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A paper submitted to the Aga Khan University-Institute for Educational Development

(AKU-IED) Karachi to present in International Conference
Status of Educational Reform in Developing Countries (February 19 – 21 2008)

Kech Pakistan
January, 2008



"Don't walk in front of me, I may not follow

Don't walk behind me, I may not lead
Walk beside me and be my friend."

(Albert Camus)


This empirical study investigates and develops an in-depth understanding of Adult

literacy program in district Kech Balochistan. The empirical observation was conducted
to gain a qualitative insight into impact of adult literacy program on women lives.
Observing how adult literacy impact on women' social, emotional and psychological
lives. This presentation argues that adult literacy program is an effective dimension
which bridges the gaps between literates and illiterates. The presentation focuses on
National Commission for Human Development (NCHD) Pakistan district Kech learners’
(enrolled adults) knowledge, skills and attitudes that changed within the specific time
(three months). The adult literacy program provide Basic Literacy skills to the individuals
in the Age Group of 11-45, either never enrolled or dropped out of Schools before
acquiring literacy skills. Achieve a 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015,
especially for women and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all
adults. The study was contextual which required the qualitative case study paradigm.
Interviews, observations and researcher’s own experiences were the main methods of
data collection. The study was conducted in district Kech Balochistan. The primary
research participants were 50 learners of adult literacy center, while secondary research
participants were District Literacy Officer, 6 Literacy Coordinators, 15 Local Area
Supervisors and National Commission for Human Development (NCHD) District
General Manager Kech. The major findings of the study are: Adult literacy program leads
to emotional and psychological control, develop caring attitudes, enhance day-to-day
learning and tends to lead community participation. The study offers insights for adult
literacy program Manager/Coordinator, adult literacy program primers and Executive
District Officer Literacy. It points out the importance of literacy, develops collective
approach among literate and illiterates and reform the district Kech society where only
27% (male/female) of education ratio is coded (1998 censes report). The presentation
also highlights adult literacy program effectiveness in terms of improving Human
development index in Pakistan.


Adult literacy program has always been critique for its failure with set of reasons
such as lack of political well, funds allocation (hardly 1% of education budget), absence
of coordination and organizational structure, centralized monitoring and evaluation
mechanism, and above all lack of commitment. However, in June 2001, president of
Pakistan created a special Task Force on Human Development to develop innovative
strategies for social transformation and poverty alleviation with a focus on outcomes. For
this President of Pakistan setup National Commission for Human Development (NCHD)
Pakistan (President’s Task Force report on Development, 2002).
The Mission and goals of NCHD are “To promote Human Development by
supporting Government Line Departments, Non-Governmental Organizations and elected
officials at the district level in primary education, literacy and provision of basic
healthcare services”. NCHD is a fast-track initiative to improve social sector outcomes at
the grassroots. The goal of the Commission is to fill the implementation gaps and
improve public sector delivery mechanisms to achieve the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs)”.
With the mission NCHD Pakistan established Adult Literacy Program at 104
districts of Pakistan (2006) with the aim to Provide Basic Literacy Skills to the
Individuals in the Age Group of 11-45, Either Never Enrolled or Dropped out of Schools
before Acquiring Literacy Skills.
The past Adult Literacy Program failure was taking into the consideration NCHD
changed the picture and NCHD has been officially declared as lead agency for the spread
of literacy programs in the country by the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
In addition, the 2006 UNESCO International Reading Association Literacy Prize has
been awarded to NCHD for its National Literacy Program. According to Program
Manager NCHD, in 2007, at was declared in Brazil summit that NCHD Pakistan is
running biggest Adult Literacy Program in the world.
This study—an empirical study in nature, this to observe Adult Literacy Program
in terms of impact on women lives. The study would focus two Union Councils
(Singaniser and Gokdan) of district Kech Adult Literacy Program (Phase Jan-June 2007).

The literature on Adult Literacy Program often lead us to conclude that the literacy to
"do," not just to "learn,” (Lin Kuzmich, 2007) Doing is more focus and permanent
activity which appears through attitudes and emotional change. Thus, this study explores
Adult Literacy Program impacts on women lives in district Kech.


