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Chapter 25 The New Imperialism. (1800-1914). (1) A Western-Dominated World. (2) The Partition of Africa.

. (3) European Challenges to Muslim World. (4) British Take Over India. (5) China and the New Imperialism. France in Algeria. Sepoy Rebellion. Berlin Conference. Sun Yat-sen. _____________________________________________________________________________ 1830. 1857. 1884. 1911. (1) A Western-Dominated World. Setting the Scene. In late 1800s Western industrial nations become imperialists and dominate much of world. 1901. Edward VII takes British throne. Boast is The sun never sets on British empire. The New Imperialism and Its Causes. Imperialism is domination of one country of political, economic, culture of another region. 1500s. European states win empires in Americas and establish colonies in South Asia. But Europeans had little influence on lives of peoples of China, India, or Africa. 1800s. Europeans embark on aggressive expansion today called the new imperialism Europeans have a combination of causes for their new imperialism. Economic. Europeans with machines (Industrial Revolution) need access to raw materials. Examples: rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, palm oil for machinery. Europeans also need new markets for the factory goods. Political and Military. Europeans have steam-driven ships that need naval bases to take on coal, supplies. Europeans need to keep up with rivals. France. Britain. Germany. Nationalism. Europeans seek global empire for its prestige around the world. Humanitarian. Some see duty to share western civilization: medicine, law, Christian religion. Social Darwinism. Westerners apply Darwins ideas to survival of the fittest of human societies. European races are seen as superior to all others. (The Nuer, Evans-Pritchard.) Success of Western Imperialism. In just a few decades (1870-1914) imperialist nations gain control over most of world. Why? (a) Comparative Strength. West grows strong while older civilizations decline. (b) Absolute Advantage. West has strong economy, government, and military. New medicines: quinine (malaria). New Maxim machine guns. Warships. Forms of Imperial Rule. Colonies. Direct rule (France). Officials, soldiers from home to impose homeland culture. Indirect rule (Britain). Local rulers administer. Youth educated in England. Protectorates. Local rulers are left in place but expected to obey European advisers. Spheres of Influence. Area outside power claims exclusively, e.g., USA and Latin America.

(2) The Partition of Africa. Setting the Scene. By the end of 1800s European imperialist powers claim control over most of Africa. Africa in Early 1800s. Africa is a huge continent. Four times the size of Europe. Many languages. Varied rules. North. Sahara. Fertile land on Mediterranean. Under rule of declining Ottoman empire. West. Grasslands. Forests. Under rule of strong states like Asante kingdom. East. Port cities. Slave trade. Muslim rule. South. Zulus. Boers. Slave Trade. 1787. Britain organizes Sierra Leone in West Africa as colony for former slaves. 1847. Liberia (former U.S. slaves) becomes independent republic. European Contacts Increase. Early on Europeans trade on African coast. Later explorers push into the interior. Explorers. 1805. Mungo Park. Scottish doctor. Seeks source of Niger River. 1858. Richard Burton. English adventurer. Discovers Lake Tanganyika. 1860s. David Livingston. Scottish missionary. Went to Africa (1840). Discovers Victoria Falls (in 1855). Back in England (1857). Returns to Africa (1858). 1869. Henry Stanley. Welsh journalist. Sets out to find Livingstone. 1871. Finally tracks Livingstone down in Tanzania. Greets him with now-legendary line: Dr. Livingstone, I presume. A Scramble for Colonies. King Leopold II (1835-1909) later hires Stanley to explore Congo and arrange treaties. 1885. Leopold II, king of Belgium since 1865 becomes king of independent state of Congo which was annexed to Belgium government in 1908 due to Belgian exploitation. King Leopolds activities in Congo sets off scramble of other European nations. Berlin Conference. 1884. Europeans want to avoid bloodshed in the rush to colonize Africa. An international conference meets in Berlin. No Africans are invited. Europeans come to agreement regarding: * Leopolds private claims to Congo Free State. * Free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers. * European nation needs office in any claimed territory. This principle leads Europeans to send officials to exert power locally. Expansions. France conquers Algeria in 1830s and Tunisia in late 1800s. Britain has share smaller and more scattered than France but gains control of Egypt. Portugal establishes colonies in Angola and Mozambique. Italy occupies Libya. Germany takes lands in eastern and southwestern Africa for its place in the sun. Africans Resist Imperialism. Ethiopia Survives. Beats back Italy (1896). Only nation, save Liberia, to stay independent. New African Elite. Early 1900s. African leaders want self-determination and independence.

