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Gio trnh mn cc h thng khng gian thi gian

Dnh cho sinh vin i hc v cao hc


Hc phn gii thiu cc kin thc v lnh vc x l tn hiu kt hp ca min thi gian v khng gian bao gm: Cc vn v
tnh cht knh truyn min khng gian v thi gian, m hnh h thng a ng ten pht v thu MIMO, m hnh h thng knh
MIMO, cc phng php m ha khng gian v thi gian c bn (s m ha v gii m STBC ca Alamouti). S kt hp ca
cng ngh MIMO vi cc k thut anten thng minh, k thut iu ch trcgiao OFDM. Cc ng dng ca k thut x l tn
hiu khng gian v thi gian trong cc h thng thng tin tin tin.
The course introduces the knowledge of the space-time signal processing which include: the charateristics of channels in the
space and time domain, the MIMO system with multipe transmit and receive antenna, the methods of space and time encoding
and decoding(Scheme of Alamouti STBC). The combination of MIMO with OFDM technology to enhance the channel
capacity and spectrum efficiency. The combination of MIMO technology with smart antenna for avanced communication
systems. Beamforming technique and antenna array design methods for MIMO sytem

Chng 1: Gii thiu
1. Nhng khi nim c bn
- Tn hiu ri rc v lin tc
- Tin hieu 1 D,2D PAM-QAM
- Dung lng ca knh truyn SISO MIMO
- Outage capacity is probability of correction error transmit with bit rate is higher than shanol limit
- Gii hn shannol:
- Eb No SNR, hiu qu s dng ph
- Es of M-PAM , M-QAM
- T l li bit, t l li k hiu
2. M hnh h thng thng tin
- M ha ngun m ha knh tn hiu iu ch - nhiu anten pht thu.
- Cc vn ng b v c lng knh truyn

Chng 2: knh v tuyn
Khi nim, p ng thi gian, tn s knh, cc hm phn b knh
Cc loi Knh v tuyn SISO,. MIMO,
Dung lng knh MIMO, SVD, EIG of matrix
Phng to knh SISO,MIMO.
Knh Mimo
Tnh tng quan gia cc anten (km chng trnh m phng)
Mt s m hnh knh
MAP, MRQ, ML, MRC


Chng 3: h thng SISO-MIMO
- SISO-PAM-QAM-BER-SER-Rice-rayleigh-capacity
- K thut phn tp khng gian,MRC
- KTPT thi gian
- Phn tp m trelils
- Vblash
- Alamouti
- Repetition code
- Precoding
- TCM+OSTBC
- SOSTTC
-
Chng 3: c lng knh zF, MMSE,
Chng 3 M phng h thng





Chng 1: Cc khi nim c bn
1. Mt s khi nim c bn
- n v tnh, db, mdb, v,
- Cts, disc
- Orthonormal PAM, 1-D 2-D signal
- Mc nng lng (Cng sut) trung bnh trn mt tn hiu
- Es,Eb,SNR, special efficiency
- Shannol theory
- Power limited regime, bandwidth limited regime, ultimated shannol limited
- BER,SER, Q function ca knh AWGN, v RL
2. TDM,FDM,CDM,OFDM
3. ng b
4. c lng knh truyn

1. Mc nng lng (Cng sut) trung bnh trn mt tn hiu
1.1 iu ch M-PAM: Vi s iu ch M mc (M l s chn) -(M-1) -5, -3, -, ,3, 5,,(M-
1). E[M-PAM]=(2/M)1
2
+3
2
++M
2
). (general formular: Es=2
2
(M
2
-1)/3
V d vi M=1 ta c iu ch 2 mc E=2, M=2 iu ch 4 mc E=10,..

1.2 iu ch QAM: Cch tnh mc nng lng trung bnh tng t nh PAM nhng trn cc chm sao
M-QAM l 2(M-1)/3
V d vi QPSK=2, 16-QAM th l 10, 64-QAM=42

So snh t l li bit Vi cng mc nng lng Es/N0

Ch rng nu tnh theo Eb/No th t l
li bt BPSK bng QPSK hay 4-PAM
bng 16QAM. Bi v thc cht iu
ch QAM chnh l 2 tn hiu PAM

Es/No (DB)





2. Nhiu truyn dn v li bit.

V du: Truyn hai s nhi phn 0,1 vi xc sut ln lt l 0,6 v 0,4. Bit xc xut thu ng tn hiu l 0,9.
Cu hi:
+ Tnh xc sut nhn c 0 v 1 pha thu tn hiu
+ Tnh xc sut nhn c bit 0 trong trng hp bn pht pht tn hiu 0 i
Gii:
P(y=0)=0.6*0.9+0.4*0.1=0.58
P(y=1)=0.42
P(y=0|x=0)=0.6*0.9/0.58=

Bit tn hiu truyn i s(t) mt trong hai gi tr s1 hoc s2
Hnh di y l s khi b thu tn hiu


Trong w(t) l nhiu trng
y(t)=(s(t)+w(t))*h(t)

Vn t ra l h(t) v A c chn nh th no ti u ho hot ng ca h thng v gim t l li bit
xung ti thiu. P
E
l t l li, N l mc nhiu tc ng theo phn b Gaussian. c E[n(t)]=0
ta c
y
k
=S1+N Nu s1 c truyn
y
k
=S2+N Nu s2 c truyn

Variance ca n(t) c tnh
df f H N df
N
f H
} }
+

+

= =
2
0
0 2 2
| ) ( |
2
| ) ( | o

Nu s1 l tn hiu vo th mt hm xc sut ca y
k
vi s xut hin ca s1
to
o
2
) 1 | (
2 2
2 / ) 1 ( S v
e
s v p

=
v ca s2
to
o
2
) 2 | (
2 2
2 / ) 2 ( S v
e
s v p

=


A l mc ngng dng xc nh, nu s1 c gi v>A hoc s2 c gi v<A. Theo hnh v th xc
sut li cho bi s1 l
}
+
=
A
dv s v p s E p ) 1 | ( ) 1 | (
v cho s2

}

=
A
dv s v p s E p ) 2 | ( ) 2 | (
Tng xc sut li s l
P
E
= pP(E|s1) + qP(E|s2)
y p l xc sut s1 c gi i v q=1-p l xc sut s2 c gi i
Gi tr A ti u nhn c P
E min
khi hm t cc tr, ly vi phn P
E
theo bin A v t bng 0 khi
nhn c gi tr ti u ca A
2
2 1
ln
1 2
2
S S
q
p
S S
A A
opt
+
+

