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PH 136 Environmental Health Fundamentals of Environmental Health Prof.

June 15-18-22-25,2010

Fundamentals of Environmental Health 1. The Environmental System Man-Environmental Relationship 2. Principles of Environmental Control 3. Areas of Health Concern 4. Emerging Health Problems

: land is a purifying filter on water containing dissolved and colloidal instruments. *Groundwater (spring water) is better than surface water. Water : All the water in the world: Ocean = 97.6% Ice & Snow = 2.07% Ground = 0.33%** Surface = 0.28%** ** For consumption/Freshwater supply

I. The Environmental System (external factors)

General Elements: A. Life Support Systems y Energy nutritive & non-nutritive Ex: Solar Energy Nutritive: Photosynthesis Non-nutritive: Solar Power (converted into electric power) y Social behavior of individuals y Biological Pathogenic and beneficial organisms y Built Environment manmade (shelter, bridges, buildings) y Geophysical (Main Concern) Air : 21% Oxygen 78% Nitrogen [remaining 1% = ?] Trees provide for microorganisms which then release Carbon dioxide. Lack of trees result to imbalance in the ecosystem, leading to global warming, melting of ice caps, rise in sea level then the infiltration of groundwater (seawater intrusion). Land: provides platform for activities of human society or land-based animals : provides water, nutrients, and anchorage for plants and trees. *People are encouraged to plant trees around La Mesa Dam to consolidate the soil and prevent EROSION. : land releases water through transpiration : leaves will try to regulate the entry of water into the ground : land is a habitat for decomposer organisms which have essential roles in the cycle of carbon and mineral nutrients

QUESTION: Why is the sea salty ANSWER: Rain water, slightly acidic due to dissolved compounds, beats down on the land and rocks, they end up dissolving the minerals in the rocks and return them to the water. The minerals are salt compoundsNOT JUST sodium chloride. A salt is any ionic compound (metal and a nonmetal), such as calcium chloride or magnesium chloride. The salt(s) then flow down rivers and streams to their final destination in the oceans, where they remain. Over the course of millions of years, this salt has accumulated to be a substantial component of the oceans. :Water Use in the Philippines Agricultural 85.6% Industrial Domestic 7.3% 7.1%

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13,411km coastline 1,123 M sq. km. of sea area 82% of provinces are in coastline zone : RIVERS 421 river systems - 18 major river basins (drainage 400 sq km) : LAKES 72 natural lakes - Laguna de bay The Largest lake in the Philippines - Lake Taal - Lake Lanao : WETLANDS (swamps, mangroves) - 100T hectares, freshwater swamps - Agusan Marsh & Candaba Swamp : GROUND WATER - 14% total water resource potential - Estimated storage capacity is 1.22 million cubic meters - 50% of population uses ground water for drinking - Extraction is regulated by NWRB (National Water Resource Board) -11 tropical cyclones average/year -2200mm annual average rainfall -2002 14M households, 70M people, 78.3% has access to safe water -4.3M households without access to safe water :WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION a. Homes w/ acess to safe water supply 10,817,911 (78.3%) b. Homes w/sanitary toilets 9,649,470 (69,3%); in Region 7 1,954,408 only Human Activities a. Residential b. Work c. Recreation d. Transportation Human activities may cause ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (generation of residues and wastes) : RESIDUES AND WASTES SOLID WASTE (LAND POLLUTION) (image below will be uploaded) =>Open Dump land & water organic wastes (anaerobic decomposition->methane-> -

could spark spontaneous combustion) - katas ng basura->to aquifer ->water supply - runoffs->canals->flooding -> seas->death of fish -dust and gas (carried by wind) *from 1575 to 1994, 27.5 million hectares of virgin forest reduced

=>Mine Wastes Issues and Problems: -Mine Wastes & Tailing Disposal -Siltation of River Systems -Heavy Metal Pollution -Small Scale Mining *Conversion of agricultural lands per annum to human settlements & industrial zones forces the use of synthetic fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) which make the soil acidic and unable to support life. GAS WASTE (AIR POLLUTION) Note: Air Emissions from mobile sources in Metro Manila: -TOG -Carbon Monoxide->carbonic acid -NOx > Nitrous oxide-nitric acid*** -SOx ->Sulfur oxide-sulfuric acid*** ***responsible for acid rain! -TPM Total Particulate Matter -PM10 Particulate Matter,10 microns

