Está en la página 1de 37

APPRECIATION PROGRAMME ON SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE

(JULY 2011)

A Drive against Climate Change Case Study for Sustainable Transport

Project by: Arpit Ludhiyani Regn. No.: 097908222

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY
I, Arpit Ludhiyani, a student of Appreciation Programme on Sustainability Science (APSS) course (July 2011) hereby declare that the project titled A Drive against Climate Change Case Study for Sustainable Transport is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due acknowledgement is made in this thesis. I also declare that the intellectual content of this thesis is the product of my work, except to the extent that assistance from others in the projects design and conception or in the style, presentation and linguistic expression is acknowledged.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely acknowledge and extend my heartful gratitude to Mr. Yanglem Sharatchandra Khuman for providing me an opportunity to work on this project. I thank him for identifying and recommending a senior academician as the supervisor for my project. I am grateful to my project supervisor, Ms. N. Ganga Vidya for her invaluable guidance in conceptualizing and framing the project which has made the completion of this project possible. Without her inputs it would not have been possible to structure the project in the way it has been. I also take this opportunity to express gratitude to my friends who contributed to this project through their regular inputs and discussion on the subject.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter A B C D 1 Title Preface Introduction Objectives of the Study Methodology Sustainable Transportation as Part of Overall Sustainable Development Introduction Historical Perspectives History of Road Transportation History of Maritime Transportation History of Rail Transportation History of Air Transportation History of Spaceflight What is Sustainable Transportation and How can it be achieved What is the Need for Sustainable Transportation Conclusion Towards Sustainable Transportation: Efforts by Governments Introduction Steps Towards Sustainable Transportation Case Study for New Zealand Case Study for Japan
3

Page No. 5 6 7 8 9

1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.3

9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13

1.4

14

1.5 2

16 17

2.1 2.2

17 17

2.2.1 2.2.2

18 19

2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.3 3

3.1 3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5 3.6 3.7 E

Case Study for Germany Case Study for Australia Case Study for Canada Case Study for USA Case Study for China Case Study for India Case Study for UK Conclusion Financial and Societal Analysis of Sustainable Transportation Introduction Financial analysis of Sustainable Transportation Societal Analysis of Sustainable Transportation Challenges Facing Sustainable Transportation Criticism of Sustainable Transportation Future of Sustainable Transportation Conclusion References

20 21 23 24 25 25 26 27 28

28 28

30

32

33 33 34 35

PREFACE
From the very beginning of the existence of human beings on earth, transport has been the engine of growth. Transport is essential for the overall development of human Civilization since without it there can be no trade, no people to people contacts, no cities and no civilization at all. Every big civilization concentrated on building efficient transport system for them to thrive. Roman Empire was built on efficient highways, without high seas navigation there would not have been a British empire and America would have remained undiscovered and also there would not have been a alternate route to India through Cape of Good Hope. Modern economies could not work without the goods and services provided by cars, trains, airplanes, etc. Transport determines the location of industries and cities and the very prosperity of regions since often accessibility and mobility is equated with economic and social progress. Though transport is inevitable it is often associated with the growing global warming. Road transportation is the greatest contributor to global warming for the next 50 years according to a recent study by NASAs Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A new study says that 15% of the manmade carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earths atmosphere comes from cars, trucks, airplanes, trains and ships. While it can be seen that the transport sector is responsible for the growing share of global emissions, many of the gases emitted by transportation arent covered by regulations from the Kyoto Protocol. Thus this study reflects the urging need to transform our transport sector from un-sustainability (traditional) to sustainability. Its not a matter of choice but the need of the hour. The project starts by explaining what exactly the sustainable transport is and why is there a need to implement it in every part of the globe. It further makes a strong case in support of sustainable transport by analyzing the steps taken by national governments in addition to bringing the economic and social impacts of applying the same. It ends with a view on the future scenarios for the sustainable transport.

INTRODUCTION
According to the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), sustainable development is one that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Daly (1991) defines sustainable development as one that satisfies three basic conditions: The rate of use renewable resources does not exceed their rates of regeneration. The rate of use of non-renewable resources does not exceed the rate at which sustainable renewable substitutes are developed. The rate of pollution emission does not exceed the assimilative capacity of the environment. Traditional transport planning aims to improve mobility, especially for vehicles, and may fail to consider wider impacts. The real purpose of transport is to provide access for the citizens to work, educate themselves, meet there family and friends and also to provide goods and services. A Sustainable transport is one that provides access is accessible, safe, environment friendly and affordable. Cities especially should improve the sustainability of their transport networks to create more vibrant, livable and sustainable cities.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Today Climate Change is becoming an existential threat to mankind, it is necessary to make dramatic changes to the way we live. Inability to achieve this will lead to dire consequences in the future. Climate change is not only a threat to present generation but to future generations as well. We owe the responsibility of securing a sustainable planet for those generations yet to come. To counter the ill effects of climate change, one of the ways is to move towards Sustainable Transport. The study tries to develop a case in favor of Sustainable Transport by: Underscoring the necessity of Sustainable transport. Reviewing the recent development in this field. Assessing current challenges and future directions. Analyzing the impacts to society in moving towards Sustainable transport.

METHODOLOGY
A four pronged strategy has been applied to present a favorable case for the implementation of Sustainable transportation. In the initial phase of this project depicts the importance of sustainable transport. It highlights the implications of Sustainable transport in every sector. The subsequent part of the study takes an in-depth analysis of the steps taken by various national governments to implement sustainable transportation. The next phase involves the financial accounting of implementing sustainable transportation as well as its impact on the society. The final phase talks about the probable scenarios for sustainable transport and in turn reducing the global greenhouse emissions. This project involves study of a number of research papers, journals, articles etc. published in this topic. It uses these studies to make a strong case in favor of sustainable transport since it has a tremendous potential to transform the life of every living being and also keep our earth safe from the threats posed by global warming.

CHAPTER 1 Sustainable Transportation as part of overall Sustainable Development


1.1 Introduction
We thrive and survive on planet Earth as a single human family. And one of our main responsibilities is to leave to successor generations a sustainable future - General Kofi A. Annan According to the United Nations released Brundtland report in 1987, most widely used definition on sustainable development says: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It consists of two main concepts: The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the worlds poor, to which overriding priority should be given, and The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and Social organization on the environments ability to meet present and future needs. To this regard United Nations (UN) developed Agenda 21 which was the outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. This document is a blue print of the action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the UN, governments and major groups of the related areas. Its structure consists of 40 chapters divided into four main sections: SECTION 1: Social and Economic Dimensions It basically deals with curbing poverty and changing population with sustainable settlements. SECTION 2: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development Atmosphere protection, controlling deforestation also putting breaks on air pollution. SECTION 3: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Includes the role of children and youth along with NGOs, businesses, workers, etc.

