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ISIS

IS-IS l mt giao thc nh tuyn nI (IGP) c pht trin nm 1980 bi Digital Equipment. Sau ISIS c cng nhn bi t chc ISO nh l mt giao thc nh tuyn chun. ISIS c to ra nhm cc mc ch sau:

Xy dng mt giao thc nh tuyn chun. C c ch nh v a ch rng ln. C c ch nh v c cu trc. Hiu qu, cho php hi t nhanh v c ph tn thp.

Mc tiu ban u ca ISIS l to ra mt giao thc m tt c cc h thng c th dng. Tuy nhin, c th m bo mt yu t thc s mang tnh m (open), ISO c gng tch hp mi c im mang tnh thuyt phc ca cc giao thc nh tuyn khc vo ISIS. Kt qu l ISIS l mt giao thc kh phc tp. Phn ln cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) dng ISIS t nhng nm ISIS c to ra. iu ny l do ISIS l mt giao thc c lp, c kh nng m rng v c bit nht l c kh nng nh ngha kiu dch v trong qu trnh routing (ToS routing). BNG 5-1: CC THUT NG ISIS Thut ng Adjacency (quan h lin k) nh ngha Thng tin nh tuyn ni b cho bit kh nng i n cc router ES hoc IS lng ging. Mt quan h c to ra cho mi lng ging (neighbor) trn mt mng v cho mi mc routing. ISIS c hai mc routing, gi l mc 1 v mc 2 (L1 v L2) trn mt mng broadcast. Mt nhm cc routers chy chung mt giao thc nh tuyn trong mt t chc, mt cng ty. Vng con bn trong mt AD. Cc router bn trong mt vng s duy tr nhng thng tin chi tit mt vng. Cc routers cng s duy tr cc thng tin routing cho php chng n c cc vng khc. a ch vng c lu trong a ch NET v a ch NSAP. Thng tin nh tuyn ni b cho mt im kt ni n. (Single subnet point of attachment SNPA) y l cc field c chiu di thay i trong PDU. Vng code s ch ra thng tin trong vng content. Vng length s ch ra kch thc ca ca vng value. Vng value cha chnh thng tin . CSNP m t tt c cc kt ni trong c s d liu link-state (link-state database). CSNP c gi trn cc kt ni point-topoint khi kt ni ng nht database. Cc router DR, hoc DIS s gi ra cc CSNP mi 10 giy.

Administrative Domain (Khu vc qun l - AD) Area (Vng)

Circuit Code/Length/Value (CLV) Complete sequence number packet (CSNP)

Connectionless Network y l giao thc chun c dng mang d liu v cc thng Protocol (CLNP) tin li cp network. CLNP tng ng vi IP. Tuy nhin CLNP khng c cng c no pht hin li trong lc truyn d liu. CLNP s da trn lp transport m bo kh nng truyn d liu.

Connectionless Network CLNS dng cc gi truyn d liu v khng yu cu mt Service (CLNS mch c thit lp trc khi d liu c truyn. trn, CLNP nh ngha giao thc tht th CLNS s nh ngha dch v cung cp ln lp transport bn trn. Do hot ng theo c ch phi kt ni (connectionless), CLNP khng m bo l d liu s khng b mt. Nu ta cn m bo vic phn phi d liu, cp transport s m nhn vai tr ny. Designated intermediate Router trn mt mng LAN c phn cng to ra cc PDU trn system (DIS) ton mng LAN bng cch xem mng LAN nh mt node duy nht. Dual ISIS ISIS h tr cho c OSI v IP routing. Cc vng bn trong mt AS c th chy OSI hoc IP hoc c hai. Tuy nhin, cu hnh c la chn phi nht qun trong ton vng. L host c chy IP giao thc hoc ES. C th truyn v nhn d liu.

End system (ES)

End System-toL giao thc c chy gia ES v IS thit lp nn cc quan Intermediate System (ES- h IS) Hello Host address Integrated IS-IS Cc gi hello c dng tm v duy tr cc quan h y l a ch con ca a ch NET, bao gm c domain, area v system-id y l mt tn gi khc ca Dual ISIS. Tn gi ny ch ra rng ISIS c th c dng h tr cho hai L3 giao thc (IP v CLNP) trong cng mt h thng mng.