Adult literacy program is challenging task where program focused those illiterates
who are psychologically deprived, emotionally disturbed, and economically
underprivileged. The hectic life to earn livelihood made programs doubly difficult to
institute. The illiterate adult Pakistanis’ first concern is eking out an existence. Adult
women face many of the same cultural barriers to as girls do face. On other hand,
Pakistan is facing a solemn confront with prolific literacy, low participation rate and high
dropout. Chudhry, M.A (2005) stated due to gross neglect, low priorities, feeble financial
provision in the past around 50 million adults are illiterate. Furthermore, Chudhry quoted
“Some of the districts of the country have more than 80% illiteracy rate. Illiteracy is
highest amongst rural women, nomads, refugees, ethnic minorities and tribal population”.
The study now underway builds on Freire’s challenged learners to "read the world
through the word." (1996). Though it is tough to reach the point of reading word and
world which shows ethical and moral activities rather then a process of coding and
decoding symbols. In this regard, literature recommends that we need to investigate how
reading word and world take place in adult literacy centers and what result it lead to. The
study will explore Adult Literacy Program impacts on women lives in district Kech.


The research question will explore the impact of Adult Literacy Program in
women lives in district Kech. The study presents a case of illiterates where the significant
resources and opportunities are available and stakeholders are working together for adult
literacy success. I believe this account will have significant implication for literacy
primers in Pakistan. In addition, the finding of the study will enhance commitment level
of policymakers in government sector of Pakistan.

According to my experiences, no studies have systematically explored the Adult
Literacy Program in Pakistan. Therefore, this study contributes toward the research
knowledge on adult literacy and its impact on women lives. .


Main Question
What are the impacts of Adult Literacy Program on women lives in district Kech?


In this section I would review the literature with focusing study question. I
will have insight of research with view of different adult literacy definition, importance
of adult literacy, impacts of adult literacy, Historical Scenario of Adult Literacy Program
in Pakistan, Illiteracy in Pakistan and what literacy means to different people.

Adult literacy definition

It is difficult to define adult literacy Imel et al (1985) states

Historically and culturally relative, the term is impossible to define in isolation from a specific
time, place, and culture. Illiteracy can only be understood in relation to a culture's definition of
literacy because it is a lack of a certain set of characteristics.

In fact, definition of literacy generally stress on reading, writing and numericey.

The adult literacy definitions have changed over the past five decades. According to
census report (1998) definition of literacy has been modified and changed with the figure
of literacy rate. An update of the five censuses is as under:

Census Year Definition of Literacy Literacy Rate

a) 1951 Census One who can read a clear print

in any language. 16.4%
b) 1961 Census One who is able to read with
understanding a simple 16.3%
letter in any language
c) 1972 Census One who is able to read and
write in some language 21.7%
with understanding.
d) 1981 Census One who can read newspaper and
write a simple letter 26.2%

e) 1998 Census One who can read a newspaper 43.9%
and write a simple letter, in any language.

Having insight of censuses reports and different definition a new picture of

literate adult is beginning to emerge. Supporters of this view for example, Kozol (1985)
argues literacy as a worthy end in itself. Knox (1987) reported adult literacy has four
purposes (1) promoting economic productivity; (2) stimulating political change; (3)
increasing social equity; and (4) enhancing quality of life. In addition, Ferrell,
Susan (1990) perceived many policymakers believe high rates of adult literacy to be a
condition of rural economic development.

On the other hand, NCHD Pakistan operational definition followed the indicators
for minimum level of learning of the graduates of Adult Literacy Centers (ALCs) which
are as under:
• After 180 hours of course duration, the graduates will be able to achieve the level
of literacy skills enabling them to read news paper in understanding language at the speed
of 20 words per minute.
• Able to write 7-10 sentences about their immediate environment with proper
consideration to the use of pronouns, singular/plural, and conjunctions.
• Manipulation of three digit figure - Able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide
Life skill:
• Knowledge about the techniques of tolerance and emotional control.

Historical scenario of Adult Literacy program in Pakistan

Historically, adult literacy program was in part of education policies such as
1970s, 1972 inculcate cognizance issues, in 1981 a Literacy and Mass Education
Commission was established, in 1985 an ordinance at Federal level was passed where
various incentives such as issuance of passport, employment in federal government only
to those people who were literate, and grant of driving license in order to promote
Literacy in Pakistan. In 1998 National Education Policy (1998-2010) was formed to

accelerate adult literacy target of 55% by 2003 and 70% by 2010. Afterwards it was
followed by Education Sector Reforms (ESR) 2001-2006 were a promise that adult
literacy will boost up 60% by 2005 carried out. Above all in 2001 National Plan of
Action on Education For All (EFA) committed to re-fixed adult literacy 85% by 2015
through Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO.
In 2002 NCHD established under an ordinance and search the failure of the adult literacy
program in Pakistan. It found the following reasons.
• Lack of political will.
• Long duration of the literacy programs.
• Highly centralized structure for the delivery of the literacy programs.
• Uncertainty about the funding.
• Curriculum not designed as per needs of the learners.
• Inadequate teacher training.
• Ineffective/ weak monitoring system.
• Inadequate community participation.
With the commitment that not to repeat all above reasons once again therefore
NCHD lunched the adult literacy program in 2002 and by 2006 NCHD is working 104
districts in Pakistan.