SECTION 4: Means of Implementation Implementation using science, technology transfer, education, other mechanisms. Keeping up with the ideals of Agenda 21, there is an urgent need to transform our much needed transport sector to more environment friendly sustainable transportation. Before going further into the topic we should understand the historical background of our present transport sector and then subsequently we should understand that what sustainable transport actually is and why there is a pressing need to apply it in the present changing global scenario.

1.2 Historical Perspective


Transport or transportation can be explained as the movement of people, animals and goods from one place to another and the medium through which it is achieved is termed as modes of transport, this includes air, rail, road, water, pipeline, space, etc. Proper transportation requires to put three different things together into one mainly infrastructure, vehicles and operations. The history of modern transportation can be divided into five broad categories namely history of road, maritime, rail, air and spaceflight.

1.2.1 History of Road transportation


Most early forms of road transport were horses, oxen or even humans carrying goods over rough paths. The most basic of improvements in road transport may have been the clearings of trees as well as big stones from the path. Slowly and steadily with the increase in movement the tracks were often flattened or widened to accommodate the growing traffic. During the Stone Age there began an extensive usage of pet animals for transportation. With the invention of wheel there was a revolution in transport sector. They were used to make chariots, carts, etc. and thus speed-up transportation. With the arrival of wheels there was a need for better infrastructure (roads) to support them. Romans are believed to build the first highways for long distance transportation. The roads built in Baghdad, Iraq in the 8 th century were the early tar-paved roads. With the states becoming richer, mainly in the renaissance period, the road transport developed manifold and there were newer and newer ways discovered to better the overall infrastructure. A little over a hundred years ago the invention of internal combustion engine again revolutionized the road transportation and resulted in the onset of an era which we can totally call the modern transportation era. It made cars, bikes, buses, trucks, etc. possible so that humans can extend the limits of speed again and again and can travel as fast as possible. Thus, in road transportation, humans have travelled the millennias from using domesticated animals to using wheels and to come to the stage of modern day transportation of internal combustion engine.

10

1.2.2 History of Maritime transportation


In ancient maritime history, the first boats are presumed to have been dugout canoes, developed independently by various Stone Age populations and used for coastal fishing and travel. The earliest seaworthy boats may have been developed as early as 45,000 years ago, according to one hypothesis explaining the habitation of Australia. There have often been proposed theories of pre- Columbian Trans oceanic contacts at various times, based on historical reports, archaeological finds and cultural comparisons. India, Arabia and northern European Vikings are attributed to start the age of navigation by developing ocean going vessels. The invention of magnetic compass helped sailors a great deal in their long sea voyages. Chinese and Arabs were in the lead in sea voyages in the early medieval period. With the Renaissance period in Europe there started an age of discovery where sailors were onto their journeys for finding newer and newer lands. Vasco Da Gama found an alternate maritime route to India, Christopher Columbus discovered America and many sailors found newer lands. With the expansion of European empires across the world there was a need to develop larger and newer ships specially using it for military purpose so that the nation who controls the sea will ultimately control the land. English became the master at sea and thus the British Empire was termed as the empire where Sun never sets. Maritime transportation was essential in providing decisive victories to nations in many wars including the two world wars. With the arrival of 21 st century there are newer developments in the maritime technologies such as the construction of stealth ships in order to avoid detection by radar, sonar and infrared methods. We have come a long way in maritime transportation from small coastal boats to large cruisers, aircraft carriers, etc.

1.2.3 History of Rail transportation


The earliest evidence of a wagon way, a predecessor of the railways is the 6 to 8.5km long Diolkos wagon way, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece since around 600 BC. Railways started reappearing in Europe after the Dark ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a stained-glass window in the minister of Friburg in Breisgau dating back to 1350 AD. Rail transport is considered to be much more efficient than road transport in terms of dense, bulk goods such as coal and other minerals. That is why rail transport is often preferred over road transport with the arrival of steam engine and its subsequent improvement by James Watt there was a revolution in rail transport thus it developed the steam locomotives. On 21 st February 1804 the Worlds first railway journey took place in South Wales.

11

Britain was quick to apply this newly developed technology all over the country and develop the first railway network. It also built vast railway networks in its colonies such as India for better political and economical control. France, USA and other countries soon follow the suite. The development of railway brings newer technologies such as electric railways, diesel power, etc. In the mid 20th Century came the high speed rail with the opening of the first Shinkansen line between Tokyo and Osaka in 1964, high speed-rail with speed above 300kmph are currently running in China, USA, UK, Japan and many other countries. With the ongoing threat of global warming and energy shortages, high speed-rail is presumed to hold the key for the future transportation in many countries.

1.2.4 History of Air Transportation


Since the man has seen the birds flying, it has always been his dream to fly. There are instances of flying depicted in Indian Mythology such as Ramayana of Pushpak Vimana which belonged to Ravana. Humans slowly developed the hot air balloons, kites and gliders but these were not able to carry humans and have a controlled flight. There were many proposed flying models in history such as the one proposed by Leonardo Da Vinci. It was only the genius of Wright brothers that the humans were able to fly as they developed the machine that not only can fly but also can be controlled as well. Thus, there was a large scale development in the aviation history with newer, larger and much more efficient airplanes being used. Aviation industry totally changed the way wars were fought by adding the third dimension (after land and sea) of air. After the first flight, nearly all the wars were being fought in air and air superiority was vital for achieving decisive military victory. There was newer and newer development in aviation sector all throughout the 20 th century with helicopters, seaplanes, etc. Now we had reach the supersonic speed and journey across oceans were now a matter of few hours. Now a whole new dimension is being added to military aviation sector by removing the role of pilot by developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or UAVs. In October 2003, the first totally autonomous flight across the Atlantic by a computer controlled model aircraft occurred.

1.2.5 History of Spaceflight


The first rocket to reach space, an altitude of 100km, was the German V-2 rocket, on a test flight in June, 1944. On the 4th of October, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, which became the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. It started what is now called the space age. The first human spaceflight was Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961, by the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, where he made one orbit around the Earth. In 1969, Neil Armstrong set foot on Moon and made it possible for humans to travel to other heavenly bodies. Space age has come a long way as now the humans are constructing settlements in space with the building of International Space Station (ISS). There is call for going back to Moon and also find ways to go to Mars and beyond.
12

1.3 What is Sustainable Transportation and how can it be achieved


Sustainable transport forms an inherent part of overall sustainable development; it is basically used to describe modes of transport and systems of transport planning such that they are totally consistent with sustainability. European Union Council of Ministers of transport defines sustainable transportation system as one that: Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations. Is Affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development. Limits emissions and waste within the planets ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise. The first mode of transport i.e. walking is also the most sustainable transport. Other transport system that can be called sustainable are public bus that date back to 1662, passenger tram which began operation in 1807, pedal bicycles date back to 1860s. After the World War II, there was an increase in overall wealth and people became more affluent thus a need arise of faster modes of transportation which resulted in present unsustainable modes of transport such as cars, bikes, scooters, etc. But the rising greenhouse gases have brought back humans to think about transportation systems that are more sustainable. The environment impacts of transport can be countered by increasing use of walking, cycling and enhancing the role of public transport, especially electric rail. Increased usage of green vehicle or environment friendly vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas emissions effectively. Green vehicles are basically road motor vehicle that is less harmful to the environment by using alternative fuels such as electric power, biodiesel and ethanol fuel. It results in fuel economy, better use of transportation in the most cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector. Thus, as part of their contribution to sustainable transport, environment friendly vehicles reduce air pollution and green house gas emissions and contribute to energy independence since it lessens the usage of conventional (oil) fuel. An efficient public transport based on traditional diesel buses use less fuel per passenger than private vehicles, this greatly reduce the usage of petroleum products. Green public transport vehicles including electric trains, trams and electric buses combine the advantages of green vehicles with those of sustainable transport choices. Other transport choices with very low environmental impact are cycling and other human-powered vehicles, and animal powered transport. The most common green transport choice, with the least environmental impact is walking.