= =
o

Nu q=p th
A
opt
= (S1+S2)/2
Nu p=q v A=A
opt
thi xc sut li trung bnh c th biu din di dng hm
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
o
o
2
1 2
2 2
1 2
2
1 S S
Q
S S
erfc P
E

y erfc(x)=1-erf(x)
}
= =

x
t
x Q dt e x erf
0
) 2 ( 2 1 ) 2 ( ) (
2
t
Trong trng hp tng qut khi H(f) c chn ti u vi tn hiu s nh phn
T s tn hiu /nhiu c tnh
}
=
T
dt t s t s
N
0
2
0
2
max
)] ( 1 ) ( 2 [
1

Thay cho (S1-S2)/o cng thc P
E
trn ta c
) 2 ( ) (
2
1
z Q z erf c P
E
= =
y
z=
2
max
/4
Ta s tnh gi tr zcho mt s loi tn hiu
V du1: Cho tn hiu hai mc m dng s1(t)=-A s2(t)=A T
b
l thi gian truyn mt bit
s1-s2=2A th ta s c z=A
2
T
b
/N
0
=E
b
/N
0

V d 2: Tn hiu PSK-2P ta c trong khong 0<t<T
b
- Tng ng vi 2PAM [,+]
s1(t)= -A
c
cos2f
c
t
S2(T)= A
C
COS(2PI*F
C
T)
tnh tch phn v ta c z=a
c

2
t
b
/2n
0
=e
b
/n
0
TRONG TRNG HP NY A
C

2
T
B
/2=E
B
V Y L TN HIU HNH SIN

V d 3: Tn hiu ASK 2 mc ta c trong khong 0<t<T
b
- Tng ng vi PAM [0,+]
s1(t)= 0
S2(T)= A
C
COS(2PI*F
C
T)

Tnh tch phn v thu c z=A
c

2
T
b
/8N
0
=E
b
/2N
0
y l im khc vi PSK-2P v tn hiu ch truyn trong mt na khong thi gian tnh vi s xut hin
trung bnh ca bit 0 v 1 l bng nhau.
Nh vy nu so snh PSK-2P vi ASK th hiu qu ca ASK km PSK-2P 3dB so snh v t s SNR

V d 4: Tn hiu FSK c trong khong 0<t<T
b
s1(t)= -A
c
cos2f
c
t
S2(T)= A
C
COS2(F
C
+ AF)T
Y AF=M/2T
B
M MT S NGUYN V S1(T) S2(T) C COI L TRC GIAO NU
}
=
b
T
dt t s t s
0
0 ) ( 2 ) ( 1
Ta tnh c
z=A
c

2
T
b
/4N
0
=E
b
/2N
0
Nh vy FSK cng ging ASK


X Q(x) X Q(x)
0 0.5 2 0.022750132
0.1 0.460172163 2.1 0.017864421
0.2 0.420740291 2.2 0.013903448
0.3 0.382088578 2.3 0.01072411
0.4 0.344578258 2.4 0.008197536
0.5 0.308537539 2.5 0.006209665
0.6 0.274253118 2.6 0.004661188
0.7 0.241963652 2.7 0.003466974
0.8 0.211855399 2.8 0.00255513
0.9 0.184060125 2.9 0.001865813
1 0.158655254 3 0.001349898
1.1 0.135666061 3.1 0.000967603
1.2 0.11506967 3.2 0.000687138
1.3 0.096800485 3.3 0.000483424
1.4 0.080756659 3.4 0.000336929
1.5 0.066807201 3.5 0.000232629
1.6 0.054799292 3.6 0.000159109
1.7 0.044565463 3.7 0.0001078
1.8 0.035930319 3.8 7.2348E-05
1.9 0.02871656 3.9 4.80963E-05
4 3.16712E-05





Chng 2: Knh VT

- Khi nim knh vt
o Knh phadinh nhanh chm
o Phn x, tn x, nhiu x
o Suy hao
- Phn b rice, rayleigh
- Dung lng knh vt gauss, rl
- Knh mimo
- Dung lng knh mimo
- Knh tng quan v khng tng quan
- c lng v ng b knh
-

Hnh 0-1: M hnh h thng v tuyn
-M
T
=M
R
=1 SISO H thng mt u vo mt u ra
-M
T
=1 v M
R
>1 SIMO H thng mt u vo nhiu u ra
-M
T
>1 v M
R
=1 MISO H thng nhiu u vo mt u ra
-M
T
>1 v M
R
>1 MIMO H thng nhiu u vo nhiu u ra
H thng mt anten thu pht - knh SISO
c im phn b v dung lng knh truyn knh Gaussian
(bps/Hz) SNR) (1 log
2
+ = C
c im phn b v dung lng knh truyn knh Rayleigh


Hnh 0-2 Minh ha tnh cht truyn dn a ng ca tn hiu v tuyn

Hnh 0-3 (a) p ng xung (b) p ng tn s ca knh truyn
Hm mt xc sut ca phn b Rice

<
>
|
.
|

\
|
=
+

0 0
0
) ( 2
0
2
) (
2
2
2 2
v
v
v
I e
p
v
o

(0-1)
y l thnh phn trung bnh tn hiu tng hp, v l bin nh ca thnh phn LOS, o l phng sai
ca cc bin ngu nhin c lp c cng phn b Gauss, I
0
: l hm Bessel sa i loi 1 bc 0.


Phn b Rice thng c m t bi thng s K c nh ngha nh l t s gia cng sut tn hiu xc
nh thnh phn LOS v cng sut cc thnh phn a ng:
2
2
2o
v
K =
(0-2)
Hay vit di dng dB ta c:


) (
2
log 10 ) (
2
2
dB
v
dB K
o
=
(0-3)
H s K xc nh phn b Rice v c gi l h s Rice. Khi v tin n khng, dn n K tin n [dB
thnh phn LOS b suy gim v bin , phn b Rice tr thnh phn b Rayleigh (xem Hnh 0-4). Hm ton
hc m t phn b Rayleigh nh sau:
2
2
2
2
) (
o


= e p
(0-4)


Hnh 0-4: th hm mt phn b xc sut Rice
v Rayleigh


Hnh 0-5: So snh dung lng knh Rice v Rayleigh


dung lng knh truyn thng tin c tnh
(bps/Hz) ) (
| |
1 log
0
2
2
2
dh h p
h P
C
}

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o

(0-5)
Trong P l cng sut tn hiu nhn c,
2
l cng sut nhiu Gauss, h l h s ca knh truyn,
= h P , p(h) v p() c cng phn b xc sut. T s
2
/ o P SNR = gi l t s gia cng sut tn hiu trn
cng sut nhiu.

