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Chng 2: Tng quan v cng ngh NG - SDH

CHNG 2 TNG QUAN V CNG NGH NG - SDH


2.1 Gii thiu Vng xoy ti chnh v cng ngh ca ngnh cng nghip vin thng buc cc nh sn xut, cc nh vn hnh, cc nh khai thc v cc t chc chun ha hng n mt mng mi ct gim chi ph trong khi vn m rng c dch v. Cng ngh SDH c thit k ti u cho mc ch truyn ti cc tn hiu ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM). Vi khuynh hng truyn ti d liu ngy cng tng, h thng SDH truyn thng khng th p ng c nhu cu gia tng ca cc dch v s liu na. Xu hng pht trin ca dch v vin thng l: S bng n ca cc dch v trn Internet S tch hp dch v Kh nng di ng v chuyn vng Yu cu QoS theo nhiu mc khc nhau C th phn chia thnh bn loi dch v ng dng vi cc mc QoS khc nhau: - Nhy cm vi tr v tn tht (video tng tc, game). - Nhy cm vi tr nhng tn tht va phi (thoi). - Nhy cm v tn tht nhng yu cu tr va phi (d liu tng tc). - Yu cu i vi tr v tn hao u khng cao (truyn tp). an ton cao Tnh linh hot, tin dng Gi thnh mang tnh cnh tranh cao T s dn nhp trn c th thy xu hng s dng dch v theo hng tng tnh gii tr, tng tnh di ng, tng kh nng thch nghi gia cc mng, tng tnh bo mt, tng tnh tng tc nhm, gim chi ph Chnh xu hng pht trin dch v thc y s pht trin cc mng vin thng theo hng: cng ngh hin i, dung lng ln, cht lng cao, khai thc n gin, thun tin v mang li hiu qu kinh t cao. SDH th h sau (NG-SDH) c pht trin da trn nn mng SDH hin ti, l mt c ch truyn ti cho php truyn d liu tc cao, bng thng rng v tn ti ng thi cc dch v truyn thng v cc dch v mi trn cng mt mng m khng lm nh hng ln nhau. iu quan trng nht l NG-SDH c th thc hin vic phn b bng thng m khng lm nh hng ti lu lng hin ti. Ngoi ra, SDH th h sau cn c kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v (QoS) thch hp cho cc dch v mi v kh nng
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Chng 2: Tng quan v cng ngh NG - SDH

truyn ti ng thi nhiu loi dch v khc nhau trong cng mt mi trng,

Hnh 2.1: M hnh giao thc trong NG-SDH. cho php cc nh khai thc cung cp nhiu dch v chuyn ti d liu tng hiu qu ca cc trm SDH lp t bng cch thm vo cc nt bin MSSP. Ngha l khng cn lp t mt mng chng lp hoc thay i tt c cc nt hay si quang. Ct gim c chi ph trn 1 bit lu chuyn, thu ht nhiu khch hng mi v gi c nhng dch v k tha. 2.2 SDH th h sau v s k tha Cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng sn sng chuyn cc dch v Ethernet/IP trong kinh doanh sang cc mng th. Mt khc, s kt hp Ethernet/IP c th lm tng li th truyn ti ng di ca SDH bao gm s mm do, tin cy, kh nng chuyn i, bo v tch hp, qun l v nh tuyn li. SDH th h sau cho nhiu hn th. Cc node mi ca n c gi l "Nn tng cung cp a dch v MSSP cho php

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Chng 2: Tng quan v cng ngh NG - SDH

kt hp cc giao tip d liu nh Ethernet, 8B/10B, MPLS hoc RPR m khng cn b cc giao tip SDH/PDH. Ngoi ra, d liu chuyn ti hiu qu hn, SDH chp nhn mt tp cc giao thc mi c ci t trong cc nt MSSP. Cc nt ny c kt ni vi cc thit b c ang chy trn mng.