13

Another way of achieving an efficient sustainable transportation is by excessive use of transit oriented development (TOD). A transit-oriented development (TOD) is a mixed-use residential or commercial area designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership. A TOD locality has basically a center which has a transit station/stop (train, metro, tram, bus) surrounding by relatively high-density development with progressively lower-density development spreading away from the center. TODs generally are located within a radius of one-quarter to one-half mile (400 to 800 m) from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians. Many of the new towns created after World War II in Japan, Sweden, and France have many of the characteristics of TOD communities. TODs have 450 to 500 attached town homes and detached homes. Vibrant mix of uses includes residential, retail, office, commercial, institutional, etc. There are carefully designed public/community spaces. They are basically pedestrian friendly to decrease the use of vehicles. Benefits associated with TODs are: Increase transit ridership and reduce number of automobile trips generated Improve air quality Provide opportunities for neighborhood connections Increase sense of community Reduce household fuel costs associated with heavy auto use Promote attractive, safe, walk able mixed-use neighborhoods Increase value and income for property owners Expand markets and increase revenues for businesses Enhance tax revenues for local governments from rising land values Increase development and business transactions in areas near transit

1.4 What is the need for Sustainable Transportation?


There is an urgent need to switch to sustainable modes of transport. The transport sector is the single biggest contributor to green house gas emissions, according to the World Resources Institute (2005), it account for 24.1% of CO2 emissions worldwide but its a necessary evil since its importance in local commuting, linking and global system of cities and overall socioeconomic development cannot be negated. A study conducted in the transport sector making the observations for USA has made the following important points which show the urgency to transform our transport sector: Despite significant progress in the development of cleaner gasoline- and diesel-burning vehicles over the last 30 years, the impacts of expanded vehicle use in the US have eclipsed environmental gains. Every three seconds, another new car is sold. Americans
14

account for less than 5% of the world's population, but they drive more than 32% of its vehicles. The average American drove nearly twice as far by auto in l995 than in l970. This results in much of the air pollution over America. Asthma rates are rising. Research conducted by the Pew Environmental Health Commission found that, between 1980 and l994, asthma rates rose by 75% overall and by 160% among children under age four. The commission predicted that the number of asthma victims would more than double within 20 years, from 14 million in 2000 to 29 million by 2020. Not all the reasons for this epidemic are known, but it is clear that the very fine particles in diesel exhaust and the smog created by diesel emissions irritate the lungs and are a major trigger of asthma attacks. Minority and economically underprivileged communities suffer disproportionately. According to the President's Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children, the death rate of African-American children from asthma is over four times that of white children. A ground-breaking study conducted at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine found that asthma hospitalization rates for children from poor, minority neighborhoods in New York City were up to 21 times higher than those for children from affluent neighborhoods. The study concluded that diesel exhaust was a major contributing factor in poor communities, where bus and truck traffic is heavy and the majority of diesel-fueled bus depots are located. According to the US EPA and California's Air Resources Board, diesel exhaust contains more than 40 toxic substances, including known human carcinogens, probable human carcinogens, and reproductive toxins. Reliance on oil from politically volatile regions is already having broad national and international security implications. Operation Desert Storm, undertaken in part if not primarily to protect US oil supplies in the Middle East, involved 670,000 Americans and a cost of $60 billion. America's oil addiction continues to influence relations with oilproducing countries. Fossil fuels, formed over the course of 65 million years, are now being burned 100,000 times faster than the rate at which they can be regenerated by natural processes. The conventional automobile is only about 12% efficient in delivering the energy released from combustion to the wheels. It is one of the most wasteful, as well as one of the largest, consumers of the world's most limited fossil fuel.

These are the findings for the transport sector taking USA as the source of observation, it more than justifies the need to raise voice in favor of sustainable transportation since the practices are more or less same everywhere in the world. Thus the solution for keeping up international, national, regional, and local interactions while fostering sustainable development has yet to be found; no strategy for sustainable transportation systems agreed to by all stakeholders across countries so far exists.
15

While the urgency of planning for sustainability has increased over the years, concrete solutions accepted internationally have been slow to emerge. Each country is constrained by its individual setting and hence faces unique hurdles in moving towards sustainability. Despite these hurdles and other international challenges, moves towards sustainable development are evident. Across the globe researchers are seeking to develop, and cities are trying to implement, sustainable policies. Planning for sustainable transportation systems is a complex task that involves multiple options and uncertainties. Government seeks an optimal package of policies that is willingly accepted by all affected groups. An ideal implementation strategy would allow for easy transition from the way people formerly travelled to the new system.

1.5 Conclusion
Global warming has indeed become a threat to the living beings on earth and if the current practices are not altered than it is not hard to predict what the future holds for us. The change starts from one person and then slowly and steadily becomes a mass movement. We humans have the responsibility to save this earth and its life forms from extinction since we are responsible for the current threat on greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable development is the only answer to the global climate change problems since it is the development which does not hamper the prospects of future generations. Mahatma Gandhi once said that the world has enough to fulfill every man needs but not enough to fulfill every mans greed, thus following a path where greed is put aside and focus is on needs and fulfilling those needs by sustainability will help save this planet. Sustainable transportation is the part and parcel of overall sustainable development has been seen in this chapter, we have also seen that why there is so pressing need to implement it in every part of the globe. Thus the choice is ours that we want the continuation of current unsustainable policies of mankind or take a leap towards sustainability and preserve the ecological balance of our mother Earth.

16

CHAPTER 2 Towards Sustainable Transportation: Efforts by Governments


2.1 Introduction
An efficient and well planned sustainable transport system cannot be implemented if the government of that region, state or country does not take steps in this direction. Though change starts from one person, for better sustainable transportation a comprehensive and sound government policy is needed. The role of governments is of utmost importance since their planning of infrastructure and developments with regard to sustainability if not ensured than the movement cannot become a mass movement. It is important to note here that government should plan new townships, cities, etc. with keeping in view that there should be sustainable modes of transportation, which will help for overall sustainable development of the region. Though governments world over are making changes in their energy policies by developing renewable sources of energy, they are still to take a holistic approach towards sustainable transportation. In case of India, the government has made a ministry in the name of alternative sources of energy but it does not have immediate master plan for the development of sustainable transportation across the cities in India, which is badly needed since India is speedily rising through the ranks of nations which are responsible for the emission of the most greenhouse gases.

