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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP

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Mc lc
Mc lc....................................................................................................................................1
Li ni u...............................................................................................................................2
PHN I....................................................................................................................................3
MNG IP & CC THNG S NH HNG N CHT LNG DCH V..........3
I.1. Phn loi lu lng v ng dng trn mng IP............................................................3
I.2. Cc thng s nh gi cht lng dch v ...................................................................5
I.2.1. Tr ............................................................................................................................................................5
I.2.2. Thng lng .............................................................................................................................................5

I.3. Vn cung cp cht lng dch v trn mng IP.......................................................6


PHN 2....................................................................................................................................7
Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP.......................................7
II.1. M hnh dch v tch hp (IntServ)..............................................................................8
II.1.1. Nhng c trng chnh ca m hnh IntServ...........................................................................................8
II.1.2. Giao thc RSVP ....................................................................................................................................10
II.1.2.1. Cc c trng ca RSVP.................................................................................................................10
II.1.2.2. M hnh hot ng ca giao thc RSVP ........................................................................................11
II.1.2.3. Mt s vn ca giao thc RSVP ...............................................................................................16
II.1.3. Kim sot chp nhn .............................................................................................................................16
II.1.4. Phn loi gi tin.....................................................................................................................................17
II.1.5. Lp lch gi tin.......................................................................................................................................17
II.1.6. Kin trc dch v tch hp .....................................................................................................................18
II.1.6.1. Dch v ti c kim sot .................................................................................................................20
II.1.6.2. Dch v m bo (Guaranteed Service) .........................................................................................22
II.1.7. Cc vn vi m hnh dch v tch hp .............................................................................................23

II.2. M hnh dch v phn bit ..........................................................................................24


II.2.1. Cc c im chnh ca m hnh DiffServ ...........................................................................................24
II.2.2. Kin trc dch v phn bit ...................................................................................................................25
II.2.3. nh ngha dch v ................................................................................................................................27
II.2.3.1. Trng DS v cc PHB c bn ......................................................................................................27
II.2.3.2. PHB chuyn tip nhanh ..................................................................................................................29
II.2.3.3. PHB chuyn tip c m bo .........................................................................................................29
II.2.4. Qun l ng ti nguyn trong m hnh DiffServ................................................................................30
II.2.4.1. Tng quan v Bandwidth Broker....................................................................................................30
II.2.4.2. Kin trc ca mt h thng BB ......................................................................................................32
II.2.5. u im v hn ch ca dch v Diffserv .............................................................................................33
II.2.5.1. u im ..........................................................................................................................................33
II.2.5.2. Hn ch ca Diffserv .....................................................................................................................33

II.3. Multi Switching Label Protocol v Traffic Engineering.........................................34


II.3.1. Gii thiu ..............................................................................................................................................34
II.3. 2. Kin trc MPLS....................................................................................................................................35
II.3.2.1. Cc thnh phn chnh trong m hnh .............................................................................................36
II.3.2.2. Forwarding Equivalent Class .........................................................................................................36
II.3.2.3. Label Distribute Protocol................................................................................................................37
II.3.3. Traffic Engineering vi MPLS..............................................................................................................37
II.3.3.1. Gii thiu chung .............................................................................................................................37
II.3.3.2. M hnh thc hin ..........................................................................................................................38
II.3.4. Kt lun .................................................................................................................................................39

PHN 3..................................................................................................................................40
nh gi, kt lun..............................................................................................................40
III.1. nh gi, phn tch cc phng php: ....................................................................40
1

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.2. xut, kin ngh .......................................................................................................41
III.3. Phng n thc hin cc xut v kin ngh ........................................................41
III.3.1. M hnh Kt hp IntServ v DiffServ..................................................................................................41
III.3.1.1. Li ch ca m hnh kt hp Intserv v Diffserv...........................................................................41
III.3.1.2. Framework cho Intserv/RSVP over Diffserv ...............................................................................42
III.3.1.3. Thc thi Framework......................................................................................................................44
III.3.1.4. Kt lun..........................................................................................................................................44
III.3.2. H tr Diffserv trn MPLS ..................................................................................................................44
III.3.2.1. Li ch ca kt hp Diffserv v MPLS .........................................................................................44
III.3.2.2. Nguyn tc ....................................................................................................................................45
III.3.2.3. Cc hot ng ca LSR Diffserv MPLS........................................................................................45
III.3.2.4. Nhng u im v tn ti ca hai m hnh E-LSP v L-LSP......................................................46
III.3.2.5. Kt lun..........................................................................................................................................46

Kt lun..................................................................................................................................47
Ti liu tham kho................................................................................................................48

Li ni u

Ngy nay, cc mng dng cng ngh IP, c bit l Internet tr thnh cng c
quan trng trong nhiu lnh vc. Cng vi cc dch v truyn thng (nh email, FTP,
WWW,. . .) cc dch v mi (truyn ting ni, hnh nh hay a phng tin) i hi tnh thi
gian thc cng ngy cng pht trin. Nhu cu truyn cc dch v thi gian thc trong mng
IP tng ln nhanh chng trong khi m hnh cung cp dch v truyn thng trong mng IP
da trn vic truyn gi tin vi c gng ti a (best effort) khng p ng c nhng yu
cu cht ch v mt thi gian, tr hay bng thng ca cc dch v thi gian thc i hi
phi c gii php gii quyt vn ny.
p ng c yu cu ca cc ng dng thi gian thc, c hai gii php c bn.
Gii php th nht l b xung thm ti nguyn bng cch nng cp c s h tng truyn
thng. Nhng gii php ny tn km v d ti nguyn mng c tng th cc ng dng tiu
tn ti nguyn cng tng ln v ti nguyn c xem l lun thiu so vi nhu cu. Gii php
th hai hp l hn l b sung cc c ch h tr cht lng dch v vo h tng mng. Do
2

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------t chc Internet Engineering Task Fork (IETF) nghin cu, pht trin v a ra bn
phng php nhm thc hin phng n ny. l cc phng php:
- M hnh dch v tch hp ( Integrated Services IntServ)
- M hnh dch v phn bit (Differentiated Services DiffServ)
- Multiprotocol Label Switching
- Traffic Engineering
Trong tiu lun ny, chng em xin trnh by v 4 phng php h tr cht lng
dch v trn. nh gi u nhc im ca tng phng php v a ra cc kin ngh v
xut ca ring mnh.
Chng em xin cm n thy gio Ng Hng Sn cung cp cc kin thc qu bu
chng em hon thnh tiu lun ny.

PHN I
MNG IP & CC THNG S NH HNG N CHT LNG
DCH V
I.1. Phn loi lu lng v ng dng trn mng IP
Trn mng IP c hai loi lu lng khc nhau c bn l lu lng thi gian thc v
lu lng d liu (data traffic, lu lng khng c thuc tnh thi gian thc)
IP applications
IP traffic

Real time applications


Real time traffic

Elastic applications
Data traffic

Hnh 1 . Phn loi ng dng v lu lng trn mng IP

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lu lng d liu to bi cc ng dng nh telnet, ftp, www, email,. .. . l cc
ng dng mm do (chng lun i d liu n). tr ln s lm gim hiu sut thc hin
ng dng nhng d liu i n u c s dng. Cc ng dng mm do c th tip tc
c phn loi cn c vo i hi tr ca chng. Interactive burst traffic
(nh telnet, NFS) cn tr nh, interactive bulk traffic (nh ftp, www) cn tr trung
bnh, asynchronous bulk traffic (email) khng b nh hng g bi tr.
Lu lng d liu thng l ri rc v khng on trc c. Cc lin kt thng
c tui th ngn v dng truyn mt hay nhiu khi d liu. Cc ng dng gi d liu i
vi kh nng nhanh nht c th c ri dng li. Do lu lng d liu mang tnh bng
n. Lu lng thi gian thc to bi cc ng dng thi gian thc. Cc ng dng thi gian
thc u c c tnh ch chu tr nh. Khc vi cc ng dng mm do, chng rt nhy
cm vi tr v s bin thin tr. Qu trnh truyn d liu ca ng dng thi gian thc
thng u v ko di, lung d liu c tnh iu ho. m t lung d liu thi gian thc,
mt phng php thng c s dng l m hnh gi th bi (token bucket model). Mt b
gi th bi c xc nh bi hai tham s : tc th bi r v kch thc gi b .
Trong hnh 2, r l tc th bi xp vo gi, nu gi y cc th bi k tip s b
loi, nh vy gi ch cha c ti a b th bi. Nhng gi i n s c lu vo hng i.
truyn gi i cc th bi c ly ra khi gi vi mt lng tng ng vi kch thc
gi, mi khi mt gi kch thc p c gi i, p th bi s chy ra khi gi. Gi ch c
gi i khi trong gi c th bi. Vi c ch ny lu lng d liu c kim sot (trong
thi gian T, lu lng gi i khng th vt qu rt + b)
Cc th bi i n vi
tc khng i r

Gi ( kch thc b )

Gi d liu n

Gi d liu i

Hng i di c nh

Hnh 2 . Nguyn l hot ng ca m hnh gi th bi

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


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I.2. Cc thng s nh gi cht lng dch v


Cht lng dch v l kh nng ca mng cung cp dch v tt hn cho cc lu
lng mng c la chn trn cc cng ngh khc nhau nh Frame Relay, ATM,. .. Ni
cch khc, l c tnh ca mng cho php phn bit cc lp lu lng khc nhau v x l
chng mt cch ph hp.
Cc thng s quyt nh cht lng dch v l tr, thng lng v mt mt

I.2.1. Tr
Tr ca lu lng dch v l c tnh rt quan trng ca cht lng dch v. Cc kha
cnh khc nhau ca tr c nh hng khc nhau n cc dch v.
- Tr u cui n u cui (end to end)
- Bin thin tr (jitter)
Cc ng dng tng tc thi gian thc (nh truyn thng thoi) nhy cm vi tr u
cui n u cui v bin thin tr. tr di nh hng n tnh tng tc ca qu trnh
thng tin .
Cc ng dng phi tng tc thi gian thc (nh qung b mt chiu) khng nhy
cm vi tr u cui n u cui nhng b nh hng bi bin thin tr. Bin thin tr
thng c iu chnh bng cch dng b m ti u thu, ti cc gi n c gi v
pht li ti thi im thch hp. Thi im pht (im pht li) c xc nh bi bin thin
tr ti a. Cc ng dng c th iu chnh im pht li da trn s thay i gi tr bin
thin tr gi l cc ng dng thch nghi. Cc gi n sau thi im pht li thng khng
cn gi tr vi ng dng.
Cc ng dng khng c thuc tnh thi gian thc khng nhy cm vi tr. l do
cc ng dng ny c th dng cc php o tr iu khin tc lu lng (nh TCP) hay
lu tr d liu cho n khi c bo nhn (nh FTP). Tr ln hoc thay i c th nh
hng n cht lng ca nhng ng dng ny .
Cc thnh phn khc nhau ca tr u cui n u cui l :
- Tr pht: l thi gian cn thit a tt c cc bit ca gi tin vo ng truyn
- Tr truyn: l thi gian mt bit truyn qua knh
- Tr x l: l thi gian x l mt gi trong phn t mng
- Tr hng i: l thi gian gi tin phi i trong hng i trc khi n c truyn i
Ti u cui, c th c cc tr khc khi nhn gi tin t giao din mng n chng
trnh v cui cng n ngi s dng .

I.2.2. Thng lng


Kha cnh chnh ca thng lng l bng thng dnh cho ng dng. N xc nh lu
lng m ng dng c th truyn qua mng. Mt kha cnh quan trng khc l li (thng
lin quan n t l li c truyn) v mt mt (thng lin quan n dung lng b m)
5

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vi ng dng thi gian thc cng, chng ch c gi tr khi c cung cp mt lng
di thng nht nh. Cc ng dng thch nghi c yu cu thp hn, hiu sut ca cc ng
dng ny tng nhanh khi di thng tng ln, nhng ch n mt mc nht nh, khi di
thng tip tc tng, hiu sut ng dng khng c ci thin. i vi cc ng dng mm
do, hiu sut t ph thuc vo di thng hn nhng khi tng di thng th lun nng cao
c hiu sut ng dng .
Hnh 3 th hin s ph thuc hiu sut ca ng dng vo di thng ca cc loi ng dng
Hiu sut

Hiu sut

Di thng
a. ng dng thi gian thc
cng

Hiu sut

Di thng
b. ng dng thch nghi tr

Di thng
c. ng dng mm do

Hnh 3 . S ph thuc ca hiu sut ng dng vo di thng


Mt s ng dng c th gim tc truyn thch ng vi du hiu thng lng
thp. Cc ng dng ny c gi l thch ng tc .
Thng lng ph thuc vo cc yu t sau :
- c tnh ng truyn: bng thng, t l li
- c tnh nt mng: dung lng b m, nng lc x l
Mt s c tnh ca cc phn t mng khc nhau nh cc thit b u cui / my ch,
chuyn mch / b nh tuyn xc nh cht lng dch v cung cp cho ng dng theo cc
ch tiu v thng lng v tr.