Dung lng cc h thng a sng mang SISO-OFDM
Trong trng hp cc h thng a sng mang (v d OFDM), dung lng ca ton b h thng c tnh
bng tng dung lng ca tt c cc sng mang
(bps/Hz)
| |
1 log
1
0
2
2
2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
FFT
N
k
k k
H P
C
o

(0-6)
Thut ton nc - Dung lng ti u ca h thng Error! Reference source not found. c tnh
(bps/Hz)
| |
1 log
1
0
2
2 *
2

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
FFT
N
k
k k
opt
H P
C
o

(0-7)
Trong
*
k
P l cng sut pht trn sng mang con k c tnh theo cng thc
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
*
k
| |
1
k
H
P
o


(0-8)
y du biu thc (.)
+
tng ng vi nh ngha x
+
:=max(x,0) ngha l x
+
c tnh bng gi tr ln nht
gia gi tr ca x v gi tri khng
Trong c tnh theo cng thc
0
1
0
2
2
| |
1 1
P
H N
FFT
N
k
k FFT
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+
o


(0-9)
Trn Hnh 0-6 l kt qu so snh hiu qu s dng ph tn ca h thng trong trng hp c v khng s
dng thut ton nc (WF)

Hnh 0-6 So snh dung lng knh Rayleigh trong trng hp c v khng p dng thut ton nc-
Water filling trong trng hp 1 = o

H thng nhiu anten thu pht - knh MIMO
.
Hnh 0-7. H thng nhiu anten thu pht
Ta gi s rng mi knh truyn h
ij
gia anten pht i v thu j tun theo phn b Rayleigh. Ma trn knh
truyn c kch thc M
R
M
T
trong min tn s c dng
y H() c
bc L
c
l
di knh v
tuyn. di
knh v tuyn
L
c
c tnh
bng s lng
mu p ng xung ca knh truyn (xem Hnh 0-3(a)). Khong thi gian gia cc mu ny bng nhau v
bng thi gian ly mu ca tn hiu OFDM
1 0 , ) (
1
0
s s =

e
e e
c
L
l
jl
l
j
e h e H (0-11)
Gi x

l vector tn hiu pht c kch thc M


T
1, y

l vector tn hiu thu c c kch thc M


R
1. Biu
thc biu din s lin h gia tn hiu pht thu v knh truyn nh sau
n x H y

+ = (0-12)
n

l vector nhiu Gaussian c kch thc M


R
1.
Dung lng knh MIMO c tnh nh sau Error! Reference source not found.
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
H
HQH I
T
M
M
C
R

det log
2

bps/Hz
(0-13)
y I l ma trn n v kch thc M
R
M
R
, l t s gia mc tn hiu nhn c trn nhiu (chnh l
2
/o P SNR = ). Q l hip phng sai ca tn hiu pht Q=cov(E[xx
H
]), H
H
l chuyn v v lin hp phc
ca ma trn H.
UVD' H = (0-14)
Trong V l ma trn ng cho ) 0 ,..., 0 , ,...., , (
) , min( 2 1
R T
M M
Diag kch thc M
R
M
T
cha cc gi tr k
d (singular) ca H. cn hai ma trn U kch thc M
R
M
R
, ma trn D kch thc M
T
M
T
l cc ma trn n
nht (unitary matrix) cha ln lt cc vector cc gi tr k d bn tri v bn phi ca H. Nh vy knh
MIMO trong trng hp ny c phn tch thnh min(M
T
,M
R
) knh truyn n l song song vi h s
knh truyn chnh l cc gi tr k d
i
.
Tm quan trng ca gi tr k d nh nht
Gi tr k d nh nht c mt ngha rt quan trng trong h thng, n c c im l cc s dng v gim
dn 0 ....
) , min( 2 1
> > > >
R T
M M
trong gi tr nh nht l
) , min(
R T
M M
. Theo cch tnh i s v ma trn,
vi mt vector x

bt k ta c Error! Reference source not found.:


|| || || ||
) , min(
x x H

R T
M M
>
(0-15)
Vi {S} l tp hp gm {
i
s

} cc vector tn hiu truyn i th tp {R} cha tp hp cc


} {
i i
s H r

=

l vector
tn hiu nhn c. Bng phng php khi phc ti a ha s ging nhau gia hai k hiu th khi t l
li bt ca h thng ph thuc vo khong cch ti thiu gia cc thnh phn ca R. K hiu d
min
l khong
cch ti thiu gia cc thnh phn tn hiu thu:


(
(
(
(
(

=
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
...... ....... ....... ......
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
) ( ....... ) ( ) (
2 1
2 22 12
1 21 11
e e e
e e e
e e e
R T R R
T
T
M M M M
M
M
H H H
H H H
H H H
H


(0-10)
|| ) ( || min || || min
min j i
j i
j i
j i
d s s H r r

= =
= =

(0-16)
T phng trnh (0-15) ta c
|| || || ) ( ||
) , min( j i M M j i
R T
s s s s H

>
(0-17)
Do
0 ) , min( ) , min( min
|| || d d
R T R T
M M j i M M
> > s s


(0-18)
Vi d
0
l khong cch ti thiu gia hai t m nm trong tp {S}.
T phng trnh (0-18) ta thy rng t l li bt ca h thng lin quan mt thit vi gi tr k d nh nht
ca knh truyn. Do vy vic nghin cu c tnh phn b ca khong cch ti thiu gia hai t m l c
bit quan trng trong h thng MIMO.
Dung lng h thng ng (Closed loop) - knh khng tng quan
thut ton Water Filling (WF)
(bps/Hz) ) ( log
1
2
=
+
= =
m
i
i WF CL
C C (0-19)
y c chn t thut ton

=
+
=
m
i
i
1
1
) ( (0-20)
Biu thc (.)
+
biu th ch ly gi tr dng v vi m= min(M
T
,M
R
).


Vi vic s dng bt k mt ma trn thng tin Q l ma trn n nht, bn pht c th tng dung lng ca
h thng m MIMO vi min(M
T
,M
R
) ln ln hn h thng SISO.