2.2 Steps towards Sustainable Transportation


Though world over the steps in the direction of sustainable transportation are in the nescient stage but are enough to take note of. Here is the study of the number of steps taken by various governments to implement the policy with respect to the sustainable modes of transportation.

2.2.1 Case study for New Zealand


Motor vehicle use is New Zealands fastest growing and today it is the least controllable major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Road motor vehicles produce over 11 million tones of CO2 emissions and 15% of GHG emissions. Land transport is the second largest source of GHG emissions in New Zealand and is also the fastest growing, accounting for 18% of the growth of GHG emissions over the 1990-2001 periods. Aviation, by comparison, contributes only 1% of GHG emissions and 1.5% of the growth. Nevertheless, air travel still produces many
17

times more GHG emissions per person kilometer of travel than cars, and is thus much less sustainable than car travel on a per person kilometer basis. In November 2003 the Land Transport Management Act (LTMA) was passed. It attempts to provide a more balanced approach to land transport projects, and places increased emphasis on multi-modal transportation systems and solutions. New objectives for Transfund New Zealand (Transfund) and Transit New Zealand (Transit) are to allocate resources, and operate the state highway system, to achieve an integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable land transport system. The LTMA allows regional councils to fund, and both own and operate public transport infrastructure and services unless prohibited by Order-in-Council. Future work will look to make it easier for public road controlling authorities to work together. The LTMA also modifies the purpose of Regional Land Transport Strategies, which set out an integrated approach to managing land transport in each region, to be consistent with achieving a land transport system that is integrated, safe, responsive and sustainable. The New Zealand Transport Strategy5 (December 2002) also moves New Zealand in the direction of sustainability in transportation. This strategy outlines the government's vision for transport: that New Zealand has an affordable, integrated, safe, responsive, and sustainable transport system. The strategy also notes that: Economic development, social cohesion and environmental improvements must be progressed in parallel. Transport decisions will need to reflect the wider government commitment to sustainability. To ensure that transport is underpinned by the principles of sustainability and integration, transport policy will need to focus on improving the transport system in ways that enhance economic, social and environmental well-being, and that promote resilience and flexibility. It will also need to take account of the needs of future generations, and be guided by medium- and long-term costs and benefits.

2.2.2 Case study for Japan


Japan has fully realized the need to control the air pollution and implement policies that controls the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Japan has taken a number of measures in this regard. It has taken a four point strategy to curb the GHG emissions. These are as follows: a) i. Regulatory measures Automobile NO2/PM Law (Special measures for air pollution in metropolitan areas) The main targeted areas of this law are Nagoya, Osaka and Kobe. This plan states that there should be total emission reduction master plan by local governments; there will be restrictions of outdated vehicles renewed registration. It further says that automobiles not
18

ii.

applied of emission standards of NO2/PM in specified area cannot be used. Thus the goal of this law was to comply with Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) by 2010. Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance on Environment preservation It bans operation of diesel powered automobiles that fail to comply with particulate matter (PM) emission standards. It Mandates enterprises to report by vehicle emission reduction plan. Also dealers will be responsible to give environmental information to customers at the time of sales. Support to business and private sector Diffusion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs) such as fuel cell vehicles, Hydrogen vehicles, Dimethyl Ether (DME) vehicles. Promotion of Public Transportation Conference on Promotion of Public Transportation is an active body whose activities are to promote the use of public transportation by cooperation of traffic enterprises (supply side) and industry (demand side). It also gives its support to mobility management programs. It favors the use of large scale information system for transfer buses-trains. Leading activities in local areas Diffusion of Bio-fuels It is important to achieve the Kyoto Protocol target. For transport though biomass is not utilized previously but the target for 2010 was of 500,000 kl. EST (Environmentally Sustained Transport) model project - Innovating communities which aim to realize environmentally sustainable transport are solicited. The concerned ministries and agencies, departments and bureaus will extend intensive supports in a cooperative manner. Regional Cooperation Eco Action Partnership for Asia It consists of six strategy to tackle climate change mainly environmental crisis information systems in Asia, Asian solar campaign, Asian biomass campaign, Global resource strategy, fostering human resources for the era of environment, Asian eco life-style innovations. Transport policy dialogue It aims at an ASEAN Japan transport partnership which promotes public transport and reduce emissions from road transport.

b) i. ii.

c) i. ii.

d) i.

ii.

2.2.3 Case study for Germany


Germanys transport, land use, housing, and taxation policies at all government levels have increasingly promoted sustainability since the 1970s. The German federal government has provided the framework for more sustainable transport, but cities and states have played a crucial role in developing and implementing innovative policies.

19

The southwestern city of Freiburg has been Germanys leader in sustainable transport and landuse. Many policies pioneered in Freiburg have spread to other cities in Germany and worldwide. Today, Freiburg is considered Germanys environmental capital and its most sustainable city. Over the last three decades, Freiburgs coordinated transport and land-use policies have tripled the number of trips by bicycle, doubled transit ridership, and reduced the share of trips by car from 38% to 32%. Since the early 1990s, the level of motorization has leveled off, and per-capita CO2 emissions from transport have fallen, in spite of strong economic and population growth. In Germany, the federal government encourages more sustainable transport through a series of policies and programs. Federal taxes and regulation make car use more expensive and thus encourage the production and purchase of less polluting vehicles. At the same time, the federal government provides dedicated funding and subsidies for public transport investments. Certain federal transport funds are flexible and can be used for walking and cycling infrastructure that increases the safety and convenience of non-motorized modes. Federal regulations also guide the land-use planning process by requiring cooperation among all levels of government and discouraging suburban sprawl. Finally, the federal government provides strategic leadership and integration of transport and land-use policies on and across all levels of government, starting at the federal level with the consolidated Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs. There is a great lesson to learn from the German experience of sustainable transport, certain points to note are: Implement Controversial Policies in Stages Plans Should be Flexible and Adaptable over Time to Changing Conditions Policies Must be Multi-Modal and Include Both Incentives and Disincentives Fully Integrate Transport and Land-Use Planning Citizen Involvement Must be an Integral Part of Policy Development and Implementation Support From Higher Levels of Government is Crucial to Making Local Policies Work Sustainable Transport Policies Must be Long Term, with Policies Sustained Over Time, for Lasting Impact

2.2.4 Case study for Australia


For almost all Australians, cars have become the most favored urban transport option, largely because they save time and are highly convenient. However, over time this has led to a dependence on cars, which is environmentally unsustainable. In terms of annual greenhouse gas emissions in Australia, the transport sector is the third largest and second fastest growing. Of all transport related greenhouse gas emissions, cars account for approximately 50%. Australia's dependence on cars is also economically unsustainable, and motorists have already seen evidence of this: since 2003, average world oil prices have increased every year, and 2007 prices were almost double 2003 prices in real terms. In the absence of a global depression, this trend is
20

set to continue as world peak oil nears. Sooner than one might expect, petrol will be unaffordable. Also, traffic congestion is becoming a serious problem in some cities, particularly Melbourne and Sydney, and these conditions are said to be responsible for a decline in productivity. This is the reason that there is a strong need for policies in direction of sustainable transport in Australia.