(3) European Challenges to Muslim World. Setting the Scene. During 1880s European nations extend their power into parts of the Muslim world. 1798. Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt, a province of the Ottoman empire. Napoleons campaign highlights Ottoman demise. Opens new era for Europeans. Stresses in Muslim World. 1500s. Three giant Muslim empires are: Mughals in India. Ottomans in Middle East, Safavids in Iran. Empires in Decline. 1700s. All three Muslim empires are in decline because: * Central governments lost control over powerful groups like landowning nobles, military elites, and urban craft guilds. * Corruption. * Muslim scholars stir discontent against existing government. Islamic Reform Movement. Reform movements across Muslim world stress religious piety and strict behavior rules. Example: Wahhabi movement in Arabia rejects schools of theology and law of Ottomans. Wahhabis want to recapture purity and simplicity of Muhammads message. 1880s. In Sudan, Muhammad Ahmad announces he is the Mahdi. Fiercely fights British. European Imperialism. European powers win treaties though diplomacy and military threat for special rights. Problems for Ottoman Empire. 1800s. Ambitious pashas or provincial rulers increase their powers. Signal Ottoman decay. Nationalist Revolts. Internal revolts for nationalism weaken the multiethnic Ottoman empire. Subjects in Eastern Europe, Middle East, North Africa threaten to break away. In Balkans, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, gain independence. Revolts erupt in Arabia. Lebanon, and Armenia. Efforts to Westernize. Reforms such as better medical care, revitalized farming prove to be a mixed blessing. Better living conditions results in a population explosion and more competition for land. 1908. Young Turks (liberals) overthrow sultan. But reforms stall due to WWI in 1914. Massacre of Armenians. Muslim Turks v. Christian Armenians. Genocide is destruction of ethnic or religious group Egypt Seeks to Modernize. 1800. Egypt is semi-independent province of Ottoman empire. 1805. Muhammad Ali is appointed governor of Egypt. Successful reformer. 1849. Muhammad Ali dies. Egypt is on its way to becoming major Mid East power. 1859. Ferdinand de Lesseps, French entrepreneur, starts to builds Suez Canal. 1869. Suez Canal opens. 100 mile waterway that links Mediterranean and Red seas. 1875, Britain gains control of Suez Canal by buying shares from ruler of Egypt. 1982. Britain make Egypt its protectorate (after Egyptian nationalist revolt). Iran and European Powers. The shahs who rule Iran from 1794 to 1925 exercise absolute power like Safavids did. Still the rulers enact reforms: improved finances. building telegraph lines and railroads. Russia wants to protect its southern border. Britain wants to protect its interest in India. Both nations set up spheres of influence: Russia (north). Britain (south). Concessions.

