
ampollas de la rama carpogonial y de la clula auxiliar similares
a los de Cryptonemia, los cistocarpos globosos inmersos en el
talo (Figs. 28 30).
28
29
30
Figuras 26 30. Cryptonemia lapathifolia (Ktzing) Acleto et Zuiga,
comb. nov. (26) Halymenia lapathifolia Ktzing. Tab. Phyc. Vol. 16,
pl. 99. (27) Ejemplar tipo de Halymenia lapathifolia Ktzing. (28)
Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico del tipo de Halymenia la-
pathifolia Ktzing. Escala = 20 m. (29, 30) Seccin transversal del
tipo de Halymenia lapathifolia Ktzing, con una masa de carposporas
rodeadas por los flamentos del pericarpo y ampolla de la clula
auxiliar respectivamente.
26
27
107

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis
Basnimo: Euhymenia limensis Ktzing, Sp. Alg. 743, 1849; J.
Agardh 1851: 289 Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis 1990:
98 - 104, fgs. 1 - 8. Halymenia limensis Sonder ex Ktzing 1866,
34, pl. 97. J. Agardh 1876: 141. Sarcodia limensis (Ktzing) De
Toni 1900:416. Sebdenia limensis (Sonder) Howe 1914:160-162
Dawson et al. 1964: 57 - 58, pl.37, fg. B, pl. 52, fg. A, pl. 53,
fg. A. Silva, P. C., E. G. Meez and R. L. Moe 1987:40 Sebde-
nia (?) chichensis Taylor 1947:74.75, pl. x fg. 1; Dawson et al.
1964: 56 - 57, pl. 50. chichensis. Cryptonemia guaymasensis
(Dawson) Dawson 1954: 263 - 264 Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto
1973: 35 - 38, fgs. 108 -112. Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto
1973:38-40, fgs. 115 - 122.
Figs. 31 40
Talo laminar, en conjunto de contorno orbicular (Figs. 32
34), alcanza hasta 25 cm de altura, rosado o rojo prpura, la
lmina principal es corta, de base cuneada, de 2 cm de ancho,
de margen entero y ondulado se divide en su extremo distal y
lateral en 4 o 5 lbulos, estos son palmado-cuneados, de base
angosta de 1 2,5 cm y luego se expande hasta alcanzar de 4 8
cm en su parte ms ancha, nuevamente lobulada en su extremo
distal, fexuoso, de pice redondeado, amplio, de borde entero y
crenulado. Estructuralmente es multiaxial. En seccin transversal
(Fig. 35) de 60 84 m de ancho, la corteza est compuesta
de 3 4 capas de clulas las cuales decrecen en tamao hacia la
superfcie del talo, las 2 ms externas son ovoides, cilndricas,
fotosintticas las ms internas ovoides o alargadas maciformes,
con abundante contenido granular, la mdula comprende 1/3
del espesor del talo y est compuesta de flamentos ramifcados,
de clulas alargadas unidas por sus extremos, generalmente
orientado periclinalmente; algunas clulas del flamento medular
contiene material refractivo denso.
La rama carpogonial y la clula auxiliar se localizan en am-
pollas diferentes; stas se distribuyen en la zona cortical de la
lmina principal y las lminas secundarias. La ampolla de la rama
carpogonial (Fig. 36) es ms pequea que la de la clula auxiliar;
consta de un flamento principal de 8 clulas, 3 4 flamentos
secundarios. Las clulas de la ampolla son ovoides o globosas, la
rama carpogonial consta de 2 clulas, el carpogonio es cnico,
Figuras 31 - 34. Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis. (31) Ilustracion del lectotipo de Euhymenia limensis Ktzing (Tabulae phycologicae,
vol. XVI, pl. 97). (32) Ejemplar tetrasporica de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis, S. Chavez s. n. (33) Holotipo de Cryptonemia peruviana
Acleto, Acleto 1339. (34) Ejemplar tetrasprico de Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto, Acleto 1339a.
31 32
33 34
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
con un tricogino corto. La clula hipgina lleva una rama corta
de 2 clulas. La ampolla de la clula auxiliar (Figs. 37, 38) es
de forma cnica y consta de un flamento principal de 9 13
clulas y de 3 4 flamentos secundarios de 6 8 clulas. De
los flamentos secundarios se origina generalmente un flamento
de tercer orden, de 2 4 clulas. Las clulas de la ampolla son
ovoides, alargadas, compresas o subglobosas, las terminales ms
grandes, cilndricas, maciformes o cnicas; la clula auxiliar, es
la basal de un flamento secundario, originado de la segunda o
tercera clula del flamento primario, es prominente, cilndrica,
de pice redondeado y descansa en el centro de la ampolla.
No se ha observado las fases iniciales luego de la fertilizacin.
En los estadios posteriores, se reconoce la clula auxiliar alargada
y de mayor tamao, en comunicacin con las clulas de la am-
polla. El gonimoblasto maduro, est rodeado de un pericarpo
bien defnido, compuesto de las clulas alargadas de la ampolla y
clulas medulares adyacentes transformadas con tal fn (Fig. 39).
No se ha observado especmenes masculinos.
El tetrasporofto (Fig. 34) es idntico morfolgicamente al
gametofto femenino, en apariencia es ligeramente liso, el te-
trasporangio (Fig. 40) deriva lateralmente de la segunda clula
cortical y est dividida cruciadamente, de 14,4 m de dimetro
por 21,6 m de longitud.
Material estudiado: Per. Dpto. y Prov. Lima: baha de
Ancn, 24, octubre 1964, C. Acleto 1339 (15740) planta cis-
Figuras 35 - 40. Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis. (35) Seccin transversal del talo del holotipo de Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto, clulas
corticales, flamentos medulares y flamentos con contenido denso y refringente (fr) Acleto 1339. (36) Ampolla de la rama carpogonial, con
carpogonio (carp) Acleto 1339. (37) Ampolla de la clula auxiliar (caux), flamentos auxiliares (fa). Acleto 1339. (38) Seccin transversal del talo
cistocrpico mostrando la forma y posicin de la ampolla de la clula auxiliar (caux), flamentos auxiliares de la ampolla (fa). Acleto 1339. (39)
Seccin transversal del talo cistocrpico mostrando el cistocarpo: pericarpo (pc), clula de fusin (cf), gonimoblasto inicial (gi) y carposporas
(csp). Acleto 1339. (40) Seccin transversal del tetrasporofto con tetrasporas (tsp) Acleto 1339a.
109

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
Figuras 41 - 42. Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson. (41) Lectotipo de Isymenia fabellata J. Agardh (segn Scheider & Wynne 1991).
(42) Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson morfologa de un ejemplar cistocrpico, Acleto 1895.
41 42
tocrpica (USM), Holotipo de Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto;
C. Acleto 1339a, planta tetrasprica (USM); Dpto. Lima Prov.
Callao; La Punta, 5 octubre 1984, S. Chvez S.M. planta te-
trasprica (USM)
Observaciones: Esta especie ha tenido distintas denomina-
ciones desde 1849 hasta 1990, tal como se anota en la bibliografa
correspondiente. Fue descrita inicialmente como Euhymenia li-
mensis Ktzing 1849 (Fig. 35) fue transferida a Halymenia limen-
sis Sonder ex Ktzing 1866, luego a Sarcodia? limensis (Sonder)
De Toni 1900 y fnalmente a Sebdenia limensis (Ktzing) Howe
1914 as se reconoci a esta especie desde Dawson et al. (1964)
hasta el presente, la descripcin de la especie hecha por Dawson
et al. (1964) est basada principalmente en la de Howe (1914),
con adiciones correspondientes a los ejemplares estudiados e
ilustrados (pl. 37, fg. B, pl. 52, fg. A, pl. 53, fg. A) incluyendo
adems a Sebdenia heteronema Howe como sinnimo.
Los ejemplares adicionales estudiados e ilustrados por Daw-
son et al. (1964) no corresponden a los de Euhymenia limensis
Ktzing 1849, basnimo de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing)
Lewis 1990; representan ms bien a una especie nueva de
Cryptonemia a la que denominamos Cryptonemia anconensis
Acleto et Ziga.
En efecto, Lewis (1990) estudi el tipo de Euhymenia limensis
Ktzing, depositado actualmente en el National Herbarium
of Victoria (MEL), reconoci como lectotipo al ejemplar que
fgura en la ilustracin de Ktzing (Tabulae Phycological vol.
XVI. pl. 97), dicho ejemplar tiene las caractersticas vegetativas
y reproductivas correspondientes a Cryptonemia, proponiendo
una combinacin nueva Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis,
1990. Lewis tambin estudi los holotipos de Sebdenia (?) chin-
chensis Taylor, Cryptonemia guaymasensis Dawson, Cryptonemia
chiangii Acleto y Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto y concluy que
todas son sinnimas de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis.
El presente estudio nos permite reafrmar que el nico sin-
nimo de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis en nuestra fora
es Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto, no as Cryptonemia chiangii
Acleto, Sebdenia heteronema Howe y Sebdenia ? afuerensis Taylor.
Los ejemplares de Cryptonemia limensis (Ktzing) Lewis,
presentes en el Herbario San Marcos (USM) bajo el nombre de
Cryptonemia peruviana Acleto, comprende a plantas femeninas,
tetraspricas y estriles, la mayora completas como el holotipo
Acleto 1339 (15740); las fgs: 1 2 de Lewis (1990) ms semejan
porciones de los ejemplares completos de nuestra coleccin.
Cryptonemia chiangii Acleto, Sebdenia heteronema Howe y
Sebdenia (?) afuerensis Taylor, muestran caracteres de hbitos
morfolgicos y reproductivos distintos y en consecuencia co-
rresponden a otras especies de Cryptonemia que se describen en
este trabajo como Cryptonemia chinchensis (Taylor) Acleto et
Ziga, comb. nov. y Cryptonemia heteronema (Howe) Acleto
et Ziga, comb. nov. incluyndose como sinnimo a Sebdenia
(?) afuerensis Taylor. Las caractersticas diferenciales se dan con
amplitud en las descripciones correspondientes.
Phylum rhodoPhyta
claSe FlorideoPhyceae
orden SeBdenialeS
Familia SeBdeniaceae
SEBDENIA (J. aGardh) Berthold
Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson
Basnimo: Isymenia fabellata J. Agardh, 1899: 62, 66; Sebdenia
fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson, 1980: 12 Millar, 1990: 328.
Schneider & Wynne, 1991, 471 - 474 Huisman, 1993: 16. Silva,
Basson & Moe. 1996: 324. Bula. Meyer and Norris 2001:354, fg.
3.; Halymenia agardhii De Toni, 1905: 1542. W.R. Taylor, 1960:
417 (proparte), pl. 51, fg.1.
Halymenia polydactyla Borgensen, 1932b: 122-124, fg. 10, pl. 4.
Schneider and Searles, 1975:84. Sebdenia polydactyla (Bor-
gensen) Balakrishnan, 1961a: 89 - 90, Balakrishnan, 1961c:
202 - 212, pl. 6, fgs. 1-2, 28- 41. J.N. Norris and Bucher, 1976:
14, fgs. 11 a-c, 12 a-c. Acleto, 1980: 11 - 12, fgs. 14, 25 - 29.
M.E. Guevara, 1989: 21 - 22, fg.9.
Figs. 41 48
Planta de color rojo vinoso a rosado intenso, cilndrico rgido
en ejemplares pequeos, a comprimido, de textura suave, els-
tica en los ejemplares grandes, alcanza hasta 27 cm de altura,
con un estpite corto hasta 5 mm rgido y cuneado y luego
con ramifcaciones dictomas de varios rdenes, en un plano,
110
Acleto & Ziga
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (Abril 2011)
Figuras 43 - 48. Sebdenia fabellata (J. Agardh) Parkinson. (43) Seccin transversal del talo mostrando las hileras de clulas corticales y c-
lulas subcorticales, Acleto 1579. (44) Clulas ganglioideas de la zona subcortical hacia la medular mostrando prolongaciones hialinas largas,
Acleto 1579. (45) Rama capogonial y carpogonio (carp) originado a partir de las clulas subcorticales, Acleto 1657. (46) Seccin transversal
del ejemplar cistocrpico, masa de carposporas (csp) originadas del gonimoblasto inicial (gi), Acleto 1657. (47) Seccin transversal del talo de
un ejemplar tetrasprico, con dos tetrasporangios (tsp) en la zona cortical, Acosta 537. (48) Porcin de dos flamentos medulares con clulas
glandulares (cgl), lateral y terminal respectivamente, Acleto 1579.
111

Especies peruanas de seBdenia y descripcin de cryptoneMia anconensis sp. nov.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 097- 112 (April 2011)
en conjunto fabelado, de 1 a 4 cm de dimetro, con el pice
ampliamente redondeado, o acuminado con el extremo romo,
a veces con proliferaciones subuladas pequeas y numerosas
(Fig. 42). En seccin transversal presenta una zona cortical de
4 a 6 hileras anticlinales de clulas pigmentadas, redondeadas de
4 a 8 m de dimetro, la subcorteza con clulas globosas, ms
grandes hacia la mdula, radiadas o ganglioideas, de 15 a 24 m
de dimetro, ms dispersas hacia el centro y con los radios ms
largos, angostados prximos a las clulas y de mayor dimetro
en las uniones con los flamentos de las clulas adyacentes la
mdula con mayor cantidad de flamentos, de dimetro uniforme
3 4,5 m, dispersos irregularmente, lleva clulas glandulares
pequeas a diferentes niveles (Figs. 43, 44, 48).
Las plantas femeninas tienen los cistocarpos dispersos entre
la zona cortical y parte externa de la zona medular de la parte
media de las ramas de diferentes rdenes, con poco tejido en el
pericarpo, se eleva ligeramente en la superfcie del talo, con un
ostiolo diferenciado y constituido por flamentos de orientacin
defnida la masa de gonimoblasto y carposporas de forma cnica,
con un pie notorio, bien diferenciado y en conjunto semeja un
rbol diminuto (Fig. 46).
El tetrasporofto, con tetrasporangios de divisin cruciada,
se ubica en la zona cortical de la parte media y tercio superior
de los ejes principales y secundarios, miden de 8 10 m de
dimetro por 20 25 m de longitud (Fig. 47).
Los ejemplares estudiados no incluyen a las plantas mascu-
linas.
El registro de esta especie en la zona norte del litoral peruano,
constituye una ampliacin de su distribucin en el Pacifco de
Sudamrica. Todos los ejemplares registrados han sido colectados
como material varado, posiblemente habitan en el sublitoral.
Material estudiado: Per, Dpto. Piura, Prov. Paita, Paita, 5
enero 1970, Acleto 1579 (USM), 27 julio 1970, Acleto1657
(USM), Prov. Sechura, Parachique, 12 setiembre 1972, Acle-
to1895 (USM) Bayovar, Acosta 381. 537.
Observaciones: Hasta el presente Sebdenia fabellata (J.
Agardh) Parkinson (Fig. 41), es la nica especie de Sebdenia
presente en la fora marina del Per, fue registrada como Sebdenia
polydactyla (Borgesen) Balakrishnan por Acleto (1980).
Agradecimientos
Al trmino de esta contribucin, queremos expresar nuestro
agradecimiento a los curadores de los herbarios donde estn de-
positados los tipos de las especies estudiadas, quienes tuvieron la
gentileza de atender nuestra solicitud de prstamo: Dr. Michael
J. Wynne, del Herbario An Arbor, Michigan (MICH), (1987);
Dra. Barbara M. Tiers, del Cryptogamic Herbarium del New York
Botanical Garden (NY), (1988, 1990); Dr. W. F. Prud, home
van Reinem del rijsherbarium, Leiden (L), (1989, 1990). Del
mismo modo, agradecemos al Dr. Paul C. Silva del University
Herbarium Berkeley, California por su gentileza en atender a
nuestras consultas referentes al tema. A la Dra. Magda Chanco
del Herbario San Marcos (USM) por la lectura del manuscrito y
al Dr. Guillermo Pino por la traduccin al latn de la descripcin
de la nueva especie. A Israel Acleto Z., Anglica Denegri y Frank
Aliaga Livia por ayudarnos en el ordenamiento del texto de este
trabajo. Y al revisor annimo por sus comentarios y sugerencias.
Literatura Citada
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113

Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios, Per; una comparacin
entre bosques de tierra frme y de bajos
Alejandro Araujo-Murakami
1
, Alexander G. Parada
1
, Jeremy J. Tern
2
, Tim R. Baker
3
,
Ted R. Feldpausch
3
, Oliver L. Phillips
3
, Roel J.W. Brienen
3
*
Necromass in forests of Madre de Dios, Peru: a comparison between
terra frme and lowland forests
1 Museo de Historia Natural Noel
Kempff Mercado, Casilla 2489, Av.
Irala 565, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
2 Soci edad Bol i vi ana de Hi s-
t ori a Nat ural , Museo Mart i n
Cardenas H, Av Heroi nas #
0-0266, Cochabamba, Bol i vi a
3 Ecology and Global Change,
School of Geography, University of
Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*Autor para correspondencia Roel
Brienen: r.brienen@leeds.ac.uk
Presentado: 09/09/2010
Aceptado: 26/01/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
La cantidad de madera muerta o necromasa representa una importante porcin de la biomasa y de los nutri-
entes en los bosques tropicales. Los objetivos de este estudio son: 1) hacer una evaluacin y comparacin
entre la necromasa de los bosques de altura o tierra frme y los bosques inundables o bajos, (2) estudiar las
relaciones entre la necromasa, la biomasa area y la densidad de madera del bosque, y (3) proporcionar una
primera estimacin de la necromasa para todo el departamento de Madre de Dios. La necromasa gruesa y la
masa area vegetativa fueron estudiados en tres diferentes lugares utilizando parcelas permanentes y lneas
de interseccin. El promedio del volumen de madera muerta gruesa fue de 72,9 m
3
ha
-1
, con un peso entre 24,8
y 30,7 Mg ha
-1
dependiendo de la densidad de madera muerta usada en los clculos. Los bosques de tierra
frme contienen signifcativamente ms madera muerta que los bosques inundables. La necromasa constituye
11% de la masa area vegetativa almacenada en los bosques de Madre de Dios. Finalmente, se estima que el
departamento de Madre de Dios contiene alrededor de 100 mega toneladas de carbono en su madera muerta.
Este valor es bastante alto, siendo diez veces ms que la emisin anual de combustibles fsiles de Per entre
2000 2008. Esta substancial porcin de la necromasa enfatiza la importancia de estos tipos de estudios de
campo, considerando que este componente de carbono en el bosque tropical no se logra detectar con otros
mtodos como la deteccin remota por satlites.
Palabras claves: Bosque tropical, madera muerta, Amazona, almacn de carbono, ciclo de carbono.
Abstract
Stocks of dead wood or necromass represent an important portion of biomass and nutrients in tropical forests.
The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate and compare the necromass of terra frme and lowlands
forests, (2) to study the relationship between necromass, above-ground biomass and wood density, and (3) to
estimate the necromass of the department of Madre de Dios, Peru. Stocks of necromass and above-ground
biomass were estimated at three different locations using permanent plots and line intercept transects. The
average volume of necromass for the three sites was 72.9 m3 ha-1 with an average weight varying between
24.8 and 30.7 Mg ha-1, depending on the estimations of dead wood density used for the calculations. Terra frme
forests had signifcantly higher stocks of necromass than lowland forests. The amount of necromass was 11%
of the total above-ground biomass in Madre de Dios forests. The total stock of carbon stored in dead wood for
the entire department of Madre de Dios was estimated to be approximately 100 mega tonnes of carbon. This is
ten times more than the annual fossil fuel emissions of Peru between 2000 and 2008. The substantial stocks of
necromass emphasize the importance of these types of feld studies, considering that this component of tropical
forest carbon cannot be detected using other methods such as satellite remote sensing.
Keywords: Tropical forest, dead wood, Amazon, Carbon storage, Carbon cycle.
Introduccin
La necromasa constituye una gran porcin de la biomasa y
de los nutrientes del ecosistema (Baker et al. 2007, Chao et al.
2009, Clark et al. 2002). Se estima que en los bosques de la
Amazona la necromasa constituye casi el 13% de la biomasa
area (Chao et al. 2009) y almacenan 9,6 Gt de carbono en toda
la cuenca amaznica (Chao et al. 2009), lo cual es ms que la
emisin de carbn fsil causada por el ser humano durante el
2008 (Le Quere et al. 2009). Por lo tanto, la necromasa en los
bosques tropicales es un componente importante en el ciclo
global de carbono.
Las estimaciones de la necromasa en la Amazona varan mu-
cho desde casi ausente hasta ms de 60 Mg ha
-1
, constituyendo
hasta el 33% de la biomasa area (Clark et al. 2002, Nascimento
y Laurance 2002, Rice et al. 2004). La variacin entre los estu-
dios se debe en general a las diferencias entre los diferentes tipos
de bosques y suelos. Considerando toda la cuenca amaznica,
Chao et al. (2009) observaron que existe una gradiente en la
necromasa que coincide con el gradiente de Este al Oeste en la
biomasa area, la mortalidad y la densidad de madera (Baker
et al. 2004, Malhi et al. 2004, 2006). Hay menos necromasa
en el Oeste de la Amazona que se correlaciona con menores
cantidades de biomasa area, menores densidades de la madera,
dinmica de bosque ms elevada (Baker et al. 2004, Chao et al.
2009, Malhi et al. 2004, 2006), mayor fertilidad de suelo y una
mala estructura fsica de suelo (Quesada et al. 2010a). Chao et
al. (2009) observaron que la cantidad de necromasa depende de
la densidad de madera, pero tambin de la cantidad de biomasa
en la vegetacin y de las tasas de mortalidad.
En pequeas escalas espaciales tambin existen diferencias en
la necromasa. En una comparacin de diferentes tipos de bosques
en el norte de Per, por ejemplo, se observ que los bosques de
tierra frme almacenan tres veces ms necromasa que los bosques
inundables (Chao et al. 2008). Aunque en los ltimos aos el
nmero de estudios sobre la necromasa ha aumentado, todava
se entiende poco de los principales factores que la afectan y se
requieren ms estimaciones en los bosques tropicales.
En este estudio presentamos datos nuevos de las cantidades
de necromasa en las cuencas del ri Los Amigos y ri Manu y
sumados a los datos de Baker et al. (2007) para el ro Tambo-
pata, realizamos las primeras estimaciones de necromasa del
Departamento de Madre de Dios (Per), una particular regin
114
Araujo-Murakami et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (Abril 2011)
de la Amazona central y este. Madre de Dios es el tercer depar-
tamento ms grande de la Amazona peruana y cubre un rea de
casi 85 mil kilometros cuadrados. En este departamento la Red
Amaznica de Inventarios Forestales (RAINFOR (Peacock et al.
2007)), instal parcelas permanentes de muestreo (PPM) en las
cuencas del ro Los Amigos, ro Manu y ro Tambopata con el
objetivo de estudiar la dinmica de la biomasa y la biodiversidad
a lo largo plazo.
Los objetivos de este estudio son: (1) hacer una evaluacin
y comparacin entre la necromasa del bosque de altura o tierra
frme y el bosque inundables o bajos, que son los principales
tipos de bosque en Madre de Dios, (2) estudiar si existe una
relacin entre la necromasa y la biomasa area y la densidad de
madera del bosque y (3) proporcionar la primera estimacin de
la necromasa de todo el departamento de Madre de Dios, Per.
Material y mtodos
Sitios de estudio.- El trabajo de campo fue realizado en el
departamento de Madre de Dios (Per), en tres diferentes luga-
res: el Centro de Investigacin y Capacitacin Ro Los Amigos
(CICRA) (123407S; 700557W), la estacin Biolgica
Cocha Cashu del Parque Nacional Manu (PNM) (11538,27S;
712351,79W) y en el Ro Tambopata (125012,86S;
691739,27W) (Fig. 1). La precipitacin anual vari poco
entre los diferentes lugares con un promedio de 3034 mm para
Cocha Cashu, 2417 mm para Ro Tambopata (Malhi et al. 2004)
y 2648 mm para los Amigos (CICRA 2010). La regin tiene una
estacin seca de 3 meses entre junio y agosto con un promedio de
lluvia mensual menor de 100 mm y una temperatura promedio
anual de 24 25
o
C.
Los sitios de estudio incluyen bosques inundables (Varzea)
en sitios bajos, bajos y bosques que nunca se inunda o Tierra
Firme. Los orgenes de los suelos son Pleistoceno o Holoceno
y estn clasifcados como ultisols (Quesada et al. 2010b). Los
bosques de bajos se encuentran detrs de las barreras ribereas
de los ros de aguas blancas, donde frecuentemente el relieve
desciende formando reas anegables peridicamente. En los
bosques de tierra frme el suelo est por encima del nivel mximo
de las aguas, y nunca o muy raras veces pueden ser inundados.
En los bosques de tierra frme los suelos pueden ser pedregosos,
profundos y ricos en humus y mantienen su fertilidad mientras
estn cubiertos con vegetacin.
Mtodos de campo.- En cada sitio se hizo un levantamiento
de la cantidad de detritus de madera gruesa cada y en pie con
dimetro mayor de 10 cm. En este estudio se excluye la necro-
masa fna de madera con dimetros menores a 10 cm, hojarasca,
frutos, fores, etc.
En este estudio hemos utilizado dos mtodos de muestreo de
necromasa; i) en base a parcelas y ii) en base a lneas de intersec-
cin (van Wagner 1968). En las reas de Manu y Los Amigos
hemos levantado la cantidad de necromasa durante agosto del
2008 usando solamente el mtodo en base a lneas de intersec-
cin, mientras que el levantamiento de cantidades de necromasa
de Tambopata se realiz mediante una combinacin de los dos
mtodos. Los datos de Tambopata ya han sido publicados en
Baker et al. (2007), y fueron colectada entre abril y julio 2006.
Mtodo en base a parcelas: El mtodo en base a parcelas consiste
simplemente de buscar en todo la parcela de 1 hectrea los rbo-
les muertos. Este mtodo fue solamente aplicado en Tambopata
para estimar la cantidad de necromasa de rboles muertos en
pie y las cepas (ver Baker et al. (2007) para ms detalle). Para
los rboles muertos en el suelo usamos en Tambopata el mtodo
en base a lneas de interseccin.
Mtodo en base a lneas de interseccin: Desde cada esquina
de las parcelas de 100x100 m se trazaron lneas de interseccin
de 250 m de longitud lo cual constituye un total de 1000 m
de lnea por parcela. Cada una de las cuatro lneas parte desde
una esquina de las parcelas y estaba orientada en direccin per-
pendicular a la otra lnea, estando 100 metros de distanciada
entre ellas para mantener la independencia. El mtodo para las
parcelas de Tambopata difri un poco (ver Baker et al. 2007),
as que cada lnea fue de 100 m que resulta en 400 m en total
para cada parcela (ver Tabla 1). En las cuatro lneas de 250 m
se midieron todos los pedazos o trozos de madera muerta cada
con dimetros menores o iguales a 10 cm que cruzaban la lnea
de interseccin. Adems, para estimar la cantidad de madera
muerta en pie las lneas de 250 m se trasformaron en transectos
de 10 m de ancho hacia los lados de las lnea de interseccin,
donde fueron medidos todos los rboles muertos en pie y las
cepas o tocones menores o iguales 10 cm de dimetro (DAP,
Dimetro al Altura de Pecho, arriba de aletones).
Despus de medir el dimetro interceptado en las lneas y el
DAP en los transectos se anoto el estado de la descomposicin
de la madera muerta, que fue clasifcada en un primer momento
en cinco diferentes categoras en base a simples caractersticas
Puerto Maldonado
Manu
R

o

d
e

la
s

P
ie
d
r
a
s
R
o
M
a
d
r
e
d
e
D
io
s
Los Amigos
1
0

S 70W
0 100 km
Tambopata
Figura 1. Ubicacin del estudio indicando las reas de estudio en el
departamento de Madre de Dios, Per.
115

Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (April 2011)
de la madera muerta (Clark et al. 2002, Delaney et al. 1998,
Keller et al. 2004).
En este estudio se clasifc el estado de la descomposicin de
cada pieza de necromasa en una de las siguientes 5 clases: clase 1
corresponde a madera slida, cada recientemente, con corteza
intacta y ramas fnas todava adjuntas; clase 2 corresponde a
madera slida, pero sin ramas fnas y con corteza que empieza
a desprenderse; clase 3 corresponde a madera no slida, en con-
diciones pobres, pero donde result difcil empujar una clavo
dentro de la madera con la mano; clase 4 corresponde a madera
blanda, madera podrida, donde un clavo podra ser empujado
dentro de la madera fcilmente; clase 5 corresponde a madera
suave, madera podrida que se rompe con facilidad al pisarla.
Varios estudios indican que las diferencias en la densidad de
madera entre las clases de descomposicin son pequeas (Chao
et al. 2008) o no signifcativas (Palace et al. 2008), y para facilitar
el anlisis y poder calcular las densidades segn las formulas de
Chao et al. (2009), las 5 clases obtenidas en un primer momento
fueron agrupadas en 3 clases: (I) juntando las clases 1 con la
clase 2, (II) la clase 3 y (III) juntando la clase 4 con la clase 5.
Clculos de volumen de la madera en el suelo
Para todas las piezas de madera en el suelo se calcul el volu-
men segn:
( ) L d V
i
8 /
2
2
=
Donde V es el volumen por unidad de rea, d
i
es el dimetro
(en cm) del tronco i y L (m) es el longitud de la lnea-transecto
(van Wagner 1968).
Para el clculo del volumen de madera en pie se utiliz la
formula de Chambers et al. (2001) de volumen de troncos,
que se expresa:
V= 0,0011 D
b
1,8516
* H
0,9053
((2H
0,118
) H
0,118
) ,
Donde D
b
es el dimetro a la altura de pecho, y H es la
altura del tronco hasta el punto ms alto donde tiene 10 cm
de dimetro.
Densidad de las clases de descomposicin
Los valores de densidades de las clases de descomposicin
(
d
, g cm
-3
) son especifco de cada sitio, pero estn altamente
relacionado con la densidad de madera de los rboles vivos a
nivel de parcela (Chao et al. 2008). As, la densidad (
d
) fue
estimada como una funcin de la densidad promedia de los
rboles vivos de la parcela, segn la ecuacin de Chao et al.
(2008), que se expresa:

d=1
= 1,17 [
BAj
] 0,21
y

d=2
= 1,17 [
BAj
] 0,31
Donde
d
= 1 y
d
= 2 representan las densidades de necro-
masa en clases de deterioro (d) I y II respectivamente, y
BAj
(g
cm
-3
) es la densidad de la madera de rboles vivos de la parcela
j. Para la necromasa en clase de deterioro III, se utiliz el valor
medio de la densidad por detritus en clase de deterioro tres
de estudios publicados de bosques neotropicales hmedos de
las tierras bajas (0,29 g cm
-3
), como sugiri Chao et al. (2008).
Las densidades de madera de rboles vivos se obtuvo de la
base de datos de RAINFOR (Peacock et al. 2007) y la base de
datos de densidad de madera de especies de Baker et al. (2004) y
Chave et al. (2006). La densidad de la madera se relacion a los
datos de parcelas en funcin a cada individuo o rbol, es decir
se utiliza la densidad de la especie a la que corresponde cada
individuo. Es as, que en los casos que faltaban datos de densidad
de especies se utiliz el promedio de densidad por gnero o por
familia. Para los rboles no identifcados se utiliz el promedio
de la densidad de madera de todos los rboles en la parcela.
La biomasa area gruesa (AGW, Mg ha
-1
) fue estimada para
cada parcela, utilizando las ecuaciones de Chambers et al. (2001),
ajustadas por Baker et al. (2004) que incorpora la densidad de
madera en este modelo. Todos los rboles menores o iguales 10
cm de dimetro fueron medidos en 2007 y 2008 a la altura de
pecho (DAP; 1,30 m) para rboles con aletones por arriba de
estos. Mayores detalles de los mtodos de mediciones de di-
metros se encuentra en el protocolo de RAINFOR (accesible en
lnea web: http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/projects/rainfor/pages/
manuals_eng.html).
Estimaciones de la madera muerta en Madre de Dios
Para estimar el total de la necromasa del departamento de
Madre de Dios se utiliz el promedio de necromasa por hectrea
multiplicado con el total de rea de bosque de Madre de Dios. El
departamento de Madre de Dios tiene una extensin de 8,476
millones de hectreas (FAO 2005), de los cuales se estima que
por lo menos 80% constituye bosque tropical.
Regin Parcela Cdigo Latitud Longitud Altura
Tipo de
Bosque
Mtodo
Longitud de
lnea (m)
Los Amigos Castaal LAS-01 -12,5562 -70,1068 268 Altura lnea 1000
Los Amigos Jacaratia LAS-02 -12,5333 -70,0833 ~240 Bajo lnea 1000
Manu, Cocha Cashu Tierra Firme, Terraza MNU-03 -11,9014 -71,4014 312 Altura lnea 1000
Manu, Cocha Cashu Tierra Firme Ravine MNU-04 -11,9054 -71,4016 312 Altura lnea 1000
Manu, Cocha Cashu Trail 12 MNU-05 -11,8789 -71,4082 312 Bajo lnea 1000
Manu, Cocha Cashu Trail 2 & 31 MNU-06 -11,8864 -71,3792 312 Bajo lnea 1000
Ro Tambopata Parcela 0 TAM 01 -12,8444 -69,2891 196 Bajo lnea /parcela
1
400
Ro Tambopata Parcela 1 TAM 02 -12,8348 -69,2861 210 Bajo lnea parcela
1
400
Ro Tambopata Parcela 3 TAM 05 -12,8299 -69,271 207 Altura lnea parcela
1
400
Ro Tambopata Parcela 6 TAM 07 -12,8252 -69,2611 220 Altura lnea /parcela
1
400
Ro Tambopata Parcela 7 TAM 08 -12,8269 -69,2698 224 Altura lnea /parcela
1
400
Tabla 1. Caractersticas de los sitios de estudio y mtodos de muestreo (lnea y/o parcela)
1
El mtodo de lnea de interseccin fue aplicada para estimar el volumen de madera muerta en el suelo, y el mtodo de parcela para estimar la madera muerta parada (ver Baker et al. 2007).
116
Araujo-Murakami et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (Abril 2011)
Resultados
Necromasa en los diferentes tipos de bosque.- El estudio
presenta un promedio de 72,9 m
3
ha
-1
de madera muerta, el
cual vara desde 54,8 y 103,9 m
3
ha
-1
. El bosque de tierra frma
o altura presenta volumen promedio 83,3 m
3
ha
-1
y el bosque
inundable o de bajo presenta en promedio 60,4 m
3
ha
-1
de
madera muerta (Tabla 2). Es as, que los bosques de tierra frme
contienen signifcativamente ms volumen de madera muerta
que los bosques de bajo (Mann-Whitney U, p < 0,05).
La necromasa, o el peso del volumen de madera muerta calcu-
lado en base de las densidades de madera de las diferentes clases
de descomposicin (ver mtodos), tiene un promedio variable
entre 30,7 y 24,8 Mg ha
-1
, el primero basado en la densidad de
madera muerta de un estudio realizado en Tambopata (Baker
et al. 2007) y el segundo basado en la densidad de rboles vivos
de cada parcela y las ecuaciones de Chao et al (2009). En ambos
clculos o estimaciones existe una diferencia signifcativa (Mann-
Whitney U, p< 0,05) entre la necromasa de los bosques de tierra
frme o altura y el bosque inundable o bajo. Siendo mayor el
valor de necromasa en los bosques de tierra frme (Fig. 2).
La proporcin (el ratio) promedio entre la necromasa parada
y la del suelo (p/s) es de 25% pero varia bastante entre los
diferentes sitios (15 53%). La necromasa constituye 11% de
la masa area vegetativa almacenado en las parcelas (Tabla 2).
La necromasa cuantifcada en base a las ecuaciones de Chao
et al. (2008), no est relacionado signifcativamente con la
cantidad de biomasa en la vegetacin area (AGB), pero si tiene
una correlacin signifcativa con la densidad de madera viva por
parcela (j, Pearson-r = 0,60; p<0,05).
Proyecciones de la necromasa en Madre de Dios
Usando los resultados de necromasa, se proyecto que el total
de necromasa en el departamento de Madre de Dios est entre
de 160 y 200 Mt (= 10
12
g), variando segn el tipo de clculo
de densidad de madera usado (ver mtodos). Asumindose que
casi el 50% de la biomasa y necromasa es carbono (Elias y Potvin
2003), se estima que los bosques de Madre de Dios contienen
entre 80 y 100 Mt de carbono en la necromasa, dependiendo
de qu valores de densidades de madera se usan para los clcu-
los. Junto con el carbono que se encuentra en la biomasa area
(790 Mt) esto constituye un total de 870 890 Mt de carbono
area (ntense que esto no incluye el carbono contenido en las
races y el suelo).
Discusin
Los valores observados en este estudio son casi el doble de
los valores que Chao et al. (2009) report para el Suroeste de
la Amazona (17,5 Mg ha
-1
), pero similar a los valores de nec-
romasa de la misma regin reportado por Baker et al. (2007),
usando el mtodo de la lnea de interseccin. De acuerdo con
las observaciones de Baker et al. (2007), nuestros valores son
relativamente bajos en comparacin con la mayora de los estu-
dios de necromasa en bosques tropicales, con un valor extremo
de 86,6 Mg ha
-1
reportado para Tapajos en el Este de Amazona
(Rice et al. 2004).
35,3
25,3
29,3
19,4
0,0
5,0
10,0
15,0
20,0
25,0
30,0
35,0
40,0
Altura Bajio
N
e
c
r
o
m
a
s
a