The Australian Government is one of few to adopt a sustainable transport strategy (others include the UK and NZ). The main functions of the strategy are to: inform consumer choices, work with industry to improve vehicle efficiency, and explore and develop the use of alternative fuels. Most notably omitted from this list is a specific initiative to improve public transport. Federal funding for road projects is generally only provided if matching funds are also provided by the state government. As a result, state governments can be required to direct a significant portion of their transport expenditure to road projects that are jointly funded by the federal government. In effect, the current federal transport funding framework not only starves public transport of federal funding, it also reduces the share of state funding that is available for improving public transport. This imbalance needs to be addressed, as the building of more roads will only increase car usage and dependence. Clearly, there is an opportunity to redirect federal and state government funds away from new roads and toward public transport infrastructure. The Government also has the ability to use pricing signals to encourage the uptake of sustainable urban transport, and Green Left (2007) makes a strong case for free public transport, pointing out that the loss of Government revenue from fares would be more than offset by substantial gains elsewhere. Aside from the obvious and substantial benefits of reduced car use, free public transport would also improve the quality and efficiency of the service itself e.g. faster boarding times, and removal of the need for ticket equipment and personnel. Free public transport already exists in Australia, but its provision is restricted to certain areas, certain times, and certain people. If public transport was to be made free for all people, in all areas, and at all times, then infrastructure must be able to cope with increased demand. A trial period would be useful in assessing and projecting the demand for free public transport.

2.2.5 Case study for Canada


There are number of agents responsible for implementing sustainable transportation across Canada, they are listed as follows: 1. Federal, Provincial and Municipal Governments All the levels of governments in Canada plays a vital role in implementing sustainable transport practices in Canada. The government of Canada takes steps in this direction by providing the available funding to
21

implement greener transportation along with making laws, master plans etc. which greatly helps in improving the Canadian transportation. 2. Public Interest Groups Number of public interest groups have been formed over past 30 years their activities include undertaking research, education and advocacy tasks in the interests of users of the walk, cycle, bus-rail transit and train modes. In addition, their mission may include seeking and promoting ways to reduce the role of private motor vehicle in the movement of people or freight. As a result, these groups may participate in a variety of civic activities, including those associated with land use planning, transportation system planning, health programs, public safety issues etc. Vested Interest Groups - Thousands of business entities in Canada are financially affected by the extent and rate that sustainable transport practices are implemented. The following types of firms are among those which stand to gain from implementation of sustainable transport practices. Firms that deal in goods and services used to meet the needs of persons who walk, cycle, and/or use transit (buses, street cars, light rail, trains). Firms that deal in goods and services used to move freight in ways that minimize resource consumption and negative externalities, while maximizing the societal return on public investments in road and rail infrastructure. Telecommuting firms that deal in goods and services which allow the physical transport of people and things to be replaced by the electronic transmission of data/information. The second group of vested interests includes entities that stand to lose financially as sustainable transport practices are implemented. This is a large and wide-ranging set of industries and firms, with numerous inter-connections and inter-dependencies. These groups are automotive industry, retail industry, petroleum industry etc. These take the necessary steps so that their losses are minimized and thus help for sustainable transportation implementation in Canada. 4. Professional Associations Planners and engineers are the professional groups mostly associated with transportation matters. Examination of the planning literature and especially the municipal planning documents reveals that planners in Canada have long been interested in the concepts associated with sustainable transport. As for the engineering profession, it plays a central role in both the rail and road domains, and is involved in such tasks as selecting rights-of-way, designing and specifying infrastructures, making recommendations about modal choices, and overseeing system expansions and operations. This helps the cause of greener transportation to a great deal if the engineers as well as the planners associated with the infrastructure projects favor the sustainability issue.
22

3.

5.

Academia - Universities, colleges and schools at all levels in Canada foster discoveries and discussions involving sustainability, including the sustainable transport aspect. Principals and teachers at high schools and elementary schools, on the other hand, have been very successful in promoting the adoption of practices by local governments, police, and school boards that support and promote sustainable transport, and particularly the walking and cycling modes. These achievements include initiatives to slow down speeding traffic in school zones, restrict vehicular movements in the vicinity of schools, implement traffic calming measures, increase the police/enforcement presence on regional roads, improve the safety, comfort and convenience that sidewalks provide for children walking and cycling to and from school, recruit crossing guards to ensure safe passage by children across streets, and modify intersection designs and markings to serve and promote the needs of children who walk or cycle between home and school.\

6.

Citizens - The citizens of Canada are far and away the most important group affecting the extent and rate that sustainable transport practices are achieved at the local, regional, and national levels. Simply put, if citizens drive millions of private motor vehicles per day, make multi-millions of trips per day, make the vast majority of work, shop, recreation, school, etc. trips by private motor vehicle, have a propensity to drive that overwhelms the inclination to walk, cycle, or use transit, or they choose to locate their residences in the outer reaches of metropolitan regions, then attempts by the other groups to implement sustainable transport practices are doomed to fail.

2.2.6 Case study for USA


I. Initiatives of the Federal government

In 2001, the transport accounted for 26.8% of all energy used in the USA. With the declining energy resources there is urgent need for solutions in this vital area, also the growing air pollution related to transport sector is of great concern. US being one of the top producers of greenhouse gases (GHG) has the moral responsibility to curb its emissions. Thus, one nation which needs policies towards sustainable transportation is the USA. GHG emissions in the USA rose by 1.2 percent per annum from 1980 to 1990 and by 1.4 percent per year from 1990 to 2002. The USA is responsible for nearly quarter of the global GHG emissions. Since about 1970, governments at every level in US have implemented a wide range of innovative policies to reduce the environmental impact of transport. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Clean Air Act of 1970 were good examples. Since then, transport projects have been subject to increasingly strict environmental standards. Every major transport project is subject to a thorough examination by means of the required Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The standards are so high that hundreds of projects have been greatly delayed. Also many of the
23

requirements for Environmental Impact Assessments in the EU are based on the American experience. The already considerable US federal government support for public transport, cycle and walk was greatly reinforced by the highly innovative transport laws passed in 1991 (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act US Department of Transportation, 2004a) and 1998 (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century US Department of Transportation, 2004b). Both of these major transport laws further codified environmental protection provisions in other federal laws, and also provided substantial new funding for public transport, walking, and cycling. For example, federal funding for the most sustainable modes, walking and cycling, rose from only $6 million in 1990 to $422 in 2003 (U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, 2004). In addition, increased funding for projects exclusively intended for walking and cycling, every highway project must now include provisions to accommodate pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly, federal funding for public transport rose from about $3 billion in 1990 to $8 billion in 2003 (U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, 2003). II. Initiatives of the state and local governments