I.3. Vn cung cp cht lng dch v trn mng IP


Cc mng hin nay cn h tr nhiu kiu lu lng trn cng mt lin kt mng n.
Cc kiu lu lng khc nhau yu cu mng phi x l khc nhau. Lu lng ch c th
c phn bit ti cc phn t mng tch cc l b nh tuyn (router), chuyn mch
(switch) v gateway .
V vy, yu cu thit k mng bao gm :
Mng c th truyn nhiu loi dch v, c ngha l chng phi quan tm n cht
lng dch v
Kh nng m rng, ngha l lu lng mng c th tng m khng lm nh hng
n hot ng ca mng
Kh nng h tr cc ng dng quan trng, dng nhiu ti nguyn mng, cc ng
dng ny ng vai tr quan trng trong hot ng kinh doanh ca cc doanh nghip

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C hai c ch c bn cung cp cht lng dch v thch hp da trn cc tiu
chun tr v thng lng.
Cung cp dung lng
S dng cng ngh qun l lu lng
Khi c dung lng ti nguyn trong mng th khng cn mt c ch c bit no
m bo cht lng dch v. iu bao gm c :
ng truyn tc cao
Cc b x l mnh
B m dung lng ln
C ch ny thch hp cho mi trng cc b c iu khin nh mng LAN ca cc
doanh nghip nhng khng ph hp vi cc mng ln nh mng Internet. Trong khi gi
bng thng, b nh v b x l ang gim i th gi ca cc thit b u cui v ng
truyn vin thng tc cao p ng m hnh ny vn cn kh cao .
C ch cung cp cht lng dch v th hai l s dng cng ngh qun l lu lng.
tng y l lu lng c th c phn bit v cung cp cc mc dch v khc nhau.
Mc phn bit c th l mt tp nh cc lp hay phn bit n tng lung ng dng. Phi
c c ch iu khin mc lu lng ca tng lp c a vo mng tu theo ti nguyn
sn c iu ny c th c thc hin tnh (bng cch cung cp trc) hay ng (bo hiu
vic d tr ti nguyn). Phi c cc c ch chuyn tip lu lng hiu qu trn mng. Hn
na, phn t mng phi qun l vic x l v xp hng i cc gi mt cch thch hp m
bo vic cung cp cc dch v khc nhau tu theo tng gi.

PHN 2
CC PHNG PHP NNG CAO CHT LNG DCH V
TRN MNG IP
IETF a bn phng php cung cp cht lng dch v trong mng IP
Integrated Services IntServ
Differentiated Services DiffServ
Multiprotocol Label Switching
Traffic Engineering
Intserv cho php t trc mt knh xuyn qua mng vi bng thng m bo. N
d tr ti nguyn mng mt cch r rng bng giao thc bo hiu ng v s dng kim sot
chp nhn, phn loi gi, lp lch thng minh t c cht lng dch v mong mun

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DiffServ phn loi cc gi thnh mt s nh cc kiu dch v v dng c ch u tin
cung cp cht lng dch v thch hp cho lu lng. y khng s dng d tr ti
nguyn hay kim sot chp nhn, mc d cc nt c s dng c ch hng i thng minh
phn bit lu lng.
MPLS khng phi l m hnh nh Intserv v Diffserv, n l mt chun kt hp cng
ngh chuyn mch nhanh tng hai v nh tuyn tng ba cho php dn ng hiu qu.
MPLS thm mt nhn ngn vo gi tin IP v thc hin chuyn tip packet da trn nhn ny
trnh nhng phc tp do phi x l header ca gi tin IP.
Traffic Engineering c s dng t c mc tiu hiu nng nh ti u ti
nguyn mng v sp t lu lng vo cc ng truyn c th. Bng cch s dng mt
cng ngh nh MPLS, traffic engineering cho php gim tc nghn lu lng trn mng .
Sau y chng ta s xem xt cc phng php ny .

II.1. M hnh dch v tch hp (IntServ)


Integrated Service l m hnh QoS u tin c IETF pht trin vo u nhng nm
1990 v mt s phn ca m hnh ny ngy nay vn ang c hon thin. Khi nhm
Integrated Service bt u, World Wide Web cha xut hin v trao i a phng tin
c xem l ng dng tng lai. Do , IntServ l mt chun ph hp nht vi truyn thng
ng di vi bng thng m bo.
Trong IntServ nhiu lp lu lng c cc phn t mng m bo cc loi cht
lng dch v khc nhau . y cc ng dng cn bit trc cc c tnh lu lng ca
chng v bo hiu cho cc phn t mng trung gian t trc cc ti nguyn nht nh
nhm p ng tnh cht lu lng ca n. Tu theo s kh dng, mng c th dnh ti
nguyn v gi v mt bo nhn tch cc hoc khng p ng yu cu .
tng chnh ca IntServ l h tr ng k tng lung. InteServ cho php ng k
trn ton tuyn trc khi thc s gi d liu.
Trung tm ca Integrated Service l giao thc ng k ti nguyn RSVP. Khi mt
sender mun truyn lu lng ti mt receiver (thng qua unicast hay multicast), sender gi
mt thng ip PATH ti receiver. Mt thng ip PATH chuyn thng tin ti receiver v
ngun lu lng, c im ca ng i mng v cui cng n ci t trng thi cn thit
thng ip RESV c th tm n sender t receiver. Khi receiver nhn c thng ip
PATH, n tr li mt thng ip RESV dc theo ng m thng ip PATH i qua.
Thng ip RESV thc s t trc bng thng cn thit trong router dc theo ng i.
Khi sender nhn c thng ip RESV, n mi bt u truyn d liu .

II.1.1. Nhng c trng chnh ca m hnh IntServ


a) Lung (flow)

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lung l mt dng cc gi sinh ra t cng mt hnh ng ca ngi s dng v d
mt phin ng dng n. C th xc nh lung bng cc c ch khc nhau .V d IP V6
dng a ch ngun v nhn lung cn IP V4 dng a ch ngun, a ch ch v cng ch .
b) Cc loi dch v
IntServ nh ngha cc loi dch v c th cung cp, da trn cc yu cu v tr v
mt mt, c th l :
* Dch v m bo : cung cp s m bo tuyt i v tr v mt mt gi m lung phi
chu (dng cho cc ng dng thi gian thc khng thch nghi). Cc gi tun theo s d
tr s khng b mt hay tr qu gii hn xc nh. S m bo cht ch i hi mc d
tr ti nguyn cao
* Dch v ti c kim sot : cung cp dch v tng c vi mng khng qu ti (dng
cho cc ng dng thch nghi hot ng tt trong iu kin mng ti nh) . Phn ln gi
tin s khng b mt hay tr hng i. Nhng y khng cung cp mc m bo mang
tnh ng lng c th
* c im lu lng (Traffic Specification Tspec)
Lu lng lung c c trng bi c im lu lng (Tspec). Tspec cha cc
tham s tc th bi r, kch thc gi b (gi th bi), tc nh p (peak rate), n v
x l nh nht m v kch thc gi ti a M
- Tc th bi r xc nh tc truyn d liu lin tc khng i, kch thc gi b
xc nh mc m tc truyn d liu c th vt qu tc cho php trong mt
khong thi gian ngn
- Tc nh p l tc ti a m ngun v cc im inhj dng lu lng c th gy
ra bng n lu lng trn mng
-

n v x l nh nht m (minimum policed unit), xc nh s byte c tnh khi


kim tra lu lng v s ph hp vi Tspec. Cc gi c kch thc m khi kim tra
u c coi l c kch thc bng m
Kch thc gi ti a M l kch thc ln nht ca gi tun theo Tspec. M phi nh
hn hoc bng MTU ca lin kt v cc gi s dng dch v khng c phn on.
Lung s b loi b (khng c s dng dch v yu cu) nu kch thc gi ti a
yu cu ln hn M .

c) c im dch v c yu cu
Lung c tr m bo c th xc nh thm bng c im dch v c yu cu
(Requested Service Specification Rspec) yu cu mc dch v c th. Rspec c cc
tham s sau :
- Tc yu cu R, xc nh tc mong mun m lu lng c gi trong lung,
n phi ln hn r

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

S hng vi chnh S, xc nh s trnh lch gia tr mong mun v tr thu c


khi gi tc R. N cho php mng iu chnh tc c phn b p ng
yu cu tr

d) c im ng (Path Characterization)
gii thch cc cht lng dch v c cung cp dc theo mt chng ng c
th, c ch d tr ti nguyn cng thng bo mt s c tnh ca ng, chng bao gm
- Kh nng cung cp IntServ: ch ra xem c nt no trn ng khng c kh nng
cung cp dch v tch hp
- S chng IntServ: ch ra s nt c kh nng cung cp dch v tch hp trn ng
- Bng thng ng sn c: ch ra bng thng ti thiu
- tr ng ti thiu: ch ra tr ti thiu ca mt gi, bao gm tr truyn, tr x
l nhng khng tnh n tr hng i.
- MTU ca ng: ch ra kch thc n v truyn cc i trn ng
- Cc tham s tr: ch ra tr tch lu trn ng truyn ca mt lung c th, bao gm
cc s hng ph thuc tc v s hng ph thuc tc D.
e) D tr ti nguyn
Phi d tr ti nguyn cho cc lung c th cung cp cht lng dch v theo yu
cu. iu c th thc hin thng qua giao thc d tr ti nguyn ng, qua cu hnh bng
tay hay qua mt giao thc qun l mng. M hnh tch hp dch v khng gn lin vi mt
c ch c th no. Tt nhin, n xc nh tng qut cc lu lng v c tnh ng truyn
thng qua mng. Vic d tr ti nguyn c thc hin bng giao thc d tr ti nguyn
(Resource ReSerVation Protocol RSVP)

II.1.2. Giao thc RSVP


RSVP l giao thc c th c thit k cho c thit k cung cp vic d tr ti
nguyn. N c thit k cho mi trng dch v tch hp, nhng ngoi ra n cn c th
dng vi cc m hnh dch v khc.

II.1.2.1. Cc c trng ca RSVP


Mi trng qung b (multicast): RSVP c thit k lm vic tt trong mi trng
qung b bi v cc ng dng yu cu d tr ti nguyn l hng qung b (multicast
oriented), v d nh ng dng hi ngh. Giao thc cung cp qu trnh truyn thng n gin
gia tpcc bn gi v tp cc bn nhn, vi ng truyn thc s s dng cc cy truyn
b.
Hng bn nhn (receiver oriented): c th m rng p ng mi trng qung
b ln, giao thc yu cu bn nhn thc hin vic d tr. Bn nhn yu cu d tr ti
nguyn da trn c tnh lu lng ca bn gi v c im ca ng truyn
10

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------S khng ng nht ca bn nhn: RSVP h tr cc bn nhn khng ng nht bng
cch cho php mi bn nhn thc hin vic d tr ring ca mnh, c th khc nhau, thm
ch nu lu lng nhn t cng mt ngun. Cc nt trung gian s tp hp cc yu cu d tr
Trng thi mm (soft state): trng thi d tr phi c cc bn lm ti nh k,
nu khng chng s ht hn. iu ny lm cho giao thc hot ng tt v thch ng vi cc
iu kin mng v cc yu cu d tr thay i .N cng hn ch yu cu cn c c ch bo
hiu tin cy
Khng c c ch i km nh ng hay lp lch cho gi tin, RSVP ch l mt
giao thc bo hiu. N ph thuc vo qu trnh nh ng IP thng thng tnh ng
d tr. Tt nhin, n mun bao gm yu cu v ti nguyn trong qu trnh tm ng nhng
hin nay cha c giao thc tm ng chun no trong mng IP xem xt yu t cht lng
dch v. RSVP cng khng quan tm n cch cc nt mng thc hin yu cu d tr
RSVP truyn ti v duy tr cc tham s iu khin lu lng v chnh sch qun tr,
nhng nhng tham s ny li trong sut i vi RSVP. RSVP hot ng trong sut qua cc
b nh tuyn khng h tr RSVP

II.1.2.2. M hnh hot ng ca giao thc RSVP


Qu trnh ng k c thc hin theo trnh t sau
- Bn gi gi i thng bo PATH ti cc bn nhn thit lp trng thi ng i ti
cc b nh tuyn trn ng i
- Sau khi nhn c thng bo PATH, bn nhn gi li bn gi thng bo RESV cha
yu cu ng k (theo ng ng m thng bo PATH i qua) thit lp trng
thi ng k ti cc b nh tuyn trn ng i

Nt gi
PATH (1)

B nh tuyn
B nh tuyn

Ressv (2)

Nt nhn

Ressv (2)

Nt nhn

Hnh 4. Qui trnh t ch

11

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a) Thit lp trng thi ng i


Mi nt gi truyn cc thng bo RSVP PATH xui dng tho cc l trnh pht
n/qung b nhm c cung cp bi cc giao thc dn ng, theo l trnh ca dng d
liu. Thng bo PATH lu trng thi ng i ti mi b nh tuyn trn ng i.
Trng thi ng i bao gm cc thnh phn :
- PHOP (Previous Hop) : a ch IP pht n ca nt trc , dng dn ng cho
thng bo RESV i theo chiu ngc li
- Sender Template : m t khun dng gi m nt s gi i
- Sender Tspec : xc nh cc c t lu lng ca dng d liu m nt gi s to ra.
Sender Tspec dng ngn chn ng k tha
- AdSpec : mang d liu OPWA (One Pass With Advertisement). Thng tin ny c
chuyn ti module iu khin lu lng ti mi nt, v c tr v gi tr cp nht
ri c chuyn tip xung di trong thng bo PATH. Cc thng tin ny c bn
nhn s dng c lng kh nng phc v ca mng t chn la dch v v
xc nh cc tham s ng k cho ph hp .
Cc thng tin chnh bao gm :
Tng tr ng i ti thiu (khng tnh tr hng i). Trong trng hp
dch v m bo, bn nhn cng thm gi tr ny vo tr hng i c tr
tng cng

Di thng ti thiu trn ng i : di thng ca lin kt hp nht

Mt bit c : ban u c xo v c t khi gp mt b nh tuyn khng


h tr RSVP
PATHMTU : kch thc gi ln nht c chp nhn (gi tr nh nht trong
s MTU ca cc lin kt trn ng i)
Cc break bit cho tng dch v : ban u c xo v c t khi gp mt
b nh tuyn khng h tr dch v tng ng. V d, c mt s b nh tuyn
ch h tr dch v Ti c iu khin nhng khng h tr dch v m bo .
Gi tr tng hp cc s hng li C v D.
Mi nt trn ng i nhn thng bo PATH v x l to lp trng thi ng i.
Cui cng n ti ng dng trn cc nt nhn, tuy nhin n khng quay tr v nt nhn trong
cng tin trnh vi nt gi .
b) Thit lp trng thi ng k
Mi nt nhn khi nhn c thng bo PATH s s dng cc tham s (v d, trong
trng hp Dch v m bo th cc tham s l : r, b, p, m t Sender Tspec , tr ng i
nh nht, PATHMTU, Ctot, Dtot, di thng ti thiu t Adspec) to lp thng bo RESV
cha yu cu ng k chuyn ti cc nt gi.
12