Effective adult literacy center that brings Impacts

Classroom Norms
Classroom norms play key role to promote effective adult literacy. According to
Hal Beder et al (2006) classroom norms are the formal and informal rules that preside
over behavior in the classroom. After a conscience decision learners set the classroom
norms and stick to the wall for remembrance. Sticking to business was primarily an
informal norm that was accepted by learners and teachers alike. Beder et al (2006) also
define that the norm of sticking to business meant that engaging and maintaining
engagement for the entire class session was the commonly accepted behavior of the class.
It was so ingrained that it hardly ever needed to be enforced.

In adult literacy center the biggest challenge learners’ engagement is considered.
In Adult literacy center it is too difficult for younger teacher to hold the class
respectfully. Therefore defining engagement is most important to see the impacts of
adult literacy centers. How the construct of engagement is defined in educational research
Definitions of engagement range from engagement as “participation” in school as
a social
system (Finn, 1989; Newmann, 1981; Newmann, Wehlage, & Lamborn, 1992;
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2003) to the notion that
engagement is a cognitive function employed during certain academic tasks (Corno &
Mandinach, 1983; Helme & Clark, 2001; Pintrich, 1990).
Fredricks, Blumenfeld, and Paris (2004), setting out to organize the engagement literature
and highlight its gaps for future research, propose that discussions of engagement fall into
three categories.
Cognitive engagement is defined as the students’ investment in and commitment
to academic work. Emotional engagement refers to a students’ reactions to others, and
connections with the school community, and behavioral engagement to participation in
both the school and academic work. They suggest that a “fusion” of these categories is
needed in order to get a deeper and more satisfying handle on student engagement.

Emotional development
Education is fundamentally about change. The most obvious changes occur in the
learners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes all of which are what assessment measures. But
there are often wider, less obvious impacts that occur as a result of education. Although
they can be separated, emotional engagement (what a learner feels) and
behavioral engagement (what a learner does). These ‘ripple’ effects occur in learners’
home lives, their workplaces and the various communities in which they participate.
These ‘wider benefits’ have become an important focus in broader debates about the
value of lifelong learning (Benseman, 2003b).
Zimmerman (1994) conceives of engagement as a combination of cognition,

emotion, and behavior, and focuses his understanding of engagement on the classroom
context. In this sense, his work provides a bridge for us between the work on cognitive
engagement, with its focus on self-regulation, and the work on emotional and behavior
engagement, which tends to focus more broadly on engagement as a type of participation.
In brief literature identified different perspectives of adult literacy definition in
this point I would quote Alland B. I. Bernardo (2000) that “I never thought that defining
literacy would be a controversial matter” (p. 457). So, cultural perspective matters in
defining adult literacy characteristics. In various decade adult literacy definition changed
according to synthesis of the mass orientation. In Pakistan adult literacy program
interrupted due to various reasons however NCHD provoked to change the historical
Adult literacy impacts depend on classroom norms setting where learners are
empower to show the ownership for their own learning. Construction of learners’
engagement in classroom also matter for an adult literacy teacher. Therefore, learners’
participation make it clear while cognitive engagement where learners shows their
commitment to academic work, emotional engagement indicates learner’s reaction to
other and behavioral engagement point out both the center and academic work. In
addition, emotional development is important part of the learning where learner exercise
to control emotions and recognize to do and what to say.


This study explored impacts of adult literacy program in district Kech. I
investigated conducive learning environment, learners’ engagement or participation,
learners’ livelihood change, emotional control and learning achievement of the program.
That is why I used qualitative research paradigm. The qualitative research paradigm
primarily involves collecting detailed descriptive data about the beliefs and behaviors of
actors or research participants in the actual setting.