With the initiative of Federal environment and transport legislation from 1969 to 1998, state and local governments became increasingly active in environmental protection policies. California has been in the forefront of sustainable transport policies enforcement for example, even as early as 1970s, Californias vehicle emission standards were more stricter than those of the Federal government, forcing auto manufactures to produce special California cars to meet the higher standards. The laws of California today are still stringent and Californias legislature even passed a law requiring a set percentage of new cars to be zero-emission vehicles. Several states in the Northeastern USA (such as New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut) have been considering adopting the California emissions standards to reduce air pollution in their urban areas. State and local land use policies affecting transport have involved more actual change, with greater enforcement power through both positive and negative incentives. Especially on the West Coast and in the Northeast, several states and metropolitan regions have established land use plans that call for curbing low-density sprawl, preservation of open space and farmland, protection of ecologically sensitive areas, and concentration of new development in existing urbanized areas. Such policies are variously referred to as smart growth or growth management. In some states, they are purely suggestive, with no actual implementation power. In other states, the land use guidelines are actually reinforced through a range of measures. Perhaps the most celebrated case of sustainable transport and land use planning in the USA is Portland, Oregon. Not only does it have an urban growth boundary, but is has implemented a range of policies promoting public transport, walking, cycling, and inner city revitalization.

24

2.2.7 Case study for China


China is the most populous country in the world with one-fifth of humanity being Chinese. China endorsed the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 after it exempted developing countries from mandatory cuts of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. China has now surpassed USA by becoming the highest emitter of GHGs thus, putting its government in ethical dilemma of choosing between unsustainable development to that of sustainable development. The government in this regard has taken some steps to improve transport sector. Its automobile fuel-efficiency standards, are now ahead of those in most countries, most notably the USA. In 2009, in the context of international talks on combating climate change, the government of China announced its target to reduce GHG emissions 40-45% per unit of GDP by 2020 from 2005 levels. It cannot fulfill this ambitious target without choosing sustainable transportation over unsustainable one.

The PRC plans to spend about 120 billion dollars to nearly double the country's high speed rail network to 42 lines by 2012, as part of an ambitious program to expand the national train system. On these lines, passenger trains would be able to travel at a maximum speed of 346 km/hour while fast freight trains would be able to move at 185 km/hour. It currently has 6,920 km of high-speed lines in operation, but the governments envision expanding the network to cover 16000 km by 2020 and provide access to more than 90 percent of population (Financial Times 2010). Recently PRC has successfully launched the high-speed train between Beijing and Shanghai with a speed over 300 km per hour. These are some of the steps towards sustainable transportation in China but it is essential that PRC takes many more steps to remove its tag of the most polluted country in the world.

2.2.8 Case study for India


India has a large and diverse transport sector that fulfills the needs of its 1.2 billion people. In 2007, this sector contributed about 5.5 percent to the nations GDP, with road transportation contributing the lions share. In 2007, Indian railway carried almost 90 percent of the countrys passenger traffic and 65 percent of its fright. Mckinsay Global Institute (2010) estimates that as the Indian urban sector expand, it will generate nearly 70 percent of the countrys GDP. Environmental impact of this growth is quite substantial. Successive governments have been aware of the need to create more economical and energy efficient modes of transportation to cater to the needs of a growing population. During the Copenhagen summit in December 2009, India declared its intention to reduce the Countrys GHG emissions by 20-25 percent of GDP from the 2005 level by 2020. In July 2010, Indias ministry of urban development launched Rs. 1400 crore green urban transport project called Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) with the support from the Green Environment Facility (GEF), the World Bank and the UNDP.
25

In general, the project deals with Sustainable Urban Transport (also called sustainable mobility). It mainly structures its work in terms of the following six key areas: Institutional and policy orientation (such as, urban transport and urban policy, and economic instruments); Land use planning and transport demand management; Transit, walking and cycling (e.g. public transport improvements, mass transit, bus rapid transit, non motorized transport, and car free development); Vehicles and fuels (such as, CNG and roadworthiness); Environmental and health impacts; Social issues of urban transport and resources (SUTP 2010); The project aims to promote environmentally sustainable and economically efficient modes of transport, such as public transport, walking and non-motorized transport, as alternatives to cars and motorcycles. Further, it promotes the integration of public transport with other modes in the overall urban sector. Good integration in this context not only means well established timetables, convenience in transfer from one mode to another and one-stop-shop information systems but also integrated fares (without need to validate a new ticket when changing modes) and integration with land-use concepts. The issue of fuel and vehicle technologies is also crucial to any sustainable urban transport policy framework, but this issue already receives a high profile in existing initiatives involving information dissemination such as the Clean Air Initiative. The issue of modal shifts is also closely related to issues of equity, traffic congestion, efficiency of short trips, and general urban livability.

2.2.9

Case study for UK

The UN conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992 (The Rio Earth Summit) was perhaps the turning point for action in the direction of sustainable development. The importance of sustainable development is such that it is now included in most UK and EU legislation and it find favor from citizens as well. The 2007 Budget included a range of measures that impact on sustainable transport through: Increases in fuel duty; Increases in car vehicle excise duty rates over the next 3 years with the most polluting cars being penalized the most; Support biofuels; Rise in climate change levy in line with inflation;

26

The Budget statement also recognized that all intervention by the Government to meet environmental aims must take account of the impact of any action on its wider economic and social objectives, including macroeconomic stability, business competitiveness, and social inclusion and reducing fuel poverty. At local authority level, the Budget refers to a best value energy efficiency indicator, which will force authorities to address their own energy consumption. Action plans concerning sustainable transport policy focus on road and private car use, rather than looking at vehicles used by the public sector, other than incentives for fleet or company cars.

2.3 Conclusion
We have seen in great detail the steps taken by the important nations with respect to achieving the target of global sustainable transportation which can be a handy weapon in our drive against Climate Change. Though many steps have been taken by countries such as USA, Australia, India, China, etc. in transforming their transport sector, which accounts for the major share of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is huge amount of potential still left to take newer and newer steps to make this sector a more sustainable one, since the global warming is becoming a big threat to the human existence on this planet. We have seen that some of the major steps taken by major countries have been to increase the use of public transportation, making people aware of benefits associated to switching to greener transport medium such as walking, cycling, using natural fuels or hybrid fuels in their vehicles, etc. These steps are positive steps taken by the governments the world over in fulfilling the dream of sustainable transportation.

27

CHAPTER 3 Financial and Societal Analysis of Sustainable Transportation


3.1 Introduction
Any change cannot be effective if its financial and societal impacts are not assessed. Sustainable transport can only be incorporated effectively if and only if people are conveyed its positive effects on both their economy as well as whole society. Though we can say that the initial cost associated with sustainable transportation or in turn sustainable development can be somewhat higher than the initial cost on building the unsustainable transportation systems but the positive effects it has on the environment and atmosphere repays the cost initially incurred. It is also a boon to our society as a godsend opportunity to grab and save our earth as well as whole humanity from extinction.