(
M
g

h
a
-
1
)
Baker et al. 2007
las parcelas
Basado en densidades de
Figura 2. Promedios de necromasa en los bosques de altura o tierra
frme y bosques de bajo o inundables, segn los diferentes mtodos
de clculo de necromasa (ver mtodos).
Tipo de
Bosque
Cdigo AGB j
Volumen
en pie
Volumen
en el suelo
Total N
1)
N
2)
p/s
N/
AGB
Fuente
Altura LAS-01 248,4 0,55 55,0 48,9 103,9 46,5 37,7 53% 15% Este estudio
Altura MNU-03 226,5 0,51 21,0 53,9 74,9 32,4 23,6 28% 10% Este estudio
Altura MNU-04 230,3 0,55 21,0 42,9 63,9 27,4 21,8 33% 9% Este estudio
Altura TAM 05 215,2 0,61 9,9 56,2 66,1 27,8 25,6 15% 12% Baker et al. (2007)
Altura TAM 07 223,6 0,58 16,2 85,3 101,6 39,7 33,1 16% 15% Baker et al. (2007)
Altura TAM 08 188,8 0,60 16,1 73,3 89,4 37,8 34,0 18% 18% Baker et al. (2007)
Promedio 222,1 0,56 22,5 60,8 83,3 35,3 29,3 27% 13%
Bajo LAS-02 240,2 0,52 14,5 41,4 55,9 24,2 18,2 26% 8% Este estudio
Bajo MNU-05 299,5 0,54 14,9 47,0 61,9 25,9 20,3 24% 7% Este estudio
Bajo MNU-06 272,3 0,52 9,0 51,0 60,0 27,2 20,3 15% 7% Este estudio
Bajo TAM 01 201,9 0,53 15,9 53,2 69,1 28,0 21,5 23% 11% Baker et al.(2007)
Bajo TAM 02 210,6 0,54 11,0 43,8 54,8 21,3 16,8 20% 8% Baker et al. (2007)
Promedio 244,9 0,53 55,0 48,8 60,4 25,3 19,4 22% 8%
1)
En base a valores de densidades de Baker et al. (2007);
2)
En base a valores de densidades de ecuaciones de Chao et al. 2009 y valores de densidad de madera de las parcelas
Tabla 2. Necromasa y biomasa en los 11 sitios en el departamento de Madre de Dios. Donde, AGB, Biomasa Area Gruesa (Mg ha
-1
);
j,
pro-
medio de densidad de madera de parcela j (g cm
-1
). V (m
3
ha
-1
), N, necromasa (Mg ha
-1
) usando los valores de densidad de madera de Baker
et al. 2007 (N
1
) o en base del promedio de densidad de madera por parcela (N
2
, cf. Chao et la. 2009), p/s= relacin (ratio) entre la necromasa
parada y la necromasa cado en el suelo, N/AGB= relacin (ratio) entre la necromasa y la biomasa.
117

Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 113- 118 (April 2011)
Los niveles de necromasa reportados en este estudio concuer-
dan con el gradiente observado por Chao et al. (2009), quienes
anotaron que las regiones del sur y el oeste de la Amazona tienen
valores ms bajos de necromasa en comparacin con el este y
noreste de la Amazona (Chao et al. 2009). Estos bajos niveles
de necromasa coinciden con valores bajos de biomasa y densidad
de madera (Baker et al. 2004), una alta productividad de madera
(Baker et al. 2004), y altas tasas de mortalidad, y esto demuestra
que en estas reas de la Amazona el reciclaje de carbono parece
ser ms elevado. Este carcter distinto de la dinmica del bosque
de esta parte de la Amazona es probablemente en gran parte
causado por las diferencias en las propiedades qumicas y fsicas
del suelo entre las regiones. Quesada et al. (2010) demostr que
el sur y el oeste de la Amazona tienen suelos de propiedades
menos favorables que podran ser la causa de la mayor tasa de
mortalidad, lo cual infuye en la estructura del bosque y la pro-
ductividad de madera. La elevada mortalidad forestal registrada
en estos bosques da como resultado una mayor cantidad de luz
en el bosque, y en conjunto con el alto contenido de nutrientes
de los suelos de estos bosques del sur y del oeste de la Amazona
favorecen a los rboles con estrategia de crecimiento rpido, baja
densidad de madera y corta vida (Quesada et al. 2010a). Las
diferencias en composicin de especies y densidades de madera
entre los diferentes sectores (Baker et al. 2004) de la Amazona
pueden afectar las tasas de descomposicin de madera y ser las
principales causas de las diferencias en las cantidades de necro-
masa entre sectores.
A nivel regional, se encuentra una gran variacin en la
necromasa entre los diferentes sitios, lo cual concuerda con las
observaciones de Chao et al. (2008), quienes sealan grandes
diferencias entre diferentes tipos de bosque. En el presente estu-
dio se encontr que en los bosques inundables o de bajo existe
una menor cantidad de necromasa que en los bosques de tierra
frme o altura. Esto puede deberse a las inundaciones frecuentes
de los bosques de bajos, donde puede suceder la reubicacin de
la madera muerta en el suelo en reas ms bajas, pero tambin
podra deberse a las mayores tasas de la descomposicin de
madera muerta en los bosques de bajo por efecto del ciclo de
mojado y secado de la madera (Martius 1997).
Concordando con el estudio de Chao et al. (2008), nosotros
observamos que la necromasa est relacionado con la densidad
de madera de rboles vivos; esta relacin fue como se esperaba,
las tasas de descomposicin fueron ms lentas en rboles con
una densidad de madera ms pesada (Chambers et al. 2000,
Martius 1997). No se observ relacin entre el volumen masa
de madera muerta y la biomasa en la vegetacin area (AGW)
en este estudio. Chao et al. (2009) observ que al nivel de toda
la Amazona y para bosques de un solo tipo (tierra frme) existe
una relacin entre la necromasa y la biomasa. Esta ausencia de
una relacin entre la necromasa y la biomasa en nuestro trabajo
podra deberse a que fueron comparados diferentes tipos de
bosques en los que existen diferencias en la densidad de madera
de los rboles vivos y tasas de mortalidad, que vienen a ser al-
gunos de los factores que causan diferencias en la cantidad de
madera muerta entre sitios.
Basados en el promedio de la necromasa del bosque inund-
able y bosque de tierra frme se estima que el Departamento de
Madre de Dios contiene alrededor de 100 mega toneladas de
carbono en su madera muerta. Este valor es bastante alto, siendo
diez veces ms que la emisin anual de combustibles fsiles de
Per entre 2000 2008 (8,8 Mt; Boden et al. 2010). Esta es-
timacin es todava conservadora, porque existen ms reas de
bosque de altura y estos tienen los valores ms altos de madera
muerta. Adems, la suposicin de que solo el 80% de la super-
fcie del departamento de Madre de Dios son bosques tambin
es conservativa, porque en las reas de aprovechamiento forestal
la cantidad de madera muerta es temporalmente elevada y no
es considerada (Feldpausch et al. 2005). Junto, con el carbono
de la biomasa area, el contenido de carbono en los bosques de
Madre de Dios es de 880 megatoneladas de carbono, o cien veces
la emisin anual de combustibles fsiles de Per.
El presente trabajo ofrece la primera estimacin de necromasa
en el departamento de Madre de Dios; aunque para una esti-
macin ms precisa se requiere un muestreo ms intensivo, una
gran cantidad de necromasa es determinada, lo cual enfatiza la
importancia de estos estudios en la estimacin de los diferentes
componentes de carbono en los bosques tropicales, algo que no
se logra conocer por la deteccin remota satelital. Especialmente
para las estimaciones de la necromasa o el carbono en los suelos,
estudios como los realizados en este trabajo son indispensables,
a pesar de los recientes avances en deteccin remota de estima-
ciones de biomasa area (Chambers et al. 2007).
Agradecimientos
Agradecemos a la fundacin de Betty y Gordon Moore por
su apoyo al proyecto RAINFOR, y a los participantes en el taller
RAINFOR de Los Amigos, Per en 2008. Tambin agradecemos
a SERNANP/ INRENA por el permiso para la realizacin de
esta investigacin.
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119

Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
(Moquegua, Per)
Daniel B. Montesinos-Tube
Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichua (Moquegua, Peru)
NCP Group, Wageningen Univer-
sity. Netherlands. Steinerbos 229,
2134JX Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
Direccin actual: Calle Ilo 125,
San Martin de Socabaya, Arequi-
pa, Per. dbmtperu@gmail.com,
damontesinos@yahoo.com
Presentado: 15/11/2011
Aceptado: 24/02/2011
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
La diversidad forstica de plantas vasculares es estudiada en la cuenca del ro Tambo-Ichua, la puna y bofe-
dales altoandinos en los distritos de Ichua, Ubinas y Yunga (3400 4700 m de altitud), provincia General
Snchez Cerro, departamento de Moquegua, Per. La fora vascular de esta regin est integrada por 70
familias, 238 gneros y 404 especies. Las Magnoliopsida representan el 78% de las especies, las Liliopsida
16%, Pteridftos 6% y Gimnospermas 0,5%. Se han identifcado diez formas (biolgicas) de vida, siendo los
hemicriptftos las ms numerosas; y tres formaciones vegetales, constituyendo el matorral subhmedo el ms
diverso. Entre especies endmicas, 42 taxones son exclusivos para Per. Son adicionados 272 especies a la
fora del departamento de Moquegua.
Palabras Clave: fora vascular, Moquegua, formaciones vegetales, formas de vida, especies endmicas.
Abstract
A study of the foristic diversity of vascular plants is presented from the basin of the Tambo-Ichua River, the high
Andean Puna plateau and wetlands of Ichua, Ubinas and Yunga Districts (3400 - 4700 m altitude), General
Sanchez Cerro Province, Department of Moquegua, Peru. Vascular fora is composed of 70 families, 238 genera
and 404 species. The Magnoliopsida represent 78% of the species, Liliopsida 16%, Gymnosperms 0.5% and
Pteridophytes 6%. Among lifeforms, the Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous. Three vegetation forma-
tions have been identifed, the humid scrubland being the most diverse in species richness. Between endemic
species, 42 taxa are exclusive to Peru. A total number of 272 new additions of vascular species to the fora of
the department of Moquegua are presented.
Keywords: vascular fora, Moquegua, vegetation formations, lifeforms, endemic species.
Introduccin
El rea de estudio se ubica en la provincia General Snchez
Cerro, al norte del departamento de Moquegua, sur del Per
e incluye la cuenca hidrogrfca del ro Tambo-Ichua; es un
rea de difcil acceso y duras condiciones climticas, en ella
se encuentran una variedad de pequeos ecosistemas andino-
altiplnicos que albergan especies de fora y fauna de inters para
la conservacin de la biodiversidad. La biodiversidad de esta
rea se encuentra amenazada por la reforestacin con especies
exticas como Eucalyptus rostrata (conocida por degradar suelos,
Doughty 2000) y Pinus insignis.
Pocos trabajos botnicos sobre el departamento de Moquegua
han sido publicados (Ferreyra 1961, Arakaki & Cano 2003;
Glan de Mera et al. 2003; Schwarzer et al. 2010). Material
de herbario procedente de Moquegua es parte de las coleccio-
nes realizadas por A. Weberbauer, R. Ferreyra, M. Dillon, M.
Arakaki, M. Weigend, F. Cceres, P. Peterson y M. Blanchard,
sin embargo, material de la zona estudiada en este trabajo es
muy escaso.
De acuerdo con el Plan Director de estrategias del sistema
Nacional de reas Protegidas del Per (INRENA 1995), la cor-
dillera meridional de los Andes occidentales, que incluye parte
de los departamentos de Arequipa, Moquegua y Tacna, es un
rea con vacio de informacin acerca de su diversidad biolgica
(Rodrguez 1996).
El presente trabajo proporciona informacin recolectada du-
rante los aos 2005, 2006 y 2009 sobre la riqueza forstica de las
quebradas que desembocan en la cuenca del ro Tambo-Ichua
en parte de la zona altiplnica, lagunas y bofedales ubicados en
la provincia General Snchez Cerro.
rea de estudio
El rea de estudio comprende la cuenca alta de los ros Tambo-
Ichua, en la provincia General Snchez Cerro, Moquegua. Se
seleccionaron un total de 56 sectores distribuidos en 12 poblados
en los distritos de Ubinas, Yunga y Ichua, en una gradiente
altitudinal de 3400 4700 m (Tabla 1, Fig. 1). Las colectas
Figura 1. Cuenca de los ros Tambo-Ichua en el norte del Departa-
mento de Moquegua indicando la ubicacin del rea de estudio, los
distritos y localidades de muestreo (x).
Ubinas
Ichua
Ro Ichua
Yunga
7000 7030
1600
1630
10 km
R

o

T
a
m
b
o
General
Sanchez
Cerro
Mariscal Nieto
Ilo
Arequipa Puno
Tacna
O
c

a
n
o

P
a
c

f
i
c
o
Per
Moquegua
Arequipa
Puno
120
Montesinos-Tube
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (Abril 2011)
botnicas se llevaron a cabo durante los meses de setiembre 2005
y julio 2006, marzo y mayo de 2009.
1. Distrito Ubinas, situado en el fanco derecho del ro Tambo
y ro Paltuture, limitando al oeste con Arequipa, al norte con
Puno y al sur con el distrito de Matalaque. Por este distrito
atraviesa parte de la antigua carretera Arequipa-Puno; el
paisaje presenta quebradas y en el altiplano pajonales, bofe-
dales y lagunas. El estudio se realiz en las laderas y quebradas
del ro Tambo que bordean los poblados de Camata y Tassa
y la puna entre las localidades de Querala y Coalaque. Se
seleccionaron 27 sectores en una gradiente altitudinal de
3400 4700 m.
2. Distrito Yunga, ubicado en el fanco izquierdo del ro Tambo,
limitando al norte con los distritos de Ubinas y Ichua, al sur
con el distrito de Lloque, al este Ichua y Lloque y al oeste
el distrito de Ubinas. Se estudiaron un total de 20 sectores
seleccionados entre laderas, quebradas y pajonales en zonas
aledaas a los poblados de Yunga, Pampilla y Exchaje, entre
3400 y 4200 m.
3. Distrito Ichua, comprende en su mayora localidades altip-
lnicas, limitando al norte y este con el departamento de Puno,
al oeste con los distritos de Ubinas, Yunga y Lloque, y al sur
con el distrito de Chojata. Se designaron 9 sectores ubicados
entre los poblados de Italpallune, Ichua y Santa Cruz de
Oyo Oyo, en una gradiente altitudinal de 3800 4500 m.
El distrito de Ichua se encuentra entre los ms alejados y
menos estudiados, resaltando por su gran dimensin territorial
y variedad de ecosistemas altiplnicos de suelos crioturbados.
En Ubinas (3200 m) la temperatura media anual oscila entre
los 9 11 C, con una precipitacin media anual de 300 360
mm, en Ichua (3800 m) la precipitacin alcanza los 400 500
mm/ao. El clima est caracterizado por ser seco y fro, con un
period lluvioso variable que se inicia en noviembre extendin-
dose hasta abril.
Los suelos en la cuenca de los ros Tambo e Ichua son simil-
ares a otras reas del sur de Per, constituidas por suelos arcillo-
limosos en los fancos de las quebradas y en la parte altiplnica
arenosos de origen volcnico y crioturbados.
Materiales y mtodos
Diversidad forstica
El material botnico fue recolectado segn el mtodo
convencional (Maden 2004), adems, se tomaron datos de la
ubicacin geogrfca, altitud y estado de conservacin de las
diferentes especies.
Las determinaciones botnicas se realizaron en el Her-
barium Arequipense (HUSA, Arequipa) durante el 2005 y
2006, Herbario San Marcos (USM, Lima) en el 2006 y 2009,
Herbario Weberbauer (MOL, Lima) 2006 y 2009, Herbario
Universidad Nacional de Cajamarca (CPUN, Cajamarca)
2006, Missouri Botanical Garden (MO, Saint Louis) 2009,
National Herbarium Nederland (L, Leiden; WAG, Wagenin-
gen) 2007, 2008 y 2010. Se utiliz literatura especializada,
claves taxonmicas y la ayuda de especialistas botnicos en la
determinacin de ejemplares.
Las colectas de campo fueron posteriormente divididas en
duplicados con sus etiquetas correspondientes y entregadas a los
herbarios HUSA, USM, CPUN, CUZ, HUPCH, MO, WAG
[a consolidarse en L] y a la FCBQ de la Universidad Catlica
de Santa Mara de Arequipa. La sistemtica de las familias est
de acuerdo con Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009).
Formaciones vegetales.- En el presente estudio se identif-
caron tres formaciones vegetales (Weberbauer 1942, Huber &
Riina 1997):
Piso mesotrmico de Tolares o Matorral subhmedo (ms),
situado en la vertiente y quebradas de los ros Tambo-Ichua
(3400 4200 m), caracterizado por rboles de bajo tamao
(Buddleja coriacea Remy, Escallonia myrtilloides L. f., Polylepis
besserii Hieron., Ribes brachybothrys (Wedd.) Jancz.), diversos
arbustos, suculentas en reas rocosas, pastos, hierbas anuales
y algunas especies introducidas en las partes cercanas a los
cultivos y oconales, este matorral es relativamente ralo, con
arbustos que alcanzan 1,5 m de alto, constituidos principal-
mente por Asterceas y numerosas anuales.
Pajonal (pj), ubicado entre 4200 y 4700 m, con vegetacin
altoandina, con predominancia de arbustos bajos, rastreros
y hasta pulvinados, gramneas, entre otras perennes y hierbas
anuales. En los fancos de algunas vertientes predominan los
pastizales inundados donde desarrollan Juncceas, Poceas,
Asterceas y Gentianceas.
Bofedales (bf ), localizados entre 4500 y 4700 m en suelos satu-
rados de agua, con especies pulviniformes o porte almohadil-
lado (Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae) y pequeas
especies de porte arrosetado como Nototriche (Malvaceae),
Hypochaeris (Asteraceae), entre otras. Las lagunas permanentes
y ocasionales situadas entre los 4400 y 4700 m son tambin
caractersticas y hbitat de especies acuticas.
Formas de vida
Las formas (biolgicas) de vida (Cabrera 1968) se deter-
minaron para todas las especies. Siguiendo el sistema de Raun-
kiaer (Ellenberg & Mueller-Dombois 1967) las formas de vida
de la zona de estudio se clasifcaron en:
Fanerftos. Arboles pequeos, destacan: Buddleja, Escallonia,
Polylepis.
Distrito Localidad
Altura
(m)
Coordenadas Geogrfcas
# reas
de colecta
Ichua Ichua 3810 1609'26"S 7039'43"W 4
Italpallune 3850 1608'33"S 7029'20"W 2
Santa Cruz
de Oyo Oyo
3790 1608'27"S 7032'10"W 2
Sefncane 3576 1610'10"S 7039'45"W 1
Ubinas Camata 3600 1612'50"S 7042'52"W 8
Coalaque 4250 1605'44"S 7043'51"W 7
Querala 4474 1608'04"S 7045'19"W 2
Tassa 3800 1610'54"S 7041'51"W 10
Yunga Cota 3586 1610'16"S 7039'40"W 2
Exchaje 3480 1613'46"S 7043'35"W 4
Pampilla 3540 1612'35"S 7041'50"W 7
Yunga 3630 1611'43"S 7049'39"W 7
Tabla 1. Distritos y respectivas reas de colecta en el departamento
de Moquegua.
121

Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (April 2011)
Nanofanerftos. Arbustos con yemas de renuevo a mas de 25
cm de altura, incluyendo, arbustos de hojas escamiformes
(Parastrephia), espiniformes (Chuquiraga), dimorfas (Junellia)
y arbustos flos (Ephedra).
Camftos. Plantas leosas o sufruticosas con yemas de renuevo
pocos centimetros por encima del suelo, incluyendo, suf-
rtices (Lupinus), camftos pulvinados (Azorella, Pycnophyl-
lum), en placas (Astragalus punensis), arbustos rastreros (Stevia
mandonii, Salpichroa).
Hemicriptftos. Plantas herbceas perennes con yemas de
renuevo al ras del suelo, incluyendo, graminiformes (Poaceas
y Juncaceas), arrosetados (Hypochaeris, Plantago), rastreros
(Sarcostemma, Heliotropium), erectos (Astragalus, Nicotiana).
Helftos. Con yemas de renuevo bajo un suelo hmedo a
inundado (Telypteris, Distichia, Plantago).
Hidrftos. Con yemas de renuevo en el agua. Lilaeopsis, Pla-
giobothrys kunthii (Wal.p) I.M. Johnst. (nuevo reporte para
Per), Isotes, Zannichellia.
Fanerftos suculentos. Plantas crasas, generalmente sin hojas.
Geftos. Con yemas de renuevo sobre rganos subterrneos,
incluyendo, tuberiferos (Ipomoea minuta, Solanum) y bul-
bferos (Sisyrinchium, Nothoscordum).
Terftos, plantas anuales de ciclo vegetativo corto.
Anlisis de similitud
Para el anlisis de similitud fueron considerados los siguientes
listados forsticos: cuenca ro Ilo-Moquegua (Arakaki & Cano
2003), Reserva Nacional de Nacional Salinas y Aguada Blanca
(INRENA 2001), subcuenca ro Cotahuasi (L. Velarde, Areq-
uipa, comunicacin personal), vegetacin altoandina del oeste de
Bolivia (Pestalozzi et al. 1998) y vegetacin de Tacna (Franco et
al. 2004). Las comparaciones se realizaron obteniendo el indice
de Srensen (Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg, 1974):
Ss = 2c / (a + b )
Donde: a = nmero de especies en el listado A
b = nmero de especies en el listado B
c = nmero de especies en comunes en A y B.
Otros listados forsticos fueron excluidos del anlisis ya que el
reducido nmero de especies presentes en relacin con las otras
localidades podra afectar las comparaciones realizadas mediante
el anlisis de similitud. Las especies descritas a menos de 3000
m de altitud se omitieron del anlisis.
Resultados
Diversidad Florstica.- Se registraron un total de 404 espe-
cies, agrupadas en 238 gneros y 70 familias (Apndice 1). Las
Eudicots representan el 78% de los taxones con 313 especies, las
Monocots el 16%, las Gnetophyta representadas por dos espe-
cies (0,5%) y los Pteridftos con 23 especies (5,8%) (Tabla 2).
Las familias ms representativas (Tabla 3) son Asteraceae
(24%), Poaceae (5,5%), Brassicaceae (4,75%), Fabaceae (4,5%),
Cactaceae (3,25%), Caryophyllaceae (3%), Malvaceae (3,5%),
Solanaceae (3,5%), Plantaginaceae (3%), Apiaceae (2,5%) y
Scrophulariaceae (2,25%). Las familias restantes estn represen-
tadas por menos de 9 especies (37,75% del total).
En cuanto al hbito, las herbceas alcanzan valores de 62,5%
siendo la mayora estacionales, apareciendo durante el inicio
de la temporada de lluvias y destacando en todos los tipos de
vegetacin. Las formas arbustivas (14,1%) son en su mayora
caducifolias salvo algunas (Baccharis spp., Parastrephia spp.),
adicionalmente, subarbustivas 8,3%, tallos suculentos 3,4%,
arbreas 0,8%, epftas 0,4% y parsitas 0,4%.
Se documentan 272 nuevos registros para el departamento de
Moquegua que incluyen exclusivamente las colectas identifcadas
al nivel de especies. Para Pteridftos se reportan 20 nuevos regis-
tros, Monocots con 43 especies y Eudicots con 209 especies de las
cuales Asteraceae (68 especies), Poaceae (19 especies), Malvaceae
(13 especies) y Brassicaceae con 12 especies, reportan el mayor
nmero de nuevos registros, entre otras familias.
Formaciones vegetales y formas de vida.- Las formaciones
vegetales (Weberbauer 1945; Huber & Riina, 1997) refejan la
riqueza forstica altoandina, habindose identifcado: el matorral
subhmedo (ms) ubicado entre 3400 y 4200 m representando
el 68,4% del total de taxones registrados, mientras que los
pajonales (pj) en la gradiente altitudinal de 4200 4700 m,
registran el 47,8% de taxones; los bofedales y lagunas (bf, 4400
4700 m) 11% respectivamente. Diversos taxones se encuentran
presentes y con variada abundancia en la gradiente altitudinal
de 3400 4700 m, donde destacan: Baccharis tricuneata (L. f.)
Pers., Belloa piptolepis (Wedd.) Cabrera, Chersodoma jodopappa
Familias Gneros Especies*
Pteridophytas 10 17 23
Gimnospermas 1 1 2
Monocots 12 45 65
Eudicots 47 175 314
Total 70 238 404
Tabla 2. Diversidad de familias, gneros y especies registradas en
el presente estudio.
Familia Gneros Especies
Asteraceae 45 97
Poaceae 22 33
Brassicaceae 13 19
Fabaceae 9 18
Solanaceae 5 14
Malvaceae 3 14
Cactaceae 8 13
Caryophyllaceae 9 12
Plantaginaceae 2 12
Apiaceae 8 10
Scrophulariaceae 6 9
Amaranthaceae 6 8
Juncaceae 4 8
Pteridaceae 4 8
Lamiaceae 4 6
Valerianaceae 2 6
Cyperaceae 5 5
Boraginaceae 4 5
OTROS 79 106
Tabla 3. Familias con mayor riqueza de gneros y especies en la
cuenca del ro Tambo-Ichua, Moquegua.
122
Montesinos-Tube
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (Abril 2011)
(Sch. Bip.) Cabrera, Crassula connata (R. & P.) Berger., Nassella
inconspicua Presl., Parastrephia lepidophylla (Wedd.) Cabrera, Poa
candamoana Pilger, Stipa ichu (R. & P.) Kunth.
Las formas (biolgicas) de vida (Fig. 2) incluye en su mayora
Hemicriptftas (40,8%), Halftas (12,6%), Nanofanerftas
(11,9%), Camftas (5,6%), Geftas (3,8%), fanerftos sucu-
lentos (3,8%), Hidrftas (3,1 %) y Fanerftas (2,2%). Las
terftas constituyen el 16,1% del total, en tanto las hemicrip-
tftas (40,8%) que incluye la mayora de gramneas y especies
nativas, predominan en la cuenca alta del rio Tambo-Ichua.
Analisis de similitud.- Los resultados del anlisis de similitud
(Fig. 3, Tabla 4) muestran que las localidades andinas cercanas
a la costa y cercanas al altiplano puneo forman unidades
separadas. Todos los valores de similitud entre las localidades
aproximadas al altiplano son mayores que los valores entre lo-
calidades cercanas a la costa; por ejemplo, la similitud forstica
entre la sierra de Tacna, cuenca ro Cotahuasi, laguna de Salinas
y oeste de Bolivia es mayor que la registrada en la cuenca del
ro Ilo-Moquegua.
En la Tabla 5 se resumen las familias con especies endmicas
que suman 42 (10,5%) para el Per (Len et al. 2006), mientras
que el 82,6% (336 especies) son nativas de los Andes (Brako &
Zarucchi 1993), 6,7% (27 especies) son introducidas y 5 espe-
cies (1,3%) cosmopolitas.
Discusin y conclusiones
En el presente estudio los resultados estn basados nicamente
en las colecciones y observaciones del autor sin incluir las listas
de especies de otros estudios realizados en Moquegua (Arakaki
& Cano 2003, Schwartzer et al. 2010). Los resultados del pre-
sente estudio aumentan a 272 nuevos registros botnicos para
el departamento de Moquegua.
Diversos autores confrman sobre la riqueza forstica en los
Andes suroccidentales del Per (Linares & Benavides 1995,
INRENA 2001, Galn de Mera et al. 2003, Franco et al. 2004,
Arteta et al. 2006). Los trabajos de Arakaki & Cano (2003) y
Schwarzer et al. (2010) y Montesinos (2007a) confrman esa ten-
dencia para Moquegua. Asimismo, Montesinos (2007b) afrma
sobre la existencia de numerosas especies endmicas en Cactaceae
en la cuenca del ro Tambo en la sierra del departamento.
Los resultados confrman de una importante contribucin
de nuevos registros para Moquegua, donde destacan: Asteraceae
(68 spp.), Poaceae (19 spp.), Malvaceae (13 spp.), Brassicaceae
(12 spp.), Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae y Plantaginaceae (11 spp.
cada una), Juncaceae con 8 especies. En el caso de gneros con
mayor nmero de nuevos registros, se incluye: Senecio con 18
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
F N f Cm Cmp Hc Hl Hd S G T
%

d
e

p
r
e
s
e
n
c
i
a

e
n

F
o
r
m
a
c
i
o
n
e
s

V
e
g
e
t
a
l
e
s
Formas Biolgicas (Lifeforms)
Bofedales y lagunas (4400-4700 m)
Pajonal (4200-4700 m)
Matorral subhmedo (3400-4200 m)
Figura 2. Distribucin porcentual de las formas (biolgicas) de vida
respecto a las formaciones vegetales, en donde: Fanerfto (F);
Nanofanerfto (Nf); Camftos (Cm); Hemicriptftos (Hc); Helftos
(Hl); Hidrftos (Hd); Fanerftos Suculentos (S); Geftos (G) y
Terftos (T).
Familia Gneros Especies
Tacna 0,80 0,71 0,45
Cotahuasi 0,80 0,60 0,42
O Bolivia 0,78 0,64 0,38
Salinas 0,70 0,60 0,36
Ilo-Moquegua 0,70 0,51 0,29
Tabla 4. Indice de similaridad incluyendo familias, gneros y especies
en relacin con otros estudios.
0,45
0,42
0,38
0,36
0,29
0,2
0,25
0,3
0,35
0,4
0,45
0,5
Tacna Cotahuasi O Bolivia Salinas Ro Ilo -
Moquegua
I
n
d
i
c
e

S
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
d
a
d

S
o
r
e
n
s
e
n
Figura 3. Indice de similaridad de Sorensen comparando el rea
de estudio con cuatro localidades andinas en Per y una en Bolivia.
Familia # species endmicas
Asteraceae 12
Cactaceae 6
Fabaceae 3
Caryophyllaceae 2
Crassulaceae 2
Gentianaceae 2
Malvaceae 2
Scrophulariaceae 2
Valerianaceae 2
Boraginaceae 1
Brassicaceae 1
Calceolariaceae 1
Geraniaceae 1
Lamiaceae 1
Loasaceae 1
Poaceae 1
Solanaceae 1
Verbenaceae 1
TOTAL 42
Tabla 5. Nmero de especies endmicas por familia registradas en
la cuenca del ro Tambo-Ichua, Moquegua.
123

Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (April 2011)
especies, Plantago con 11 especies, Nototriche con 9 especies, etc.
(Tabla 6). Resaltan tambin el registro de nuevas familias a la
fora del departamento: Gentianaceae (3 spp.), Campanulaceae
(3 spp.), Aspleniaceae (3 spp.), Violaceae (2 spp.), Orchidaceae
(2 spp.), Telypteridaceae (2 spp.), Callitrichaceae, Grossula-
riaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Piperaceae, Saxifragaceae con una
especie cada una.
Tambin se comprueba que la vegetacin de la cuenca Tambo-
Ichua tiene mayor similitud con la del altiplano puneo y
boliviano cercano al lago Titicaca y valles altoandinos del NE
de Arequipa y Tacna. Dichas regiones forman parte del mismo
sistema montaoso subhmedo del sur de los Andes presentando
casi las mismas caractersticas altitudinales y de composicin
forstica.
Por otro lado, la vegetacin de la cuenca del ro Tambo-
Ichua tiene menores afnidades genricas con lo reportado en
la cuenca del ro Ilo-Moquegua (Arakaki & Cano 2003) que
tendra mayor infuencia de la vegetacin de la costa peruana y
del norte de Chile (Tabla 4).
La presencia de taxa relacionados con la zona altoandina
mas que con la vertiente andino-costera podra ser un indicio
que los intercambios forsticos se habran producido a travs
de las zonas cordilleranas-altiplnicas de los Andes que estaran
actando como corredores en el desplazamiento norte-sur de la
fora vascular, as como se ha sugerido en otros trabajos (Luebert
et al. 2009, Pinto & Luebert 2009, Schwarzer et al. 2010).
Como parte de los resultados se han identifcado los rodales
de Puya raimondii distribuidas en cinco reas geogrfcas en el
norte del departamento de Moquegua entre los 3800 y 4200
m y compuestas por un importante nmero de ejemplares en
diversos estados vegetativos y que requieren ser considerados
dentro de los planes de conservacin.
Agradecimientos
Agradezco especialmente a los curadores de los herbarios F,
HUSA, HUPCH, L, MO, MOL, USM, WAG por la buena dis-
posicin para su consulta. A Francisco Lazo y Jorge Salinas (Uni-
versidad Catlica de Santa Mara) por sus valiosos comentarios. A
Victor Quipuscoa, Gina Castillo y Ftima Cceres (Universidad
Nacional de San Agustn), Hamilton Beltrn, Blanca Len,
Asuncin Cano, Magda Chanco, Susy Castillo, Maria Isabel La
Torre, Oscar Tovar() (Museo de Historia Natural, Lima) por su
valiosa colaboracin en la determinacin de especmenes colecta-
dos. Al Dr. Carlos Ostolaza por sus comentarios en Cactaceae.
Al Dr. Ihsan Al-Shehbaz (Missouri Botanical Gardens) por sus
comentarios en Brassicceas, A John Pruski y Ronald Liesner
(Missouri Botanical Gardens) por su ayuda en determinaciones,
a Harvey Ballard (Ohio University) por la identifcacin de
Violceas. Antoine Cleef (Universiteit van Amsterdam) por sus
valiosos comentarios y facilitar bibliografa. Karle Sykora y Jan
Wieringa (Wageningen University) por sus sugerencias. A Diego
Linares por los mapas y ayuda en los trmites. Luis Mondragn,
Edwin Banegas, Christian Pinto, Guillermo Macedo y Lorena
Velarde por sus distintas contribuciones en las diferentes etapas
del desarrollo la investigacin. A dos revisores annimos por su
importante aporte al contenido y presentacin de este trabajo.
El autor agradece a las autoridades y poblacin de las diferentes
localidades visitadas en los Distritos de Ichua, Ubinas y Yunga,
por compartir sus conocimientos sobre la fora y las facilidades
brindadas durante el trabajo de campo. Esta investigacin recibi
el apoyo fnanciero del NCP Group (Wageningen University),
C. Bnemann, P. Kothe, y S. Montesinos.
El presente trabajo cont con las Autorizaciones 014
2009-AG-DGFFS-DGEFFS y N_001931-AG-DGFFS- ex-
pedidos por la Direccin General Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre.
Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, Per.
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Familia Gnero N de especies
Asteraceae Senecio 20
Plantaginaceae Plantago 11
Malvaceae Nototriche 9
Solanaceae Solanum 8
Fabaceae Astragalus 7
Asteraceae Baccharis 5
Asteraceae Werneria 5
Poaceae Calamagrostis 5
Pteridaceae Cheilanthes 5
Valerianaceae Valeriana 5
Asteraceae Hypochaeris 4
Asteraceae Perezia 4
Malvaceae Tarasa 4
Scrophulariaceae Bartsia 4
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124
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Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
Pteridophyta
Adiantaceae
Adiantum subvolubile Mett. ex Kuhn h ms Hl N 3400-3500 Mont. 0626
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium gilliesii Hook. h pj Hl N x 4000-4200 Mont. 1177
Asplenium peruvianum Desv. h ms, pj Hl N x 3600-4200 Mont. 2250 *
Asplenium triphyllum C. Presl h pj Hl N x 4500 Mont. 0945
Dryopteridaceae
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. h ms, pj Hl N 3400-3900 Mont. 2228 *
Polystichum orbiculatum var. orbiculatum h ms, pj Hl N x 3800-4000 Mont. 2034 *
Equisetaceae
Equisetum bogotense Kunth h ms Hl N 3400-3700 Mont. 0984
Isoetaceae
Isoetes sp. h bf Hd - x 4400 Mont. 2588b
Polypodiaceae
Campyloneurum amphostenon (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fe h ms Hl N x 3700 Mont. 1213
Elaphoglossum minutum (Pohl ex Fe) T. Moore h ms Hl N x 3500-3600 Mont. 2095 *
Melpomene peruviana (Desv.) A.R. Sm. & R.C. Moran h ms Hl N x 3600 Mont. 1202
Polypodium pycnocarpum C. Chr. h ms Hl N x 3500 Mont. 2339 *
Pteridaceae
Cheilanthes arequipensis (Maxon) R.M. Tryon & A.F. Tryon h ms, pj Hc N x 3500-4050 Mont. 2097 *
Cheilanthes myriophylla Desv. h ms Hc N x 3400-3400 Mont. 2218 *
Cheilanthes pilosa Goldm. h pj Hc N x 3700-4200 Mont. 2545 *
Cheilanthes pruinata Kaulf. h ms, pj Hc N 3400-4200 Mont. 0514
Cheilanthes scariosa (Sw.) C. Presl. h ms, pj Hc N x 3500-3900 Mont. 2244 *
Jamesonia alstonii A. F. Tryon h ms Hl N x 3700 Mont. 2043 *
Notholaena nivea (Poir.) Windham h ms Hc N x 3400-4100 Mont. 0510
Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link h ms Hc N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0543 *
Apndice 1. Lista de la fora vascular para la cuenca del ro Tambo-Ichua (Provincia General Snchez Cerro, Moquegua, Per). Son 404
especies, se adicionan 43 taxa identifcados a nivel especifco (sp.). FC: forma de crecimiento (h: hierba, hs: subarbusto, s: arbusto, a: rbol,
su: suculenta, p: parsita, e: epfta); FV: formacin vegetal (ms: matorral subhmedo, pj: pajonal, bf: bofedal); FB: formas biolgicas: Fane-
rfto (F), Nanofanerfto (Nf), Camftos (Cm), Hemicriptftos (Hc), Helftos (Hl), Hidrftos (Hd), Fanerftos suculentos (S), Geftos (G) y
Terftos (T); St: status de la especie (N: Nativa, E: Endmica, I: Introducida, Co: Cosmopolita); NR: primer registro para Moquegua; Altitud:
registro altitudinal de la coleccin(es); Voucher: Mont. (Daniel B. Montesinos), f!: registro sin material de herbario, solo fotografa, * mas de
dos colecciones botnicas.
125

Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (April 2011)
Salviniaceae
Azolla fliculoides Lam. h ms, pj Hd I x 3800 Mont. 2156a
Thelypteridaceae
Thelypteris glandulosolanosa (C. Chr.) R.M. Tryon h ms, pj Hd N x 3400-3900 Mont. 1211
Thelypteris rufa (Poiret) A.R. Sm. h ms Hl N x 3500 Mont. 0627
Woodsiaceae
Woodsia montevidensis (Spreng.) Hieron. h ms, pj Hl N x 3600-4000 Mont. 2040 *
Gnetophyta
Ephedraceae
Ephedra americana Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. s ms Nf N 3400-3900 Mont. 0658
Ephedra rupestris Benth. s pj Cm N 4000-4500 Mont. 0563 *
Angiospermas
Monocots
Alstroemeriaceae
Alstroemeria pygmaea Herb. h ms G N x 3800-3900 Mont. 2130 *
Bomarea dulcis (Hook) Beauverd hs pj Hc N 3900-4200 Mont. 0637 *
Bomarea involucrosa (Herb.) Baker s ms Hc N x 3500-4100 Mont. 1000 *
Bomarea ovata (Cav.) Mirb. hs ms Hc N 3400-3400 Mont. 2209
Amaryllidaceae
Zephyranthes parvula Killip. h ms G N x 3400 f!
Asparagaceae
Agave americana L. s, su ms F I x 3400-3700 Mont. 1219
Bromeliaceae
Puya ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav.) L.B. Sm. s ms Nf N 3400-3600 Mont. 0623
Puya raimondii Harms s ms, pj F N x 3800-4200 Mont. 2209 *
Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. h, e ms Hc N x 3400-3900 Mont. 0504 *
Tillandsia usneoides (L.) L. h, e ms Hc N x 3400-3600 Mont. 2348 *
Cyperaceae
Carex cf. collumanthus (Steyerm.) G.A. Wheeler h bf Hl N x 4600 f!
Cyperus seslerioides Kunth h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4200 Mont. 2106 *
Eleocharis albibracteata Nees & Meyen ex Kunth h ms Hl N 3500-3700 Mont. 2106 *
Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. & Schult. h ms Hd N x 3400 Mont. 2210
Isolepis inundata R. Br. h ms Hl I x 3700 Mont. 2005
Rhynchospora sp. h ms Hl N x 3400 Mont. 2223
Iridaceae
Cardenanthus sp. h ms G - - 3500 Mont. 2107
Olsynium junceum (E. Meyer ex Presl) Goldblatt h ms G N 3500-4000 Mont. 2153 *
Sisyrinchium bracteosum Phil. h ms, pj G N x 3900-4200 Mont. 2058 *
Sisyrinchium cf. trinerve Baker h pj G N x 4100 Mont. 2275
Sisyrinchium sp. h bf G - - 4600 Mont. 2392
Juncaceae
Distichia acicularis Balslev & Lgaard h bf Hl N x 3900-4400 Mont. 2291 *
Distichia muscoides Nees & Meyen h bf Hl N x 4400-4700 Mont. 2378 *
Juncus arcticus var. andicola (Hook.) Balslev h ms Hl N x 3400-3500 Mont. 1196 *
Juncus cf. stipulatus Nees & Meyen h pj Hl N x 4400-4500 Mont. 2457b
Juncus ebracteatus E. Mey. h ms Hl N x 3400-3700 Mont. 2014 *
Luzula racemosa Desv. h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4100 Mont. 2220 *
Luzula vulcanica Liebm. h pj, bf Hc N x 4200-4500 Mont. 2374 *
Oxychloe andina Phil. h bf Hl N x 3900-4600 Mont. 2291
Lemnaceae
Lemna minuscula Herter h bf Hl I 4500 Mont. 0934b
Liliaceae
Nothoscordum andicola Kunth h ms G N 3400-3600 Mont. 0789 *
Nothoscordum fctile J.F. Macbr. h ms G N 3400-3600 Mont. 0809
Orchidaceae
Aa mathewsii (Rchb. f.) Schltr. h, su ms G N x 3400-3650 Mont. 2128 *
Myrosmodes pumilio (Schltr.) C. Vargas h, su bf G N x 4050-4650 Mont. 2287
Poaceae
Aciachne pulvinata Benth. h bf Cm N x 4600-4700 Mont. 2393
Anatherostipa rigidiseta (Pilg.) Peailillo h pj Hc N x 4200-4400 Mont. 2428b
Aristida adscencionis L. h ms, pj Hc N 3500-4300 Mont. 2492 *
Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. h ms Hc N x 3500 Mont. 0787
Bromus catharticus Vahl. h ms, pj Hc N 3700-4400 Mont. 2266 *
Calamagrostis heterophylla (Wedd.) Pilg. h ms Hc N 3500-3700 Mont. 2219c
Calamagrostis minima (Pilg.) Tovar h pj, bf Hc N x 4200-4700 Mont. 2469 *
Calamagrostis ovata (J. Presl) Steud. h bf Hl N x 4400-4600 Mont. 2408
Calamagrostis rigescens (J. Presl) Scribn. h pj, bf Hc N 3900-4400 Mont. 2066 *
Calamagrostis vicunarum (Wedd.) Pilg. h ms, pj, bf Hc N x 3900-4600 Mont. 2435 *
Calamagrostis sp. h ms Hc - - 4450 Mont. 2483
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
Apndice 1. Continuacin.
(Contina...)
126
Montesinos-Tube
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (Abril 2011)
Chondrosum simplex (Lag.) Kunth h ms T N 3400-3900 Mont. 2219a *
Cortaderia bifda Pilg. h ms Hc N x 3400-3700 Mont. 0651 *
Deyeuxia curvula Wedd. h ms, pj Hc N 3900-4200 f!
Dielsiochloa foribunda (Pilg.) Pilg. h pj Hc N 4400-4600 Mont. 2423
Dissanthelium calycinum (J. Presl) Hitchc. h pj, bf T N x 3400-4400 Mont. 2219b *
Dissanthelium macusaniense (E.H.L. Krause) R.C. Foster & L.B.
Sm.
h ms T N x 3900-4400 Mont. 2420 *
Eragrostis glomerata (Walter) L.H. Dewey h ms Hc N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0783
Eragrostis nigricans (Kunth) Steud. h ms Hc N 3400-4100 Mont. 2072 *
Festuca dolichophylla J. Presl h ms, pj Hc N 3400-4600 Mont. 2028 *
Festuca orthophylla Pilg. h ms, pj, bf Hc N 3800-4700 Mont. 2470 *
Festuca sp. h ms Hc - - 3700 Mont. 2334a
Hordeum muticum J. Presl. h ms T N x 3500 Mont. 0781
Kikuyuochloa clandestina (Hochst. ex Chiov.) H. Scholz h ms Hc I x 3400-3700 Mont. 1136
Muhlenbergia peruviana (P. Beauv.) Steud. h ms, pj T N 3400-4400 Mont. 2109 *
Nassella asplundii Hitchc. h ms Hc N x 3500 Mont. 0785
Nassella inconspicua (J. Presl) Barkworth h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4500 Mont. 2333 *
Nassella pubifora (Trin. & Rupr.) E. Desv. h ms Hc N 3500 Mont. 2011
Poa annua L. h ms T I x 3400-3700 f!
Poa candamoana Pilg. h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4500 Mont. 2055 *
Poa sp. h ms Hc - - 4400-4500 Mont. 2441
Polypogon interruptus Kunth. h ms, pj, bf Hl N 3600-4100 Mont. 2335b *
Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. h ms Hc N x 3500 Mont. 0782
Stipa ichu (Ruiz & Pav.) Kunth h ms, pj, bf Hc N 3400-4600 Mont. 2201 *
Stipa obtusa (Nees & Meyen) Hitchc. h ms Hc N x 3700-3900 Mont. 2042 *
Stipa sp. h ms Hc - - 3400-3600 Mont. 2149 *
Tovarochloa peruviana T.D. Macfarl. & But h pj T E x 4400-4500 Mont. 2428a
Zannichelliaceae
Zannichellia andina Holm-Niels. & R.R. Haynes h bf Hd N 4200-4400 Mont. 2600
Eudicots
Amaranthaceae
Alternanthera caracasana Kunth. h ms Hc N x 3400-3800 Mont. 2604
Atriplex herzogii Standl. hs ms Hc N 3400-3400 Mont. 2211
Chenopodium ambrosiodes L. h ms Hc I 3400-3800 Mont. 0583 *
Chenopodium incisum Poir. h ms T N x 3500-3600 Mont. 2240 *
Chenopodium petiolare Kunth h ms T I 3400-3600 Mont. 0602
Gomphrena meyeniana Walp. h ms, pj Hc N x 3600-4000 Mont. 2031
Guilleminea densa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.) Moq. h ms Hc N x 3500-3600 Mont. 2020
Sarcocornia pulvinata (R.E. Fr.) A. J. Scott h pj Hl N x 4000-4200 f!
Anacardiaceae
Schinus molle L. a ms F N 3400-3400 Mont. 1209
Apiaceae
Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam h ms T I 3500-3650 Mont. 0980
Azorella compacta Phil. s pj Cm N 4400-4700 Mont. 2410 *
Azorella diapensioides A. Gray s pj, bf Cm N x 4200-4700 Mont. 2429 *
Azorella sp. h pj T - - 3850 Mont. 2132
Bowlesia lobata Ruiz & Pav. h ms T N x 3800-4000 Mont. 2542
Bowlesia sodiroana H. Wolff h ms T N 3500-3900 Mont. 2092 *
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P.
Wilson
h ms T N 3400-3900 Mont. 0547
Conium maculatum L. h ms T I x 3400-3500 Mont. 0965
Daucus montanus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Spreng. h ms T N x 3500-3700 Mont. 0987 *
Lilaeopsis macloviana (Gand.) A.W. Hill h ms, bf Hd N x 3600-4000 Mont. 2539 *
Oreomyrrhis andicola (Kunth) Endl. ex Hook. f. h pj Hc N x 4300-4700 Mont. 2397 *
Asclepiadaceae
Philibertia lysimachioides (Wedd.) T. Mey. h ms, pj Cm N x 3700-4050 Mont. 2331 *
Sarcostemma solanoides (Kunth) Decne. h ms Hc N 3400-3700 Mont. 2086 *
Asteraceae
Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr. h ms Hc N 3400-3700 Mont. 0589
Achyrocline alata (Kunth) DC. h ms Hc N 3500-4200 Mont. 1254
Achyrocline ramosissima Britton ex Rusby hs ms, pj Hc N x 3400-3700 Mont. 2609 *
Ageratina azangaroensis (Schultz-Bip) King H. Robinson s ms, pj Hc N x 3700-4000 Mont. 2032 *
Ageratina sternbergiana (DC.) R.M. King & H. Rob. s ms, pj Nf N x 3700-4200 Mont. 2610 *
Ambrosia arborescens Mill. s ms Nf N 3500 Mont. 0571
Aristeguietia ballii (Oliv.) R.M. King & H. Rob. s ms Nf E x 3500-4000 Mont. 2247 *
Baccharis alpina Kunth s pj Cm N x 4100 Mont. 2608
Baccharis caespitosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. s pj Cm N x 3900-4200 Mont. 2182 *
Baccharis genistelloides (Lam.) Pers. s pj Hc N x 3900-4200 Mont. 2554 *
Baccharis petiolata DC. s ms Nf N 3400-3700 Mont. 0506 *
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
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Baccharis tricuneata (L. f) Pers. s ms, pj Nf N 3700-4700 Mont. 2413 *
Belloa longifolia (Cuatrec. & Arist.) Sagst. & Dillon h ms Hc N x 3400-4100 Mont. 2547 *
Belloa piptolepis (Wedd.) Cabrera h ms, pj Cm N 3400-4600 Mont. 2184 *
Belloa schultzii (Wedd.) Cabrera h ms, pj Cm N 3900-4500 Mont. 2046 *
Bidens andicola Kunth h ms Hc N x 3400-3900 Mont. 0530 *
Bidens pilosa L. h ms T I 3500 Mont. 0963
Chaetanthera sp. h pj Hc - 4500 Mont. 2472
Chaptalia cf. similis R.E. Fr. h ms Hc N x 3600-3800 Mont. 2148
Chersodoma jodopappa (Sch. Bip.) Cabrera s ms, pj Nf N 3700-4400 Mont. 1003 *
Chuquiraga rotundifolia Wedd. s ms Nf N 3500-3700 Mont. 2231 *
Conyza artemisiifolia Meyen & Walp. h ms, pj T N 3700-4300 Mont. 2274 *
Conyza sumatrensis var. leiotheca (S.F. Blake) Pruski & G.
Sancho
h ms Hc N 3400-3700 Mont. 2101 *
Cotula mexicana (DC.) Cabrera h ms Hd I 3400-4400 Mont. 2016a *
Diplostephium meyenii (Sch. Bip. ex Wedd.) S.F. Blake s ms Nf N 3400-3600 Mont. 2213 *
Erigeron pazensis Sch. Bip. ex Rusby h ms Hc N x 3400-4200 Mont. 2150 *
Facelis plumosa (Wedd.) Sch. Bip. h ms, pj T N x 3400-3900 Mont. 2621 *
Galinsoga mandonii Sch. Bip h ms T N x 3400-3600 Mont. 2127b *
Galinsoga sp. h pj T - 3800 Mont. 2500
Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd. h ms Hc N 3450-3650 Mont. 2188 *
Gamochaeta cf. humilis Wedd. h ms Hc N 3450-3500 Mont. 2064 *
Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera h ms, pj Hc N 3600-3900 Mont. 0796 *
Gnaphalium dombeyanum DC. hs ms, pj Hc N 3500-4100 Mont. 2140 *
Gnaphalium lacteum Meyen & Walp. h ms Hc N x 3400 Mont. 2206b
Gnaphalium polium Wedd. h ms Hc N x 3600 Mont. 2098
Gochnatia arequipensis Sandwith s ms Nf E x 3400-3600 Mont. 2346 *
Helogyne ferreyrae R.M. King & H. Rob. s ms Nf E x 3500-3650 Mont. 0739 *
Heterosperma diversifolium Kunth h ms T N x 3400-3800 Mont. 0758 *
Hieracium peruanum Fr. h ms Hc E x 3700-4000 Mont. 0684
Hieracium cf. streptochaetum Zahn h ms, pj Hc N x 3700-4200 Mont. 2029 *
Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Britton h ms, pj T N x 3400-4200 Mont. 2121 *
Hypochaeris echegarayi Hieron. h ms, pj Hc N x 3600-3750 f!
Hypochaeris meyeniana (Walp.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Griseb. h ms Hc N x 3750 f!
Hypochaeris taraxacoides (Meyen & Walp.) Ball h ms, pj, bf Hc N x 3400-4700 Mont. 0597 *
Hypochaeris sp. 1 h pj Hc - 4000-4400 Mont. 2459 *
Hypochaeris sp. 2 h pj Hc - 4300 Mont. 2593
Hypochaeris sp. 3 h pj Hc - 3700-4000 Mont. 2041
Lophopappus foliosus Rusby s ms Nf N x 3400-3600 Mont. 2214 *
Loricaria graveolens (Sch. Bip.) Wedd. s pj Nf N x 4050-4200 Mont. 2056 *
Lucilia cf. conoidea Wedd. h pj Cm N x 4050-4250 Mont. 2051 *
Mniodes aretioides (Wedd.) Cuatrec. s pj Cm E x 4450-4700 Mont. 2181 *
Mutisia acuminata var. hirsuta (Meyen) Cabrera s ms Nf N 3400-3600 Mont. 0500
Mutisia lanigera Wedd. h ms Hc N x 4050 Mont. 1173
Mutisia orbignyana Wedd. s ms, pj Nf N x 3600-4200 Mont. 2355 *
Ophryosporus heptanthus (Sch. Bip. ex Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. s ms Nf N 3400-3800 Mont. 0704
Oritrophium limnophilum (Sch. Bip.) Cuatrec. h pj T N x 4050 Mont. 2194b
Parastrephia lucida (Meyen) Cabrera s pj, bf Nf N x 4400-4700 Mont. 2364 *
Parastrephia quadrangularis (Meyen) Cabrera s ms, pj, bf Nf N 3400-4400 Mont. 2329 *
Perezia coerulescens Wedd. h pj Hc N x 3900-4500 Mont. 2279 *
Perezia multifora (Bonpl.) Less. h ms, pj T N x 4000-4500 Mont. 0923 *
Perezia cf. pungens (Bonpl.) Less. h ms Hc N x 3550-3900 Mont. 2226 *
Perezia sublyrata Domke h ms Hc N x 3700-3850 Mont. 2565
Perezia sp. h bf Hl - 3800 Mont. 2495
Plazia daphnoides Wedd. s ms Nf N x 3500-4000 Mont. 2001 *
Polyachyrus sphaerocephalus D. Don hs ms Nf N 3400-3600 Mont. 0975
Proustia berberidifolia (Cuatrec.) Ferreyra s ms, pj Nf E 3450-3900 Mont. 1199 *
Proustia cuneifolia D. Don s ms Nf N x 3400-4000 Mont. 0501 *
Senecio adenophyllus Meyen & Walp. hs ms Hc N x 3600-4100 Mont. 0693 *
Senecio arnaldii Cabrera hs ms Nf E x 3400-3750 Mont. 0791 *
Senecio bolivarianus Cuatrec. h pj Hc N x 4000-4600 Mont. 2307 *
Senecio breviscapus DC. h pj Hl N x 3900-4000 Mont. 2285
Senecio candollei Wedd. h pj Hc N x 4000-4700 Mont. 2314 *
Senecio cf. chachaniensis Cuatrec. s pj Nf E x 4450-4700 Mont. 2406
Senecio evacoides Sch. Bip. hs pj Nf N x 4500-4700 Mont. 2404
Senecio cf. ferreyrae Cabrera s ms, pj Nf E x 3800-3950 Mont. 2146
Senecio gamolepis Cabrera h pj Cm E x 4300-4500 Mont. 2429 *
Senecio herrerae Cabrera hs ms Hc N x 3500 Mont. 2099
Senecio nutans Sch. Bip. s pj Nf N x 4000-4700 Mont. 2263 *
Senecio phylloleptus Cuatrec. hs ms Hc N 3500 Mont. 1222
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
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Senecio rhizomatus Rusby h ms Hl N x 3550 Mont. 1160
Senecio rudbeckiifolius Meyen & Walp. s ms Nf N 3450-3600 Mont. 0507 *
Senecio rufescens DC. hs pj, bf Hc N x 4450-4650 Mont. 2395
Senecio serratifolius (Meyen & Walp.) Cuatrec. h bf Hl N x 4450 Mont. 2466
Senecio spinosus DC. s pj Nf N x 4200-4600 Mont. 2462
Senecio cf. sublutescens Cuatrec. s ms, pj Nf N x 3750-4000 Mont. 2035 *
Senecio tovari Cabrera s ms Nf E x 3400-3600 Mont. 2212 *
Senecio vulgaris L. h ms T Co x 3400-3500 Mont. 0512
Senecio sp. 1 h pj Nf - 3500 Mont. 2246
Senecio sp. 2 h ms Cm - 4400-4500 Mont. 2400
Sonchus oleraceus L. h ms T Co 3400-3600 Mont. 0644 *
Stevia macbridei B.L. Rob. s ms Hc E x 3400-4100 Mont. 2233 *
Stevia mandonii Sch. Bip. s ms Hc N x 3800-4100 Mont. 2561 *
Tagetes fliifolia Lag. h ms T N x 3600-3900 Mont. 1010
Tagetes minuta L. h ms T N x 3400-3600 Mont. 0973
Tagetes multifora Kunth h ms, pj T N 3400-4200 Mont. 0974
Tanacetum vulgare fo. crispum (L.) Fernald h ms, pj Hl I x 3700-3900 Mont. 0511
Taraxacum offcinale F.H. Wigg. h ms T Co 3400-3600 Mont. 1229
Vasquezia oppositifolia (Lag.) S.F. Blake h ms Hc N 3500-3900 Mont. 2230 *
Viguiera lanceolata Britton s ms Nf N x 3400-3700 Mont. 0631
Werneria cf. apiculata Sch. Bip. h pj, bf T N x 4000-4500 Mont. 2289 *
Werneria glaberrima Phil. h pj, bf Hc N x 4000 Mont. 2311
Werneria nubigena Kunth h pj Hc N x 4350-4400 Mont. 2383
Werneria cf. pectinata Lingelsh. h pj, bf Cm N x 4100-4700 Mont. 2254 *
Werneria pygmaea Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. h pj, bf Hl N x 4200-4500 Mont. 2452 *
Werneria sp. h pj Hc - 4000-4200 Mont. 2319
Xenophyllum poposum (Phil.) V.A. Funk s pj Cm N x 4450-4600 Mont. 2484 *
Basellaceae
Anredera diffusa (Moq.) Sperling h ms Hc N 3400-3750 Mont. 2344 *
Ullucus tuberosus subsp. aborigineus (Bruecher) Sperling h ms G N x 3500-3600 Mont. 2115
Boraginaceae
Cryptantha peruviana I.M. Johnst. h ms T N 3450-3600 Mont. 2104 *
Heliotropium microstachyum Ruiz & Pav. h ms Hc N 3450-3700 Mont. 2115 *
Pectocarya cf. anomala I.M. Johnst. h ms T E x 4050 Mont. 2194b
Plagiobothrys humilis (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M. Johnst. h ms, pj T N x 4000-4400 Mont. 2379 *
Plagiobothrys kunthii (Walp.) I.M. Johnst. h pj, bf Hd N x 4300-4450 Mont. 2598 *
Brassicaceae
Brassica rapa L. h ms T I 3400-3600 Mont. 0797
Brayopsis calycina (Desv.) Gilg & Muschl. h pj Hc N 4050-4600 Mont. 2178a *
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. h ms T N 3500-3700 Mont. 2487
Descurainia cf. athroocarpa (A. Gray) O. E. Schulz h pj Hc N x 3550-3800 Mont. 1187
Descurainia cf. depressa (Phil.) Prantl h pj Hc N x 3800-4500 Mont. 2295 *
Descurainia myriophylla (Willd. ex DC.) R.E. Fr. h ms Nf N x 3400-3800 Mont. 0724 *
Descurainia sp. h pj T - - 4500 Mont. 0940
Draba macleanii Hook. f. h pj Hc N x 4450-4550 Mont. 2439
Exhalimolobos pazensis (Rusby) Al-Shehbaz & C.D. Bailey h ms T N x 3600-3700 Mont. 0797
Exhalimolobos weddelii (E. Fourn.) Al-Shehbaz & C.D. Bailey h ms T N x 3400-3550 Mont. 2124
Lepidium raimondii O.E. Shultz h ms T E x 3550-3600 Mont. 2008
Lepidium weddellii O.E. Schulz h ms T N x 3400-3600 Mont. 1234 *
Lepidium sp. 1 h ms T - - 3550-3600 Mont. 2006
Lepidium sp. 2 h pj T - - 4400-4500 Mont. 2367 *
Mancoa hispida Wedd. h ms, pj T N 3650-4700 Mont. 2160b *
Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. h ms Hc N x 3450-3600 Mont. 1155
Mostacillastrum gracile (Wedd.) Al-Shehbaz hs ms T N x 3450-3600 Mont. 2217
Sisymbrium offcinale (L.) Scop. h ms T I 3400-3500 Mont. 0690
Sisymbrium peruvianum DC. h ms Hc N 3500-3600 Mont. 0741
Thlaspi arvense L. h ms T I x 3750-3800 Mont. 2569
Weberbauera peruviana (DC.) Al-Shehbaz h ms, pj T N x 3850-4150 Mont. 2252 *
Weberbauera spathulifolia (A. Gray) O.E. Schulz h pj Hc N 4300-4700 Mont. 2414 *
Cactaceae
Austrocilyndropuntia subulata (Muehlenpf.) Backeb. su ms S N 3400-3700 f!
Borzicactus hendriksenianus (Backeb.) Kimnach su ms S N x 3450-3700 f!
Cumulopuntia ignota (Backeb.) F. Ritter su ms S N 3400-3700 f!
Cumulopuntia mistiensis (Backeb.) E.F. Anderson su ms S E x 3550-3650 f!
Cumulopuntia zehnderi (Rauh & Backeb.) F. Ritter. su ms S E x 3950-4050 f!
Cumulopuntia sp. su ms S - - 3580 Mont. 2126
Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. su ms S N x 3400-3700 f!
Echinopsis pampana (Britton & Rose) D.R. Hunt su ms, pj S E 3400-4200 f!
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
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Echinopsis schoenii (Rauh & Backeb.) Friedrich & G.D. Rowley su ms S E x 3400-3600 f!
Echinopsis tulhuayacensis (Ochoa ex Backeb.) Friedrich & G. D.
Rowley
su ms S E x 3450-3600 f!
Echinopsis sp. su pj S - - 4000-4100 f!
Neowerdermannia chilensis subsp. peruviana (F. Ritter) Ostolaza su ms, pj S E 3500-4100 f!
Opuntia ignescens Vaupel su ms, pj S N 3700-4500 f!
Opuntia pubescens J.C. Wendl. ex Pfeiff. su ms S N x 3500 f!
Tunilla soehrensii (Britton & Rose) D.R. Hunt & Iliff. su ms S N 3400-3750 f!
Calceolariaceae
Calceolaria inamoena Kraenzl. s ms, pj Nf N 3400-4100 Mont. 2204 *
Calceolaria lobata Cav. hs ms, pj Hc N 3500-4000 Mont. 2059
Calceolaria pisacomensis Meyen ex Walp. s ms Nf E 3450 Mont. 1223 *
Calceolaria plectranthifolia Walp. h ms, pj Hl N 3500-3900 Mont. 2013 *
Callitrichaceae
Callitriche heteropoda Engelm. ex Hegelm. h bf Hd N x 4400 Mont. 2460
Campanulaceae
Lobelia oligophylla (Wedd.) Lammers h bf Hl N x 4400-4500 Mont. 2450
Lysipomia cf. glandulifera (Schlechtendal ex Weddell) Schltdl. ex
E. Wimm.
h bf Hl - x 4050 Mont. 0697
Lysipomia sp. s pj Hl - - 4400 Mont. 2456
Wahlenbergia peruviana A. Gray s pj Cm N x 4000-4400 Mont. 2183 *
Caryophyllaceae
Alsine cf. rupestris Muschl. h pj T E x 4400 Mont. 2446b
Cardionema ramosissima (Weinm.) A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4000 Mont. 2544 *
Cerastium sp. h ms, pj Hc - - 3800-4400 Mont. 2177 *
Drymaria rotundifolia A. Gray h ms, bf Hd N 3400-3850 Mont. 2168a *
Paronychia cf. andina A. Gray hs pj Hc N x 3850-4200 Mont. 2054
Paronychia setigera (Gillies) F. Herm. h ms Hc N x 3500-4000 Mont. 1182 *
Paronychia sp. h ms, pj Cm - - 3800-3900 Mont. 2567
Pycnophyllum glomeratum Mattf. h pj Cm E x 4400-4600 Mont. 2415 *
Pycnophyllum molle Remy h pj, bf Cm N 4100-4600 Mont. 2438 *
Silene andicola Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. h ms, pj Hc N x 3600-3900 Mont. 2185 *
Silene genovevae Bocquet h ms, pj Hc N x 3800-4200 Mont. 2268 *
Spergularia andina Rohrb. h pj Hc N x 4000 f!
Spergularia fasiculata Phil. hs ms Nf N 3400-4200 Mont. 2087 *
Stellaria cuspidata Willd. ex Schltdl. h ms, pj T N x 3700-3850 Mont. 2562
Convolvulaceae
Ipomoea minuta R. E. Fr. h ms G N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0751
Ipomoea tricolor Cav. h ms Hc I 3400-3600 Mont. 0592
Crassulaceae
Crassula connata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Berger & al. h, su ms, pj, bf Hl N x 3500-4600 Mont. 1024 *
Echeveria peruviana Meyen h, su ms S E x 3400-3800 Mont. 0788
Sedum reniforme (H. Jacobsen) Thiede & T Hart h, su ms S E x 3400-3500 Mont. 0753
Cucurbitaceae
Sicyos baderoa Hook. & Arn. h ms Hc N 3400-3500 Mont. 2154 *
Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small h ms T N 3400-3900 Mont. 0746
Euphorbia huanchahana (Klotzsch & Garcke) Boiss. h pj Hc N x 4000-4100 Mont. 2356
Euphorbia sp. h ms Hc N 3400-3500 Mont. 0603 *
Fabaceae
Adesmia miraforensis Remy s ms, pj Nf N 3400-3900 Mont. 2159 *
Adesmia spinosissima Meyen ex Vogel s pj Nf N 3600-4100 Mont. 0671
Astragalus arequipensis Vogel hs ms, pj, bf Hc N x 3400-4400 Mont. 2003 *
Astragalus dielsii J.F. Macbr. h pj Hc E x 4200-4400 Mont. 2506
Astragalus micranthellus Wedd. hs ms, pj Hc N x 3400-3900 Mont. 2000 *
Astragalus peruvianus Vogel h pj Hc N 4000-4200 Mont. 2256 *
Astragalus punensis J.F. Macbr. hs pj Cm E x 4200-4500 Mont. 2369 *
Astragalus triforus (DC.) A. Gray hs pj Hc N 4000-4200 Mont. 0803
Astragalus cf. uniforus DC. h pj Hc N x 4000-4200 Mont. 2257 *
Astragalus sp. 1 h pj Hc - - 4000-4200 Mont. 2192 *
Astragalus sp. 2 h pj Hc - - 4050 Mont. 2255
Dalea cylindrica Hook. hs ms Nf N 3600-3750 Mont. 2163 *
Dalea onobrychis DC. hs ms Nf N 3500-3700 Mont. 0699 *
Lathyrus magellanicus Lam. h ms Hc N x 3400-3600 Mont. 1232
Lupinus cf. ananeanus Ulbr. h pj Hc N x 4000-4200 Mont. 2197 *
Lupinus paruroensis C.P. Sm. s ms, pj Nf E 3500-4100 Mont. 2100 *
Lupinus sp. 1 h pj Hc - - 4050-4200 Mont. 2251
Lupinus sp. 2 h pj Hc - - 4450-4600 Mont. 2424
Medicago lupulina L. h ms Hc I x 3400-3700 Mont. 0633 *
Otholobium munyense (J.F. Macbr.) J.W. Grimes s ms F N x 3450 Mont. 0587 *
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
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Trifolium amabile Kunth h ms, pj Hc I x 3400-4400 Mont. 2007 *
Vicia cf. andicola Kunth h ms Hc N x 3600-3700 Mont. 0729 *
Gentianaceae
Gentiana sedifolia Kunth h ms, pj Hl N x 3500-3700 Mont. 2288
Gentiana sp. h bf Hl - - 3400 Mont. 2221
Gentianella poculifera (Gilg) T.N. Ho & S.W. Liu h pj Hl E x 4000-4200 Mont. 2067 *
Gentianella potamophila (Gilg) Zarucchi h pj, bf Hl E x 3900-4500 Mont. 2293 *
Gentianella sp. 1 h bf Hl - - 4450-4550 Mont. 2464
Gentianella sp. 2 h bf Hl - - 3900 Mont. 2322
Gentianella sp. 3 h pj Hl - - 3800-4000 Mont. 0808
Geraniaceae
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Hr. ex Aiton h ms T N 3400-3900 Mont. 0529 *
Geranium core-core Steud. h pj Hc N 4000-4100 Mont. 2551
Geranium sessiliforum Cav. h ms Hc N 3800-4300 Mont. 2142 *
Geranium cf. staffordianum R. Knuth h ms Hc E x 3600 Mont. 0994
Geranium sp. h ms T - - 3400 Mont. 2206b
Grossulariaceae
Ribes brachybotrys (Wedd.) Jancz. s, a pj F N x 3700-4200 Mont. 2532 *
Hydrophyllaceae
Nama dichotomum (Ruiz & Pav.) Choisy h ms T N 3400-3600 Mont. 0978 *
Phacelia pinnatifda Griseb. ex Wedd. h ms T N 3550-3700 Mont. 2227 *
Phacelia secunda J.F. Gmel. h ms Hc N x 3800 Mont. 2556
Lamiaceae
Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling h ms, pj Hc N x 3600-4050 Mont. 0544
Mentha aquatica L. h ms Hd I x 3450-3900 Mont. 2324 *
Salvia oppositifora Ruiz & Pav. s ms Nf E x 3400-3800 Mont. 0517 *
Satureja boliviana (Benth.) Briq. s ms, pj Nf N 3500-4100 Mont. 2241 *
Stachys cf. pusilla (Wedd.) Briq. h ms T N x 3400 Mont. 0731
Lentibulariaceae
Pinguicula involuta Ruiz & Pav. h ms Hl N x 3700 f!
Loasaceae
Caiophora chuquitensis (Meyen) Urb. & Gilg h pj Hc N 4050-4200 Mont. 2264 *
Caiophora cirsiifolia C. Presl h ms Hc E x 3400-3600 Mont. 2243 *
Caiophora rosulata (Wedd.) Urb. & Gilg h pj Hc N 4000-4700 Mont. 2313 *
Loganiaceae
Buddleja coriacea Remy a ms, pj F N 3400-4200 Mont. 0518 *
Loranthaceae
Ligaria cuneifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Tiegh. s, p ms Nf N 3400-3500 Mont. 0661 *
Malvaceae
Fuertesimalva echinata (C. Presl) Fryxel h ms Nf N x 3400-3500 Mont. 2207
Nototriche anthemidifolia (J. Rmy) A.W. Hill hs pj Hc N x 4050-4600 Mont. 2269 *
Nototriche argentea A.W. Hill h pj Hc N 4400-4600 Mont. 2363b
Nototriche cf. digitulifolia Hill hs pj Hc E x 4200-4300 Mont. 2595
Nototriche longirostris (Wedd.) A.W. Hill h pj Hc N x 4200-4600 Mont. 2482 *
Nototriche mandoniana (Wedd.) A.W. Hill hs pj Hc N x 4000-4200 Mont. 2171 *
Nototriche pedatiloba Hill hs pj Hc N x 4400-4600 Mont. 2474
Nototriche pedicularifolia A.W. Hill hs pj Hc N x 4000-4700 Mont. 2305 *
Nototriche pusilla A. W. Hill h pj Hc N x 4300-4500 Mont. 2518
Nototriche turritella Hill h pj Hc N x 4000-4200 Mont. 2170 *
Nototriche sp. h pj Hc - - 4380 Mont. 2447
Tarasa nototrichoides (Hochr.) Krapovickas h pj Hc E x 4000-4300 Mont. 2388
Tarasa tarapacana (Phil.) Krapov. h ms Hc N x 3400-4000 Mont. 2010 *
Tarasa tenuis Krapov. h ms Hc N x 3600-3750 Mont. 2162
Tarasa urbaniana (Ulbr.) Krapov h ms Hc N x 3600-3700 Mont. 2166b
Nyctaginaceae
Mirabilis expansa (Ruiz & Pav.) Standl. h ms Hc N x 3400-3600 Mont. 1017 *
Onagraceae
Epilobium denticulatum Ruiz & Pav. h ms T N 3400-3500 Mont. 0609
Oenothera multicaulis Ruiz & Pav. h ms, pj Hc N x 3500-3900 Mont. 2120 *
Oenothera nocturna Jacq. h ms Hc N x 3500-3600 Mont. 2094
Oenothera rosea L'Hr. ex Aiton h ms Hl N 3400-3600 Mont. 0614
Oenothera sp. h ms, pj Hc - - 3800-4100 Mont. 2276 *
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis calachaccensis R. Knuth h ms, pj T N x 3750-4350 Mont. 2391 *
Oxalis debilis Kunth h ms G N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0717 *
Oxalis megalorrhiza Jacq. h ms G N x 3400-4100 Mont. 2090 *
Oxalis sp. h ms G - - 3500 f!
Piperaceae
Peperomia peruviana Dahlst. h ms T N x 3400-3900 Mont. 2229
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
Apndice 1. Continuacin.
(Contina...)
131