Intermediate system (IS) L mt router. IS l mt thit b c kh nng chuyn mt traffic n mt host xa. IS-IS domain Mt nhm cc router chy ISIS nhm chia s thng tin.

Level 1 (L1)

Cc router L1 ny ch thuc v bn trong mt vng. Cc routers ny ch nhn nhng thng tin lin quan n vng v khng quan tm n cc vng khc. n cc vng khc, level 1 router s duy tr mt n2g i n Level 2 router. L router kt ni cc areas. Router ny s kt ni mt vng level-1 n mt level-2 backbone. Router loi ny s c mt bng routing level 1 route n ES v IS trong vng ca n. N cng s duy tr cc route L2 n cc vng khc. Cc routers ny ch kt ni b backbone v hot ng nh trm trung chuyn gia cc vng. Kt ni vt l n router lng ging.

Level 1-2 (L1-2)

Level 2 (L2)

Link

Link-state packet (LSP) Packet m t kt ni ca router. LSP cho level 1 v level 2 l

ring bit. Neighbor L router trn cng kt ni vi mt quan h c hnh thnh v thng tin routing c trao i. L mt phn ca a ch OSI. NET s m t c vng v SystenID ca mt h thng trong mng ISIS. NET khng m t NSEL.

Network entity title (NET)

Network selector (NSEL) Thng thong c m t nh SEL. Field ny s m t dch v lp network . NSEL tng t nh field protocol trong IP. Network service access point (NSAP) c m t nh mt dch v lp network NSAP l a ch NET c SEL c gn mt gi tr khc 0x00.

Partial sequence number PSNP c gi trn cc kt ni im-im cng nhn tng packet (PSNP) LSP m router nhn. Mt router trn mt h thng mng broadcast s gi PSNP yu cu LSP ng b ha d liu Protocol data unit (PDU Mt n v d liu c truyn t mt layer ca m hnh OSI n cng mt layer trong mt h thng khc.

S tng t gia ISIS v OSPF ISIS v OSPF c nhiu im chung. C hai u l giao thc nhm linkstate v da trn gii thut Dijsktra ca SPF. Thm vo , c hai u h tr kiu thit k cu trc. OSPF c trin khai trong hu ht cc mng cp cng ty, trong khi ISIS c dng trong cc mng ISP. Bng 5-2: So snh OSPF v ISIS Thut ng ISIS Area Area ID Backbone area DIS (designated intermediate system) Domain ES (end system) Stub area Area ID Backbone area Designated router Network Host Thut ng OSPF

ES-IS (the address resolution feature of ES- ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) IS) IS (intermediate system) ISO Routeing Domain Router Autonomous system

Level 1

Internal nonbackbone stub area

Level 1-2

Area border router (ABR)

Level 2

Backbone router

LSP (link-state packet)

LSA (link-state advertisement)

CSNP v PSNP (complete v partial sequence number PDUs)

Link-state acknowledgement packet

PDU (protocol data unit)

Packet

NET (network entity title)

IP destination address (subnet v host), used in a similar way to router ID IP destination address + IP protocol number

NSAP (network service access point)

Routing technology = link state Giao thc nh tuyn classless

Routing technology = link state Giao thc nh tuyn classless

a ch c summary khi i qua cc vng a ch c summary khi i qua cc vng khc nhau. khc nhau. S dng link state database Acknowledges LSPs S dng link state database Acknowledges LSAs

ng i ngn nht c tnh da trn gii ng i ngn nht c tnh da trn gii thut Dijksstra thut Dijsstra Cc gi hello c dng to v duy tr Cc gi hello c dng to v duy tr quan h quan h Khong thi gian hello v hold time c th Khong thi gian hello v hold time c th c cu hnh. c cu hnh. Subnet = data link Subnet = IP network

SNPA (subnetwork point of attachment)

Layer 2 address; for example, the MAC address (Media Access Control) or DLCI (data-link connection identifier) in Frame Relay Address of the host within the network, sometimes used as the router ID determining priorities