Research Methodology

Setting for the research: the Adult Literacy Program

The study took place within a Literacy sector of NCHD Pakistan that developed
and implemented an adult literacy program in a district Kech Balochistan Pakistan. A
sample of 50 learners (adult literacy students) with three-months phase duration was
drawn at random from waiting lists of 149 Adult Literacy Centers (ALCs) in areas of
social and economic disadvantage. The ALCs were of roughly equal size (20-25), and the
same number of learners (5) was chosen from 10 Adult Literacy Centers. Random
selection was intended to ensure that learners were as representative as possible of their
All ALCs were established in 17 Union Councils out of 38 Union Councils of
district All 10 ALCs were bilingual (Balochi and Urdu), Balochi was communication
language and Urdu used for instructional language. Learners agreed to participate in
research study on the understanding that selected entirely at random. The program aimed
to provide Basic Literacy skills to the individuals in the Age Group of 11-45, either never
enrolled or dropped out of Schools before acquiring literacy skills. Ten teachers, two
Local Area Supervisors (LAS), six Literacy Coordinators (LC), and a District Literacy
Officer (DLO) worked with learners for the duration of the 3-month program also
research participants. The program was based on the NCHD Adult Literacy program

which established through Social Mobilization Process (a process where community own
the program and ensure collaborative partnership with donor).


Records of ALCs visits and group meetings were made by District Literacy
Officer throughout the duration of the program. These records were analyzed
qualitatively to identify key themes and aspects of learner’s practices and responses to the
program. Through teachers’ participative observation, I was also able to observer and
analyze families’ involvement in the program. During data collection, I used different
data collection methods such as formal and informal interviews, document analysis,
journal writing and observations.

All learners, teachers, LASs, LCs and DLO who agreed to participate in the study
were interviewed about their adult literacy practices at the beginning of the program
using questions that were designed to evaluate the program from the learners’
perspectives in terms of the NCHD adult literacy program framework. Interview
responses were analyzed quantitatively. A similar interview focusing on adult literacy
characteristics and literacy practices was also conducted with teachers, LASs, LCs and
DLO in the control group.
I interviewed Balach1 (DLO) and its two LCs (Chakar and Sheymureed2) in order
to know their perceptions and beliefs about adult Literacy program supported by semi-
structured interview guides which led to accumulation of rich data.


The steps which followed in data analysis were: the interviews were transcribed
word by word and repeatedly analyzed according to the constant comparative method.


Following these guidelines, the first step of the analysis was open coding. Data was
examined line by line in order to identify the research participants’, feelings, descriptions
of thought pattern, and actions related to the research questions. The second step was the
categorization of about 285 codes into different categories. This was done by constant
comparisons between categories; and between categories, codes, written observation and
interview protocols. The third step consisted of fitting together the categories using the
constant comparative method. For ethical consideration consent forms were used for
seeking informed consent from interviewees.


This study has explored on the ways in which adult literacy learners viewed their
experiences of literacy program in their lives. In the present study, take-up and
participation rates were high and are perhaps more positive than might be expected on the
basis of adult literacy programs in Pakistan.

Adult literacy Program in district Kech

According to 1998 National Census, District has a population of 413204 with
47.58% females. The rural population makes up 83.4% of the total population. There are
38 union councils in Kech district. Compared to the national average population growth
rate quoted at 1.99% in 2004, the annual growth rate of 0.97 for Kech and -0.73 and –
0.09 for Tump is very low. Projected population growth rate for Kech District is 0.50 %
(Census 1998). The below tables will show the Tehsil wise population of district Kech
and female literacy rate. In fact, female population is target group in adult literacy
program at district Kech.

Tehsil wise population in district Kech

Tehsil wise female population and literacy rate

Source: NCHD Human Development Support Unit Kech

National Commission for Human Development -Kech commenced at April 2006

and Literacy Sector started at June 2006. Literacy sector completed two phases (July to
December 2006 and January to June 2007). The study was focused on phase two (January
to June 2007) where 149 Adult Literacy Centers (ALCs) were completed and total 3283
learners graduated. Among 149 ALCs study target is 10 ALCs. In fact, the course
duration compressed six months where three months compressed for teaching and other
three months are allocated for Social Mobilization Process (SMP) and record keeping.