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thng bo RESV bao gm :
Yu cu kiu ng k (WF, SE hay FF)
RSVP c mt s tu chn ng k, gi l kiu ng k nhm phc v cc loi
ng dng khc nhau, s dng ti u ti nguyn ng k. Cc kiu ng k c xc
nh da trn hai yu t : c la chn nt gi hay khng v dng chung ng k hay
dng ring. C 3 kiu ng k nh sau :
La chn bn gi
C
Khng

ng k
Phn bit
Fixed Filter(FF)
(khng nh ngha)

Dng chung
Shared Explicit(SE)
Wilcard Filter (WF)

Wildcard Filter (WF) : To mt ng k dng chung cho cc lung t tt c cc

nt gi. C th hnh dung nh l phn ti nguyn c ng k to thnh mt


ng dng chung vi kch thc l yu cu ti nguyn ln nht t tt c cc
nt nhn, khng ph thuc vo s lng nt gi s dng n
Shared Explicit (SE) : To mt ng k dng chung cho cc lung t mt s

nt gi c la chn
Fixed Filter (FF) : To mt ng k cho lung d liu t mi nt gi, khng

chia s vi lung d liu ca cc nt gi khc trong cng phin


Kiu ng k ti nguyn dng chung (WF, SE) ph hp vi cc ng dng qung b
nhm trong nhiu ngun d liu khng truyn ng thi. V d, vi cc ng dng
hi ngh audio, ti mi thi im ch c mt s hu hn ngi cng ni, ngha l ch
c mt s hu hn nt gi ng thi. Do mi nt nhn c th yu cu kiu WF
hay SE vi di thng gp i cho mi nt gi. Cn kiu FF, to nhng ng k ring
bit cho cc lung t nhng nt gi khc nhau, ph hp vi cc ng dng video.
Filter Spec (vng mt nu kiu ng k l WF), dng nhn dng nt gi, khung
dng ca Filter Spec thng tng t nh khun dng ca Sender Template trong
thng bo PATH
Flow Spec : gm c Tspec v Rspec (Rspec vng mt nu yu cu dch v Ti c
iu khin). Tspec thng bng Sender Tspec, ngoi tr tham s M c t bng
PATHMTU ly t Adspec
Mt s i tng tu chn, nh i tng RESVCONF ch ra rng nt nhn cn
xc nhn ng k, i tng policy, cha thng tin v chnh sch qun tr. ..
Thng bo RESV i chnh xc theo chiu ngc li l trnh m d liu i n. N
to lp v duy tr mt trng thi ng k ti cc nt dc theo l trnh. Cui cng thng bo
RESV n cc nt gi, do cc nt ny c th thit lp cc tham s iu khin lu lng
cho ph hp vi chng u tin. a ch IP ch ca thng bo RESV l a ch pht n ca
nt gi trn, ly t trng thi ng i. a ch IP ngun l a ch ca nt gi thng bo

13

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

c) Trn cc yu cu ng k
H

Nt nhn

Nt nhn

H
Nt gi

Nt nhn
R : b nh tuyn
H : H thng cui

Hnh 5. Trn cc yu cu t ch
Thng bo RESV c chuyn ti nt trn mang theo c t lung ln nht trong s
cc c t lung yu cu bi nt di. Nh th gi l cc c t lung c trn .
Thng thng c t lung l vector a chiu, n c th cha c hai thnh phn
Tspec v Rspec, v bn thn mi thnh phn li l nhng vector a chiu .Do c nhiu
trng hp khng th so snh hai c t lung. Chng hn, nu mt ci yu cu di thng
cao hn v ci kia yu cu tr nh hn. Khi thay v ly ra ci ln hn, th tc trn phi
cho ra c t lung th ba m cc gi tr bng gi tr nh nht ca cn trn (Least Upper
Bound LUB) v ln nht ca cn di (Greatest Lower Bound GLB). Trong trng hp
trn, c t lung th ba phi c yu cu di thng ca c t lung th nht v tr ca
c t lung th hai.
Lut trn cc c t tu thuc vo kiu ng k ca chng. Cc c t lung ch
c trn khi chng c cng kiu ng k v cng n mt giao din ca b nh tuyn
(trong trng hp giao din ny ni vo mt mng LAN, n c th nhaanj c nhiu c t
lung t nhiu nt nhn). Cc c t lung cng ch c trn khi chng thuc cng mt
phin. Hnh 6 minh ho c ch trn cc c t lung vi cc kiu FF, SE v WF vi gi s
cc c t lung l cc vector mt chiu v c so snh bng o B.
Mi khi trng thi ng k hin ti thay i, b nh tuyn s to ra thng bo RESV
mi v chuyn tip ln trn ngay tc th (khng cn i n ht khong thi gian lm ti).
C ch trn yu cu ng k l mt u im c bn ca RSVP, kh nng m rng,
vi mt s lng ln ngi s dng tham gia vo mt nhm qung b nhm, lu lng trn
mng tng ln khng nhiu .
d) Duy tr trng thi ng k
RSVP theo cch tip cn trng thi mm qun l trng thi ng k trn cc b
nh tuyn v cc trm u cui .Cc trng thi RSVP c to lp v nh k lm ti bi
cc thng bo PATH v RESV. Trng thi b xo nu sau khong thi gian nht nh m
14

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------khng c lm ti. Trng thi cng c th b xo b bng thng bo hu b. Sau mi
khong thi gian lm ti ( refresh timeout) hoc sau khi trng thi thay i, tin trnh
RSVP qut trng thi ca n to v y cc thng bo PATH v RESV ti cc nt tip
theo.
Khi ng i thay i, thng bo PATH tip theo s khi to trng thi ng i trn
l trnh mi v cc thng bo RESV sau s thit lp trng thi ng k trn
RSVP gi thng bo RSVP di dng cc gi IP vi tin cy khng m bo. V
th cn phi kim sot c tnh hung cc thng bo lm ti b mt. Nu nh thi hn xo
b trng thi ng k bng K ln thi hn lm ti th RSVP c th i ph vi kh nng
K-1 thng bo lm ti b mt m khng lm hu b trng thi ng k. Mt khc, c ch
kim sot lu lng ca mng cn cung cp c nh mt di thng ti thiu cho cc thng
bo RSVP trnh mt thng bo do tc nghn.
Trng thi duy tr bi RSVP l ng, thay i mt tp cc nt gi Si hoc thay i
yu cu cht lng dch v, nt ch cn gi i cc thng bo PATH/RESV sa i. Kt qu
l nhng trng thi ca cc nt trn ng i s c iu chnh, trng thi c b hu b.
Khi trng thi nhn c khc vi trng thi lu trc , trng thi ang lu s
c cp nht. Nu vic cp nht ny lm thay i trng thi c chuyn tip trong cc
thng bo lm ti, nhng thng bo lm ti s c sn sinh v chuyn tip ngay tc th.
Tuy nhin ,s lan truyn ny s dng khi n ti mt im trn m sau khng gy ra thay
i no. iu ny lm ti thiu ho lu lng trn mng do s thay i trng thi gy ra v
lm cho RSVP c th p ng c vi nhm qung b nhm ln.
e) Hu b trng thi
Khi cn hu b trng thi ng i hoc trng thi ng k, tin trnh RSVP gi i
thng bo hu b. Mc d trng thi s b hu b khi ht thi hn cleanup timeout nhng
cc nt u cui nn gi cc thng bo hu b ngay khi ng dng kt thc .
C hai loi thng bo hu b l PATHTEAR v RESVTEAR. Thng bo
PATHTEAR i xui dng xung tt c cc nt nhn t ni n c khi to v xo trng
thi ng i cng nh trng thi ng k km theo ti cc nt trn ng. Thng bo
RESVTEAR c chuyn ngc ln cc nt gi t ni n c khi to v xo cc trng
thi ng k. C th hiu PATHTEAR v RESVTEAR c ngha ngc li so vi cc
thng bo PATH v RESV .
f) Hot ng qua cc b nh tuyn khng h tr RSVP
RSVP phi hot ng c khi hai b nh tuyn RSVP ni vi nhau bi mt m
my cc b nh tuyn khng h tr RSVP .
RSVP c thit k hot ng chnh xc qua m my cc b nh tuyn
khng h tr RSVP. D nhin l mt m my khng h tr RSVP th khng th thc hin
15

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ng k ti nguyn, nhng nu c ti nguyn, n vn c th m bo tr gi theo yu
cu. Cc b nh tuyn RSVP v khng RSVP u chuyn tip thng bo PATH ti a ch
ch dng bng dn ng pht n/qung b nhm cc b ca chng. Do , vic dn
ng ca thng bo PATH s khng b nh hng bi cc b nh tuyn khng RSVP trn
ng i. Khi thng bo PATH i qua m my khng RSVP, n mang theo ti nt c h
tr RSVP k tip a ch IP ca b nh tuyn RSVP cui cng trc , trc khi vo m
my. Thng bo RESV s c chuyn tip ng ng ti b nh tuyn RSVP ngay bn
trn ng i ln nt ngun
R RSVP

R RSVP

Nt gi

Nt nhn
m my cc b nh tuyn khng h tr RSVP

Hnh 6 . Hot ng ca RSVP qua cc b nh tuyn khng h tr RSVP


g) Bo mt
Vi kh nng cho php ng k trc ti nguyn, RSVP to ra cc loi hnh tn
cng mi nh n cp dch v, treo ti nguyn dn n dch v b t chi. RSVP ngn chn
nhng tn cng nh trn bng c ch xc thc qua tng chng s dng hm bm m ho,
thng qua i tng INTEGRITY(tu chn) trong cc thng bo RSVP

II.1.2.3. Mt s vn ca giao thc RSVP


Vi kh nng bo mt hn ch, RSVP cha thc s an ton trc cc loi hnh ph
hoi nh n cp ti nguyn hoc treo ti nguyn. RSVP s dng lc m ho MD5
xc thc thng bo. Tuy nhin c ch ny i hi mt h thng phn b kho. V trc khi
mt h thng phn b kho nh vy c s dng rng ri, vic phn b kho phi c
thc hin th cng
Cc vn v chnh sch qun tr v qun l chnh sch cng cha c m t y
. RSVP cung cp cc c ch thc hin chnh sch, nhng n cha nh ngha mt chnh
sch no c th
Cui cng l vn m rng, khi s dng RSVP trn qui m ln s ny sinh cc vn
sau : lu lng iu khin trn mng qu ln ,cc trng thi ng k cng rt ln i hi
ti nguyn rt ln v phi c c ch iu khin lu lng cho nhiu ng k

II.1.3. Kim sot chp nhn


M hnh IntServ da vo vic kim sot chp nhn gii hn thng tin c nhn
vo mng, do c th c ti nguyn cung cp cht lng dch v cho cc lung ang
16

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------tn ti. Cc yu cu d tr ti nguyn c cc nt x l xem xt mt yu cu mi c th
c chp nhn hay khng m khng nh hng n cc lung ang tn ti. Module kim
sot chp nhn ti cc b nh tuyn ra quyt nh da vo cc thut ton o ti cc b ca
mnh ti thi im ra quyt nh, phng php ny c gi l kim sot chp nhn da trn
php o (measurement based admission control). Cch tip cn truyn thng c ngh
l cc router cn ghi nh cc thng s dch v ca cc yu cu trc v tnh ton da
trn gii hn xu nht ca mi dch v Cch tip cn ny an ton nhng hiu qu khng cao
do rt him khi cc dch v ng thi t n gii hn xu nht. Cch tip cn c ngh
gn y c v gip s dng ng tryn hiu qu hn l router nh gi s s dng ng
truyn thc t ca cc lung packet ang tn ti v s dng thng tin ny lm c s cho vic
chp nhn hay khng yu cu dch v ca lung mi. Cch tip cn ny c ri ro ln hn
nhng lm tng hiu qu s dng bng thng

II.1.4. Phn loi gi tin


Cc gi tin i n trc khi c lp lch s c phn thnh lp nh b phn lp
gi Cc gi thuc cng mt lp s nhn c cng mt cch i x nh nhau t b lp lch
gi : chng cng c a vo mt hng i vi mc cht lng dch v no .
Vic phn lp ny da vo mt s d liu trong gi (v d trong phn u ca n v
thng tin tng mng hay tng giao vn. Trong IP V4 c th dng a ch IP ngun v ch
cng nh s Port tng giao vn. Trong IP V6, c th dng a ch IP ngun v nhn lung).
Mt lp c th tng ng vi mt phm vi rng cc lung, v d tt c cc lung
video, hoc ch mt lung n l.
Vic phn lp ch c ngha cc b : mt gi c th thuc cc lp khc nhau ti cc
b nh tuyn khc nhau dc theo ng i. V d, cc b nh tuyn trn mng trc
(backbone) c th gp nhiu lung vo mt s lp, cn cc b nh tuyn gn u cui,
ni c rt t lung c th phn mi lp vo mt lung

II.1.5. Lp lch gi tin


Lp lch cho gi tin l chc nng nn tng ca h thng, l c s m bo kh
nng cung cp dch v thi gian thc ca phn t mng. Lp lch gi tin da trn vic xp
xp li hng i u ra. C nhiu cch thc hin vic ny .
Cch n gin nht l s u tin trong cc packet c xp th t theo mc
u tin. Cc packet c mc u tin cao nht s c gi i u tin. Nhng s ny c th
dn n cc packet c mc u tin thp c gi i qu chm hoc thm ch khng c gi
i nu c nhiu packet c mc u tin cao.
Mt s lp lch gi khc l c ch phc v quay vng (round robin) hoc mt s
s ci bin t s ny (tiu biu l Weighted Fair Queuing). N cho php cc lp
packet khc nhau chia s mt ng truyn chung.
Ngoi ra cn nhiu s phc tp cho php qun l hng i tu thuc vo mt s
mc tiu dch v i vi mt s lung ring bit .
17