Hnh 0-8 Dung lng knh MIMO


Hnh 0-9 Hm mt phn b cc gi tr k d (
i
)
ca ma trn knh MIMO

Trng hp knh c tng quan (Correlated channel)
Mt ma trn knh MIMO c th phn tch thnh 2 thnh phn
g m
H H H + =
(0-21)
Trong H
m
l thnh phn phc trung bnh ca knh truyn cn H
g
l thnh phn bin i ngu nhin theo
phn b Gauss. Hip phng sai ca knh c tnh
]
0
H
h [h R
g g
= (0-22)
Trong h
g
=vec(H
g
), R
0
l ma trn na dng (HPS). Hip phng sai R
0
thng c gi s cho n gin
vi cu trc Kronecker Error! Reference source not found.. M hnh Kronecker gi s rng hip phng
ai ca knh v hng nhn t tt c M
T
anten pht ti mt anten thu n (tng ng vi mt hng ca H) l
ging nhau cho bt k mt anten nhn no v bng ma trn R
t
kch thc (M
T
M
T
). t
t
i
h l hng i ca H
g

th Error! Reference source not found.
] [
H
h h E R
i i t
= (0-23)
i vi i bt k. Tng t vi knh v hng nhn t mt anten n pht ti M
R
anten thu (tng ng vi
cc ct ca H) l ma trn R
r
kch thc (M
R
M
R
). t
j
h l ct j ca H
g
th
] h E[h R
H
j j r
= (0-24)
C hai R
t
, R
r
u l ma trn na dng (HPS). Hip phng sai ca knh by gi c th nh ngha
r t
R R R
T
=
0
(0-25)
y c nh ngha l php nhn Kronecker Error! Reference source not found.. Do knh truyn
rn c th biu din nh sau
2 / 1 2 / 1
t w r m
R H R H H + = (0-26)
y H
w
l ma trn M
R
M
T
vi gi tr trung bnh bng khng v phng sai bng n v vi cc gi tr
phc Gaussian.
2 / 1
t
R l cn bc hai ca
t
R , ngha l
t t t
R R R =
2 / 1 2 / 1
. iu ny tng t vi
2 / 1
r
R .
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 ) (
1
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
) 3 ( *
3
) 2 ( *
2
) 1 ( *
1
) 3 (
3
*
32
4 *
31
) 2 (
2 23
*
21
) 1 (
1
4
13 12

T
T
T
T
t
T
T
T
T
T
Tt
T
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
t
r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
R (0-27)
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

1 ) ( ) ( ) (
1 ) (
1
1
2 2 2
2
2
2
) 3 ( *
3
) 2 ( *
2
) 1 ( *
1
) 3 (
3
*
32
4 *
31
) 2 (
2 23
*
21
) 1 (
1
4
13 12

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
r
r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
R

(0-28)
y (*) l lin hip phc. Cc gi tr r
ij
th hin s tng quan gia hai anten i v j, n c gi tr t 0 n
1. Trong trng hp r
ij
=0 ngha l hon ton khng tng quan. Trng hp bng 1 l tng quan hon
ton.
Kt qu trong Hnh 0-10 l dung lng ca h thng MIMO 22 trong trng hp knh tng quan c
tng quan khc nhau. Trong trng hp knh c tng quan th dung lng ca h thng s b gim i. Ma
trn tng quan R
t
, R
r
cho h thng 22 c dng




Hnh 0-10. Dung lng knh MIMO c tng quan vi =
1
=
2

(

=
(

=
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1


t r
R R


c lng knh v khi phc d liu trong h thng OFDM v MIMO-OFDM
1
1
1
2
1
max
> >
t
s f S t D
f D
v
T D f

(0-29)
y f
D
l tn s Doppler, T
s
l thi gian mt k hiu OFDM, f
s
l tn s ly mu ca tn hiu OFDM v

max
l tr truyn sng ln nht ca knh truyn.

Hnh 0-11: Cu trc tn hiu truyn trong h thng OFDM Error! Reference source not found.
c lng knh cho h thng SISO-OFDM
c lng theo phng php bnh phng nh nht (LS)
(
(
(
(
(

) 1 )( 1 ( 1 ) 1 ( 0 ) 1 (
) 1 ( 0 01 00
...
.... .......... ... ......... ..........
.... ... .... .....
...
FFT FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT
FFT FFT FFT
N N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N N N
W W W
W W W
F
(0-30)
Cc thnh phn ca F:
FFT
FFT
N nk j
FFT
nk
N
e
N
W
/ 2
1
t
=


Phng trnh thc hin c lng LS c biu din bi:


y X H

) (
1
= diag
LS
(0-31)
c lng theo phng php ti thiu ha sai li bnh phng nh nht (MMSE)
c lng knh
MMSE
h


c xy dng t ma trn t tng quan R
yy
v ma trn tng quan cho R
hy
. Gi s
rng ma trn t tng quan ca knh truyn R
hh
v phng sai nhiu (noise phng sai)
2
c bit. Ta
c:
H
hh
H H
HH
E E F FR h )(F h F H H R = = = } ) {( } {

(0-32)
H H H H
hy
E E X F R n h (XF h y h R
hh
= + = = } ) { } {

(0-33)
I X F XFR y y R
2
} { o + = =
H H
hh
H
yy
E

(0-34)
Ta c cng thc tnh c lng MMSE nh sau:


y R R h

1
=
yy hy MMSE
(0-35)
Ly bin i IFFT ta c p ng tn s Error! Reference source not found.:
LS
H
HH HH MMSE MMSE
H XX R R h G H

] ) ( [
1 2
+ = = o (0-36)
Trong
LS
H

l c lng bnh phng cc tiu LS. K thut c lng MMSE c hiu qu tt hn so vi


c lng LS c bit di iu kin SNR thp. Tuy nhin, MMSE c phc tp tnh ton cao hn do yu
cu phi ly ma trn nghch o mi ln X thay i.

Hnh 0-12: So snh kt qu gia hai phng php c lng knh LS v MMSE
c lng knh cho h thng MIMO-OFDM
S h thng MIMO-OFDM nh trn Hnh 0-13

Hnh 0-13 S khi h thng MIMO-OFDM
vi cc h thng MIMO 22, tn hiu dn ng c b tr nh sau
(

=
(

2 0
0 1
2 Anten
1 Anten
S
S

(0-37)
n gin trong vic phn tch ton hc, ta gi s rng di khong bo v GI (Guard Interval) ln hn
tr ln nht ca tt c cc ng truyn dn gia anten pht v thu. bn pht, tn hiu dn ng c
chn vo trong dng d liu c min thi gian v tn s. Tn hiu dn ng c bn pht truyn i u
n theo chu k thi gian. bn thu, tn hiu dn ng nhn c s c tch ra t dng tn hiu thu
c v a ti b c lng knh. Coi nh tn hiu dn ng nhn c trong min tn s, ngha l sau
khi p dng bin i Furier ri rc. K hiu
k
r
Y l tn hiu dn ng nhn c t sng mang con ph k
anten thu r. K hiu ny c th c vit theo phng trnh

=
+ =
T
M
t
k
r
k
t
k
r t
k
r
n X H Y
1
,
(0-38)
y
k
r t
H
,
l cc h s knh truyn trong min tn s gia anten pht t v anten thu r. Trong cng thc
(0-38),
k
t
X v
k
r
n tn hiu dn ng v nhiu trng Gauss. M
T
l s lng anten pht (xem Hnh 0-13).
biu din tn hiu dn ng nhn c ca tt c cc sng mang con , k=0,....,N
FFT
-1 ta nh ngha
vector tn hiu dn ng nhn c cng nhiu anten thu r Error! Reference source not found.:


T
FFT r r r
N Y Y ]] 1 [ ],...., 0 [ [ = Y

(0-39)
T
FFT r r r
N n n ]] 1 [ ],...., 0 [ [ = n

(0-40)
Trong phng trnh trn, N
FFT
l s sng mang con. Ton hng (.)
T
l ton hng chuyn v ma trn. Cc h
s knh truyn gia tt c anten pht v anten thu th r l mt vector (M
T
.N
FFT
)1
k
r
Y
T
r M r t r r
T
] ,.... ,...., [
, , , 1
H H H H

= (0-41)
y
T
r t r t r t
H H ] ,...., [
, , ,
= H

l p ng tn s knh truyn gia anten pht t v thu r. Tn hiu dn ng X


c kt hp trong ma trn N
FFT
(M
T
.N
FFT
) biu din di dng
}] { },..., { },..., { [
1
T
M t
diag diag diag X X X X

= (0-42)
y
T
FFT t t t
N X X ]] 1 [ ],..., 0 [ [ = X

v } {
t
diag X

l ma trn ng cho vi cc thnh phn ca vector


t
X


trn ng cho ca n.
Cui cng vector tn hiu dn ng nhn c c th vit
r r r
n X H Y


+ = (0-43)
Quan h gia p ng thi gian
T
r t r t r t
L h h ]] 1 [ ],..., 0 [ [
, , ,
= h

v tn s ca knh
r t ,
H

c th m t bng
phng trnh
r t r t , ,
H F h
L
=

(0-44)
y F
L
l ma trn cha L ct u tin ca ma trn F kch thc N
FFT
N
FFT

(
(
(
(
(

1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 1 1 , 1 0 , 1
1 , 0 1 , 0 0 , 0
...
.... .......... ... ......... ..........
...
...
FFT FFT FFT FFT
FFT
FFT
N N N N
N
N
F F F
F F F
F F F
F
(0-45)
Cc thnh phn ca F: F
p,q
=e
-j2t(pq/NFFT)
. p ng thi gian ca knh c di L
c
tng ng vi di ti
a ca tr pht knh dng ri rc nhng phi nh hn di N
FFT
. Bng vic din t p ng thi gian ca
knh (0-44), vector gii iu ch trong (0-38) c th vit li
r r r
n h Q Y


+ = (0-46)
y
] } { ,..., } { [
1 L M L
T
diag diag F X F X Q

= (0-47)
v
T
r N r t r r
T
] ,.... ,...., [
, , , 1
h h h h

= (0-48)
Vic c lng vector p ng thi gian ca knh c th nhn c bng c lng LS theo Error!
eference source not found.

r r
Y Q Q Q h
H H

1
) (

=
(0-49)
y (.)
H
l chuyn i Hermitian. Vic c lng thnh cng LS ph thuc vo s tn ti ca ma trn
nghch o (Q
H
Q)
-1
. Nu ma trn Q
H
Q l singular (hoc gn singular) th gii php LS khng tn ti hay
khng tin cy
c lng knh ZF c tnh theo cng thc sau Error! Reference source not found.
H 1 H
ZF
H H) (H H

= (0-50)
V trong trng hp c lng knh MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error)
H 1
N
T H
MMSE
H ) I H (H H

+ =

M

(0-51)

Hnh 0-14 So snh cc phng php c lng knh khc nhau- Trng hp knh khi phc hon ho


Chng 3: h thng MIMO
- K thut phn tp khng gian- s dng nhiu anten thu pht -
- KTPT thi gian- x dng cc k thut xo trn ci xen, lp bit.
- MRC cho h thng 1 anten pht nhiu thu
- H thng nhiu phat mt thu beamforming
- MIMO - MIMO ZF SIC Vblash
- Alamouti
- Phn tp m trelils
- Precoding
- TCM+OSTBC
- SOSTTC

1. MRC
- MRC cho h thng 1 anten pht nhiu thu
Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
5. On each receive antenna, the noise has the Gaussian probability density function with
with and .
.
=============
On the receive antenna, the received signal is,

, where
is the received symbol from all the receive antenna
is the channel on all the receive antenna
is the noise on all the receive antenna.
The equalized symbol is,
.
.
Effective Eb/No with Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
Earlier, we noted that in the presence of channel , the instantaneous bit energy to noise ratio at receive
antenna is
.
Given that we are equalizing the channel with , with the receive antenna case, the effective bit
energy to noise ratio is,
.
Effective bit energy to noise ratio in a N receive antenna case is N times the bit energy to noise ratio
for single antenna case. Recall, this gain is same as the improvement which we got in Receive diversity for
AWGN case
Click here to download Matlab/Octave script for plotting effective SNR with Maximal Ratio Combining in
Rayleigh channel

Figure: Effective SNR with Maximal Ratio Combining in Rayleigh fading channel
Error rate with Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
From the discussion on chi-square random variable, we know that, if is a Rayleigh distributed random
variable, then is a chi-squared random variable with two degrees of freedom. The pdf of is
.
Since the effective bit energy to noise ratio is the sum of such random variables, the pdf of is a chi-
square random variable with degrees of freedom. The pdf of is,
.
If you recall, in the post on BER computation in AWGN, with bit energy to noise ratio of , the bit error
rate for BPSK in AWGN is derived as
.
Given that the effective bit energy to noise ratio with maximal ratio combining is , the total bit error rate
is the integral of the conditional BER integrated over all possible values of .
.
, where
.

Figure: BER plot for BPSK in Rayleigh channel with Maximal Ratio Combining

H thng nhiu anten pht mt
anten thu beamforming

Transmit Beamforming
On the receive antenna, the received signal is,
where,
is the received symbol,
is the channel on the transmit antenna,
is the transmitted symbol and
is the noise on the receive antenna.
When transmit beamforming is applied, we multiply the symbol from each transmit antenna with a
complex number corresponding to the inverse of the phase of the channel so as to ensure that the signals
add constructively at the receiver. In this scenario, the received signal is,
,
where,
and
.
In this case, the signal at the receiver is,
.
For equalization, we need to divide the received symbol with the new effective channel, i.e,
.