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LIQUID WASTE (WATER POLLUTION) Four of the major river systems in Metro Manila [are biologically dead. Organic Matter, Decomposition & Lack of Oxygen Pasig River not biologically dead Out of 421 rivers, 50 are polluted, 16 biologically dead Critical areas: Metro Manila, Southern Tagalog & Central Luzon Several beaches were polluted by organic wastes CURRENT WASTE WATER ISSUES: -Laguna Lake depth reduced from 7.0m to 2.8m, due to heavy siltation -Nitrogen and Phosphorus load increased by 10.8% to 24%. -Laguna Lake BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) levels are suitable for fish production. of the tributaries have high BOD levels. Chemical Oxygen Demand>BOD -heavy metal contamination of inland waters in Mindanao & Luzon: industrial sources: MManila, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog & Cebu mining sources: CAR & CARAGA -pesticide pollution in rural areas is from agricultural runoff -58% of ground water sample is contaminated with fecal coliform and is in need of treatment. *Chlorine neutralizes organisms *31% of illnesses in a 5-year period are water-related diseases: a. Waterborne Cholera, Typhoid -ingestion of contaminants, pathogens and chemicals b. Waterwashed lack of water access -inability to wash.. Ex: scabies, trachoma, lice c. Water-based parasites

d. Water insect related ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES *Total Economic Losses = 67B Health = 3B Fisheries Prod. = 17B Tourism = 47B Other (damage claims, family income bottled water expenditures: 4.6B per year in Metro Manila) B. Site and Location NATURAL HAZARDS - floods, earthquakes, droughts, volcanic eruptions, landslides Biological Hazards involves pathogens Physical Hazards heat, light, color, contrast, glare -vibration and noise - Physical Design -Electromagnetic Radiation y Chemical Hazards from industries -Poisons, toxins, allergens, irritants y Psychological & Social Hazards - Noise, overcrowding - Lack of privacy - Lac of opportunity for social interactions - Lack of open space - Boredom - Stresses from work, traffic **Residues and Wastes can cause Hazards which disrupt human activities and the geophysical factors y y

II. Principles of Environmental Control

1. Isolation - separation by distance -ex: Coal fire powerplants in areas without communities 2. Substitution use of alternative materials, processes and operations -ex: Lead in gasoline-removed, substituted with benzene (but carcinogenic) 3. Shielding use of barriers -welders use mask; people use mosquito nets to avoid malaria 4. Prevention a. Restriction of activities rotation of schedule of call center agents b. Immunization against diseases c. Use of prophylactic agents temporary 5. Treatment a. Destruction applicable to biological hazards. Ex: chlorination, disinfection, sterilization b. Conversion of harmful substances to less harmful ones Ex: Baygon [solvent vs. water-based? Whats the difference? Effect?]

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Halogenated solvents, such as methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane are common carriers, diluents and solvents for aerosol sprays. However, they have been restricted due to health and environmental concerns. To alleviate these concerns, many aerosol manufacturers shifted from solvent-based aerosols to water-based aerosols. Many of these aerosols used water as a carrier, dimethylether (DME) as a propellant, and a solvent. The use of DME as a propellant is well known. Because the insecticide is emulsified in the water, the prior art water-based aerosol insecticides do not have a sustaining good knock-down effect, and when sprayed on a porous surface, such as wood or drywall, the insecticide is significantly absorbed by the surface. As a result, the remaining solvent has a tendency to dilute the insecticide. Thus, consequently, there is not enough insecticide on the surface in sufficient toxic amount to be available for insects to receive in the required amount to effectively kill the same. None of the prior art insecticides disclose a formula wherein the active insecticidal agents are separated from the water or diluent upon release from the aerosol can in order to avoid the problem of dilution, absorbtion and slow knockdown.