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II.1.6. Kin trc dch v tch hp


Thng thng trong mng IP c mt s cch tu chn ci t mt chc nng trong
mng. Vi dch v tch hp cn phi trao i thng tin gia cc h cui vi cc phn t
mng (b nh tuyn hay mng con). S la chn l gc cho trng hp ny l s dng
giao thc RSVP, nhng khng phi l kh nng duy nht. C th dng mt s giao thc
thit lp khc tng ng v mt chc nng cng nh th tc qun l thc hin vic .
Giao thc thng c s dng trong dch v tch hp l RSVP nhng RSVP v m hnh
IntServ c lp vi nhau .
My ch

B nh tuyn hoc mng con

RSVP

Acct
Auth

RSVP

Chc nng
kim sot
chnh sch

X l i
tng kim
sot QoS

X l i
ng
nh danh

X l i
tng k
ton

Policy
D liu

Chc nng ng d liu


Kim sot QoS

Hnh 7 trnh
by7mt
phn
thng
dchhp
v tch hp. Trong RSVP
Hnh
. Kin
trcca
cakin
m trc
hnhh
dich
v tch
l giao thc duy nht mang yu cu ca chc nng cht lng dch v. N c gi n cc
khi chc nng thc s cung cp cht lng dch v trong b nh tuyn / mng con. RSVP
truyn ti cc i tng nhng cc i tng ny li trong sut i vi RSVP. Hnh 10 minh
ho mi quan h gia cc khi chc nng. V d chc nng kim sot thu nhn skhng ch
dng i tng chnh sch ca RSVP chuyn m cn dng cc i tng dng gi chc
nng cht lng dch v v thm ch c i tng nh danh v k ton
Mt im cn lu l vic yu cu v cung cp cht lng dch v l khc nhau, hn
na giao thc RSVP khng cung cp cht lng dch v m cung cp dch v truyn thng.
Do vic cung cp dch v tch hp (v c dch v DiffServ) l c lp vi RSVP.
Hnh 7 m t cc i tng d liu trong tin bo PATH. Nh trnh by trn trong
RSVP, tin bo PATH c truyn t bn gi n bn nhn v cha thng tin v lu lng
xut pht t bn gi.
Dng lu lng m t trong Tspec ca bn gi. Tspec khng thay i cc c trng
ca dng lu lng trong qu trnh gi m ch bo hiu chng n tt c cc nt trung gian
trong mng v ch. Adspec c sinh ra bi my ch gi hoc b nh tuyn u tin trn
ng, n cha cc tham s tng qut c trng cho ng , xc nh bi vic tnh ton
trn tng chng, cng nh cc tham s c trng cho cht lng dch v c th c phn t
18

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------mng h tr. V d v cc tham s tng qut : kch thc MTU ca ng truyn, bng
thng, tr ti thiu trn ng. ..
Hnh 8 cho thy b m t lung (flow description) trong RSVP. M t lung bao
gm hai phn : flow spec v filter spec. M t lung c gi trong thng bo RESV, truyn
t bn nhn n bn gi .

AdSpec

TSpec

Hnh 8 . Cc i tng trong tin bo PATH


Filter spec ch lm nhim v phn bit cc gi mt cch logic. Cn c vo nhn ca
lung (trong IP v6) hay a ch ch, cng ch (trong gi IP v4), vic la chn dng con
thch hp vi dch v trn c thc hin.
Flow spec cha ba phn : kiu dch v c yu cu, cc tham s dch v (Rspec) v
cc tham s lung yu cu dch v (Tspec).
M t lung
FlowSpec
Lp
dch v

Filter Spec

RSpec

a ch
ngun

TSpec

Hnh 9 m t chi tit hn v chc nng ng d liu kim sot cht lng. Thng
. Cc
tng
trong
tinnhau
bo trong
RESV b nh tuyn, ti
tin t giao thc RSVP c aHnh
vo 9cc
khii
chc
nng
khc
chng c x l a ra quyt nh cung cp cht lng dch v tng ng. B phn
loi gi xc nh cch x l cc gi. B lp lch gi p dng cc c ch xc nh vi cc gi
cung cp cht lng dch v c yu cu. Chc nng kim sot chnh sch v kim sot
chp nhn xc nh mt lung c th c c php yu cu mt dch v nht nh ti thi
im hay khng (chnh sch) v c ti nguyn trong phn t mng h tr dch v
c yu cu (chp nhn). Kt qu ca cc hot ng nh hng n quyt nh ca b
phn loi gi. Hn na, cc thng tin ca RSVP cng nh hng ti cc gii thut chn
ng ca phn t mng (chn ng c xem xt n cht lng dch v).
RSVP
TSpec

Chn
ng
Filter
Spec

Phn loi gi
tin

TSpec
RSpec
Kim sot
chp nhn

i tng chnh
sch
Kim sot
chnh sch

Lp lch gi
tin

Hnh 10. Quan h gia thng tin RSVP v vic x


l gi trong b nh tuyn

19

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sau y chng ta x xt hai dch v c th ca m hnh IntServ .

II.1.6.1. Dch v ti c kim sot


Dch v ti c kim sot c p dng cho mt lp ng dng c c tnh thi gian
thc nhng c th thch nghi vi iu kin mng khng qu ti. Dch v ti c kim sot c
gng to ra iu kin mng khng ti cho cc ng dng nhng khng cung cp m
bo dch v. Cc dch v ny c th l audio hoc video
Dch v ti c kim sot quan tm n hai tham s cht lng dch v : tr v mt
gi. Mc tiu ca dch v ny l t l mt gi v tr trn mng t ti thiu v xp x
dch v thng thng khi mng khng qu ti .

Kin trc dch v.

Chc nng ng d liu kim sot cht lng

Phn loi
gi

Thng th
bi

Lp lch / x l gi

B nh tuyn

Hnh 11 . Dch v ti c kim sot

Hnh 11 m t mt phn t mng cung cp dch v ti c kim sot, trong phn


quan trng nht l chc nng x l gi. Ti y, tt c cc lung gi u i qua b phn loi
gi trong b nh tuyn. N xc nh gi no thch hp vi dch v ny gi no khng.
u ra ca b phn loi gi l thng th bi. C ch thng th bi c dng xc nh gi
no nhn dch v ti c kim sot. Trong thit k hnh 11 c hai hng i. Hng i trn
20

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c u tin v cc cc gi tun theo c ch thng th bi ca lung c a vo hng i
u tin cao hn ny. Hng i thp hn c dng chung cho cc gi khng tun theo c
ch thng th bi v cc gi ch nhn c dch v c gng ti a. Hng i di li c th
phn thnh hai hng i nh hn.
y, c mt s vn cn xem xt. Trc ht l cch x l lu lng khng tun
theo yu cu dch v. RFC 2211 ngh i x vi chng nh vi lu lng c gng ti a.
Do trn hnh 6, ta thy phn vt qu c a vo hng i c gng ti a. Tt nhin
lu lng vt qu khng c nh hng nhiu n dch v c gng ti a bnh thng, v
d n khng c gy ra s suy gim cht lng dch v ng kt vi dch v thng thng.
Vn l khi c nhiu lu lng ti c kim sot khng tun th, chng c th lm dch
v thng thng b dng li do b mt nhiu gi trong hng i. Do cn c c ch x l
lu lng vt qu t dch v ti c kim sot. Mt s gii php c ngh nh dng mt
mc hng i u tin khc cho phn lu lng ny hay dng c ch hng i WFQ hay
CBQ m bo lu lng c gng ti a khng b nh hng bi lu lng vt qu .
Vn th hai l phn b ti nguyn trong hng i u tin cao (lu lng ti c
kim sot), c ngha l cch cc lung ti c kim sot chia s hng i ny v cch kim
sot chp nhn vi cc lung ny .

C ch thc hin dch v ti c kim sot

gi dch v ti c kim sot cho mt lung, ng dng dng giao thc


SENDER_TSPEC vi yu cu dch v ti c kim sot trong tin bo PATH . RSVP cng
gi ADSPEC trong tin bo PATH, cha thng bo rng dch v ny c c ci t trn mi
chng ca ng hay khng, kch thc MTU ti thiu v cc tham s c trng ca ng
i ca cc gi trong lung. Cc nt trung gian c th sa i ADSPEC nhng khng th sa
i SENDER_TSPEC. Khi bn nhn thy tin bo PATH cho dch v ti c kim sot, chng
ch bo dch v c c h tr hay khng bng cch t bit gy (break bit). Bit ny
bo cho mi ngi bit rng c t nht mt nt trn ng khng h tr dch v ny.
Mt im ch quan trng l khng c nh ngha mang tnh nh lng chnh xc
ca dch v ti c kim sot. Mi phn t mng cn quyt nh mt cch c lp xem n c
th cung cp dch v ny da trn mc ti hin ti ca n cng nh mc ri ro c th c
(do cung cp qu mc tng ca Tspec ca cc lung ti c kim sot).
Khi lung c chp nhn, chc nng ng d liu bt u lm vic. Chc nng
ny quan tm n vic x l v lp lch gi. y chng ta cn xem xt mt kha cnh trong
p ng ca thng th bi : gi s lung t n s gi m thng th bi cho php v sau
gi vi tc th ghi trong Tspec. Nu nt chn phc v lung vi tc th th s c
ng (backlog) c nh cc gi ti hng i ca nt . V vy RFC 2211 khuyn ngh
nn c c ch cho php dn dp backlog lm gim thi gian xp xp hng i cho
lung. Mt cch tng t, nh chng ta bit, lu lng gi qua nhiu nt khng duy tr
c hnh dng v c tnh ban u ca n, nu mt nut t kch thc b m ti a bng
21

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------kch thc chm ch ra trong Tspec th s c mt mt gi (khng cn thit) do lu lng
khng c nh dng li ti mi nt trong mng. RFC cng khuyn ngh dng s phn
b b m mm do c th cung cp thm b m cho cc chm .
Nt xc nh s tng thch ca lung bng c ch thng th bi (c tham s ho
trong Tspec). Vic x l cc gi khng tng thch khng qu cht ch, nhng khng c
lm gim dch v cung cp cho cc lung ti c kim sot khc v dch v c gng ti a.
Tt nhin, mt tu chn trong vic x l lung vi lu lng khng tng thch l lm gim
dch v ca c lung (ch khng ch cho cc gi khng tng thch). Mt kh nng khc l
nh dng li lung cc gi khng tng thch i n khi chng tng thch hoc n
mt thi hn xc nh no . Mt cch x l khc l a chng vo hng i cng vi lu
lng c gng ti a (hoc sau lu lng ). iu lm cc gi trong lung b chuyn
khng theo th t v gy tr cho cc giao thc tng cao hn

II.1.6.2. Dch v m bo (Guaranteed Service)


Mc tiu ca dch v ny l cung cp l cung cp tr c gii hn v m bo vic
truyn tt c cc gi c xc nh cho ng dng cn n n. Phn ny xem xt cc tham
s ca dch v m bo, cch s dng v c ch cung cp dch v. Phn c bn ca dch v
m bo l tham s t tt c cc phn t mng trong ng c th phi c kh nng t hp
vi nhau mt cch n gin d on (gii hn) cht lng dch v m cc gi trong lung
s tri qua
Do qu trnh d tr l mt chiu nn i vi truyn thng hai chiu, phi c hai d tr .
M hnh dch v

R
B
b

r th bi /s
M hnh thng th bi

M hnh m dng cht lng

Hnh 12 . M hnh dch v m bo


V dch v m bo l nh lng n c gii hn tr xc nh nn n cn da trn
c hai m hnh : p ng ca ngun v cch phn t mng x l lung. Mc ch ca cc m
hnh ny l gii hn tr hng i. Mt thnh phn khc ca tr u cui n u cui l tr
truyn, c kim sot bng cc gii thut nh ng dng khi thit lp lung. Cc m hnh
c m t di y.
22

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bn tri l m hnh thng th bi, dng cho bn ngun. C ngha l dng bn ngun
lun phi nm trong gii hn do thng th bi qui nh. Bn phi l m hnh ca mt lin kt
trong b nh tuyn. N ch ra ti nguyn (b m v bng thng) m b nh tuyn phi
phn b cho lung c m bo. M hnh c s dng l m hnh dng cht lng
(fluid model). Ngun sinh ra dng cht lng vi tc r (l tc th bi c to ra)
nhng i khi n c th to ra lung c tc nhanh hn r. Phn vt qu s c gi li
ngun v a ra vi tc r. Nu ngun khng pht trong mt thi gian, th bi c gi
n gii hn b, bt k lung no n s c truyn ngay lp tc khi cn th bi. Tc
truyn s l p .
Khi dng d liu n phn t mng, n c phc v vi tc R v dng b m
kch thc B. Cn c b m v tc truyn p c th ln hn nhiu so vi R
Kt qu l thuyt cho thy tr ca lung mng c gii hn b/R (vi iu kin
r<=R) , l c s ca dch v m bo. Nu ngun to lung ln hn hay bng b th b
m ti phn t mng s c b n v lung v tr ti a s l b/R
Phn t mng thc t s khng ci t m hnh dng cht lng mt cch l tng, do
s c thm cc tr khc trong qu trnh ci t : C v D. Do tr ton b s l :
Tr = b/R + C/R + D
(1)
Gii hn tr ca dch v c tnh trn ng bng phng trnh (1)

II.1.7. Cc vn vi m hnh dch v tch hp


M hnh IntServ xut mt m hnh mi v c bn cho mng IP. N khc vi m
hnh truyn thng v a ra cc dch v mi nh dch v m bo v dch v ti c kim
sot. N i hi vic d tr ti nguyn mt cch r rng, kim sot thu nhn, phn loi v
lp lch gi tin. N ch ra cch xc nh cc yu cu v lu lng v cht lng dch v .
Tuy nhin, m hnh ny cn c mt s vn cn xem xt khi p dng cho cc mng
trc (backbone) ln. l cc vn :

S lng cc lung n trong mng trc c th rt ln, duy tr trng thi ca chng
i hi nhiu dung lng d tr .