Virtual link (defined but not supported) S khc nhau gia ISIS v OSPF:

Virtual link

Trong ISIS, a ch vng v a ch host c gn trong ton b router, trong khi i vi OSPF, a ch c gn cp interface. Mt ISIS router nm trong mt area, trong khi mt OSPF router c th thuc v nhiu area. iu ny c ngha l tt c cc level-1 routers phi thuc v cng mt vng v thng qua level1-2 kt ni n cc areas khc. Tuy nhin, level-1-2 router cn phi nm trong cng mt vng vi level-1 router m n tng tc. Router level-1-2 c th thy ton b cc AS v s lm nhim v nh l default-route n level 1 area. Khi nim ny rt ging vi OSPF stub area. Level 2 router s gi level 2 thng tin cp nht n cc vng khc ging nh ABR trong OSPF. Vai tr ca DR th hi khc. DIS trong ISIS s tn ti c level1 v level 2 trn nhng h thng mng a truy cp (multiaccess), nhng s khng c BDR. Thm na, trong OSPF DR s lun tn ti; ngc li trong ISIS nu c mt router khc c u tin cao hn, DIS hin thi s b loi b vai tr. Rt t cc quan h adjacencies c hnh thnh trong OSPF bi v OSPF router ch lp cc quan h i vi DR v BDR; trong khi trong ISIS, tt c cc router s thit lp quan h vi tt c cc router khc trn cng segment mng. Tuy nhin, cc LSP ch c gi bi DIS . Mt s khc nhau ln khc l qu trnh ng gi ca hai giao thcs. ISIS l c lp v n chy trc tip t lp datalink. S phn mng (fragmentation) thuc v trch nhim ca ISIS. Ngc li OSPF c ng gi trong IP v v vy b gii hn bi giao thc . Cc LSP cng c qun l hi khc. Trong ISIS, cc LSP khng c cng nhn s b b qua v b flood. Trong khi i vi OSPF, cc LSA s b qua v drop. Bng 5-3: So snh OSPF/ISIS Technology Areas

Integrated ISIS Gii hn nh ngha trn kt ni. Mt router c th trong mt area


OSPF Gii hn c nh ngha trn router Cc cng giao tip ca router c th thuc v cc areas khc nhau. Level-1 ISIS routers th tng ng vi OSPF stub area. Mt router c u tin bng hoc cao hn s khng tr thnh DR. Cc quan h c thit lp gia cc router vi DR v BDR.

DR

Nu mt router tr thnh active c u tin bng hoc cao hn DIS, router mi s tr thnh DIS. Cc quan h c thit lp vi tt c cc IS trn mng broadcast. Mi IS s gi cc LSP n tt c cc routers theo c ch multicast.

Cc LSP khng c ACK. Encapsulation ISIS chy trn nn layer-2 ISIS l mt layer-3 giao thc vi cu trc packet ring

Tt c cc LSA u c ACK.

OSPF l mt ng dng IP C OSPF header v nm bn trong IP Fragmentation l trch nhim ca IP

Lan flooding

Tt c cc IS s thit lp quan h vi cc IS khc.

Multicast thng tin cp nht c gi t DR

DIS gi CSNP ti tt c cc router Unicast ACK c gi t DR khc. nh k CSNP s c gi database c ng b LSAs C hai kiu LSP LSP c m ha C 7 kiu LSA Cc unrecognized s b drop

Cc LSP khng c nhn ra s b LSA thng tin cp nht c gi flood trn mng bi tt c cc routers

nh du a ch cho ISIS Khi ISIS c dng cho routing IP traffic, cc thng tin routing c mang trong cc ISIS thng tin cp nht, v vy cc router tham gia cn c mt a ch ton cc (ISO address). a ch ISO address bao gm 2 phn: phn NSAP v phn gm NET (ty thuc vo thit b ang c dng). a ch ISIS c chiu di t 8 n 20. Chun ISO 10589 nh ngha ba phn ca mt a ch: Area, ID v SEL.