(4) British Take Over India. Setting the Scene. Despite Indian opposition Britain gradually extends its control over most of India. 1526-1712, Mughal emperors who rule India are able. Post 1712. Mughal emperors are not strong. Provincial governors grow independent. Britian takes advantage of internal struggle between Hindus and Muslims. East India Company and Sepoy Rebellion. East India Company. In early 1600s British East India Company wins trading rights on fringe of Mughal empire. The company was mainly out to make money in trade of cotton, cloth, silk, sugar, and jute. As Mughal power declines, BEIC power increases. By mid 1800s, BEIC controls 3/5 India. 1756. Robert Clive, head of BEIC, raises an army to oust France from posts in India. It includes in its army sepoys who are Indian soldiers fighting for British. Causes of Discontent. 1850s. (1) Sepoys are told they should serve anywhere, India or overseas. High-caste Hindus consider overseas travel against their religion. (2) Law is passed to let Hindu widows remarry. Law outlaws sati or Hindu custom for widow to join husband on funeral pyre. Hindus view both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs. 1857. (3) British issue new rifles to sepoys who are told to bite off tips of cartridges. Cartridges grease is fat from cow (Hindu-sacred) or pig (Muslim-forbidden). Sepoys refuse the order to load rifles they are sent home without pay. 1857. Sepoy Rebellion Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers in north and central India. Brutally massacre British men, women, and children in some places. British rally to crush revolt and then torch villages to kill unarmed Indians. British Colonial Rule. 1858. The rule of the British East India Company is over. Britain takes direct control. Britain sets up colonial rule. A viceroy governs in the name of the queen. Brits hold top civil service jobs. An Unequal Partnership. Britain sees India as a source of raw materials (cotton) and market for goods (shirts). 1869. After Suez Canal opens British trade with India soars. Favoring Britain. Different Views on Culture. Both the British and Indians are divided on their opinions of each others culture. Some Indians like Brit power and technology. Learn English. Adopt western ways. Other Indians feel the answer to change lay with their own Hindu or Muslim culture. Some Brits admire Indian theology, philosophy, ancient heritage, Hinduism, Buddhism. Other Brits know little about Indian achievement and dismiss its culture with contempt. Indian Nationalism. 1885, Indian National Congress is founded. Wants self-rule and western industrialization. 1906. Muslim League is formed. Wants a separate Muslim state. Looking Ahead. 1947. India wins independence. (Later in text.) Bloody conflict of Hindus and Muslims.

(5) China and the New Imperialism. Setting the Scene. 1644, Manchus conquer Mings. Start Qing Dynasty (that lasts until 1911). 1800s. Qing China declines as western powers gain power in East Asia. The Trade Issue. Prior to 1800s Chinese rulers place strict limits on foreign traders restricted to small area in southern China. China sells silk, porcelain and tea in exchange for gold and silver. China enjoys a trade surplus, exporting more than it imports. Opposite of trade deficit. Two developments in late 1700s transform Chinas relations with western world: (1) China enters a period of decline (with internal rebellions). (2) Industrial Revolution creates a need for expanded markets for European goods. The Opium War. In late 1700s British merchants begin to make huge profits in trade of opium grown in India for Chinese tea which was popular in Britain. Soon, Chinese are addicted to drug. Silver flows out of China in payment for the drug, thereby disrupting the economy. The Chinese government outlaws opium and executes Chinese drug dealers. China calls on Britain to stop the trade. Britain refuses and insists on its right to free trade. 1839. Opium Wars starts. China destroys $6 million of opium that British brought to Canton. China sends warships to clash with British merchants. British gunboats easily defeat Chinese boats with outdated weapons. British gunboats bombard coastal and river ports. 1842, Treaty of Nanjing. Britain makes China accept a treaty that says China agrees (1) to grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality rights (British law). (2) open five ports to foreign trade. (3) lease Hong Kong to Britain. (4) pay $6 million as indemnity for loss of opium. Other nations then demand unequal treaties from China, and get them! Internal Problems. By 1800s the Qing Dynasty is in decline. Massive floods. Starvation. Extravagant court. Taiping Rebellion. Peasants rebel (1850-1864) in arguably the most devastating peasant revolt in history. School teacher leader wants Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace that is Taiping. Demands: redistribution of land to poor, end high taxes, equality of women and men. The rebellion gets crushed after 14 years with between 20 to 30 million Chinese dead. 1860. Russia seizes land on Chinas north border. Builds port of Vladivostok. 1894. Japan quickly defeats China. Japan takes over control of Taiwan. China seems weak. Sphere of influence: Russia, Germany, France, Britain. 1899. USA demands Open Door Policy or equal access to trade with China. The Qing Dynasty Falls. 1899. Boxer Uprising. Boxers start secret society (the Righteous Harmonious Fists). 1900. Boxers attack foreigners across China. Outside nations crush the Boxers. 1908. Empress Ci Xi dies. Two-year-old boy assumes throne. 1911. Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian) becomes president of new Chinese republic.