S lng tin bo iu khin cho vic d tr ti nguyn cho mt lng ln cc lung


s rt ln v i hi nhiu nng lc x l

Vic phn loi gi da trn header ca gi c th tn km trn ng truyn tc


cao

Vn an ninh cn c gii quyt m bo rng cc ngun khng c quyn


khng c thc hin vic d tr gi mo

Vn chnh sch cn gii quyt xc nh cc bn c quyn thc hin d tr


23

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

T cc vn trn, ngi ta rt ra kt lun IntServ l m hnh thch hp cho mng


nh, trong ch c t lung v vn an ton v chnh sch c th qun l mt cch d
dng. Cng c th trin khai cc IntServ trong cc mng ln (chng hn mng ca cc nh
cung cp dch v) vi mt s hn ch cc lung. Ngoi phm vi , cc mng trc ln cn
nhng c ch kh dng hn phn bit lu lng v cung cp cc dch v khc nhau cho
chng. DiffServ l mt c ch nh vy .

II.2. M hnh dch v phn bit


Yu cu t ra vi cc nh cung cp dch v mng l cn c cc c ch kh dng v
thc t cung cp cc mc dch v khc nhau cho khch hng xut pht t nhng mi quan
tm mang tnh thng mi. Ngoi ra, cc doanh nghip s khng a cc s liu quan trng
ca h ln mng nu khng c cc c ch m bo dch v. S pht trin ca cc ng dng
nh thoi trn IP (VOIP) v mng ring o (VPN) gn lin vi kh nng ca h tng mng
trong vic cung cp cc loi dch v phn bit cho cc ng dng nh vy.

II.2.1. Cc c im chnh ca m hnh DiffServ


Do nhng vn tn ti ca m hnh IntServ nh trnh by trn, m hnh
DiffServ c nghin cu nhm cung cp mt c ch n gin kh dng hn cho vic
phn bit cc dch v. Nhng c im chnh ca m hnh ny nh sau:

Mc phn bit th hn

Cc b nh tuyn trc chnh chuyn mt s lng ln cc lung n. Vic duy tr trng


thi d tr cho tng lung l rt kh khn v kch thc mng tng rt nhanh. V vy,
trong m hnh DiffServ, lu lng khng c phn bit theo lung, thay vo , c mt
s nh cc lp c nh ngha trc, cung cp cc dch v khc da trn tr v
mt mt thng tin.

Khng phn loi gi trong mng


24

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------RSVP ch ra rng, mi b nh tuyn u thc hin chc nng phn loi gi nhm cung
cp cc mc dch v khc nhau, do cn kim tra nhiu trng trong phn u gi (v
d vi IP v4, cn kim tra a ch IP ngun v ch, ch danh giao thc, cng ngun v
ch). Thao tc ny rt tn km, v vy trong m hnh DiffServ vic phn loi c thc
hin bin ca mng, ni c t gi phi x l hn. Cc b nh tuyn bin phn loi v
nh du cc gi tin mt cch tng ng. Cc b nh tuyn bn trong ch x l cc
gi theo du ca chng. Nh vy, cc b nh tuyn bn trong khng lm vic vi tng
lung n m ch lm vic vi cc lp tp hp. iu ny lm cho gii php kh dng
hn .

Cc m hnh cung cp khc nhau

RSVP iu khin vic d tr ti nguyn ng. iu ny c th to ra nhiu gi tin kim


sot v i hi kim sot thu nhn ng mi b nh tuyn. M hnh DiffServ a vic
kim sot thu nhn ra bin ca mng. Hn na, n khng yu cu vic d tr ng. Thay
vo , n s dng vic cung cp tnh, di hn tho thun dch v vi ngi s dng
mng, m lu lng ca h c th c kim sot im vo mng. Cng c th dng
cng ngh kim sot lu lng nh ng cc gi t cc ngun nht nh theo cc
ng xc nh trc trnh cc im tc nghn trong mng (m gi c th i qua nu
dng cc giao thc nh ng khng quan tm n cht lng dch v thng thng)

Khng c m bo dch v tuyt i

Dch v tr c m bo trong m hnh IntServ cung cp gii hn cht ch v tr ti a


m cc gi c th tri qua. N thc hin c iu nh d tr ti nguyn trn ng
truyn. Tri li, DiffServ khng cung cp s m bo cht ch tr phi c mt lung tnh
c cung cp c bit cho lung c th. Trong m hnh ny, b nh tuyn bn trong
khng phn bit cc lung n m lm vic vi tp hp lung, do n khng th i
x mt cch u tin i vi mt lung c th.
Mc tiu ca DiffServ l theo di lu lng i vo mng nt vo v kim tra tnh
tng thch vi mt s profile dch v nh trc. Da trn , cc gi c th c nh du
l trong (tho mn) hay ngoi (khng tho mn) cc profile ca chng. Bn trong mng,
b nh tuyn s u tin loi b cc gi c gn nhn ngoi.
Bn cnh u tin loi b, c cc thng tin trong phn u gi cho bit kiu dch v
mong mun ca gi. V d, dch v hng nht (premium service) l tng ng vi CBR.
Tng t dch v m bo c p ng chm v c cung cp dung lng mong mun.

II.2.2. Kin trc dch v phn bit


tng ca dch v phn bit kh n gin: mt lung mt chiu i vo mng qua
b nh tuyn bin u vo, n c nh dng v gi i bng p ng theo chng (Per
Hop Behaviour PHB), theo dch v tng ng c cung cp cho lung. Ti cc b
25

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------nh tuyn tip theo, PHB c p dng cho lung cho n khi n n b nh tuyn bin
u ra, lung c th c nh dng li trc khi gi n my ch hoc mt min dch
v phn bit khc .
Mt vng dch v phn bit l mt mng DiffServ. Li vo ca vng ny c gi
l nt vo (ingress node), li ra c gi l nt ra (egress node), cc nt ny cn c gi l
nt bin. Mt min DS bao gm mt hoc nhiu vng DiffServ, mi vng gm nhiu nt
trong (interior) v t nht hai nt bin (border) m lu lng i vo v i ra khi vng. Mt
nt bin l mt router hay mt my tnh thc hin phn loi packet n chuyn tip trong
min DS. Cc packet c th c phn loi ti my tnh gi hay ti nt bin ca mng DS.
Cu trc ca mt nt cung cp dch v phn bit c th khc nhau cn c vo v tr
ca n trong mng ( bin mng hay trong mng) v da vo s la chn ca ngi
qun tr mng khi ci t tho thun mc dch v v chnh sch .

Phn loi
gi

nh du
gi

inh dng
hoc loi b
gi

C
ch
PH
B

dngchc
lu lng
Nt bin c ni chung cnh
nhiu
nng hn nt bn trong v c th m rng cc
dch v nh nh du, nh dng gi cho cc my ch hay min khng c kh nng t cung
Nt DS
cp cc dch v . Nt bn trong c th gi thit rng lu lng i qua cc nt bin h
Hnh
13 . Cu
trc
phnchnh
bit xc. Cc chc nng
tr dch v phn bit v do vy
c
nh
dunt
vdch
iuvchnh
ny c th c b qua cc nt bn trong .
Tho thun mc dch v (Service Level Agreement SLA) l mt khi nim quan
trng trong dch v phn bit. SLA xc nh mt min dch v phn bit x l cc gi. SLA
thng cha tho thun iu kin lu lng (Traffic Conditioning Agreement TCA), trong
m t s phn lp ca lung, cch nh du v b du i vi cc gi trong lung, cc
tham s thng th bi v tho thun v cch x l cc gi ngoi profile (ngha l khng p
ng mt s c tnh tho thun). Chc nng ny c thc hin trong mt s thit b
logic nh trong hnh 13 .
Profile lu lng xc nh mt s tnh cht ca lung vi mc dch v nht nh.
l cc c tnh hay thit b cho php b nh tuyn xc nh mt cch r rng mt gi l
trong hay ngoi profile. Hn na trn c s ca SLA/TCA hay trn c s ca chnh sch
min, cc gi ngoi profile c th c i x khc vi cc gi trong profile.
Thit b u tin chng ta xem xt trong cu trc nt l thit b phn loi gi (packet
classifier). Thit b ny dng chn cc lung nhn mc dch v nht nh. C hai loi
thit b phn loi gi : mt kiu da trn vic ch s dng trng DS trong phn u gi tin
IP. Kiu ny gi l thit b phn loi tp hp p ng (behaviour aggregate BA). u im
26

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ca kiu phn loi ny l tnh n gin v ch c mt s hu hn cc trng thi cn c b
nh tuyn duy tr. Kiu thit b khc gi l thit b phn loi nhiu trng (multi field
MF) v n c th dng nhiu nhiu trng trong phn u gi xc nh xem gi c thuc
lung hay khng. u im ca kiu phn loi ny l cc gi thuc v cc lung cng n
mt giao din nhng c SLA khc nhau c xc nh v phn bit. Nhc im ca kiu
phn loi ny l thng tin trng thi c th rt ln .
Trn hnh 13, mt s thit b logic tp hp vi nhau to nn b iu chnh lu lng
(traffic conditioner). B iu chnh lu lng hu ch nht khi s dng ti cc b nh tuyn
bin u vo hay u ra ca mng dch v phn bit. Tt nhin chng c th c ngun
thng tin hoc b nh tuyn bn trong mng. Trong mt nt hay mt giao din c th, mt
s (hay tt c) chc nng m t tr hnh c th khng tn ti.
Thit b logic tip theo l thit b o (meter), dng theo di lung xc nh bi
thit b phn loi gi. N c cha c ch logic nh thng th bi v c kh nng xc nh
xem gi tin trong hay ngoi profile. Tu theo SLA v chnh sch ca mng, thng tin t thit
b o c th c thit bnh du v nh dng / loi b gi s dng .
Thit b nh du gi (packet marker) cho php cc gi c x l theo SLA/TCA.
Cc vn c nu ra trong SLA nh lung no nhn dch v no, cch x l cc gi
ngoi profile c b nh tuyn bin thc hin bng cch nh du trng DS vi cc gi
tr c th. Cc gi tr ca trng ny v ngha ca chng c trnh by phn trn.
Thit b nh dng (shaper) m bo lung tun th chnh xc cc tham s cho
trong profile lu lng nht nh. N c th lm mt s gi b tr. Nu dng gi thc s rt
khc so vi profile lu lng, n c th gy ra loi b gi v thit b ng dng khng c b
m v hn (hoc rt ln)
Thit b loi b (dropper) loi b cc gi khi lung m bo s tng thch vi
profile lu lng. SLA/TCA hay chnh sch min xc nh thit b loi b p dng cho tt c
hay ch mt phn ca lung (chng hn cc gi ngoi profile) hay tt c cc lung. Thit b
ny c th dng thng tin t thit b phn loi, o v nh du ra quyt nh loi b gi.

II.2.3. nh ngha dch v


C mt s nh ngha khc nhau cho mng dch v phn bit. Ta s xem xt cc
PHB c bn, c thit k tng thch vi vic s dng trng IP Precedence (trc kia
l mt phn ca trng TOS). Ta cng m t PHB chuyn tip nhanh
(Expedited Forwaring EF) v PHB chuyn tip c m bo (Assured ForwardingAF)

II.2.3.1. Trng DS v cc PHB c bn


Byte DS l nh ngha li ca byte TOS trong phn u IP v4 v lp octet lu lng
trong phn u IP v6. Byte ny c chia thnh hai trng : mt m (codepoint) DS 6 bit v
mt trng (hin khng dng) 2 bit. Mi quan h gia m v PHB ci t trong nt v mng
l cu hnh c. duy tr s tng thch ngc vi trng IP Precedence (3 bit) hin
27

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ang s dng, mt tp m c nh ngha, gi l m chn lp (Class Selector), c nh x
vi tp chun cc p ng ti thiu tng thch vi cc p ng IP Precedence ang s
dng.
Cu trc trng DS :
0

DSCP

7
CU

PHB c bn c cc nt dch v phn bit h tr gi l PHB mc nh v l p


ng truyn c gng ti a bnh thng ca IP. PHB ny chu s hn ch ti nguyn ca nh
qun tr mng v cc gi c truyn khi nt mng khng phi phc v cc lp dch v
khc. M chn PHB mc nh l 000000 (nh phn). Cc m khc c th nh x n PHB
ny v cc m cha nh ngha c th chn PHB ny l cch x l mc nh chung. PHB
mc nh tng thch vi cch cc gi tin c cng gi tr trng TOS c x l hin nay.

Bng 1 : Bng nh x gia DSCP v PHB


PHB
Codepoint

PHB_number

PHB_semantic

000000

PHB_1

Best - Effort

001000

PHB_2

EF

001111

PHB_3

AF

111000
111001
111101

C 8 m chn lp, trong c mt m chn p ng mc nh. Cc PHB do 7 m


cn li chn phi tho mn cc yu cu sau : cc m chn lp phi c trt t theo gi tr ca
chng. Qui lut chung cho cc PHB chn lp l di iu kin ti tng ng, PHB gn
vi m gi tr cao hn phi c p ng tt hn so vi PHB gn vi m gi tr thp hn.
tho mn yu cu ti thiu, phi c t nht hai p ng phn bit r rng .Mt p ng phi
u tin cho cc gi mang m DS 11x000 so vi cc gi nhn PHB mc nh tng
28

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------thch vi cc lp IP Precedence 111v 110 ang dng cho lu lng nh ng. PHB
chn lp cung cp c s cho mt tp cc PHB chun c cc dch v phn bit cung cp .