Area: Vng ny c dng router gia cc vng vi level-2 routing ID: ID c dng route n mt host hoc mt router bn trong mt level-1 routing SEL: c dng route mt i tng bn trong mt host hay mt ES

NETs v NSAP NET v NSAP l cc a ch ISO. a ch NET l a ch ca host, trong khi gi tr trong NSEL c gn bng 0. V vy, khng c upper-layer giao thc no c dng bn trong host. Nu khng c ng dng c ch ra host cui cng, packet c th c route ti ch nhng n khng th chuyn cho mt process. Tuy nhin router khng c cc upper-layer giao thc bi v n l cc IS trung gian. V vy, NSAP ca router c gi l NET trong c vng NSEL c gn bng 0. Cc nguyn tc cho vic dng a ch ISO:

a ch ISO c gn cho ton b h thng, ch khng gn n cng giao tip ca router Router thng c mt a ch NET. Qui c l ti a ba a ch NET. Nu nhiu NET c cu hnh trn cng router, n phi c cng system-ID. a ch ca vng phi l ging nhau cho ton b cc router trong cng mt area Tt c cc level-2 phi c System-ID ring bit cho ton domain

Tt c cc level-1 router phi c System-ID ring bit v duy nht cho ton area System-ID phi c cng chiu di cho cc IS v ES trong mt routing domain.

Cc v d ca mt a ch NET: V d 1: 47.0005.aa00.0301.16cd.00 Area ID: 47.0005 SystemID:aa00.0301.16cd SEL:00 Cu trc ca ISIS Level-1 Router Level-1 router ging stub router trong OSPF v database ca n ch gii hn n area. i ra ngoi mt vng khc, dng default-route n router level-2 gn nht. The Level 2 Router route traffic gia cc vng, ta cn phi c level 2 router. Routing gia cc areas c gi l interarea routing. Loi router ny tng t nh router backbone trong OSPF. Level-2 router s giao tip vi nhau thng qua Hello. Database ca cc level-2 router phi ging nhau v cha cc network trong nhng areas khc. The Level 1-2 Router Loi router c y thng tin trong database l level 1-2. c im ca n l tng t vi ABR trong OSPF. Router ny s c cc router lng ging nm trong cc vng khc nhau bi v n gi c hello loi 1 v hello loi 2. Router level 1-2 ny s thng bo cho cc level-1 router khc v cc vng m n ni v, hn na n s thng bo cho cc level 2 router thng tin v vng ca n. Router loi ny s tiu tn nhiu b nh v CPU. Cu hnh ny l cu hnh mc nh trong cc Cisco routers. Cc nguyn l c bn ca nh tuyn theo vng (area routing)

Khi mt router nhn mt traffic route n mt ch khc,router s thc hin vic tm kim trong bng routing-table Router s gi b system-id v sel tm ra a ch area. Nu a ch ca vng l tng t cho vng , n s route cc packet n host dng level-1 database Nu vng l khc nhau, router s thc hin mt trong nhng thao tc sau:

a. Gi packet n level router gn nht (nu router l level 1 router) b. Tm kim ng i trong bng nh tuyn nu router l level 2 router. c. Phn gii a ch tm route di nht. ISIS cng c dng cc thu gn route lm gim kch thc ca bng routing. Cc areas trong ISIS c nh ngha trn cc kt ni (link). Hnh 5-1: nh ngha cc vng ca ISIS

Cc level 2 router c kh nng gi cc thng tin cp nht phi kt ni vi nhau lin tc: Hnh 5-2: ISIS-Backbone

Integrated ISIS v cc cng giao tip ca routers Cc routers thng thng trao i cc thng tin vi nhau cp nht cc kin thc ca n v network chung quanh. mc ti thiu, mt router phi truyn t cho nhng routers ln cn cc thng tin nh nh danh ca router, cc cng giao tip ca routers. Trong ISIS, nu cc hello-packets c trao i v cc iu kin c tha mn, cc routers s thit lp quan h lng ging. Mc d qu trnh hnh thnh cc quan h lng ging ph thuc vo h tng mng c dng nhng nhng thng tin bn trong cc hello-packets lun lun l ging nhau. Mi hello s ch ra ngun gc ca Hello v nhng c im ca cng ca router. Nu cc cng ca router c chung c im, cc quan h (adjacency) c to ra. Sau khi mt quan h c to ra, cc thng tin routing s c trao i nh vo cc LSPS. Hnh 5-3: Cc quan h ISIS mc 1 v mc 2

mt quan h c hnh thnh v duy tr, c hai cng giao tip ca router phi tng ng vi nhau v cc c im sau:

Kch thc packet MTU phi bng nhau Mi routers phi cn phi c cu hnh cng mt mc routing ngha l hoc l level 1 hoc level 2. Nu cng mt mc th routers mi c kh nng gii m nhng hello do nhng routers khc gi n. Nu c hai router l level 1, n phi trong cng area Nu level 1 router hnh thnh cc quan h vi cc level 1 router v level 2 hnh thnh cc quan h vi cc level-2 routers. mt level-1 router hnh thnh mt quan h vi mt level-2 router, router kia phi c cu hnh nh mt level-1-2 router. Gi tr system-ID ca mi h thng phi l duy nht Nu qu trnh xc thc (authentication) c dng, n phi c cu hnh ging nhau trn c hai router. Thi gian hello phi bng nhau

ISIS nh ngha hai kiu network: broadcast v point-to-point (OSPF c 5 kiu). Mt mng kiu broadcast h tr cho cc c ch broadcast v multicast. Cc kt ni point-to-point c th khng h tr broadcast v c th l cc PVC hoc SVC.

Thit lp cc quan h lin k (adjaency) trn cc kt ni Point-to-Point:


Khi thit lp cc quan h, cc router s gi cc CSNP. Cc CSNP l mt danh sch cc kt ni c lu trong c s d liu. CSNP cng s kch hot qu trnh ng b ha (synchronization) trong tng router. Cc hello nh k s duy tr cc quan h lin k ny. Nu mt router khng nghe mt hello-packet trong mt khong thi gian hold-time, router kia s c xem nh l khng hot ng. Khong thi gian hold-time bng ba ln thi gian hello.

Thit lp cc quan h lin k (adjaency) trn cc kt ni broadcast:


Trn cc kt ni broadcast, tt c cc router chy ISIS s nhn packets c gi bi mt router duy nht DIS. DIS c trch nhim pht tn (flooding) tt c cc routers ang chy ISIS. Mt cch din t khc l DIS s pht tn cc LSP cho pseudonode.Mt paseudenode s tng trng cho mt mng LAN, trong mi router ca LAN l mt cng giao tip o ca router o kia. Router o ny

gi l pseudonode. Cng ging nh router tht, router o s pht tn cc LSP khi c mt thay i trong kt ni ca LSP (v d nh khi c mt router ln cn online). Cc quan h lin k vi cc routers khc s c duy tr bi DIS. DIS s gi cc Hello mi 3.3 giy. C ch ny nhm m bo tnh ton vn ca cc kt ni. Nu c mt vn vi DIS hin ti hoc c mt router khc c u tin cao hn, router DIS hin hnh s b cho v hu. Qu trnh bu chn da trn u tin .Nu tt c cc router c gi tr u tin mc nh l 64 th router no c gi tr SNPA cao nht s l DIS.

Thit lp cc quan h lin k (adjaency) trn cc kt ni NBMA:


Cc cng ngh Frame Relay, ATM v X25 l cc v d ca mi trng NBMA. Bng cch dng cc PVCs, mi trng NBMA to ra nhiu kt ni truy cp ng thi tng t nh mt mng cc b LAN. ISIS s xem mi trng NBMA ny nh l mt dng ca mng cc b LAN v cho rng mi trng ny c h tr ISIS. trnh s phc tp v cc li c th, Cisco khuyn co cc kt ni nn c cu hnh nh mt lot cc kt ni point-to-point. Hnh 5-4: Cc cng ngh c h tr bi ISIS