Figure: BER plot for 2 transmit 1 receive beamforming for BPSK in Rayleigh channel

2. MIMO
- MIMO thng
- MIMO kh nhiu ZF, ZF opt, MMSE,..
MIMO with Zero Forcing equalizer

22 MIMO channel

Other Assumptions
5. On the receive antenna, the noise has the Gaussian probability density function with
with and .
7. The channel is known at the receiver.
Zero forcing (ZF) equalizer for 22 MIMO channel
Let us now try to understand the math for extracting the two symbols which interfered with each other. In
the first time slot, the received signal on the first receive antenna is,
.
The received signal on the second receive antenna is,
.
where
, are the received symbol on the first and second antenna respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on receive antennas.
Equivalently,

To solve for , we know that we need to find a matrix which satisfies . The Zero Forcing
(ZF) linear detector for meeting this constraint is given by,
.
This matrix is also known as the pseudo inverse for a general m x n matrix.
The term,
MMSE case
.

BER with ZF equalizer with 22 MIMO
Note that the off diagonal terms in the matrix are not zero (Recall: The off diagonal terms where
zero in Alamouti 21 STBC case).
For BPSK modulation in Rayleigh fading channel, the bit error rate is derived as,
.
Simulation Model

Figure: BER plot for 22 MIMO channel with ZF equalizer (BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel)

MIMO with Zero Forcing Successive Interference
Cancellation equalizer

22 MIMO channel

with and .
7. The channel is known at the receiver.
Zero forcing equalizer for 22 MIMO channel
Let us now try to understand the math for extracting the two symbols which interfered with each other. In
the first time slot, the received signal on the first receive antenna is,
.
The received signal on the second receive antenna is,
.
where
, are the received symbol on the first and second antenna respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on receive antennas.
For convenience, the above equation can be represented in matrix notation as follows:
.
Equivalently,

To solve for , The Zero Forcing (ZF) linear detector for meeting this constraint . is given
by,
.
To do the Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC), the receiver needs to perform the following:
Zero Forcing with Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC)
Using the Zero Forcing (ZF) equalization approach described above, the receiver can obtain an estimate of
the two transmitted symbols , , i.e.
.
Take one of the estimated symbols (for example ) and subtract its effect from the received


The above equation is same as equation obtained for receive diversity case. Optimal way of combining the
information from multiple copies of the received symbols in receive diversity case is to apply Maximal
Ratio Combining (MRC).
The equalized symbol is,
.
This forms the simple explanation for Zero Forcing Equalizer with Successive Interference Cancellation
(ZF-SIC) approach.

Figure: BER plot for BPSK in 22 MIMO channel with Zero Forcing Successive Interference
Cancellation equalization
MIMO with ZF SIC and optimal ordering
Zero forcing equalizer for 22 MIMO channel
Let us now try to understand the math for extracting the two symbols which interfered with each other. In
the first time slot, the received signal on the first receive antenna is,
.
The received signal on the second receive antenna is,
.
where
, are the received symbol on the first and second antenna respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on receive antennas.
For convenience, the above equation can be represented in matrix notation as follows:
.
Equivalently,

To solve for , The Zero Forcing (ZF) linear detector for meeting this constraint . is given
by,
.
Using the Zero Forcing (ZF) equalization, the receiver can obtain an estimate of the two transmitted
symbols , , i.e.
Successive Interference Cancellation with optimal ordering
In classical Successive Interference Cancellation, the receiver arbitrarily takes one of the estimated
symbols, and subtract its effect from the received symbol and . However, we can have more
intelligence in choosing whether we should subtract the effect of first or first. To make that decision,
let us find out the transmit symbol (after multiplication with the channel) which came at higher power at the
receiver. The received power at the both the antennas corresponding to the transmitted symbol is,
.
The received power at the both the antennas corresponding to the transmitted symbol is,
.
If then the receiver decides to remove the effect of from the received vector and
and then re-estimate .
.
Expressing in matrix notation,
,

Optimal way of combining the information from multiple copies of the received symbols in receive diversity
case is to apply Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC). The equalized symbol is,
.
Else if the receiver decides to subtract effect of from the received vector and ,
and then re-estimate
.
Expressing in matrix notation,
,

Optimal way of combining the information from multiple copies of the received symbols in receive diversity
case is to apply Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC). The equalized symbol is,
.
Doing successive interference cancellation with optimal ordering ensures that the reliability of the
symbol which is decoded first is guaranteed to have a lower error probability than the other symbol. This
results in lowering the chances of incorrect decisions resulting in erroneous interference cancellation. Hence
gives lower error rate than simple successive interference cancellation.


Figure: BER plot for BPSK in 22 MIMO equalized by ZF-SIC with optimal ordering
Observations
Compared to Zero Forcing equalization with successive interference cancellation case, addition of optimal
ordering results in around 2.0dB of improvement for B

1.STBC

Receiver with Alamouti STBC
In the first time slot, the received signal is,
.
In the second time slot, the received signal is,
.
where
, is the received symbol on the first and second time slot respectively,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
is the channel from transmit antenna to receive antenna,
, are the transmitted symbols and
is the noise on time slots.

The term,

If you compare the above equation with the estimated symbol following equalization in Maximal Ratio
Combining, you can see that the equations are identical.
BER with Almouti STBC
Since the estimate of the transmitted symbol with the Alamouti STBC scheme is identical to that obtained
from MRC, the BER with above described Alamouti scheme should be same as that for MRC. However,
there is a small catch.
With Alamouti STBC, we are transmitting from two antennas. Hence the total transmit power in the
Alamouti scheme is twice that of that used in MRC. To make the comparison fair, we need to make the total
trannsmit power from two antennas in STBC case to be equal to that of power transmitted from a single
antenna in the MRC case. With this scaling, we can see that BER performance of 2Tx, 1Rx Alamouti
STBC case has a roughly 3dB poorer performance that 1Tx, 2Rx MRC case.
From the post on Maximal Ratio Combining, the bit error rate for BPSK modulation in Rayleigh channel
with 1 transmit, 2 receive case is,
, where
.
With Alamouti 2 transmit antenna, 1 receive antenna STBC case,
and Bit Error Rate is
.
Key points
The fact that is a diagonal matrix ensured the following:
1. There is no cross talk between , after the equalizer.
2. The noise term is still white.
.