64 m d tr c chia thnh 3 phn.


xxxxx0 : dng cho cc PHB chun, c 32 m c th gn cho cc PHB chun
xxxx11 : dng cho cc PHB thc nghim hay cc b, chng c nh ngh v ch
dng trong mt trng DS n
xxxx01 : dng cho cc PHB thc nghim hay cc b, 16 m ny trong tng lai c
th c dng cho tp chun nu 32 m khng

II.2.3.2. PHB chuyn tip nhanh


Mc tiu ca PHB EF l xy dng kiu dich v ng thu ring o . Cc c
trng dch v ny l : t l mt gi nh, tr v bin thin tr thp v thng lng m bo.
nh ngha ca EF tp trung vo cc c ch trong ng truyn vi gi thit rng lu lng
c x l ti cc nt bin ca min DS v c chc nng kim sot chp nhn bn
trong min.
tng chnh ca EF l i vi lung tp hp EF, tc ra c gi mt tc
cho (cu hnh c) hoc cao hn, khng quan tm n ti trn nt ti bt k thi im
no v cng khng quan tm n c trng ca bt k dng lu lng khc m nt nhnh
thy. L do ca yu cu cht ch ny l cung cp dch v vi nhng c im k trn,
hng i phi lun gi mc thp. Cc r rng t c iu l gi tc vo thp
hn tc ra. thc hin iu , tc ra phi c nh hoc t nht l khng di mt
ngng cho.
C mt s c ch ci t PHB EF, bao gm hng i u tin n gin, lp lch theo
vng trn (round robin) c trng s. .. . Mc d cc c ch ny c th thc hin chc nng
c bn ca EF, chng khng c cng c tnh. Mt s tnh cht ca dch v nh bin thin
tr c th khc nhau rt nhiu trong cc ci t khc nhau ca cng dch v .

II.2.3.3. PHB chuyn tip c m bo


Mc tiu ca nh ngha dch v ny l cho php mng cung cp cc mc m bo
truyn khc nhau v c th cc mc tr v bin thin tr khc nhau. Tt nhin, hai tnh cht
sau khng phi l mi quan tm chnh ca AF. Khng c mc tiu c th v tr v bin thin
cho AF, mc d trong iu kin no (v d nh ph thuc vo vic phn b ti nguyn v
c ch ci t PHB ny), lung c gn PHB AF cao hn c th t c cc c tnh v
tr v bin thin tt hn.
M c gn cho nhm PHB AF cho trong bng sau :

29

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

u tin loi b thp


u tin loi b trung bnh
u tin loi b cao

AF1
010000
010010
010100

AF2
011000
011010
011100

AF3
100000
100010
100100

AF4
101000
101010
101100

Bng 2 Byte m DS cho AF


Yu cu ca PHB AF c pht biu bng nhng iu kin v p ng truyn, phn
b v sp xp li ti nguyn. C 4 lp AF v 3 mc u tin loi b trong mi lp. 6 bit ca
byte DS c chia thnh hai trng : trng th nht (3 bit) l s lp AF (gi tr thp phn
2, 3, 4 hoc 5) v trng th hai (3 bit) l mc u tin loi b (gi tr thp phn 0, 2 hoc 4).
Th t ca byte DS (gi tr s lp AF) ch ra trt t ca dch v. Nu m (x) < m (y) th lp
(y) c lng ti nguyn (b m v bng thng) c cp t nht bng lp (x). Tng t, th
t ca trng u tin loi b ch ra trt t ca t l loi b. Cui cng, trong cng mt lp
AF, nt khng c php sp xp li cc gi ca lung bt k mc u tin loi b .
Trong dch v ny, cc nt ci t c 4 lp AF v cc lp ny khng c kt hp
vi nhau : c ngha l cac gi thuc cc lp khc nhau phi c truyn c lp vi nhau.
i vi 3 mc u tin loi b, phi c t nht hai mc t l loi b phn bit. Nu mng ch
cung cp hai mc, hai gi tr u tin loi b cao hn s c nh x vo t l loi b cao
hn v gi tr thp nht s c nh x vo t l loi b thp hn.
Cui cng, c th dng iu chnh lu lng gii hn lu lng AF i vo mng.
Cc gi c th b loi b do hnh ng iu chnh lu lng nhng chng c th nng cp
hoc gim cp trong mc u tin loi thm b, ch gn vo lp AF

II.2.4. Qun l ng ti nguyn trong m hnh DiffServ


C hai phng php qun l ti nguyn l qun l ti nguyn ng v qun l ti
nguyn tnh, ti nguyn c th c cung cp ng theo nhiu phng php. Trong m hnh
dch v tch hp, vic cung cp ng ng ti nguyn ch yu nh giao thc RSVP. Trong
m hnh dch v phn bit, phn trn ta xem xt m hnh DiffServ vi s cung cp tnh
ti nguyn. Vic cung cp tnh ti nguyn c u im l khng to ra nhiu cc gi tin bo
iu khin cho vic d tr ti nguyn nh trong cung cp ng v khng i hi vic kim
sot thu nhn ng, nh th m hnh s n gin hn. Tuy nhin, vic cung cp tnh ti
nguyn cng c mt s hn ch, l tnh km linh hot v c bit l khng s dng ti u
ti nguyn. Chnh v th, gn y, qun l ti nguyn ng trong m hnh DiffServ ngi
ta s dng mt phn t mi l Bandwidth Broker.

II.2.4.1. Tng quan v Bandwidth Broker


Mc tiu cui cng ca h tr QoS cho mng l cung cp cc dch v phn phi d
liu vi cht lng khc nhau cho cc user v cc ng dng khc nhau. Tuy nhin t quan
im nh tuyn, h tr QoS gm ba phn c bn :
nh ngha cc lp
30

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Xc nh lng ti nguyn cho mi lp
Phn loi cc gi vo cc lp tng ng
N lc DiffServ gii quyt vn th nht v vn th ba, n xc nh cc lp lu
lng cng nh cung cp mt c ch phn lp gi n gin m khng cn bit cc gi thuc
lung no hay thuc vo ng dng no. Bandwidth Broker gii quyt vn th hai bng
cch theo di s cp pht ti nguyn hin ti cho cc lu lng c nh du v xem xt
cc yu cu mi da trn cc chnh sch v s cp pht hin ti.
bn trong vng DS, BB kim tra yu cu v QoS t cc user v cc ng dng ring
bit v phn phi ti nguyn trong vng tu thuc vo cc chnh sch s dng ti nguyn
ca vng. bn ngoi, mt BB s chu trch nhim thit lp v duy tr tho thun dch v
song phng vi BB ca cc min ln cn m bo x l cc lu lng d liu i qua
bin ca vng .
C ch hot ng ca Bandwidth Broker : yu cu cp pht ti nguyn cho mt
lung c th c gi ti BB. Yu cu bao gm loi dch v, tc , burst ti a v thi
gian yu cu dch v, yu cu ny c th do mt user hay mt BB ca vng khc a ra.
u tin BB s tin hnh chng thc yu cu, sau kim tra xem ti nguyn cha c
phn phi c p ng yu cu khng. Nu mt yu cu qua c hai kim tra ny, bng
thng kh dng s gim i mt lng bng bng thng yu cu v c tnh lung (flow
specification) c lu li.
BB cu hnh cc router l thch hp vi thng tin v lung c cp dch v ti thi
im dch v bt u. S cu hnh ny l trng thi mm (soft state), c BB lm ti
nh k .
BB l mt phn ca kin trc DiffServ, n ng vai tr quan trng trong vic qun l
ti nguyn dch v khc bit .Hai kha cnh quan trng l :
- Qun l ti nguyn trong vng
- Qun l ti nguyn gia cc vng
a) Qun l ti nguyn trong vng
Qun l ti nguyn trong mt vng gii quyt vn cp pht ti nguyn trong mt
mng hay mt vng (domain) .
Trong mt mng gc, SLA c tho thun vi khch hng v yu cu cp pht bng
thng c p ng hay t chi da trn vo lng ti nguyn kh dng. Ngoi ra, thng tin
v DSCP c thit lp, c chuyn cho cc router l v thng tin v thit lp lp c
chuyn ti egress router cn c vo yu cu .
Trong mng chuyn tip, qun l ti nguyn c yu cu ch yu h tr lung
thng tin i qua min. Khi mt BB nhn c thng tin qun l ti nguyn gia cc min,
thng tin bao gm : thng tin v lung tp hp i vo vng ti mt im vo c th v DSCP
c yu cu cho lung . Lung tp hp hin ti c update profile thng tin lung ra vo.
31

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BB theo di lu lng DS i vo v ri khi vng qua bin ca n, m bo rng tho thun
song phng vi cc min ln cn c m bo
b) Qun l ti nguyn gia cc vng
Qun l ti nguyn gia cc vng cp n vic cung cp v phn phi ti nguyn
ti bin mng gia hai vng. Mt SLA song phng xc nh s lng v loi lung, m
mi bn ng gi v/hoc nhn, phi c thit lp trn bin gia hai min
Thng ip bo hiu c gi gia cc BB ca cc vng ln cn yu cu BB ln
cn ti nguyn cn thit trong mng ln cn v truyn t thng tin v ti nguyn c
yu cu trn ng ni cc vng.
Trong mt mng gc, mt BB qun l ti nguyn trn ng ni mng gc vi mng
chuyn tip k vi n. Trong mng chuyn tip, BB theo di lu lng DS n v i khi
vng qua bin vng, m bo rng tho thun song phng vi vng ln cn c gi vng.
BB thng tin vi router bin i vo v i ra cu hnh b iu khin lu lng
trong router da trn cc tho thun.

II.2.4.2. Kin trc ca mt h thng BB


Mt BB bao gm 4 thnh phn nh sau
Bandwidth Broker Database
Bandwidth Broker Server
Bandwidth Broker Command Line Interfaces
o Service Level Agreement Client.
o Bandwidth Allocation request Client.
Bandwidth Broker router configuration client
BB SLA
Client

BB
Database
BB
Server

BB BAR
Client

BB Router
Client

Hnh 14 . Kin trc h thng Bandwidth


Broker

Trong :
BB SLA Client dng theo di cc user, ti nguyn v topology ca vng. BB SLA
Client cha d liu SLA, d liu cp pht ti nguyn v d liu topology ca vng .

32

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BB Server x l tt c tin tc truyn thng gia cc thnh phn ca BB, tin hnh
chng thc v cu hnh thit b

Bandwidth Broker Command Line Interfaces cung cp chc nng yu cu v thay


i dch v user
BB Router Configuration Client cu hnh cc router l trong min x l d liu t
mt user ring bit
Hnh di y minh ho m hnh dch v phn bit s dng Bandwidth Broker, trong
BB l phn t ng vai tr qun l ti nguyn trong dch v phn bit

II.2.5. u im v hn
ch
dchdch
v v
Diffserv
Hnh
15 .ca
M hnh
phn bit x dng BB
II.2.5.1. u im
Tnh d m rng (scalability)
y l u im quan trng nht ca Diffserv. Trn mng trc c th c rt nhiu
lung lu lng, bt k giao thc no yu cu duy tr trng thi tng lung hay tnh ton
phc tp u dn n kh khn trong vic m rng dch v. Diffserv thc hin gp nhiu
lung v do c th x l mt s lng lung ln. Thm na, Diffserv a nhng cng
vic phc tp (phn loi, qui nh lu lng) ra cc b nh tuyn bin nn cc PHB trong
Diffserv n gin, cho php hot ng vi tc cao.

D qun tr
Trong mt DS framework, cc vng DS khc nhau c th ci t cc PHB tu
min l tho mn SLA . Do cc nh cung cp dch v c th t do la chn ci t, v
vy h c th chn cch cung cp Diffserv vi nhng thay i ti thiu trong c s h tng
ca h.

II.2.5.2. Hn ch ca Diffserv
Trong kin trc Diffserv c hai hn ch c bn.
33

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Diffserv cung cp cht lng dch v cho lung lu lng trn c s tng chng, thng
khng m bo cht lng dch v t u cui n u cui
Diffserv khng c kh nng x l li ng truyn. Chng hn, khi mt ng truyn
mang lu lng EF trong min Diffserv hng, nh cung cp dch v khng c cch no
gi nhanh lu lng qua mt ng truyn khc v m bo mt gi l ti thiu.
Hn na s dng c ch chn ng ngn nht, mt s ng trong min Diffserv c
th b tc nghn trong khi cc ng khc li khng c s dng.
C th thy Diffserv ch thch hp vi mng trc, ni c nhiu lung i qua, kt hp
cc lung gim bt ti cho thit b. Nhng ngay c trn mng trc, cng cn c nhng c
ch h tr Diffserv trong vic chn ng nng cao hiu qu s dng dch v . MPLS vi
kh nng traffic engineering c th p ng yu cu ny .