Mechanism of Adult literacy program

Adult literacy program mechanism is very dynamic where Literacy Coordinator
(LC) uses SMP strategy to establish ALCs. Chakar (LC) said, Social Mobilization is a
process which makes people enable to discus their problems, analyze their problems,
make plans to solve them, utilize their existing resources, solve them and sustain it. In

addition Chakar says there are 20 to 25 learners are enrolled in ALC which achieves
following prime objectives within specific three months (two hours per day).
• After 180 hours of course duration, the learners will be able to achieve the level of
literacy skills to be able to read a simple paragraph with comprehension
• Able to write 7-10 sentences.
• Numerical: Able to add, subtract, multiply, & divide up to 3 digits.

While Balach (District Literacy Officer) further added the objectives and said,
adult literacy program not only focus prime objectives but also facilitate the learners to
express themselves, to bring positive change in attitudes, to create tolerance and to live
In fact, to achieving above objectives are very difficult in such area where
majority of the people are illiterate. Balach says adult literacy program follow strong
monitoring mechanism which is fully decentralized in district where District General
Manager, Regional Literacy Trainer, District Literacy Officer, Literacy Coordinator,
Social Organizer, Local Area Supervisor, Teacher, Volunteer or community head all
facilitate the ALC. In addition, Balach says “we denied monitoring term we use
facilitation where everyone facilitate the others and system runs smoothly”. Sheymureed
(LC) was sharing the record keeping mechanism said:

We have strong record keeping mechanism in shape of Literacy Management Information

Software (LiMIS) which updates on daily and weekly bases; we have daily dairy, center file,
weekly work plan, teacher guide, weekly review meeting minutes in all tiers, record registers and
stock registers.
Study also analyses Adult Literacy Program documents and found effectively data
flow through E-mail and LiMIS.

Impacts of Adult Literacy Program

Adult literacy program impacts may not quantify by the study but following
themes will may helps to understand the program effectively.

Process of change
Adult literacy program is a bond between community where learners and literacy
try to ensure social change. In fact, this bond commenced with trust, commitment,
sincerity and cultural value. Social Mobilization Process (SMP) promotes trust to
identify, discuss, analyze, plan and solve the issue of illiteracy which ensures community
commitment and sincerity with following strong cultural value. Afterwards, learners
show will and interest to eradicate the illiteracy from the society. Fatima (learner)
regretted her life that “many times in life illiteracy created hurdles, for instance my
cousin refused to get married, because I was illiterate, at home I had no say while
educational discussion commenced in family members where all brother and sisters are
literate”. Shakeela (learner) supported Fatima in group discussion that she belongs to a
poor family where parents cannot afford girls education. She was interested in schooling
but due to economical constraint she could not get admission in school. Afterwards she
assumed education is not for girls but today she was realizing how much education is
Adult Literacy Program has impacts on social change as Hani (teacher) claims
this sensitization and realization emerges from that gathering where adult ensure get to
gather just for literacy. Furthermore, Imel, et al. (1985) also rationalized that literacy
programs are developed in response to differing perspectives, they have differing
purposes. Two common models are (1) personal development and (2) empowerment and
social change. The study revealed that among 50 learners (research participants) majority
showed their interest and will towards getting education. Another finding of the study
was that financial constraint, cultural barriers and parental supports were the major
obstacles of illiteracy. Zarina (learner) shared when she showed desire to get admission in
school my mother said it is better to continue embroidery rather then education. Mulum
(learner) said “we are seven sisters and three brothers that was reason my father says we
cannot afford education”. District Literacy Officer shared Adult Literacy Program
emerged as a change agent for those individual who showed will and interest and found
great performance such as fluently reading sample text and writing. Kolawole and
Adepoju (2007) argued that:

The place of literacy in development cannot be under-estimated. It can be seen as the key to the
development of the capabilities and growth of mankind, which aims at improving the growth,
development and awareness of participants on social, cultural, economic and community relations.
Learning is an active process by which individuals try to make sense out of
information and experiences. A person’s prior knowledge, including beliefs and feelings,
influence this process.

Adult Literacy Center is bridged generation gaps

Study explored that in Adult Literacy Center (ALC) learners are mix age group
(11-45 years) while teachers are 17-24 years old. An adult literacy center is located an
area where 20 to 25 illiterates are willing to learn. The venue of ALC belongs to
community which strengthens the ownership between community and NCHD. The
literature has tended to portray illiterate adults from a deficit perspective, embedded in a
culture of poverty (Imel, et al. 1985). Usually illiterates represent poor community where
people are living hand to mouth and busy all the time for earning. Therefore, a generation
gap was emerged between young generations to elders. The study found learners were
hardly discussing different aspects of life. Mahatoon (34 years old learner) shared:

Coming to this center I feel I am very close to my child because she is in same class after class we
usually set together and study together at home discuss different aspects of life which was missing
in our daily lives.