Hnh 2.2: Kh nng linh hot, mm do v hiu qu ca SDH th h sau Phn ln cc nh vn hnh, khai thc s dng SDH trong vi thp nin tr li y, ch yu chuyn ti thoi v cc giao thc d liu nh hng kt ni. Do , truyn ti d liu khng hng kt ni l mt thch thc. Mc d nhiu kin trc c pht trin theo hng ny (PoS, ATM, ...) nhng chng khng c chp nhn rng ri trong thng mi v chi ph, s phc tp hoc hiu qu thp. Hng n s pht trin ca SDH th h sau, trc ht l mong mun tm ra mt phng thc n gin c kh nng thch ng vi bt k giao thc d liu gi no v th hai l cch s dng bng thng hiu qu. Ngha l cn mt lp giao thc thch ng v mt c ch sp xp mi iu khin vic s dng bng thng. C ch phi thc hin c tt c nhng iu ny v gi c vic truyn ti SDH tin cy v s qun l tp trung. Cc h thng truyn dn ang ngm vo SDH trong vic nh tuyn cc khi lu lng SDH tc cao cho mc ch truyn ti ng di. lm c vic ny, SDH cn mt s giao thc sau:
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- Giao thc ng khung chung (GFP): c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh G.7041 ITU-T. y l mt giao thc ghp bt k dch v lin kt d liu no gm Ethernet, qung b video s (DVB) v cc mng vng lu tr (SAN). GFP c so snh vi cc th tc ng khung khc nh gi qua SDH hay X.86 c mo u nh p ng yu cu phn tch, x l t hn. - Ghp chui o (VCAT): c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh G.707 ITU-T, to ra cc ng lu lng c kch thc bit trc, p ng s linh hot v kh nng ln vi s k tha cc cng ngh trong SDH. - C ch iu chnh dung lng tuyn (LCAS): c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh G.7042 ITU-T, phn phi hoc tp hp cc n v bng thng ph hp cc yu cu truyn ti d liu hoc b sung s co gin gia hai im truyn ti. Nhng chc nng ny c thc hin trn cc nt MSSP mi c t cc bin ca mng. Chng trao i cc gi d liu client c tng hp qua nn SDH m tip tc khng c thay i. Ngha l cc nt MSSP i din cho SDH th h sau v c hiu l s k tha mng SDH. 2.3 Giao thc to khung chung GFP GFP (Generic Framing Protocol) l k thut sp xp d liu c tc bit khng i v thay i vo khung ng b SDH. GFP h tr nhiu giao thc c s dng trong mng LAN v SAN. GFP thm vo mo u tng hiu qu lp quang. C hai loi thch ng tn hiu client c nh ngha cho GFP: - Sp xp khung GFP (GFP-F) s ng gi lp 2 PDU nh hng kiu thch ng. D liu c ng gi vo cc khung c kch thc thay i. - GFP trong sut (GFP-T) s ng gi lp 1 hoc m khi c nh hng kiu thch ng. Cc giao thc s dng lp vt l 8B/10B (nh Knh quang, ESCON, 1000BASE-T) c ng gi vo khung c kch thc khng i.

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Hnh 2.3: S tp hp d liu gi s dng GFP Gi hng i ch c sp xp vo knh TDM. u kia, cc gi c sp xp ngc tr li hng i v c phn phi n tng port. Hnh trn l s ng gi v truyn dn ca khung GFP vo cc container VC v c gn vo khung STM. 2.3.1 Phn chung ca GFP C 2 loi khung GFP c nh ngha: khung khch hng GFP v khung iu khin GFP. GFP cng h tr mt c ch phn m rng u ti trng linh ng d dng cho vic thch ng ca GFP vi cc c ch truyn thay i khc nhau. * Khung khch hng GFP

- u chnh (Core Header): c chiu di 4 byte, gm mt trng ch th chiu


di PDU (PLI) v mt trng kim tra li u chnh cHEC. PLI gm 16 bit ch th s byte trong vng ti trng GFP. Gi tr ti thiu ca PLI trong mt khung khch hng l 4, PLI c gi tr 0-3 c dnh ring cho vic s dng cc khung iu khin. Trng cHEC cha CRC-16 bo v tnh ton vn ni dung ca phn u chnh thng qua kh nng sa li n bit v pht hin li a bit. cHEC c tnh ton trn 4 byte u chnh.

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Hnh 2.4: Cc giao thc v nh dng khung GFP. - Vng ti trng (Payload): Tt c cc byte trong khung GFP sau phn u chnh c xem nh l vng ti trng GFP, c dng truyn thng tin giao thc c trng ca khch hng. Vng ti trng GFP c chiu di t 4 n 65535 byte, gm 2 thnh phn chung: trng u ti trng v trng thng tin ti trng, v mt trng kim tra tun t khung ti trng (pFCS) tu chn.

- Vng u ti trng (Payload Header): l mt vng c chiu di thay i t 4


n 64 byte, h tr cc th tc qun l lin kt d liu c trng cho tn hiu khch hng. Vng ny gm 2 trng bt buc l trng kiu (Type) v trng tHEC, v mt s lng bin i cc trng u m rng (Extension Header). S c mt ca phn u m rng, nh dng ca n v s c mt ca pFCS tu chn c ch th bi trng kiu. Trng kiu bao gm cc trng sau: PTI (3 bit) PFI(1 bit), EXI (4 bit) v UPI (1 byte). Trng tHEC bo v tnh ton vn ni dung ca trng kiu. u m rng (Extension Header): l mt trng di t 0 n 60 byte (gm eHEC) h tr cc u lin kt d liu c trng cng ngh, v d nh nhn dng lin kt o, cc a ch ngun v ch, s port, loi dch v, vv. Trng kim tra li u m rng (eHEC): CRC-16 bo v tnh ton vn ni dung ca phn u m rng. Trng Check sum: pFCS (Payload Frame Check Sequence) c 4 byte, tu chn, cha m sa li CRC-32 bo v ni dung ca trng thng tin ti trng GFP.