Alamuoiti 2x2







Receive diversity in AWGN
by Krishna Sankar on August 19, 2008
Some among you will be aware that in a wireless link having multiple antennas at the receiver (aka receive
diversity) improves the bit error rate (BER) performance. In this post, let us try to understand the BER
improvement with receive diversity. And, since we are just getting started, let us limit ourselves to additive
white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel (i.e assume that the channel gains are unity).
Single receive antenna case
Effective bit energy to noise ratio in a N receive antenna case is N times the bit energy to noise ratio
for single antenna case.
.
So the bit error probability for N receive antenna case is,
.
3.4.4.M ha khng gian-thi gian li STTC
STTC cho php phn tp y v li m cao, STTC l loi m chp c m rng cho trng
hp MIMO. Cu trc m chp c bit ph hp vi truyn thng v tr v v tinh, do ch s dng b m ha
n gin nhng t c hiu qu cao nh vo phng php gii m phc tp.
Nu nh STBC x l c lp tng khi k t u vo to ra mt chui cc vector m c lp, th
STTC x l tng chui k t u vo to ra tng chui vector m ph thuc vo trng thi m trc
ca b m ha.
B m ha cc vc tor m bng cch dich chuyn cc bt d liu qua thanh ghi dch qua K tng mi
tng c k bt. Mi b n ghp cng nh phn vi u vo l K tng s to ra vector m n bit cho mi k bit u
vo. Ti mt thi im, k bit d liu u vo s c dch vo tng u tin ca thanh ghi dch, k bit ca
tng u s c dch vo k bit ca tng k. Mi ln dch k bit d liu vo s to ra mt vector m n bit.
Tc m l
K l s tng ca thanh ghi dch c gi l constraint length ca b m. Hnh di cho ta thy r mi
vector m trong m li ph thuc vo kK bit, b gm k bit d liu vo tn u tin v bit ca
tng cui ca b m ha, tng cui ny gi l trng thi ca b m ha, trong khi ch c k
bit d liu u vo trong m khi nh hng ti vector m.

Hnh 3.8. S m li
M li c biu din thng qua li m (code trellis) hoc s trng thi ( state diagram)
m t s bin i t trng thi hin ti sang trng thi k tip ty thuc k bit d liu u vo.
V d: B m li k=1, K=3 v n=2

Hnh 3.9. B m li k=1, K=3 v n=2
Hnh 3.9 m t s m ha vi k=1, K=3 v n=2, hnh 3.9 m t li m v s trng
thi ca b m
00 = 0
01 = 1
10 = 2
11 = 3
00 = 0
01 = 1
10 = 2
11 = 3
Trang thai
hien tai
Trang thai
ketiep
Vector ma
00, 11
11, 00
10, 01
01, 10
0
1
3
2
00
11
01
10
01 11
00 10
Ngovao
TX1
TX2
1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 0 0 1
Li ma
S otrang thai
Bit vao 1
Bit vao 0

Hnh 3.10. Li m v s trng thi vi k=1, K=3 v n=2
Tn hiu nhn c ti my thu s c b gii m tng quan ti a khng gian-thi gian
STMLD ( space-Time Maximum Likelood Decoder) gii m. B STMLD s c thc hin thnh
gii thut vector Viterbi, ng m no c metric tch ly nh nht s c chn l chui d liu
c gii m. phc to ca b gii m tng theo hm m vi s trng thi trn gin chm sao
v s trng thi m li, mt b STTC c bc phn tp l D truyn d liu vi tc R bps th
phc tp ca b gii m t l vi h s .
STTC cung cp li m tt hn nhiu STBC li ca STTC tng ln khi tng s trng
thi ca li m. Tuy nhin li phc tp ca STBC thp hn nhiu phc tp ca STTC, do
STBC c m ha v gii m n gin nh vo cc gii thut x l tuyn tnh, nn STBC c m
ha v gii m n gin nh vo cc gii thut x l tuyn tnh, nn STBC ph hp vi cc ng
dng thc t trong h thng MIMO hn STTC.



V d vi m k/n=2/3 vi 2 bit vo, 3bit ra theo a thc sinh G(x) nh sau
G(x)= 5 4 7
7 4 2

Mch thit k c dng hai nhnh V s ln nht trong mi hng l 7 nn D=2 ngha l mi nhnh c 2 b
tr. Cc u ra c u ni da trn cc ct ca ma trn gia cc hng. Nh hnh v di y


Ta c kt qu trng thi dch chuyn ca mch v u ra
Trng thi tip theo u ra
numInputSymbols: 4
numOutputSymbols: 8
numStates: 16
nextStates: [16x4 double]
outputs: [16x4 double]

C th s dng lnh
t = poly2trellis([3 3],[4 5 7;7 4 2]);
trong mathLab kim tra li
0 8 2 10
0 8 2 10
1 9 3 11
1 9 3 11
0 8 2 10
0 8 2 10
1 9 3 11
1 9 3 11
4 12 6 14
4 12 6 14
5 13 7 15
5 13 7 15
4 12 6 14
4 12 6 14
5 13 7 15
5 13 7 15

0 6 7 1
3 5 4 2
1 7 6 0
2 4 5 3
4 2 3 5
7 1 0 6
5 3 2 4
6 0 1 7
5 3 2 4
6 0 1 7
4 2 3 5
7 1 0 6
1 7 6 0
2 4 5 3
0 6 7 1
3 5 4 2

K thut nh thng bit (Punction).
gim nh s bit thng tin truyn I ngi ta loai b bt mt s bit bng cch s dng mt vector gi l
Punction vector.
-Thnh phn u ra s tng ng vi cc bit 1 trong punction vector.
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, dI ca n phI bng vi dI Punction vector
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, nu dI ca Punction vector b hn dI ca n th Punction vector
s c lp lI theo mu ca n ph ln tt c cc thnh phn u vo

khI phc lI tn hiu ban u th bn thu s s dng vector zero ging ht punction vector. N dng
ch ra v tr cc s 0 s c chn thay th vo dng d liu
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, dI ca n phI bng vi dI Punction vector
- i vi mu tn hiu u vo, nu s s 1 trong vector zero nh hn dI u vo th h thng s lp
lI vic chn cc mu 0 ti u ra
Trong v d di y Punction s dung vector [1 1 0 1] cho kt qu t l vo/ra=16/12
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1


0
1
0
0
0
1

V ngha: Phng php ny ging nh ta m ho m chp vi t l k/n sau ct b bt cc phn tha i
bin i thnh m chp k/n. V d m thc hin m chp t l 2/3 c th thc hin bng m chp 1/2
sau dng mu punction ct b bt mt s bit thnh m t l 2/3
V d:

Mch ny tng ng vi mch m ho t l 2/3 nh sau:

Hnh v: Mch m ho t l 2/3
M ho c hi tip
V d lnh poly2trellis(3,[7;5],7) trong MatLab s tng ng vi s sau

Hnh v m ho xon c hi tip
Bng trng thi
t.nextStates =
0 2
2 0
3 1
1 3
Bng ra
t.outputs=
0 3
0 3
1 2
1 2

Kt qu v d
St = 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
Out = 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0