II.3. Multi Switching Label Protocol v Traffic Engineering


II.3.1. Gii thiu
Trong mng IP truyn thng, gi d liu c chuyn tip c lp ti mi router cn
c vo header ca gi v bng thng tin nh tuyn. Thut ton chuyn tip da trn so khp
di nht, ngha l prefix so khp cng di cng c u tin. Tuy nhin thut ton ny kh
chm. ng thi chn ng theo qui tc ng dn ngn nht cng gii hn kh nng qun
l ti nguyn mng .
MPLS l mt cng ngh mi c gng gii quyt nhng vn v nh tuyn trong
mng IP truyn thng . Vi MPLS, mt nhn c chiu di ngn v c nh c gn cho mi
packet v qu trnh chuyn gi trong mng da trn nhn ny. Vic phn tch ton b
header ca gi d liu c thc hin ch mt ln ti nt vo ca mng MPLS, nh vy tin
trnh nh tuyn n gin hn v nhanh hn.
Cc dch v trong mng IP truyn thng c c trng khng th d on trc. im
mnh ca MPLS l cung cp kh nng Traffic Engineering. V d nh vic s dng cc
tuyn ng r rng dn n kh nng qun l ti nguyn mng v h tr cc dch v mi.
Sau y, chng ta s xem xt kin trc ca MPLS v Traffic engineering vi MPLS

34

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II.3. 2. Kin trc MPLS


tng ca MPLS l khi mt packet n mt ingress LSR (Label Switching
Router). LSR xc nh FEC (Forwarding Equivalent Class) ca packet v gn nhn cho
packet tng ng vi FEC da vo nh x trong Incoming Label Map (LIM). LIM c th
c t ti mi nt bng tay hoc bng giao thc bo hiu nh LDP, CR LDP v RSVP
TE (c IETF nh ngha). Cc LSR tip theo trong ng i ca packet ra quyt nh
chuyn tip da trn nhn ca packet v thc hin hnh ng tng ng vi nhn (c qui
nh trong LIM) .Nt cui cng trong min MPLS, egress LSR s b nhn router k tip
nhn c packet ging nh khi packet i vo min MPLS .
S chuyn tip gi MPLS nh sau :

Mng
MPLS

Mng
khng
phi
MPLS

Bn
nhn

To
nhn

Bn
nhn
i
nhn

Bn
nhn

i
nhn
Nt
bin

i
nhn
i
nhn

Bn
nhn

Mng
khng
phi
MPLS

B
nhn
LS
R

Nt
bin

Lung khng c gn
nhn
Lung c gn nhn l trnh
1
Lung gn nhn l trnh 2

Hnh 16 . C ch chuyn tip gi MPLS

35

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

II.3.2.1. Cc thnh phn chnh trong m hnh


Nhn
Nhn c s dng trong MPLS c chiu di ngn v c nh. Mt nhn ch c
ngha cc b v n i din cho mt FEC m packet c gn vo. Mt packet c th c
nhiu nhn v chng c t chc thnh stack (Last In First Out).
Label Switching Router (LSR)
LSR l mt nt c kh nng chuyn tip packet t nhin ca tng mng v cng cho
php cc giao thc iu khin MPLS. C th phn LSR thnh LSR ngc hng v LSR
xui hng .LSR chuyn packet theo hng ca lung d liu l LSR xui hng cn LSR
nhn packet l LSR ngc hng.
Label Switching Path (LSP)
LSP ca mt packet l mt dy cc router < R1 ;. .. ; Rn > vi R1 l LSP ingress v
Rn l LSP egress. LSP ingress gn nhn vo packet mc m no , cc router gia nt vo
v nt ra chuyn packet da vo nhn ny, nt ra chuyn tip packet s dng nhn mc m
k vi k > 0 hoc s dng mt s th tc chuyn tip khc.
Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry (NHLFE)
NHLFE c s dng khi mt packet gn nhn c chuyn tip v pha trc
NHLFE cha thng tin v chng tip theo ca packet v hot ng c thc hin trn
chng nhn ca packet. Mt nhn c th c thay th bng mt nhn mi hay c th b b
i. Mi nhn ca mt packet vo c th c lin kt mt NHLFE. chia lu lng ra
thnh cc ng khc nhau c th c vi NHLFE cho mt label .
Incoming Label Map (ILM)
ILM m t nh x gia nhn ca mt packet vo v mt tp NHLFE. LSR chuyn
tip packet c xc nh bi NHLFE. C th so snh ILM vi bng nh tuyn ca router
IP truyn thng.
Label Mapping
Kt hp nhn l kh nng ca LSR chuyn tip cc packet c ngun hoc nhn khc
nhau ti mt FEC vi mt nhn. Thng tin m cc packet c khi chng ti t cc interface
khc nhau vi nhn khc nhau, s b mt trong th tc kt hp nhn .

II.3.2.2. Forwarding Equivalent Class


Thng tin t mt s giao thc dn ng truyn thng (nh OSPF) c gi li
trong nh tuyn tng mng bit cn chuyn tip packet nh th no v chia khng
gian chuyn tip thnh thnh cc FEC. FEC bao gm cc packet c chuyn tip trn cng

36

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ng dn v c i x nh nhau. Nhn ca mt packet nh x packet ti mt FEC.
Packet c gn vo FEC ch mt ln
Forwarding granularity cp n mc tp hp c s dng trong quyt nh
chuyn tip. MPLS h tr nhiu kiu forwarding granularity. Cc packet c th c gn
vo cng FEC da trn nt ra, a ch IP ch hoc lung ng dng. Phn loi da vo nt ra
l mc th nht ca granularity v ph hp vi mng ln. Trong khi phn loi cn c vo
lung ng dng l mc tinh vi nht nhng n kh nng m rng khng cao .

II.3.2.3. Label Distribute Protocol


Label Distribute Protocol c s dng trong tin trnh thit lp ng dn, vi
LDP, mt LSR thng bo cho LSR khc v nh x label/FEC m n thc hin. Quyt
nh gn mt label ti mt FEC c thc hin bi LSR xui hng. LSR ny c th thc
hin kt ni nhn theo hai cch. Cch th nht, LSR ngc hng yu cu LSR ln cn kt
gn mt nhn ti mt FEC. Cc th hai, LSR xui hng gn trc tip m khng cn yu
cu .Label Distribute Protocol cng c s dng trao i thng tin v kh nng MPLS
gia hai Label Distribute peer. MPLS cho php nhiu Label Distribute Protocol. Ba Label
Distribute Protocol l LDP, CR LDP v RSVP TE c chun ho .

II.3.3. Traffic Engineering vi MPLS


II.3.3.1. Gii thiu chung
Traffic Engineering c s dng t c mc tiu hiu nng nh ti u ti
nguyn mng v xp t lu lng vo cc ng truyn c th. iu ny c ngha l tnh
ton ng i t ngun n ch da vo mt tp rng buc v chuyn tip lu lng dc
theo ng i ny. Chuyn tip lu lng theo mt ng nh vy l iu khng th i vi
IP, bi v quyt nh chuyn tip IP c a ra c lp ti mi chng v ch da trn a
ch ch IP ca packet
MPLS c th d dng chuyn tip lu lng trn mt ng i tu . Kh nng dn
ng r rng ca MPLS cho php ngi khi to LSP tnh ton ng i, thit lp trng
thi chuyn tip MPLS dc theo ng i v nh x cc packet ti nhng LSP ny. Khi mt
packet c nh x vo mt LSP, vic chuyn tip c thc hin da trn nhn v khng
hop trung gian no thc hin bt c quyt nh chuyn tip c lp da trn a ch ch IP
ca packet. MPLS TE a ra khi nim LSP priorities. Mc ch ca priorities l nh du
mt s LSP bo hiu rng chng quan trng hn cc LSP khc v cho php chng ly ti
nguyn t nhng LSP t quan trng hn. Lm nh vy s m bo rng :
37

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Khi khng c cc LSP quan trng, ti nguyn c th c dnh cho cc LSP t quan trng
hn.
- Mt LSP quan trng lun thit lp dc theo ng i ti u nht (ngn nht)
- Khi mt LSP cn nh tuyn li, cc LSP quan trng c c hi tm thy mt ng i ln
hn .
Mc tiu ca traffic engineering l tm ra mt ng i trong mng tho mn mt tp
cc rng buc. Do , nhng rng buc ny cn c a vo tnh ton khi tnh ton cc
ng i kh thi ti ch. Cc rng buc c th l bng thng yu cu cho mt LSP c
th, s lng hop m lu lng c php i qua, mc u tin ca LSP so vi cc LSP
khc. v. v. .
Vic tnh ton mt ng dn tho mn nhng iu kin rng buc ny c th c
thc hin ti nt vo s dng mt thut ton tnh ng (v d nh CSPF).
Cui cng khi ng i c tnh ton thnh cng, trng thi chuyn tip MPLS
c thit lp dc theo ng i bng cch s dng RSVP TE nh mt giao thc phn b
nhn. Khi ng i c thit lp, ti nguyn kh dng c update ti mi nt v cc nt
khc c thng tin v s thay i ny

II.3.3.2. M hnh thc hin


thc hin traffic engineering, ngui ta a ra hai phng php l Overlay Model
v Peer Model .
a) M hnh Overlay
Mng backbone thng s dng cng ngh ATM v s dng n theo cch thng
thng xy dng mch qua la chn ng i qua mt mng. Thay v cho php mi
router quyt nh ng i xuyn qua mng, iu hnh vin c th xy dng ng i hay
cc mch i qua vi router m khng nhng router ny a ra bt k quyt nh no v
dn ng, iu ny c ngha l bng nh tuyn c xy dng bng tay. i vi mng IP,
MPLS c th thc hin nhim v ny.
Chc nng tch cc ca mt mng nh vy l lu lng c th c chuyn mt
cch r rng, cho php lu lng i qua mt s ng truyn tc thp, gii phng dung
lng trn cc ng truyn khc nhm nng cao hiu nng truyn lu lng. Vic ny c
th c thc hin bng cch nhp vo bng tay mt s tuyn hoc bng cch thit lp t
ng mt mng full mesh (mng m mi li vo /ra u c ng i trc tip n mi li
vo khc). Mc d m hnh Overlay c nhiu thun li v ang c s dng rng ri hin
nay nhng n c vn v m rng khi thit lp mng full mesh. l vn N square
38

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- m i vi mi LER c thm vo mng, phi thm vo mt ng i t LER ny ti
mi LER khc trong mng. Nh vy s c N 1 ng i mi cho mi LER mi. Khi mng
tng ln, s lng ng i tng ln rt ln, thm vo s phc tp v chi ph thng ip
ng k. c bit l khi mt ng truyn hng, phi thc hin mt s lng ln hot ng
update.
b) M hnh peer
Trong m hnh ny iu khin lu lng cn bng c th t c bng cch thay
i weight ca ng truyn trong giao thc dn ng OSPF. Vi phng php ny, mi
ng truyn c cho mt gi tr phn nh mc s dng ca ng truyn . Nu l
mt ng truyn chm, t nh ng truyn v tinh hay ng hay b tc nghn, ng
truyn ny c th c cho mt gi tr weight cao, bo cho router chn ng truyn
khc. Theo cch ny, cc weight c tnh ton v thit lp ch mt ln , c th gip mng
cn bng vi t hoc khng c ng truyn tc nghn v lu lng overhead t hn so vi
m hnh Overlay .

II.3.4. Kt lun
c thit k cho php IP over ATM nhng MPLS c nhng kt qu tch cc nu
c ci t trn mng IP thng thng. MPLS l mt gii php a nng cho nhiu vn
ca mng hin nay: tc , scalibility, qun l cht lng dch v v traffic engineering.
Bng cch gn mt header c bit vo mt packet, cc router trong mng s khng cn m
packet, trch ra a ch IP v da vo quyt ng i. MPLS ch n gin m header
c bit v cn c vo header ny, gi packet n ng k tip xc nh.
Bng cch s dng mt cng ngh nh MPLS, traffic engineering cho php gim tc
nghn lu lng trn mng. Vi traffic engineering, c th a mt s lu lng vo mt
ng v mt s lu lng vo ng khc, chng hn nh trn mt ng truyn v tinh
v trn mt ng truyn khc r hn. MPLS header s bo cho router ng gi packet
thay v lu chn packet gn nht

39

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PHN 3
NH GI, KT LUN
III.1. nh gi, phn tch cc phng php:
C bn phng php cung cp cht lng dch v cho mng IP l Intserv, Diffserv,
MPLS v Traffic engineering u c nhng u v nhc im ring.
(1) M hnh dch v tch hp (Intserv)

u im:
o C kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v end-to-end.
o Cho php p trc mt knh xuyn qua mng vi bng thng m bo

Nhc im:
o Kh nng m rng km, ch thch hp vi mng nh.

(2) M hnh dch v phn bit (Diffserv)

u im:
o D m rng: y l u im quan trng nht ca Diffserv. Trn mng trc
c th c rt nhiu lung lu lng, bt k giao thc no yu cu duy tr
trng thi tng lung hay tnh ton phc tp u dn n kh khn trong vic
m rng dch v. Diffserv thc hin gp nhiu lung v do c th x l
mt s lng lung ln. Thm na, Diffserv a nhng cng vic phc tp

40

Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(phn loi, qui nh lu lng) ra cc b nh tuyn bin nn cc PHB trong
Diffserv n gin, cho php hot ng vi tc cao
o D qun tr: Trong mt DS framework, cc vng DS khc nhau c th ci
t cc PHB tu min l tho mn SLA . Do cc nh cung cp dch v
c th t do la chn ci t, v vy h c th chn cch cung cp Diffserv
vi nhng thay i ti thiu trong c s h tng ca h.

Nhc im:
o Diffserv cung cp cht lng dch v cho lung lu lng trn c s tng
chng, thng khng m bo cht lng dch v t u cui n u cui.
o Diffserv khng c kh nng x l li ng truyn.
o Ch thch hp vi mng ng trc

(3) MPLS & Traffic engineering

u im:
o Kt hp kh nng chuyn mch nhanh ca tng 2 v nh tuyn tng 3, c
kh nng Traffic engineering, gip trnh tc nghn trong mng
o Ti u ha ti nguyn mng, sp t lu lng vo cc ng truyn c th

Nhc im: Khng a ra kin trc QoS mi, khng c kh nng phn bit dch
v trong mi lung.

III.2. xut, kin ngh


Cc phng php trn u nhm mc ch tng hiu nng mng nhng chng c
thc hin theo nhng cch khc nhau, tch bit vi nhau. Tuy nhin, mi mt phng php
c mt s u v nhc im ring. ci thin hn na cht lng dch v trn mng IP,
chng em xut 2 m hnh kt hp tng cng kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v
l:
- M hnh Kt hp Intserv vi Diffserv
- M hnh Kt hp Diffserv vi MPLS

III.3. Phng n thc hin cc xut v kin ngh


III.3.1. M hnh Kt hp IntServ v DiffServ
III.3.1.1. Li ch ca m hnh kt hp Intserv v Diffserv
C Intserv v Diffserv u c nhng u im v nhc im ring, RFC 2998
a ra Frame work cho h tr dch v Intserv trn mng Diffserv.
Li ch ca vic kt hp ny kh r rng, Diffserv vi vic iu khin lung theo tp
hp c kh nng m rng cao s b p cho kh nng m rng khng cao ca Intserv.