In the last book another learner Ganji said “I really miss the center after
completion of course so I request to continue this program”. Hal Beder et al (2006) cited
Zimmerman (1994) seeks to understand the environmental conditions that contribute to
fostering this set of behaviors. A teacher Hani articulated that before ALC I was unable to
discuss any issue with my mother but since my mother is my learner I can explain easily
my personal matters with my mother which feel me strength. Freire (1972) argues that
the learning process should be used with deliberate efforts to not only discuss but take
actions to transform and improve social conditions.

Consequently all individuals have potential of learning. They learn throughout the
whole of their lives. At time, they learn slowly almost unnoticeably, at other times with
greater concentration and sense of drive. Learning affects their knowledge, skills,
understanding, attitudes and their behavior.

Teaching and learning in social contact

Teaching approach in Adult Literacy Center is phonic methodology where end of

book (1), teacher uses variety of syllables. In the end of book (2) learners can read and
write simple words and sentences with functional mathematics while by the end of book
(3) which is fully integrated and relevant to formal text books which focused on social
action. In fact, teaching adult is difficult but with highly committed teachers it may
possible to achieve the goals of the program. Hani (teacher) of the view “It is very
difficult to teach old age groups but it is interesting field I really enjoy when they
(learners) first write their name they feel proud”. In deed, such commitment helps to
deliver teaching practice. Murwarid (Teacher) stated “this is not a job I feel it is my duty
and responsibility to teach all illiterates who are my nearby. So in my class my mother,
two sisters and my brother in law is also my learners”. Responding to my question that
how your mother feel when you teach her? Murwarid replied my mother is very happy
and she helps me in classroom management”. A 42 years old lady (Shahsta) reading the
book (3) fluently and showing her happiness with saying that “I feel I got new eyes which
lead me towards reading the translation of Holy Quran that was my dream”. Chakar (LC)
shared we introduced Supplementary Reading Material (SRM) which is a technique
where learners not only read books but also out of the syllabus they may read different
topics according to their level. SRM technique develops by Local Area Supervisors
(LAS) and teachers by help of LC and District Literacy Officer. Shahan (LAS) shared in
SRM our focus is learners issue such as different learners do not know Namaz (prayer)
and its procedure or wants to learn fundamentals of Islam then we develop SRM with
help of Islamic scholar and literacy team. Another learner (Sadganj) said “I was not able
to perform my daily Namaz accordingly but Allamdullah, now I am quite confident to
pray five times Namaz”.

Independence, creativity and learning are all facilitated when self-criticism and
self-evaluation are valued. In other words self-esteem and motivation are heightened
when individuals are in situations where they are accepted and valued. Thus, a culture of
learning in which learners’ potential is fully recognized and actively supported by team
leads learning process.

Adult literacy program impacts seem positive in district Kech. The study explored
the effective mechanism of program where decentralized monitoring (facilitation)
observed which may be one of the strong factors of the program. The impacts of adult
literacy program may not be quantified but research findings are optimistic for rest of the
country where Adult literacy program come across with failure. The study also shows
committed community in district Kech where importance of literacy takes place among
illiterates. In addition, study found a slow and sure social change in learners’ lives.
However, discontinuity of adult literacy program may be one of alarming factors for
learners which show new hope of life.
Learning is facilitated when the learners participate responsibly in the learning
process. One’s beliefs, goals, expectations, feelings and motivations influence the quality
of thinking and information processing. Furthermore, learning needs authentic purpose
and its use in real-life contexts – significant learning takes place when the content is
perceived by the learner as having relevance for his or her own purpose. Individuals learn
more easily in those areas where the distance between their own experiences and new
materials is not great.

Suggestions and recommendation

Is a 100 per cent take-up rate the level to be expected in literacy programs?
Possibly, but to achieve such a level it may be worth noting features of this particular
program that may have enhanced take-up. For example, there should not be interruption
after Basic Adult Literacy Program there should be continuity with such as Post literacy
program, Family Literacy program and Computer Literacy program. Finally Adult
Literacy program needs alignment with formal education. In fact alignment with formal

education is not easy but it is step to bridge the gaps between non-formal education
(Adult literacy program) with formal education (school system). In this alignment age
factor may effects on learning and participation therefore, adult class may treat separately
and also course may be developed accordingly.


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