-

Chng 4: OFDM v MIMO OFDM

1. OFDM
So snh FDM v OFDM
OFDM khc vi FDM nhiu im. Tt c cc sng mang th cp trong tn hiu OFDM c ng
b thi gian v tn s vi nhau, cho php kim sot tt can nhiu gia cc sng mang vi nhau. Cc sng
mang ny chng lp trong min tn s nhng khng gy can nhiu gia cc sng mang (ICI: inter-carrier
interference) do bn cht trc giao ca iu ch. Vi FDM, tn hiu truyn cn c khong bo v tn s ln
gia cc knh m bo khng b chng ph, v vy khng c hin tng giao thoa k t ISI gia nhng
sng mang. iu ny lm gim hiu qu ph. Tuy nhin vi OFDM nhm khc phc hiu qu ph km khi
c khong bo v (guard period) bng cch gim khong cch cc sng mang v cho php ph ca cc sng
mang cnh nhau trng lp nhau. S trng lp ny c php nu khong cch gia cc sng mang c
chn chnh xc sao cho nh ca sng mang ny s i qua dim khng ca sng mang kia tc l cc sng
mang trc giao nhau nhng tn hiu c khi phc m khng giao thoa hay chng ph.






















Hnh 1.3: Ph ca OFDM v FDM
Tnh trc giao
f
i

S
i

M-QAM
f
i

S
i

M-QAM


OFDM
FDM
S
i

M-QAM
S
i

M-QAM



Mt tn hiu c gi l trc giao nu n c quan h c lp vi tn hiu khc. Tnh trc giao l mt
c tnh cho php truyn mt lc nhiu thng tin trn mt knh chung m khng gy ra nhiu. Chnh s mt
tnh trc giao l nguyn nhn gy ra s suy gim tn hiu trong vin thng .
OFDM t c s trc giao bng cch cp pht cho mi ngun thng tin mt s sng mang nht
nh khc nhau. Tn hiu OFDM t c chnh l tng hp ca tt c cc sng sin ny. Mi mt sng mang
c mt chu k sao cho bng mt s nguyn ln thi gian cn thit truyn mt k hiu (symbol duration).
Tc l truyn mt k hiu chng ta s cn mt s nguyn ln ca chu k. Hnh 2.4 l trng hp ca tn
hiu OFDM vi 4 sng mang ph.

Hnh 1.4: Cu trc ca mt tn hiu OFDM
Cc hnh (1a), (2a), (3a), (4a) l min thi gian ca cc sng mang n tn vi cc ch s 1, 2, 3, 4 l s chu
k trn mi k hiu. Cc hnh (1b), (2b), (3b), (4b) l min tn s nh s dng bin i Fourier nhanh ca
tn hiu. Hnh pha di cng l tn hiu tng hp ca 4 sng mang ph.
Tp hp cc hm c gi l trc giao nu tha mn biu thc (2.1)
}

= <=>
= <=>
= =
T
j i
j i
j i C
j i C dt t S t S
0
0
) ( * ) ( ) ( o
(1.1)
Nhng sng mang ny trc giao vi nhau v khi nhn dng sng ca 2 sng mang bt k v sau ly tch
phn trong khoang thi gian T s c kt qu bng khng.

S h thng


Tnh toan tn hiu ti cc im
St 1011 0001 1100 1001 0001
A A0 1 0 1 1 0
A1 0 0 1 0 0
A2 1 0 0 0 0
A3 1 1 0 1 1
B B0 1-j -1-j
B1 1+j 1-j
B2 1-j 1+j
B3 -1-j -1+j
C C0 0
C1 1-j
C2 1+j
C3 0
C4 0
C5 0
C6 1-j
C7 -1-j
D D0 0.2500 - 0.2500i
D1 -0.2500
D2 -0.2500 + 0.2500i
D3 0.2500 + 0.3536i
D4 0.2500 + 0.2500i
D5 -0.2500
D6 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
D7 0.2500 - 0.3536i
E E0 0.2500 + 0.2500i
E1 -0.2500
E2 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
E3 0.2500 - 0.3536i
E4 0.2500 - 0.2500i
E5 -0.2500
E6 -0.2500 + 0.2500i
E7 0.2500 + 0.3536i
E8 0.2500 + 0.2500i
E9 -0.2500
E10 -0.2500 - 0.2500i
E11 0.2500 - 0.3536i
F p/s p/s p/s
G

G1
G2
H H1
H2

2.MIMO-OFDM






2. STBC-MIMO-OFDM
a. ALAMOUTI




c
o
p
y

OFDM
OFDM
OFDM
OFDM
ALAMO
UTI
CODE






b. DFSF















Ph lc
Mt s hm c bn
H
H

=
nCr = n!/(r!.(n-r)!)



Plot of the error function
In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special function (non-
elementary) of sigmoid shape which occurs in probability, statistics and partial differential equations. It is
defined as:

The complementary error function, denoted erfc, is defined as

\ The error function is essentially identical to the standard normal cumulative distribution function, denoted
, also named norm(x) by software languages, as they differ only by scaling and translation. Indeed,

or rearranged for erf and erfc:

Consequently, the error function is also closely related to the Q-function, which is the tail probability of the
standard normal distribution. The Q-function can be expressed in terms of the error function as


EbNo = 8:2:20;
M = 16; % Use 16 QAM
L = 1; % Start without diversity
ber = berfading(EbNo,'qam',M,L);
semilogy(EbNo,ber);
text(18.5, 0.02, sprintf('L=%d', L))
hold on
% Loop over diversity order, L, 2 to 20
for L=2:20
ber = berfading(EbNo,'qam',M,L);
semilogy(EbNo,ber);
end
text(18.5, 1e-11, sprintf('L=%d', L))
title('QAM over fading channel with diversity order 1 to 20')
xlabel('E_b/N_o (dB)')
ylabel('BER')
grid on


ber = berawgn(EbNo,'pam',M) returns the BER of uncoded PAM over an AWGN channel with coherent
demodulation.
ber = berawgn(EbNo,'qam',M) returns the BER of uncoded QAM over an AWGN channel with coherent
demodulation.
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'conv',decision,coderate,dspec)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'block','hard',n,k,dmin)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'block','soft',n,k,dmin)
berapprox = bercoding(EbNo,'Hamming','hard',n)
berub = bercoding(EbNo,'Golay','hard',24)
berapprox = bercoding(EbNo,'RS','hard',n,k)

Bit error rate (BER) for imperfect synchronization
Syntax
ber = bersync(EbNo,timerr,'timing')
ber = bersync(EbNo,phaserr,'carrier')
berconfint - Bit error rate (BER) and confidence
interval of Monte Carlo simulation
Syntax
[ber,interval] = berconfint(nerrs,ntrials)
[ber,interval] = berconfint(nerrs,ntrials,level)