Diversidad florstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (April 2011)
Plantaginaceae
Bougueria nubicola Decne. h ms, pj Hc N x 4000-4600 Mont. 2145 *
Plantago australis Lam. subsp. hirtella h ms Hl N x 3400-3600 Mont. 0520
Plantago australis Lam. subsp. pfanzii h pj Hc N x 3900-4200 Mont. 2277
Plantago lanceolata L. h ms Hl Co x 3400-3600 Mont. 0599 *
Plantago major L. h ms Hl Co 3400-3600 Mont. 2131
Plantago monticola Decne. h ms, pj Hc N x 3500-3900 Mont. 1006 *
Plantago myosuros Lam. h ms T N x 3500-3700 Mont. 2004 *
Plantago cf. nubigena Kunth hs pj Cm N x 3500-3700 Mont. 2023 *
Plantago rigida Kunth hs bf Cm N x 4400-4700 f!
Plantago sericea Ruiz & Pav. hs ms, pj Cm N x 3550-3800 Mont. 2239 *
Plantago sericea var. lanuginosa Griseb. hs pj Hc N x 3850-4300 Mont. 0688
Plantago tubulosa Decne. h ms, pj Hl N x 3400-4100 Mont. 1226 *
Polemoniaceae
Cantua buxifolia Juss. ex Lam. s ms F N 3400-3800 Mont. 2349 *
Gilia laciniata Ruiz & Pav. h ms T N 3800-4000 Mont. 2198c *
Huthia sp. h pj T 4230 Mont. 2591
Polygonaceae
Rumex crispus L. h ms T I x 3400-3600 Mont. 0525 *
Portulacaceae
Calandrinia acaulis Kunth h ms, pj Hc N x 3800-4200 Mont. 2308
Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. h pj T N 3900-4100 Mont. 0952
Portulaca oleracea L. h ms T I 3400-3600 Mont. 1015
Portulaca perennis R.E. Fr. h ms Hc N 3400-3600 Mont. 0714 *
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus fagelliformis Sm. h pj, bf Hd N x 4500 f!
Rosaceae
Lachemilla diplophylla (Diels) Rothm. h bf Hd N x 4200-4600 Mont. 2453
Lachemilla pinnata (Ruiz & Pav.) Rothm. h ms, pj Hl N 3500-4500 Mont. 2526 *
Polylepis besseri Hieron. a ms F N 3700-3900 Mont. 1185
Tetraglochin cristatum (Britton) Rothm. s ms, pj, bf Nf N 3700-4500 Mont. 2529 *
Rubiaceae
Galium aparine L. h ms Hc I x 3500-3750 Mont. 2111
Galium corymbosum Ruiz & Pav. h ms, pj Hc N 3400-4200 Mont. 2033 *
Santalaceae
Quinchamalium procumbens Ruiz & Pav. h, p ms, pj Cm N 3400-4000 Mont. 2166 *
Quinchamalium sp. h pj T N x 3950 Mont. 0640
Saxifragaceae
Escallonia myrtilloides L. f. a ms, pj F N 3400-4200 Mont. 2485 *
Scrophulariaceae
Bartsia cf. crenoloba Wedd. hs ms, pj Hc N x 3800-4200 Mont. 2497
Bartsia diffusa Benth. h pj Hc E x 4300-4700 Mont. 0939
Bartsia peruviana Walp. hs ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4000 Mont. 2024 *
Bartsia cf. weberbaueri Diels h pj Hc E 4500-4700 Mont. 2436
Castilleja pumila (Benth.) Wedd. h ms, pj Hl N x 3600-4200 Mont. 2062 *
Limosella aquatica L. h bf Hd N x 4200-4400 Mont. 2590 *
Mimulus glabratus Kunth h ms, pj Hl N 3700-4100 Mont. 1013 *
Orthocarpus laciniatus (Hook. & Arn.) D.D. Keck h pj Hc N x 3900-4000 Mont. 2550
Ourisia muscosa Benth. h pj Hl N x 3800-4400 f!
Solanaceae
Dunalia spinosa (Meyen) Dammer s ms Nf N 3400-3500 Mont. 0580 *
Lycianthes lycioides (L.) Hassl. s ms Nf N x 3400-3600 Mont. 0596 *
Nicotiana rustica L. h ms Hc N x 3500-3800 Mont. 2283 *
Nicotiana undulata Ruiz & Pav. h ms Hc N x 3700 Mont. 2021
Salpichroa glandulosa (Hook.) Miers s ms, pj Nf N x 3500-4200 Mont. 2549 *
Salpichroa tristis Miers s ms Nf N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0689 *
Solanum americanum Mill. h ms T I 3400-3600 m Mont. 0516
Solanum bukasovii Juz. h ms, pj G E x 3600-4100 Mont. 0680
Solanum chamaesarachidium Bitter h pj T N x 3900 Mont. 2144
Solanum excisirhombeum Bitter h ms T N x 3400-3500 Mont. 0920a
Solanum nigrum L. h ms T I x 3400-3500 Mont. 0920b
Solanum nitidum Ruiz & Pav. s ms Hc N 3400-3500 Mont. 0558 *
Solanum pentlandii Dunal hs pj Hc N x 3900-4000 Mont. 2620
Solanum radicans L. f. hs ms Hc N 3400 Mont. 1220
Urticaceae
Urtica echinata Benth. h ms, pj Hc N x 3400-4500 Mont. 2265 *
Urtica fabellata Kunth h bf T N x 4200-4600 Mont. 1027
Valerianaceae
Stangea cf. rhizantha (A. Gray) Killip hs pj Hc N x 4300 Mont. 2446
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
Apndice 1. Continuacin.
(Contina...)
132
Montesinos-Tube
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 119- 132 (Abril 2011)
Taxn FC FE FB St NR Altitud (m) Voucher
Apndice 1. Continuacin.
Valeriana coarctata Ruiz & Pav. h pj Hc E x 3800-3900 Mont. 2559
Valeriana cf. decussata Ruiz & Pav. h pj Hc N x 3600-3800 Mont. 2002b
Valeriana interrupta Ruiz & Pav. h ms, pj Hc N x 3500-4100 Mont. 0990 *
Valeriana nivalis Wedd. hs pj Hc N 4000-4300 Mont. 2248 *
Valeriana cf. radicata Graebn. h ms Hc E x 3700-3800 Mont. 2036
Valeriana sp. h pj Hc - - 4000-4200 f!
Verbenaceae
Aloysia citriodora Palu s ms F I x 3500-3700 Mont. 2486 *
Junellia arequipense (Botta) Botta s ms Nf E x 3400-3600 Mont. 2215 *
Junellia minima (Meyen) Moldenke s pj Cm N 4300-4500 Mont. 2576
Verbena hispida Ruiz & Pav. h ms Hc N 3500-3700 Mont. 0752
Violaceae
Viola granulosa Wedd. h pj Hc N x 4100-4200 Mont. 2297
Viola hillii W. Becker h pj Hc N x 4200-4500 Mont. 2572 *
Viola sp. h pj Hc - - 4150 Mont. 2298
133