3.2 Financial Analysis of Sustainable Transportation


To start a major change it is important to garner financial support. Thus, it is important to understand the sources of financial flows towards sustainable transportation. Official development assistance (ODA) is available in the magnitude of billions of dollars. Sources of climate finance such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Global Environment Facility (GEF). There are many ways of categorizing financial flows relevant to transport, some are listed below: Domestic Public Funding - Domestic public finance is a dominant source of financing for many aspects of transport, including infrastructure construction and maintenance, and public transport provision. Public spending is generally categorized into capital versus revenue funding. The former is responsible for the provision of fixed assets such as infrastructure, whereas the latter covers recurring costs such as maintenance and operation. In most developing countries much of the transport outlays are focused towards supporting motorized private transport in the form of intercity highways, urban ring roads, and flyovers. International Public Flows - Resources provided to developing countries from external sources (foreign industrialized country governments or multilateral finance institutions) also play a major part in shaping transport patterns. Such flows include Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Export Credits. The OECD defines ODA as: Flows of official financing administered with the promotion of the economic development and
28

welfare of developing countries as the main objective, and which are concessional in character with a grant element of at least 25 percent. A major characteristic of the majority of ODA in transport (both multilateral and bilateral) is the focus on road building, including intercity highways, flyovers and ring roads in urban areas. The focus of ODA is still placed on economic development and poverty reduction in recipient countries. In comparison, carbon emissions and environmental sustainability are still given lower priority, and remain mostly unanalyzed. There has traditionally been little appetite from recipient countries for low-carbon transport. The OECD defines export credits as: government financial support, direct financing, guarantees, insurance or interest rate support provided to foreign buyers to assist in the financing of the purchase of goods from national exporters. By reducing the risk, and increasing the returns on investments in developing countries, export credits play a major role in catalyzing private financial flows into those countries, typically expressed as foreign direct investment (FDI). Private Finance - Perhaps the most underestimated, yet largest type of financial flow surrounds private actors, ranging from large international construction firms to individual (and often informal) providers of transport services. In most market-based economies, the private sector accounts for the majority of economic activity, measured, for example, in value added. Hence, understanding how to redirect financial flows towards supporting sustainable, low-carbon transport becomes a central concern. Currently, the majority of private money is directed towards supporting a motorized pattern of transport. Climate Finance - Climate finance, whose main purpose is to provide resources to support climate mitigation (or adaptation) actions, has grown rapidly over the past decade. Most of these instruments can be classified as either: a. Climate Funds funded by voluntary contributions from member countries, provide financial resources (in the form of grants or concessional loans) for capacity building, technology transfer or investments in activities contributing to the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. Examples of these funds are the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Trust Fund and the Climate Investment Funds (CIF). b. Carbon market mechanisms It channels an incentive to reduce GHG emissions by means of creating a market for emissions allowances and credits. The carbon market channels financial resources to low-carbon investments through, inter alia, projectbased mechanisms such as the CDM and joint implementation (JI). The allocation of emission rights and the ensuing financial flows are enabled by trading schemes like the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS).

29

Pricing practices - The previous four sections highlight how current financing patterns create a supply of unsustainable transport patterns. Yet, this only provides half of the story on the development of unsustainable transport patterns. This section explores pricing which will be shown to be a major driver for the demand for unsustainable transport. The importance of efficient pricing has long been argued, whereby transport prices should include external costs imposed on society through congestion, accidents, infrastructure wear and tear, air pollution, noise and climate change (World Bank 2001) Despite this, most transport activities remain underpriced. For example: i. ii. iii. iv. Fossil fuels are subsidized, leading to excessive use. Infrastructure, and to some extent vehicles, are not charged at the point of use, leading to irrational decisions on when/how much to use them. The price for vehicle purchase, ownership and use are not linked to their environmental and social consequences. Pricing instruments, such as road user-charges, parking charges, distance-based insurance, vehicle and fuel taxes that can be designed to reflect at least some of the external costs onto the users, are seldom used, or their introduction is met with public opposition, particularly from those who perceive possible financial losses from their introduction. The same applies to regulatory instruments such as vehicle fuel efficiency standards.

As a result, private motorized transport remains cheap for users but inflicts large societal costs, some of which will be borne by future generations. So it is important to change the mindset driving finance towards unsustainable transport mediums.

3.3 Societal Analysis of Sustainable Transportation


Along with the economic/financial analysis of sustainable transportation medium it is also important to analyze its societal impacts so that we can find out if the society is able to accommodate the huge change efficiently or not. Sustainable transport and mobility is underpinned by three values and principles namely equity, accessibility and mobility. All these are aimed at improving the services levels of transport goods and services in a society. Transport equity principle and value focuses on making sure that the socio-economic benefits emanating from transport interventions is inclusive in meeting the needs of all segments of the society with particular emphasis on those with special needs. Accessibility principle and value is defined as the ease of reaching a place, destination, location or facility. Accessibility versus Mobility: Accessibility should not be confused with mobility. Mobility refers to physical movement, but in general, increased mobility tends to increase accessibility.
30

Transport can be a source of social exclusion and reinforce structural socio-economic poverty in several respects: i. ii. Physical exclusion: This can be through the existence of physical barriers to accessing transport and other services. Geographical exclusion: Simply stated the lack of transport provision and services in the geographical area in which the user resides can inhibit a person from participating in mainstream socio-economic livelihood opportunities available. Exclusion from facilities: Lack of access to facilities because of lack of access to transport services may reinforce the cycle of poverty. This may be reflected through inappropriate transport design and technologies that do not incorporate universal design elements such as access of public transport vehicles and buildings to the disabled. Economic exclusion: It is important to realize that someone can be unable to travel because they cannot afford the cost/fare or tariffs associated with utilizing any existing transport mode system available. In addition the lack of access to transport can cause income poverty, preventing the user from accessing socio-economic employment or training. Time-base exclusion: Indeed people can be excluded from both travel and other activities because of the time that it takes to travel, or because of the hour of day or night they want or need to travel. Fear-based exclusion: There exists exclusion of transport, and, consequently, activities requiring travel because of fear of using transport. This can be because of taxi wars, labor action, poor public transport interior designs or gender targeted sexual harassment in specific transport modes etc.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Travel patterns and transport needs of men and women in the rural and urban social setting are different. In urban areas, for example womens essential trips are more dispersed in time and location while in rural areas trips are short (mostly local), frequent and usually involve carrying heavy loads. Some of the transport constraints women faces include: Greater distance between home and employment opportunities which reduces the compatibility between household and non-household activities. Irregularity of services on off-peak and non-radial routes. Most urban transport systems are not designed to respond to womens needs to combine multiple trips, many at off-peak hours and off the main transport routes. The pursuit of sustainable social transport and mobility presents a challenge. Actions are needed to limit the environmental and other costs of traffic movements. Yet these must be reconciled with aspirations for economic growth and social demands for access to services and leisure activities. Indeed social transport dimension to transport mobility is an essential social development dimension. Integrating the needs of the captive users of transport facilities, pedestrians and bicyclists on the highways as well as urban areas is recognizing the social
31

dimension of transport planning. The understanding of differential needs of the urban and rural poor, transport strategies and programs can be designed to provide the poor with better physical access to employment, education, and health services. Therefore a balance must be struck. The solution is widely perceived to lie in an integrated approach, combining economic instruments, regulations, new technologies, infrastructure investment and other policy actions.