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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ngc li, RSVP trong Intserv cng gip Diffserv cung cp dch v c tnh nh lng trn
mng, ci m mt mnh Diffserv khng p ng c.

Trong Diffserv, iu khin thm nhp c thc hin theo mt cch tng
i tnh bng cch cung cp cc tham s policing ti cc phn t mng. Vi vic s
dng RSVP, Diffserv c kh nng iu khin thm nhp da trn ti nguyn nh vy c
th s dng ti nguyn mng ti u.

S dng RSVP, Diffserv c th thc p dng iu khin thm nhp da trn


chnh sch i vi tng user, tng ng dng ch khng phi i vi ton b mng cha
user hay ng dng , nh vy tng hiu qu s dng ti nguyn mng

Trong mt mng Diffserv, DSCP c th c nh du ti host hoc router


nhng c hai c ch ny u tn ti nhng nhc im ring.
i vi nh du ti host l kh khn trong vic qun l thng tin v cch hiu
(interpretation) DSCP ca mng.
Cn vi nh du ti router, nu l nh du tnh (cu hnh bng tay hay bng script
t ng) th s gp kh khn trong qun l thng tin phn loi do tiu chun phn loi
thng xuyn thay i. Vic nh du ti router c th c thc hin bng cch cho php
h iu hnh ca host bo hiu tiu chun phn loi ti router (ng). RSVP rt thch hp
cho nhim v bo hiu.

Cc phn t mng Intserv thc hin qui nh (conditioning) lu lng theo


tng lung. Vic quy nh trc lu lng theo cch ny trc khi chng i vo mng
Diffserv s lm tng kh nng cung cp dch v nh lng s dng iu khin lu
lng gp ca Diffserv
T nhng li ch ny, Intserv v Diffserv c th c s dng b xung cho nhau.
Intserv c s dng ti mng truy nhp (access) cho php cc host yu cu v d tr ti
nguyn tng lung nh RSVP v Diffserv c s dng trong mng trc s trnh vn m
rng RSVP

III.3.1.2. Framework cho Intserv/RSVP over Diffserv


a) Mng tham chiu cho Framework Intserv/RSVP over Diffserv nh sau :

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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hnh 17 : Mng tham chiu cho Intserv/RSVP over Diffserv framework


Nh c th hin trn hnh v, Framework bao gm nhng phn t sau :
-

Sender v Receiver l nhng host c kh nng RSVP, n c th khi to mt tin


trnh RSVP da trn yu cu ng dng chy trn host
Edge v Boder router l cc thit b cnh m chc nng ca n ph thuc vo s thc
thi c th ca Framework .
Min non Diffserv l mt min c kh nng Intserv cha cc host v nhng phn
t mng khc c kh nng Intserv v cng c th cha c nhng phn t mng khc
na
Min Diffserv c th hoc khng cha cc router bit v RSVP

b) nh x dch v
nh x dch v ph thuc vo s lu chn PHB ph hp, iu khin thm nhp v
iu khin chnh sch trn yu cu Intserv da trn ti nguyn kh dng v chnh sch trong
Intserv
nh x dch v bao gm :
- La chn mt PHB hay mt tp PHB cho dch v c yu cu
- Thc hin policing ph hp ti cnh ca min Diffserv
- Xut cc tham s Intserv khi min Diffserv
- Thc hin iu khin truy nhp trn yu cu Intserv m tnh c ti nguyn trong
min Diffserv
C mt bng nh x mc nh ni ting :
Intserv service

Diffserv PHB
HAF

Controlled Load
Guaranted service

L AF
EF PHB

Bng 3 : Bng nh x dch v mc nh


Trong cch nh x ny dch v m bo c nh x ti EF PHB, trong khi dch v
ti c iu khin tu thuc vo n c kh nng chu tr hay khng m c nh x vo
cc mc u tin AF PHB khc nhau .

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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cc router c kh nng x l c packet Diffserv v RSVP s thc hin nh x dch
v trn v cc router ny cng c th s dng nh x dch v khc (override). Nhng
router ny thng c t cnh ca vng Diffserv
c) Qun l ti nguyn trong mng Diffserv
C nhiu cch khc nhau qun l ti nguyn trn mng Diffserv khc nhau tho
mn yu cu ca cc lung Intserv t im cui n im cui, bao gm :
-

Ti nguyn c cung cp tnh


Ti nguyn c cung cp ng bng RSVP
Ti nguyn c cung cp ng bng cc phng tin khc nh Bandwidth
Broker, .vv.

III.3.1.3. Thc thi Framework


Thc thi c th Framework ph thuc vo s qun l ti nguyn Diffserv v kh
nng RSVP ca min mng Diffserv. Nh va , qun l ti nguyn mng Diffserv c th
l ng hoc tnh. Min mng Diffserv c xem l hiu (aware) nu n c cc router
RSVP tiu chun trong domain ca n, t nht l trn bin ca domain. Nhng router no l
router hiu RSVP tu thuc ngi qun tr.
Trong trng hp ti nguyn c cung cp tnh, ch ca min Diffserv tho thun
mt SLA tnh vi khch hng ca n, tc l min Intserv, do , ch ca Diffserv s thc
hin mt s hnh ng ph hp vi SLA c tho thun thc hin cam kt dch v.
Trong trng hp ti nguyn c cung cp ng, SLA c tho thun da trn cc
cc yu cu c gp t nhiu khch hng, do , n yu cu cc c ch phc tp hn
nhiu trong Diffserv c th thc hin iu khin truy nhp v phn chia ti nguyn chnh
xc . Nhng c ch ny ang c nghin cu.
C ch kim sot thm nhp v phn chia ti nguyn trong vng Diffserv rt c
u thch l Bandwidth Broker.

III.3.1.4. Kt lun
Intserv over Diffserv l phng php cung cp cht lng dch v ang rt c
quan tm hin nay. Intserv vi kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v end-to-end, diffserv
vi kh nng m rng cao c th kt hp vi nhau trong mt mng b xung cho nhau
cung cp dch v end-to-end c kh nng m rng

III.3.2. H tr Diffserv trn MPLS


III.3.2.1. Li ch ca kt hp Diffserv v MPLS
Diffserv cung cp cht lng dch v cnh ti cnh d m rng, trong khi MPLS
thc hin traffic engineering phn phi ti lu lng trn cc ng truyn kh dng v
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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------dn ng nhanh i vi nhng tuyn qua nt hoc lin kt hng. Thm na MPLS c th
c s dng trn nhiu cng ngh tng lin kt (link) khc nhau. Kt hp Diffserv v
MPLS trn mng backbone l mt phng n ang c quan tm hin nay vi QoS d m
rng v kh nng traffic engineering, s dng cng ngh chuyn mch nhanh .

III.3.2.2. Nguyn tc
Khi mt packet Diffserv i vo mng MPLS, LSR li vo kim tra trng ToS ca
gi d liu ly cc thng tin Diffserv. Lu lng vo c nh x ti LSP thch hp. Khi
packet ra khi mng MPLS i vo mng Diffserv lu lng MPLS c nh x ti cc PHB
thch hp. MPLS c th nh x lu lng Diffserv vo lu lng MPLS theo hai cch. Cch
th nht nhiu BA c th c nh x vo mt LSP, cch th hai l mi BA c nh x ti
mt LSP. Khi nhiu BA c nh x ti mt LSP th trng Exp trong MPLS c s dng
xc nh PHB. Phng php ny c gi l EXP-Inference-PSC LSP
(E-LSP). phng php th hai mi BA c nh x ti mt LSP, phng php ny c
gi l Label-Only-Inference-PSC LSP (L-LSP).
Bng sau cho thy s khc nhau gia E-LSP v L-LSP
E-LSP
PHB c xc nh t trng EXP
Khng yu cu bo hiu

L-LSP
PHB c xc nh t nhn v trng EXP
PHB hoc nhm PHB scheduling c
bo hiu khi thit lp LSP (LDP, RSVP....)
nh x EXP-> PHB c cu hnh
nh x label->PHB c bo hiu
nh x EXP->PHB l nh x ni ting
Yu cu Shim header
Shim header hoc header tng link c th
E-LSp khng th thc hin trn ATM c s dng, do ph hp vi ATM link
link
C th n t 1 n 8 PHP mi LSP
Mi PHB mt LSP
H tr 8 BA
H tr nhiu hn 8 BA
Vi E-LSP : trng EXP c s dng xc nh BA. Nhn c th c s dng
ra quyt nh chuyn tip v trng EXP c th c s dng xc nh cch i x
vi packet.
Vi L-LSP : mt LSP ring bit c thit lp cho mi cp < FEC, BA >. Trong
trng hp ny, LSR c th c th xc nh ng dn cng nh l cch i x vi packet
t nhn ca packet. Trng EXP m ho mc u tin b ca packet.

III.3.2.3. Cc hot ng ca LSR Diffserv MPLS

Xc nh PHB n :

- i vi E-LSP, nh x EXP-to-PHB c th c cu hnh trc hoc c bo


hiu r rng trong qu trnh thit lp E-LSP. LSR xc nh PHB c p dng cho packet
n bng cch kim tra trng EXP trong nh x EXP-to-PHB
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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i vi L-LSP : nh x EXP-to-PHB l mt chc nng ca PSC (PHB scheduling
Class) c mang trn L-LSP v c thit lp trong qu trnh thit lp L-LSP. Do , PSC
(tc l queue v scheduling) l bit i vi LSR da trn trng nhn. LSR sau xc
nh mc u tin b, do xc nh PHB, c p dng i vi packet n bng cch kim
tra trng EXP trong nh x EXP-to_PHB

Xc nh PHB ra vi qui nh lu lng tu chn :

Mt LSR Diffserv c th thc hin nh du, khng ch (police) v nh dng


(shapping) trn lung lu lng n, thay i PHB ra cho nhng packet khng tho mn
trong lung lu lng n. Do , PHB n v ra c th khc nhau.

Chuyn tip nhn

Mi LSR Diffserv phi bit Diffserv context cho nhn, n bao gm loi LSP, cc
PHB c h tr, nh x EXP-to-PHB cho mt nhn n v nh x PHB-to-EXP cho nhn
ra.

M ho thng tin Diffserv vo tng Encapsulation

LSR xc nh gi tr EXP c ghi vo packet ra bng cch tm PHB trong bng nh


x PHB-to-EXP.
- E-LSP xc nh ca mt packet ch da vo trng EXP v do ch c th h tr
8 PHB mi E-LSP. Trng EXP mang queuing, scheduling v mc u tin b cho LSR.
Bo hiu PHB c th c s dng bo hiu r rng cc PHB c h tr trong lc thit
lp LSP nhng khng bt buc.
- L-LSP xc nh PHB ca packet t c nhn v trng EXP. Trng nhn xc nh
PSC (queuing v scheduling) trong khi trng EXP xc nh PHB ( u tin b). L-LSP c
th h tr mt s lng ln tu PHB.

III.3.2.4. Nhng u im v tn ti ca hai m hnh E-LSP v L-LSP


Vi nhng mng h tr t hn 8 mc phn loi Diffserv, E-LSP rt hu dng. N kt
hp kh nng traffic engineering ca MPLS v QoS c cung cp bi DSCP. Nhng 3 bit
EXP ch cho php biu din 8 BA cho mt FEC nn vi nhng mng h tr hn 8 BA, ELSP khng cn hiu qu.
L-LSP c s dng h tr mt s lng tu cp < FEC, BA >, khc phc c
hn ch ca E-LSP. Nhng n cng c hn ch, l kh nng m rng. Vi mt LSP cho
mt BA, s lng nhn mt LSR phi duy tr c th tr thnh vn khi s lng PHB tng
qu ln .

III.3.2.5. Kt lun
Diffserv over MPLS l phng php cung cp cht lng dch v ang rt c
quan tm hin nay. MPLS vi kh nng traffic engineering v s dng cng ngh chuyn

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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------mch nhanh c th kt hp vi Diffserv cung cp cht lng dch v trn mng
backbone

Kt lun
Xu hng pht trin ca cc mng truyn s liu trong nhng nm qua cho thy
s quan tm ngy cng tng n vn cht lng dch v v p ng yu cu cht ch ca
cc ng dng thi gian thc. cng l mt trong nhng hng pht trin chnh ca cng
ngh mng v truyn s liu.
Trong tiu lun ny, chng em trnh by cc c ch cung cp cht lng dch v
cho cc ng dng yu cu thi gian thc trn mng IP (Phn I, II). l m hnh dch v
tch hp (Intserv), m hnh dch v phn bit (DiffServ), cng ngh MultiProtocol Label
Switching (MPLS) v c ch Traffic Engineering, trong mi gii php u c u nhc
im ring. Dch v tch hp, kt hp vi giao thc RSVP cho php m bo cht lng
dch v t u cui n u cui vi cc tiu chun nh lng c th nhng phc tp i
hi nhiu ti nguyn v kh nng x l ca mng do ch thch hp vi cc mng c qui
m va v nh. Dch v phn bit cho php x l lu lng theo cc nhm c u tin
khc nhau, n thch hp vi cc mng trc ln hn. MPLS kt hp kh nng chuyn mch
nhanh tng hai vi kh nng nh tuyn gi tin IP tng ba cng vi vi ng dng
Traffic Engineering cho php cn bng ti l thch hp cho cung cp cht lng dch v
trong cc mng trc ln. Cc phng php trn c th kt hp vi nhau , tn dng u im
ca nhau cung cp cht lng dch v trong mt mng.
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Cc phng php nng cao cht lng dch v trn mng IP


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Phn III ca tiu lun, chng em nh gi v phn tch u nhc im ca cc c


ch cung cp cht lng dch v. T xut ra phng n kt hp 2 m hnh nng cao
cht lng dch v.

Ti liu tham kho

[1]. An Architecture for Differentiated Services RFC 2475 December 1998


[2]. Integrated Services in the Internet Architecture: an Overview
RFC 1633 June 1994
[2]. The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services RFC 2210 September 1997
[4] . Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture RFC 3031 January 2001

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