eureMa agave en Costa Rica
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 133- 134 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 133- 134 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Presencia y distribucin de dos sub-especies de Eurema agave
(Lepidoptera, Pieridae) en Costa Rica
Jim Cordoba-Alfaro
1
y Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller
2
Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera,
Pieridae) in Costa Rica
1 Bachillerato en Biologa, Universi-
dad Nacional de Costa Rica.
jim.cordoba@gmail.com
2 Centro de Accin Social e Inves-
tigacin en Mariposas (CASIEM),
Escuela de Biologa, Universidad
de Costa Rica.
murillohiller@gmail.com
NOTA CIENTFICA
Presentado: 12/02/2010
Aceptado: 23/07/2010
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
Austin (1992) report a Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) para el Caribe de Costa Rica; sin embargo, en realidad
lo que encontr fue a E. a. millerorum descrita por Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) para el Caribe mexicano.
La presencia de Eurema a. agave es confrmada en este trabajo por especimenes recolectados en la vertiente
Pacfca y Atlntica de Costa Rica. Adems se detallan aspectos de la distribucin de ambas subespecies.
Palabras clave: Distribucin, Coliadinae, Eurema agave millerorum, alopatra, taxonoma.
Abstract
Austin (1992) reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775) to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually
had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987) for the Caribbean of Mexico. The
presence of Eurema a. agave is confrmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacifc
and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.
Keywords: Distribution, Coliadinae, Eurema agave millerorum, allopatry, taxonomy.
Las mariposas el gnero Eurema (Hbner, 1819) (Pieridae)
se caracterizan por ser de tamao pequeo (alrededor de 30
mm de envergadura), de color amarillo, anaranjado o blanco
con los mrgenes negros en las alas anteriores. Sus especies son
abundantes particularmente en zonas de vegetacin secundaria
o alterada por las actividades humanas (DeVries 1987). Este
gnero se distribuye tanto en el viejo mundo como en Amrica.
Desde Estados Unidos hasta Chile se conocen 19 especies (La-
mas 2004), de las cuales en Costa Rica han sido reportadas siete
desde el nivel del mar hasta los 2000 en las vertientes pacifca y
atlntica (DeVries 1987).
El primer listado de especies de Eurema para Costa Rica fue
realizado por DeVries (1983); posteriormente en su libro de las
mariposas de Costa Rica (1987) considera que al menos dos
especies son de poblaciones locales o reducidas. El 24 de julio
de 1987, ngel Sols recolect el primer espcimen de E. agave
(Cramer 1775) para Costa Rica en la localidad de Fila Esquinas
de Puntarenas (200 m sobre el nivel del mar) en la vertiente
Pacfca, y que se encuentra depositado en el Museo Nacional de
Costa Rica (MNCR), bajo el nombre de Eurema daira eugenia
(Wallengren1860), nmero de catalogo A00-004474.
Sin embargo, la presencia de E. agave en Costa Rica solo
necesitaba ser probada con especimenes testigo, ya que desde
Godman & Salvin (1889-1890) se reportan recolectas en
Chontales de Nicaragua y un macho ilustrado en sus lminas
procedente de Panam. Los prximos registros E. agave para
Costa Rica los public Austin (1992) a partir de un macho re-
colectado en Puerto Viejo de Heredia y dos hembras de Puerto
Viejo de Limn, ambas localidades entre los 0 y los 150 m de
altitud en la vertiente Caribe.
Finalmente, los ltimos especmenes recolectados de E.
agave son una hembra procedente de playa Esterillos Este
(931'25,07"N, 8427'04,71"W) en Puntarenas, al nivel del
mar, el 4 de enero de 2009 y un macho capturado en Ro Verde
de Pococ en Limn (1012'24,34"N, 83 46'19,62"W), a 278
m de altitud, el 22 de noviembre de 2010, ambos especmenes
recolectados por JC-A y depositados en la coleccin personal
Crdoba-Alfaro (CPCA), bajo los nmeros de catalogo 30MH-
NJC y 270MHNJC respectivamente (Fig. 1).
Al comparar la fgura 4 de Austin (1992), con los individuos
recolectados en la vertiente del Pacfco de Costa Rica (por A.
Sols), se observa que las alas posteriores son inmaculadas dorsal-
mente, pues no presenta un borde obscuro (Lorente-Boustquets
& Luis-Martinez 1987), a diferencia de los individuos del Pac-
Figura1. (a) Eurema a. agave (Boisduval): - COSTA RICA: Playa Es-
terilos Este (93125,07N, 842704,71W) Puntarenas. (b). Eurema
a. millerorum Boustquets & Luis-Martinez : COSTA RICA: Rio Verde
(101224,34N, 834619,62W), Pococ, Limn.
(a)
(b)
134
Cordoba-Alfaro & Murillo-Hille
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 133- 134 (Abril 2011)
fco. Al comparar los especmenes del Pacifco con los ilustrado
en Godman & Salvin (1889-1890) se observa que los fenotipos
en las alas posteriores son idnticos. En esta ltima ilustracin, el
espcimen est identifcado como Terias mana, hoy considerada
por Lamas (2004) como E. a. agave.
Eurema agave millerorum Boustquets & Luis-Martinez 1987
fue descrita como nueva sub-especie en Tabasco, en el Caribe
mexicano y los autores sealan que posiblemente esta sub-especie
alcance reas del norte de Centroamrica ya que hacia Nicaragua,
Costa Rica y Panam lo que se hallara sera E. agave mana,
considerada en realidad E. agave agave. Al analizar la fgura 4
de Austin (1992), se evidencia que la hembra ilustrada es en
realidad la E. agave millerorum que se describi en Mxico, y que
posiblemente alcance no solo el Caribe de Costa Rica sino hasta
el Caribe panameo. Mientras que, los especimenes recolectados
en el Pacfco costarricense son E. agave agave.
En conclusin E. agave millerorum estara restringida a las
tierras bajas de la vertiente Caribe desde Mxico hasta Costa
Rica y E. agave agave se reporta por primera vez para Costa Rica
para las vertientes Caribe y Pacfca.
Material Examinado: 38 especmenes (13 25 )
Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Fila espinas, 200msnm, (1)
24/7/1987, A. Sols. (MNCR). Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Playa
Esterillos Este, (931'25,07"N, 8427'04,71"W) 0 msnm,
4/I/2009, J. Crdoba (1). (CPCA). Costa Rica, Limn, Po-
coc, Gupiles, Ro Verde (1012'24,34"N, 8346'19,62"W)
278msnm, (1), 22/XI/2010, J. Crdoba, (CPCA); (7,
14), 22/I/2011, J. Crdoba & I. Rodrguez, (CPCA). Costa
Rica, Limn, Pococ, Gupiles, Ro Verde (1012'24,34"N,
8346'19,62"W) 278 msnm, (6, 1), 22/I/2010, J. Crdoba,
(MNCR). Per, Iquitos, Loreto, 100 msnm, (3, 4), 12/
XII/2010, R. Westerduijn, (CPCA).
Agradecimientos
Agradecemos el apoyo brindado por el Museo Nacional
de Costa Rica, en especial a Germn Vega y Cecilia Pineda, al
Museo de Insectos de la Universidad de Costa Rica por prestar
sus instalaciones, a Rob Westerduijn de la Universidad de
Wageningen por la donacin de muestras recolectadas en Per.
Literatura citada
Austin G. T. 1992. New and additional records of Costa Rican But-
terfies. Tropical Lepidoptera, 3(1): 25-33.
DeVries P. J. 1983. Checklist of butterfies, p. 654-678. In: D. Janzen
(ed.). Costa Rican Natural History. The Universtity of
Chicago Press. Chicago. U.S.A.
DeVries P. J. 1987. The Butterfies of Costa Rica and Their Natural
History: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae. Princeton
University Press: New Jersey. 327 pp.
Godman F.D. & O. Salvin.1889-1890. Biologia Centrali-Americana.
Zoologia. Insecta. Lepidoptera. Rhopalocera. Vol I. (texto
y III laminas).
Lamas G. 2004. Pieridae, p. 99-117. In: G. Lamas (ed.). Atlas of the
neotropical Lepidoptera: Part 4A Hesperioidea-Papilionoi-
dea. Scientifc Publishers. Florida. 439 pp.
Lorente-Boustquets J. & A. Luis-Martinez. 1987. Una nueva sub-
especie de Eurema agave Cramer (Lepidoptera: Pieridae;
Coliadinae). Folia Entomolgica Mexicana 71: 17-25.
135

oncicola sp. en atelocynus Microtis
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 135- 136 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 135- 136 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Presencia de Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) en Atelocynus microtis
(Canidae) de la Reserva de Biosfera de Manu, Madre de Dios, Per
Manuel Tantalen
1
y John Chvez
2
Occurrence of Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) in Atelocynus microtis (Canidae)
from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru
1 Laboratorio de Parasitologa.
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria,
Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Heredia, Lima 31 Lima, Per.
E-mail: mtantaleanv@hotmail.com
2 Departamento de Mastozoologa,
Museo de Historia Natural Univer-
sidad Nacional Mayor de San Mar-
cos, Apdo. 14-0434 Lima 14, Per.
E-mail: amblyomma76@yahoo.com
NOTA CIENTFICA
Presentado: 29/04/2010
Aceptado: 23/11/2010
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
Durante una exhaustiva evaluacin de mamferos y sus parsitos, la cual se llev a cabo en la Reserva de
Biosfera de Manu, Madre de Dios, Per, se capturaron dos individuos de Atelocynus microtis, perro de orejas
cortas, de los cuales se colectaron algunos acantocfalos. Aunque no fue posible reconocerlos hasta el nivel
de especie porque eran especmenes inmaduros, todos fueron identifcados como miembros del genero On-
cicola Travassos, 1916.
Palabras clave: Atelocynus, Canidae, Oncicola, Acanthocephala, Per.
Abstract
During a large survey of mammals and their parasites, which took place in the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre
de Dios, Peru, two specimens of Atelocynus microtis, short eared dog, were captured from which some acantho-
cephalan specimens were collected. Albeit it was not possible to identify them up to species level basically due
to their immature condition, all of them were diagnosed as members of the genus Oncicola Travassos, 1916.
Keywords: Atelocynus, Canidae, Oncicola, Acanthocephala, Peru.
En el Per, son pocos los estudios sobre helmintos parsitos de
animales de vida silvestre, especialmente de mamferos, salvo in-
vestigaciones espordicas. Sin embargo, durante una exhaustiva
evaluacin de parsitos de mamferos y aves llevado a cabo en el
ao 1999 en la localidad de Aguas calientes (Shintuya Reserva
de Biosfera de Manu, Madre de Dios, Per) a 790 m sobre el
nivel del mar, se capturaron 2 especmenes (macho y hembra) de
Atelocynus microtis Sclater, 1882, perro de orejas cortas. De ellos,
solo el macho estuvo parasitado con 8 especmenes inmaduros
de acantocfalos enquistados en el tejido muscular del abdomen,
los que se colectaron y fjaron en formol al 10% y trasladaron
al laboratorio para el examen respectivo.
La diagnosis de los parsitos se hizo tomando en cuenta la
armadura de la proboscis y caractersticas de los ganchos, para lo
cual se realizaron cortes del presoma, debido a que los gusanos
se encontraban contrados y las proboscis estaban parcialmente
invaginadas, y se clarifcaron en una solucin de alcohol fenol.
Como resultado del anlisis, los especmenes se identifcaron
como miembros del gnero Oncicola Travassos, 1916 (Oncicola
sp.) previamente reconocido en el Per pero en otras especies
de mamferos.
Todos presentaban las siguientes caractersticas generales: de
4,5 5 mm de longitud, con un ancho mximo en el presoma,
proboscis globosa con 36 ganchos arreglados en 6 series espi-
raladas de 6 elementos cada una, los primeros ganchos tienen las
puntas con barbas y mango largo; en cambio, los ltimos ganchos
son espiniformes; la base del cuello lleva un engrosamiento col-
lariforme; los lemniscos estn muy desarrollados.
El gnero Oncicola (Archiacanthocephala, Oligacanthorhyn-
chidae) rene a especies que se localizan en el intestino delgado
de cnidos y flidos domsticos y silvestres y una especie en
primate. En el Per se conocen 2 especies, O. canis (Kaupp,
1909), del intestino del perro domstico (Canis familiaris) de la
ciudad de Lima (Chvez and Zaldvar, 1967) y O. spirula (Olfers
in Rudolphi, 1819) Schmidt, 1972 (=Prosthenorchis s.) de los
primates Cebuella pygmaea y Saimiri sciureus de Iquitos, en el
departamento de Loreto (Dunn, 1963; Tantalen et al., 2005).
Los especmenes que hemos encontrado parecen estar relacio-
nados con O. campanulata (Diesing, 1851) Meyer, 1931 por la
semejanza en las caractersticas de los ganchos de la proboscis;
sin embargo, no podemos confrmar esta sospecha debido al
estado de inmadurez de los especmenes.
Por la localizacin de los parsitos es probable que A. microtis
est jugando el papel de husped paratnico y que posiblemente
haya ingerido a otro de esta misma condicin, fenmeno que no
es infrecuente en el ciclo vital de los acantocfalos.
Atelocynus microtis es un animal de hbitos terrestres, prob-
ablemente diurnos y crepusculares, solitario, que se encuentra
en situacin de peligro. Existe poca informacin acerca de esta
rara especie que algunas veces incluye sus hbitos alimenticios.
Atelocynus microtis probablemente se alimenta de batracios, ratas
espinosas y roedores diversos incluyendo el agut (Emmons &
Feer 1997). Adicionalmente, en base a un minucioso estudio
sobre hbitos alimenticios llevado a cabo por otros autores en
otra localidad dentro de la Reserva del Manu se determin que
la dieta alimenticia de este mamfero est compuesta por 28%
de peces, 17% de insectos, 13% de pequeos mamferos, 10%
de cangrejos, 10% de frutas, 10% de aves, 4% de ranas y 3%
de reptiles (Alderton 1998, Nowak 2005). La mayora de estos
perros han sido registrados en la pradera baja de los bosques
tropicales y con un rango de distribucin desde Colombia hasta
Bolivia (Emmons & Feer 1997).
En una de las escasas evaluaciones parasitolgicas realizadas
en el Per, se ha mencionado la presencia del cstodo Spiro-
metra mansonoides en A. microtis procedente de una localidad
amaznica no precisada (Tantalen & Guerrero 1982-88), siendo
este el nico caso conocido de infeccin parasitaria.
136
Tantalen& Chvez
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 135- 136 (Abril 2011)
En consecuencia, nosotros consideramos que es necesario
poner mayor nfasis en el estudio de la fauna parasitaria de sta y
otras especies de cnidos silvestres pero evaluando la factibilidad
de estas investigaciones debido a que muchos de estos mamferos
se encuentran en situacin de peligro.
Agradecimientos
Los autores desean expresar su agradecimiento a Bruce D.
Patterson de la Divisin de Mamferos del Museo de Campo
de Chicago, quien condujo el proyecto cientfco en la Reserva
de Bisfera del Manu y obtuvo los fondos necesarios por medio
de un Grant del National Science Foundation (DEB-9870191)
y nos dio la oportunidad de recoger y estudiar este material
parasitolgico.
Literatura citada
Alderton D. 1998. Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World.
Blandford Press. United Kingdom.
Chvez C. & R. Zaldvar. 1967. Zooparasites of livestock in Peru.
United States, Department of Agriculture. Foreign Agri-
cultural Research Grant Project. University of San Marcos.
School of Veterinary Medicine. Lima, Peru.
Dunn F. L. 1963. Acanthocephalans and cestodes of South American
monkeys and Marmosets. J. Parasitol., 49: 717 722.
Emmons L. H. & F. Feer. 1997. Neotropical rainforest mammals.
A feld Guide. Second edition. Chicago, The University
of Chicago Press.
Nowak R. 2005. Walker's Carnivorous of the World. The John
Hopkins University Press. Baltimore.
Tantalen M. & C. Guerrero. 1982-1988. Presencia de Spirometra
mansonoides en el Per. Bol. Peruano Parasit., 4-10: 46.
Tantalen M., L. Snchez, L. Gmez, & A. Huiza. 2005. Acantoc-
falos del Per. Rev. peru. biol., 12: 83 92.
137