3.4 Challenges facing Sustainable Transportation


There can be no doubt that sustainable transport give us enormous benefits but there are number of challenges faced to fully convert to sustainable transport mediums and they are: A. Infrastructure Gap - We should not forget that the present infrastructure that we have was made for the conventional sources of transportation and to switch towards efficient and sustainable sources of transportation we have to change the infrastructure in its favor. To start with we have to expand the width of the roads so that it can accommodate better path for pedestrians, than only we can encourage people to walk instead of using their vehicles. Secondly we have to change railway lines so that it can be used for high speed trains which are more efficient and faster modes of transportation then the present railway system. Also we have to increase public transportation so that people find it easier to travel through them. This and many more changes in our transport infrastructure before we can make a giant leap towards greener sources of transport. Rising world population Though many changes are made in direction towards sustainability the growing world population is only making it harder and more troublesome to achieve the target of sustainable growth. Since earth has a limited carrying capacity it can only be hypothesized what the situation may turn out when our numbers will rose to nearly 9 billion people in the year 2050. So there is a need to put breaks on the rising population of world so that governments can make better transportation policies for its citizens. Technological Gap Technology is another hurdle towards our goal of sustainable development, since in case of transportation there is not enough choice and comfort to people regarding hybrid vehicles also number of public transport models derived often require high initial investments which are hard for developing nations like India to finance. No consensus reached among nations Though every nation agrees to the dangers associated with climate change scenario but there is still a consensus to be reached on how to fight to danger. Developed nations say that every nation should have mandatory cuts in their GHG emissions, on the other hand developing nations say that they will not compromise on their development which is proving a stumbling block in the fight against climate change.

B.

C.

D.

32

3.5 Criticism of Sustainable Transportation


Though we have seen many positives associated with sustainable transport, but the picture is not all that bright as it seems. There are some negative sides also associated to sustainable transportation like often the term sustainable transport is used as an eyewash marketing technique for products which are not proven to make a positive contribution to environment sustainability though such claims can be legally challenged. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) describes green claims on products as very vague, inviting consumers to give a wide range of meanings to the claim, which risks misleading them. In 2008 the ACCC forced a car retailer to stop its green marketing of Saab cars, which was found by the Australian Federal Court as misleading. There are some more points raised by the critics of sustainability which are important to note here: Skeptics often put the whole theory of Climate Change as an incomplete theory based on insufficient scientific data. Critics also say that the proposed models to fight Climate Change often forget the ability of society to accommodate those models. Sustainability is criticized for being such a broad and indefinite concept that it tends to take people from conventional sources to other sources of energy which were never before applied. Often the sustainable development or other sustainable options such as sustainable transportation is criticized for curbing the development of developing countries who are already facing many other problems as hunger, poverty, illiteracy, etc. Objectives to reduce automobile use are criticized in particular as being unrealistic and inequitable if they deprive lower-income consumers of their preferred mode of transport.

3.6 Future of Sustainable Transportation


No matter how much we criticize sustainable transportation systems or for that matter sustainability on a whole, we cannot change the reality of the situation which looks rather dark and scary. It is not a matter of choice but a question of either live or get perished. Sustainable transportation is beginning to become an important part of our life and it can be safely said that it is only going to expand in the near future and a number of points support it: We are near Peak Oil situation or maybe we have crossed that mark, this means oil in the near future will be either hard to get or might not get at all. This situation will make people think of opting for more sustainable modes of transportation. The economic benefits associated with the greener transportation in the long term may change the mind of an ordinary consumer to switch there modes of transportation. The positive societal impacts which we have seen might also favor the switching towards greener modes of transportation.
33

The steps taken by nearly all the national governments in this direction are only to increase in future as governments the world over become aware of the threats of climate change faced by earth. The usage of public transports in all the major cities of the world is increasing which is a positive sign. People are becoming aware of using cycles, walking, hybrid fuel cars, etc. this in all possibility may rise in the future. The increasing oil prices are forcing those people, to use greener transport medium who earlier were opposed to it.

3.7 Conclusion
Sustainable transportation planning raises a number of issues regarding the definition of sustainability and sustainable transportation, how goals and objectives are defined and evaluated, and the type of decision-making process that should be used. Sustainability requires more comprehensive and integrated planning, which accounts for a broad set of economic, social and environmental impacts, including those that are difficult to measure. Sustainability planning requires adequate involvement to allow diverse perspectives and preferences to be incorporated. Sustainability tends to support transportation planning and market reforms that result in more diverse and economically efficient transportation systems, and more compact land use patterns that reduce automobile dependency. These reforms help increase economic efficiency, reduce resource consumption and harmful environmental impacts, and improve mobility for non-drivers. Although it is relatively easy to define the general type of policy changes that support sustainable transportation, it may be difficult to define exactly what degree of change is needed.

34

References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_transport http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_vehicle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transit_Oriented_Development http://evauthority.com/sustainable-urban-transport-in-australia/ Ralph Buelmer, Sustainable Transport in Freiburg: Lessons from Germanys Environmental Capital,2011 Dr. Barry Wellar, Sustainable Transport Practices in Canada: Exhortation Overwhelms Demonstration, 2006 Efforts for Environmentally Sustainable Transport in Japan, Ministry of the Environment of Japan, December 2006 Andrew G. Macbeth, Sustainable Transportation in New Zealand, May 2004 David Banister, Making Sustainable Transportation Politically and Publically Acceptable: Lessons from the EU, USA and Canada, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_transport http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_road_transport http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_history http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aviation_history http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaceflight http://www.informinc.org/pages/research/sustainabletransportation/fact-sheets/120.html K Sakamoto, A Paradigm Shift towards Sustainable Low-Carbon Transport, August 2010 Asian Development Bank, Sustainable Transport Initiative, July 2010 Biswas Nath Bhattacharyay, Towards a Sustainable Transport Development in Asia and the Pacific, July 2011
35

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Sustainable Transportation: An International Perspective, 2009 David L. Greene, Sustainable Transport, 1997 Barbara C. Greene, Sustainable Transport: Analysis Framework, 2005 Linda Steg, Sustainable Transportation and Quality of Life, 2005 Kim Jraiw, Socioeconomic Impact of Sustainable Road Transport System Case Study Todd Litman, Issues in Sustainable Transportation, 2006 Sustainable Transport: A Cost Benefit Analysis, June 2007

36