Cc giao thc lp network ca ISIS


Cc PDU c to ra lp network v c ng gi trc tip vo cc frame datalink. Tt c cc ISIS packet chia s cng header 8 bytes. Sau phn header, c mt s field c kch thc thay i. Cc field ny c gi l Type/length/Value (TLV) hoc Code/Length/Value (CLV). Nm pha sau phn header chung ny l cc field c kch thc thay i. C ba dng packets trong Integrated ISIS: hello, LSPs v SNPs. Point-to-point hello

LAN hello:

Hot ng ca Integrated ISIS


1. Router gi Hello ra tt c cc cng giao tips tm cc router lng ging v hnh thnh nn cc quan h lin k 2. Cc router c cng kt ni datalink s tr thnh quan h lng ging 3. Cc router xy dng cc LSPs da trn cc IS-IS interfaces v cc prefix c hc t cc quan h lng ging 4. Routers s pht tn (flood) cc LSP n tt c cc router ln cn ngoi tr router gi LSPs. 5. Khi mt LSPs mi c nhn, router s xy dng li databse kt hp cc LSP ny. 6. Router s thc hin gii thut SPF cho tng network, xy dng bng nh tuyn.

Hot ng ca ISIS c chia thnh 4 qu trnh: Qu trnh cp nht (update process) LSP c to ra khi c mt thay i trong mng, thng thng do cu hnh mt router no thay i. Tuy nhin, bt c mt s kin no di y cng kch hot to ra LSP:

Mt router lng ging up hoc down Mt cng giao tip trn router thay i trng thi hoc metric. Mt ng i thay i.

Trong qu trnh pht tn, mt router s truyn v nhn cc LSPs. Gi v nhn LSP Khi nhn c mt LSP, router s lu trong database v nh du s pht tn LSP ny. Nu LSP c trong database, router ch cn gi ack v sau b qua LSP ny. Nu y l LSP mi, router s ti ra mt LSP m t kt ni ca n vi router lng ging. Sau , router s gi LSP mi v LSP do chnh n to ra n cc quan h lng ging. Cc router lng ging kia, n lt n s pht tn n cc router lng ging k tip. Cc LSP level-1 c gi ra ton b area, trong khi cc level-2 LSP c gi ra tt c cc Level 2 routers.

Qu trnh truyn cc LSP trn cc kt ni vt l khc nhau s khc nhau. Truyn cc LSP trn cc cng point-to-point

Khi mt quan h adjacency c thit lp, c hai u u gi cc CSNP packet trong c mt phin bn thu nh ca database Nu c bt k mt LSP no khng c trong CSNP, router s gi mt bn LSP cho router kia Tng t, nu trong c s d liu b mt mt LSP no , router nhn s yu cu gi li chnh xc LSP . Cc LSP c yu cu gi, nhn v cng nhn (ack) nh vo cc PSNP. Khi mt LSP c gi, router s thit lp mt ng h. Nu sau mt khong thi gian expire, LSP s c gi li. Khong thi gian ny gi l minimumLSPTransmissioninterval. Mc nh trong Cisco routers, khong thi gian ny l 10 giy.

Truyn cc LSP trn cc kt ni broadcast


Cc thng tin cp nht mc level 1 v level 2 dng cc a ch multicast. DIS c ba cng vic sau

To v duy tr cc quan h To v cp nht cc LSP Pht tn cc LSP trn mng LAN

Cc bc chnh trong qu trnh pht tn:


Khi nhn c CSNP, router s so snh LSP vi database Nu database c mt bn LSP mi hn hoc nu khng c phin bn no ca LSP trong CSNP, router s pht tn cc LSP vo mng LAN dng multicast Nu database khng c LSP c gi trong CSNP, n s gi PSNP yu cu mt LSP y .