Nuevos registros de digeneos en podocneMis spp.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 137- 139 (April 2011)
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 137- 139 (Abril 2011)
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM
ISSN 1561-0837
Nuevos registros de digeneos en Podocnemis spp. (Testudines,
Podocnemididae) de Iquitos, Per
Manuel Tantalen
1
, Nofre Snchez
2
y Oscar Pineda Catalan
3
New records of digeneans from Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae)
from Iquitos, Peru
1 Escuela de Post Grado. Facultad
de Ciencias Biolgicas. Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Lima, Per.
E-mail: mtantaleanv@hotmail.com
2 IVITA Iquitos. Facultad de
Medicina Veterinaria. Universidad
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.
Lima, Per.
E-mail: nofresp@hotmail.com
3 Columbia University, Ecology,
Evolution and Environmental Bio-
logy Department, 1200 Amsterdam
Ave. New York, NY, USA. American
Museum of Natural History, Sackler
Institute for Comparative Geno-
mics, Central Park West & 79th
Street, New York, NY, USA.
E-mail: op2101@columbia.edu
Presentado: 30/06/2010
Aceptado: 23/11/2010
Publicado online: 23/06/2011
Resumen
En el mercado de Beln (Iquitos, Per) se obtuvieron ocho tractos digestivos de Podocnemis expansa y 18
de P. uniflis los que fueron analizados en bsqueda de parsitos, detectndose la presencia de digeneos y
nematodos. Solo se estudi los digeneos, los que fueron identifcados como Nematophila grandis (Diesing,
1839) Travassos, 1934, Halltrema avitellina Lent & Freitas, 1939, Podocnemitrema papillosum Alho & Vicente,
1964 y Telorchis hagmanni Lent & Freitas, 1937. Halltrema avitellina, Podocnemitrema papillosum y Telorchis
hagmanni son nuevos registros para el Per.
Palabras clave: Digenea, Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis uniflis, Per.
Abstract
We obtained 8 digestive tract of the turtle Podocnemis expansa and 18 of P. uniflis from the Belen market
(Iquitos, Peru). Only digeneans were studied and identifed. Four species were found: Nematophila grandis
(Diesing, 1839) Travassos, 1934, Halltrema avitellina Lent & Freitas, 1939, Podocnemitrema papillosum Alho
& Vicente, 1964 and Telorchis hagmanni Lent & Freitas, 1937.
Halltrema avitellina, Podocnemitrema papillosum and Telorchis hagmanni are new records from Peru.
Keywords: Digeneans, Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis uniflis, Peru.
Introduccion
A pesar de su importancia econmica y biolgica, en el Per
no es muy conocida la diversidad de digeneos en Podocnemis
spp., las publicaciones parasitolgicas sobre ellas mayormente
se referen a nemtodes (Tantalen et al. 1983, Tantalen 1998,
Sarmiento et al. 1999, Snchez et al. 2006, Salzar & Snchez
2007). En la actualidad, la mayora de estudios parasitolgicos en
animales de vida silvestre se llevan a cabo utilizando medios no
invasivos, lo que difculta la identifcacin de los parsitos cuyos
huevos son eliminados con las heces. Sin embargo, en el mer-
cado de Iquitos se comercializa la carne de tortugas, entre otros
animales, por lo que se pueden adquirir los rganos internos.
Material y mtodos
Para el presente trabajo, se estudiaron tractos digestivos de
26 tortugas colectadas entre los meses de julio y agosto de 2008,
procedentes de Iquitos, Per; 8 fueron de la especie Podocnemis
expansa (Schweigger, 1812) y 18 de Podocnemis uniflis Troschel,
1848.
Los digeneos obtenidos se lavaron en suero fsiolgico, se
prensaron entre 2 lminas portaobjetos y procesaron para tin-
cin con carmn actico de Semichon de acuerdo a la tcnica
convencional. Antes del montaje, a cada espcimen coloreado
y clarifcado se le retir parte del tegumento y msculos de las
caras ventral y dorsal con la fnalidad de visualizar mejor los
rganos que forman el complejo genital. Las medidas se dan en
milmetros salvo que se indique otra cosa, anotando primero el
promedio y luego el rango entre parntesis.
Algunos de los especmenes se depositaron en la Colec-
cin Helmintolgica del Departamento de Protozoologa,
Helmintologa e Invertebrados Afnes del Museo de Historia
Natural, mientras que otros se encuentran en la Coleccin de
Parsitos del Laboratorio de Parasitologa de Fauna silvestre,
Facultad de Ciencias Biolgicas UNMSM.
Resultados
Del intestino de ambas tortugas tambin se colectaron
nemtodos cuyos registros se anotarn en otro trabajo.
Como resultado del estudio se tiene que 6 (75%) de P. expansa
y 8 (44,4%) de P. uniflis estuvieron parasitadas por individuos
de una a 3 especies diferentes de Digenea.
Se identifcaron las siguientes especies: Nematophila grandis
(Diesing, 1839) Travassos, 1934 y Halltrema avitellina Lent &
Freitas, 1939 (Cladorchiidae Fischoeder, 1901 Schizamphisto-
minae Looss, 1912); Podocnemitrema papillosum Alho & Vicente,
1964 (Microscaphidiidae Looss, 1900) y Telorchis hagmanni
Lent & Freitas, 1937 (Telorchiidae Looss, 1899, Telorchiinae
Looss, 1899).
La Tabla 1 resume las especies parsitas y su prevalencia segn
el hospedero mientras que las asociaciones de especies de digenea
encontradas en cada especie de tortuga parasitada se encuentran
anotadas en la Tabla 2.
Nematophila grandis (Diesing, 1839) Travassos, 1934
(NIngreso MUSM: 2975)
Numerosos especmenes de esta especie se obtuvieron tanto
de P. expansa como de P. uniflis, todos ellos adheridos a la
mucosa del estmago y en algunos casos formando tneles en
la submucosa, aunque los huspedes aparentaban condicin
normal. De cada animal se retiraron entre 10 y 30 individuos.
Ellos miden 22,5 (22 24) de largo por 7,6 (7 8) de ancho;
en algunos casos se encontraron individuos que alcanzaban los
5 cm de longitud. La faringe y el esfago son largos, de 5 (4,5
5,3) de longitud.
Nematophila grandis se encuentra en tortugas acuticas de
Amrica central y del sur, y como lo han sealado Salzar y
Snchez (2004), de acuerdo a varios autores, en varias especies
138
Tantalen et al.
Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 137- 139 (Abril 2011)
de tortugas de diferentes pases americanos como Brasil, Ecuador,
Guyana Francesa, Mxico, Panam y Venezuela; pero tambin
se ha registrado en Argentina (Lunaschi & Drago 2007). Daz-
Ungra (1978) seala que P. expansa de Venezuela tambin es
husped de este digeneo. En el Per, N. grandis ha sido previa-
mente identifcada en Podocnemis uniflis de Iquitos y de Madre
de Dios (Salzar y Snchez 2004, Snchez et al. 2006), por lo
que P. expansa es un nuevo husped para el Per.
Halltrema avitellina Lent & Freitas, 1939
(N Ingreso MUSM: 2976)
Esta especie mide 5,5 (5 7) de largo por 4,3 (4 4,5) de
ancho; los huevos operculados son grandes, de color amarillento
y miden 119 m (115 122) de largo por 55 m (54 56,5)
de ancho.
Jones (2005) ha considerado que tanto Cladorchis heterox-
enum Cordero & Vogelsang, 1940 como Pseudollassostoma
heteroxenum (Cordero y Vogelsang, 1940) Yamaguti, 1958 son
sinnimos del gnero Halltrema Lent & Freitas, 1939. Esta
especie se registra por primera vez para el Per.
Podocnemitrema papillosum Alho & Vicente, 1964
(N Ingreso MUSM: 2977)
Mide 4,4 (4 5) de longitud, se caracteriza por carecer de
acetbulo y tener la ventosa oral escondida por lo que la boca
se comunica al exterior por medio de una excavacin; de cu-
erpo ovalado y con papilas. Todas las dems caractersticas de
nuestros especmenes coinciden con la descripcin de Alho &
Vicente (1964) y Blair (2005). Brooks (1976) ha sealado que 2
Microscaphidiidae se encuentran en Podocnemis sudamericanas,
Podocnemitrema papillosum en P. expansa de Brasil y Neodeu-
terobaris pritchardae Brooks, 1976 en P. lewyana de Colombia;
por tanto, esta es la primera vez que se registra a P. papillosum
en P. expansa y P. uniflis en el Per, siendo esta ltima especie
un nuevo husped.
Telorchis hagmanni Lent & Freitas, 1937
(Col. PAS FCB: 256)
Esta especie no es comn en Podocnemis spp., siendo la preva-
lencia muy baja por lo que se colectaron solo 2 especmenes.
Brooks (1976) encontr 1 individuo en cada una de las especies
P. expansa de Brasil y P. lewyana de Colombia. Las siguientes
son las principales caractersticas: cuerpo cubierto de espinas,
con mayor densidad en la regin anterior; miden 20 y 22 de
largo por 2 y 2,3 de ancho a nivel de la parte media del cuerpo;
los ciegos intestinales terminan cerca del extremo posterior del
cuerpo. Las vitelgenas estn formadas por folculos grandes, se
localizan desde el nivel del borde posterior del ovario hasta poco
antes del testculo anterior. El ovario es ovalado y los testculos
dispuestos en la parte posterior del cuerpo y en tndem. Poro
genital pre acetabular. Los huevos operculados tienen un reborde
en la base del oprculo, in tero miden 31 m (29 33,5) de
largo por 11 m (16 17,3) de ancho. Esta especie es un nuevo
registro para el Per.
Se puede advertir que las tortugas Podocnemis poseen una
importante diversidad de digeneos porque en otros pases
sudamericanos tambin se han identifcado varias especies
adems de las sealadas aqu como, por ejemplo, Braunotrema
pulvinatum, Rhytidodes gelatinosus, Telorchis bifurcus, Loefgrenia
loefgreni, Helicotrema spirale, Neodeuterobaris pritchardae, entre
otras (Travassos et al. 1976).
Literatura citada
Alho C.J.R. & J.J. Vicente. 1964. Podocnemitrema papillosus g.
n. sp. n. e nova organizao de sistemtica da familia
Microscaphidiidae Travassos, 1922 (Trematoda, Param-
phistomoidea). Rev. Bras. Biol. 24: 17-22.
Blair D. 2005. Family Microscaphidiidae Looss, 1900. Pgs. 193-
211. In Keys to the Trematoda. Vol. 2. D. I. Gibson, A.
Jones and R. A. Bray eds. CABI Publishing, London
U.K. 768 pp.
Brooks D.R. 1976. Neodeuterobaris pritchardae gen. et sp. n. (Dige-
nea: Microscaphidiidae) in a sideneck turtle, Podocnemis
lewyana Dumeril, 1852, from Colombia. J. Parasitol. 62:
426-428.
Hospedero Parasitados (*) N. especies digeneos Asociacin
P. expansa 3/6 (50) 1 Halltrema o Podocnemitrema
P. expansa 2/6 (33,3) 2 Nematophila + Podocnemitrema
P. expansa 1/6 (16,6) 3 Nematophila + Hallatrema + Podocnemitrema
P. uniflis 5/8 (62,5) 1 Nematophila, Podocnemitrema o Telorchis
P. uniflis 2/8 (25) 2 Nematophila + Podocnemitrema
P. uniflis 1/8 (12,5) 3 Nematophila + Halltrema + Podocnemitrema
(*) Nparasitados/nexaminados(%)
Digenea Hospedero Prevalencia (*)
Cladorchiidae
Nematophila grandis P. expansa 2/8 (25)
P. uniflis 6/18 (33,3)
Halltrema avitellina P. expansa 5/8 (62,5)
P. uniflis 1/18 (5,5)
Microscaphidiidae
Podocnemitrema papillosum P. expansa 2/8 (40)
P. uniflis 4/18 (22,2)
Telorchiidae
Telorchis hagmanni P. uniflis 1/18 (5,5)
Tabla 1. Digeneos identifcados en 2 especies de Podocnemis spp.
procedentes de Iquitos, Per.
Tabla 2. Asociaciones de especies de Digeneos en 2 especies de Podocnemis spp. de Iquitos, Per.
(*) Nparasitados segn asociacin/ntotal parasitados(%)
139

Nuevos registros de digeneos en podocneMis spp.
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Rev. peru. biol. 18(1): 137- 139 (Abril 2011)
141
Rev. peru. biol. 17(2): 000- 000 (August 2010)
Colofn
142
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solamente se usa letra tipo normal, no itlica, no versalita. Ejemplos:
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19. Las citas de artculos en prensa deben incluir el volumen, el ao y el nombre de la revista donde saldrn publicados; de lo
contrario debern ser omitidos.
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Comit Editor
Email: editor.revperubiol@gmail.com
Correo postal: Leonardo Romero (Editor)
Revista Peruana de Biologa
UNMSM-FCB
Apartado 11-0058
Lima 11
Per
Revista PeRuana de Biologa
Volumen 18 Abr il, 2011 Nmero 1
Rev. peru. biol. ISSN 1561-0837
Contenido
Trabajos originales
3 Sobre la identidad taxonmica de Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974 (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
On the taxonomic identity of Brachistosternus peruvianus Piza, 1974 (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae)
Jos A. Ochoa
13 Adiciones a los Gastropoda del mar peruano
Additions to Gastropoda from the Peruvian sea
Carlos Paredes, Franz Cardoso, Paul Baltazar, Katherine Altamirano y Patricia Carbajal
19 Reproduccin y dieta de una poblacin de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae) en Crdoba, Argentina
Reproduction and diet of a population of Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae) in Cordoba, Argentina
Liliana Aun, Damiana Borghi y Ricardo Martori
27 Birdwatching in Peru: 1963-2006
Observando aves en el Per: 1963-2006
Hansjakob Lthi
91 Notas sobre la ecologa reproductiva y conservacin de los chorlos nevados Charadrius nivosus occidentalis en Paracas, Per
Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus occidentalis in Paracas, Peru
Clemens Kpper, Edgardo Aguilar y Oscar Gonzlez
97 Revisin de las especies peruanas de Sebdenia (Sebdeniales, Rhodophyta) y descripcin de Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov. (Halymeniales,
Rhodophyta)
Revision of the Peruvian species of Sebdenia (Sebdeniales, Rhodophyta) and description of Cryptonemia anconensis sp. nov. (Halymeniales,
Rhodophyta)
Cesar Acleto O. y Reina Ziga A.
113 Necromasa de los bosques de Madre de Dios, Per; una comparacin entre bosques de tierra frme y de bajos
Necromass in forests of Madre de Dios, Peru: a comparison between terra frme and lowland forests
Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Alexander G. Parada, Jeremy J. Tern, Tim R. Baker, Ted R. Feldpausch, Oliver L. Phillips, Roel J.W. Brienen
119 Diversidad forstica de la cuenca alta del ro Tambo-Ichua (Moquegua, Per)
Floristic diversity of the upper river basin Tambo-Ichua (Moquegua, Peru)
Daniel B. Montesinos-Tube
Notas cientfcas
133 Presencia y distribucin de dos sub-especies de Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) en Costa Rica
Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Costa Rica
Jim Cordoba-Alfaro y Luis Ricardo Murillo-Hiller
135 Presencia de Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) en Atelocynus microtis (Canidae) de la Reserva de Biosfera de Manu, Madre de Dios, Per
Occurrence of Oncicola sp. (Acanthocephala) in Atelocynus microtis (Canidae) from the Manu Biosphere Reserve, Madre de Dios, Peru
Manuel Tantalen y John Chvez
137 Nuevos registros de digeneos en Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae) de Iquitos, Per
New records of digeneans from Podocnemis spp. (Testudines, Podocnemididae) from Iquitos, Peru
Manuel Tantalen, Nofre Snchez y Oscar Pineda Catalan