=>variable water temperature =>warmer than wells during summer y Ground Water wells, springs, deep & Artesian wells, Horizontal & Infiltration Galleries Disadvantages: =>unavailable to consumers =>rich in mineral content =>pumping adds to cost =>harder than surface water due to minerals =>flow is uncertain *Groundwater supplies are smaller in daily delivery but more numerous. **SALTWATER INTRUSION

Removal of harmful substances ex. Filtration, distillation d. Dispersion & Dilution applicable to air and water pollutants Ex: dilution of acids & bases= addition of water reduces concentration = becomes harmless III. Areas of Environmental Health Concern A. Water Supply B. Sanitation C. Waste Management D. Soil Pollution E. Food Sanitation F. Vector Control G. Air Resource Management H. Occupational Health I. Urbanization A. Water Supply Sources & Distribution [insert water cycle] - Rain, groundwater (aquifer), surface waters (rivers, streams, sea) - How can they be contaminated? All are open to contamination [insert process of contamination] y Surface Water (ponds, lakes, swamps, marshes) Disadvantages: =>water is more turbid (open to contamination) =>larger bacterial count =>variable water quality (geography)


***High Chloride content of water indicates saltwater intrusion. Ground water in Manila is already critical. In time, the zone of Diffusion between salt water and ground water move because ground water is being used up by the well and, consequently, salt water replaces the lost ground water. y Rain Water Disadvantages of Meteoric Water Sources: =>Rainwater is not sufficient to supply requirements =>Water is corrosive (because the water cycle causes rain water lose minerals and thus gain low levels of pH, making it acidic and corrosive.) =>seasonal in occurrence

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=>needs larger prepared catchment areas for commercial use

Factors affecting H20 use y y y y y y y size of community Industry and commerce Characteristic of population Metering Climate Water Quality System pressure o booster pumps
Drinking Cooking Personal Washing & washing clothes
Short -term survi val

Drinking and Culinary Purposes Laundry Bathing Toilet

5 gpcd

18.2 lpcd

6 gpcd 5 gpcd 5 gpcd

22.73 lpcd 18.2 lpcd 18.2 lpcd

Note: GPCD- Gallons per capita daily LPCD- Liters per capita daily Water usage and Classification by NEDA Class Class AA Beneficial Use Public water supply class I Intended for waters having watersheds w/c are uninhabited and otherwise protected w/c only require only approved disinfection in order to meet the PNSDW (ground water source) Class A Public water supply class II For sources that will require complete treatment

House Cleaning

Medium Maintaining

USES OF WATER Primary Drinking Secondary Firefighting Tertiary Shellfish culture Recreation Class B

(Sedimentation Filtration Ion Exchange Adsorption Chlorination/Ozonization (Surface water source) Recreational water class I For primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming, diving etc. (particularly for tourism purposes) (can be harnessed for Hydroelectric power source) Class C 1.) Fishery Water 2.) Recreational water class II 3.) Industrial water supply class I for manufacturing processes after treatment


Sprinkle Sheets Carry Waste

Manufacturing Food preparation Bathing

Navigation Power

Irrigation Fishing

Basic Minimum Needs Transcribed by: JeMAbNo Page 5

Class D

1.) Agriculture, irrigation, livestock, watering? 2.) Industrial water supply class I for cooling 3.) Other Inland waters

5.Air Pollution from stationary and mobile sources -burning of wastes (esp. in provinces

Acid rain Engines that utilize diesel emit particulate matter

Water Supply levels of service y Level 1 (point system) y A protected well or a developing spring w/ an outlet but w/o a distribution system y Generally for rural areas where houses are scattered .(bilis ni sir magpalit slide) Level 2 (communal faucet system) y A system composed of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network of communal houses (bilis uli) y For rural areas also y 4 6 Level 3 (individual household connection) y A system composed of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and individual household taps. y Generally for high density build up.
B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. Sanitation Waste Management Soil Pollution Food Sanitation Vector Control Air resource Management Occupational Health Urbanization 6.Use of Persistent Chemicals Entry of illegal chemicals ex: ENDOSULFAN A city with rapid urbanization and industrialization may not be ready to accommodate rapid increase in population. Increase in population demands creation of more job opportunities, and entails additional costs for water supplies etc.

7.Rapid Urbanization and Industrialization

IV. Emerging Health Problems Environmental Concern Emerging Health Problem Lack of access

1.Access to safe water supply

2.Disposal of Human Wastes

Inadequate sanitary facilities

3.Disposal of Solid Wastes (General, not including Hospital Wastes)

Inadequate sanitary landfills

4.Disposal of Hazardous & Toxic Wastes (including Hospital wastes)

Toxic and hazardous wastes *PGH is the largest tertiary hospital in the Phils.

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