Hnh 5-5: Lan truyn cc CSNP v PSNP

Xc nh LSP trong database l c hp l hay khng? LSP c cha 3 field gip xc nh LSP ang c nhn c mi hn LSP c trong database hay khng. Cc field ny l:

Remaining Lifetime: c dng loi ra cc LSP c. Nu mt LSP tn ti trong database khong 20 pht, n gi s rng router ban u ngng hot ng. Thi gian lm mi (refresh time) c gi tr l 15 pht. Nu khong thi gian b ht hn (expire), LSP s loi b ni dung cha bn trong, ch li header. Sequence Number: y l mt gi tr tuyn tnh 32 bit. LSP u tin c cp ch s l 1. Cc LSP k tip c tng ln 1. Checksum: Nu mt router nhn mt LSP v checksum khng tnh ton chnh xc, LSP s flush v lifetime ca LSP c gn v 0. Tt c cc router cn li s b LSP. Router ban u s truyn li LSP mi.

Qu trnh quyt nh: Sau khi database c ng b, router cn phi quyt nh ng i no s dng n mt ch no . D nhin l c th s c nhiu ng i chn la. Mc tiu ca qu trnh quyt inh l to ra mt cy phn nh ng i ngn nht n tt c cc ch. Mi router s xy dng mt cy trong bn thn n l root. S c vi bng c to ra trong qu trnh ny. Bng PATH l bng cha ng i ngn nht trong qu trnh xy dng. Bng TENT l bng tm c dng trong qu trnh tnh ton. Nu c nhiu hn mt ng i n mt ch, cc tiu chun sau y c chn la:

Nu c nhiu hn mt ng i n mt ch, Cisco router s dng ti a 6 ng i. Gi tr mc nh l 4. Cc metric ty chn c tham kho trc khi default-metric c chn. Tuy nhin Cisco routers ch h tr default-metric Cc ng i bn trong (internal) c chn trc cc ng i external. Cc ng i level-1 bn trong mt vng th c u tin hn. a ch vi subnetmask di nht s c dng. Nu ToS c cu hnh, ng i c ToS s c chn trc cc ng i khc Nu ToS l bng nhau, s c ti a 6 ng i c t trong bng routing. Router s thc hin load-balancing trn cc ng i ny Nu khng c ng i no, router s chuyn packet n level-2 router gn nht, l router mc nh.

Metrics or Cost Metric nh ngha ph tn ca ng i. ISIS c 4 metric, trong ch c mt metric l c dng. Cc metric c nh ngha l:

Default: cn c gi l cost. Tt c cc ISIS router phi h tr loi cost ny. Cisco gn gi tr mc nh l 10 chm tr (delay). Chi ph hin thi ca network (expense) tin cy ca ng i (error)

Qu trnh forwarding:

Cc ng i c subnet mask di nht s c chn. Qu trnh nhn: Khng c m t chi tit trong gio trnh CCNP. Cc tiu ch thit k ISIS Trong ISIS, qu trnh thit k tp trung vo areas v a ch. Thit k Vng trong ISIS: Khi thit k ISIS, cn xem xt cc dng d liu v ti nguyn c yu cu bi ISIS. iu chnh qu trnh cp nht c th l cn thit. Nu ta gim thi gian cp nht, database s hi t nhanh hn nhng network c th thiu ti nguyn h thng route d liu. Mt vi thit k tiu biu bao gm:

Mt mng dng flat ch dng level-1 routing. Thit k ny s khng mang tnh m rng v bt k mt thay i no trong mng cng to ra mt s pht tn cc LSPs n tt c cc routers. Tuy nhin, thit k n gin ny c u im l ch c mt c s d liu v khng c vn v suboptimal routing. Mt mng flat dng level-2 routing: Khi h thng mng pht trin, cc level-1 c th thm vo. Mt h thng mng c cu trc, trong phn core chy level-2 routing cn level-1 kt ni n core. Level 1-2 router c dng kt ni cc area.

Route Summarization Cc level 1-2 routers c th tm lc cc routes bn trong vng ca n. Route tng (summarize route) c lan truyn n level-2 routers. Level 1 routes khng th c summarize bn trong areas bi v ISIS khng cho php iu ny. Integrated IS-IS NBMA Modeling Solutions in a Switched WAN Network i vi ISIS, mi trng NBMA s c cu hnh nh multipoint v cho php vic bu ra mt DIS. Mt gii php khc l cu hnh cng giao tip vi cc subinterfaces nh cc kt ni point-topoint.