Hnh 2.5: GFP nh dng sp xp cc client.


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GFP-F c th c s dng cho Ethernet, PPP/IP v HDLC nh l cc giao thc m tnh hiu qu v tnh mm do l quan trng. thc thi qu trnh ng gi th cn phi nhn hon tt gi client nhng th tc ny lm tng tr, GFP th khng thch hp cho cc giao thc nhy thi gian. * Khung iu khin GFP Cc khung iu khin c s dng trong vic qun l kt ni GFP, cc gi tr PLI t 0 n 3. Khung PLI = 0 c gi l khung rng (Idle frame) l mt khung c bit gm 4 byte, ch bao gm phn u chnh GFP v khng c vng ti trng. Khung rng c s dng duy tr mt tc bit khng i khi khng c PDU khch hng no sn sng truyn. 2.3.2 GFP sp xp khung (GFP-F) Trong khung GFP-F, nu mt gi client hon tt th n c sp xp hon ton vo khung GFP. Cc gi ri th khng c truyn, kt qu l tng hiu qu truyn dn. Tuy nhin, cc k thut ring c quy nh truyn ti tng loi giao thc. 2.3.3 GFP trong sut (GFP-T) GFP trong sut (GFP-T) l mt giao thc c lp, phng thc ng gi m tt c cc t m c gii m v sp xp vo cc khung GFP c chiu di c nh. Cc khung c truyn ngay lp tc m khng phi ch gi d liu client c nhn hon tt. V vy, n cng l c ch truyn ti lp 1 bi v tt c cc k t client c chuyn n u cui mt cch c lp khng c vn g nu l thng tin, header, iu khin, hoc bt k loi mo u no. GFP-T th rt tt cho cc giao thc nhy tr, SAN. Bi v, khng cn x l khung client hoc i khung n khi hon tt. Li th ny c khc ch bi s hiu qu do nt MSPP ngun vn pht lu lng khi khng c d liu nhn t client. 2.3.4 Kh nng GFP GFP cho php cc nt MSPP cung cp hai dch v TDM v gi nh hng, qun l cc mc u tin truyn dn v loi b thch hp. GFP ch l mt th tc ng gi nhng mnh m v chun ha tt cho vic truyn cc gi d liu trn SDH v OTN. GFP s dng k thut pht ha c bn HEC ging nh ATM, v vy n khng cn cc bit hoc byte nhi. Kch thc khung c th d dng thit lp chiu di khng i. Khi s dng kiu GFP-F, c mt la chn tiu m rng GFP, c s dng nh mt giao thc ring nh a ch ngun / ch, s port, lp dch v,... Gia cc loi EXI tuyn tnh h tr submultiplexing trn mt ng, nhn dng knh (CID) cho php ghp knh on nh qua knh VC kiu GFP.

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Chng 2: Tng quan v cng ngh NG - SDH

2.4

Ghp chui (Concatenation)

Ghp chui l mt qu trnh tp hp bng thng ca X container (C-i) vo mt container ln hn. Bng thng ln hn nn s tt cho vic truyn cc ti trng (payload) ln, yu cu mt container ln hn VC-4, nhng n cng c kh nng ghp chui cc container dung lng thp nh VC-11, VC-12 hay VC-2. C hai phng thc ghp chui: - Ghp chui lin k (CCAT): to ra container ln, khng th chia nh ra trong sut qu trnh truyn. Mi NE phi c mt cotainer chc nng. - Ghp chui o (VCAT): truyn cc VC ring bit v kt hp chng li im cui ng truyn. Chc nng ghp ch c cn n cui ng truyn. Ghp chui lin k (CCAT) i hi c cung cp bi tt c cc node. Ghp chui o (VCAT) phn phi bng thng hiu qu hn v c th c cung cp bi s thit lp k tha.

Hnh 2.6: Ghp chui lin k (CCAT): cc con tr v container. Cu trc mt VC-4-Xc (X=1, 4, 16, 64, 256), vi X l mc. n v tng gim (ng chnh) l 3 X, ph thuc vo mc AU-4 = 3 byte, AU-4-256c = 768 byte. 2.4.1 Ghp chui lin k ca VC-4: Mt VC-4-Xc cung cp mt vng ti ca X cotainer loi C-4. N s dng ging HO-POH c s dng trong VC-4 v vi chc nng nhn dng. Cu trc ny c th c truyn trong khung STM-n (vi n=X). Tuy nhin, cc s kt hp khc cng c th thc hin, v d nh: VC-4-4c c th c truyn trong khung STM-16 v STM64. Ghp m bo tnh ton vn ca dy bit, bi v c container c truyn nh l mt n v xuyn qua mng.

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Hnh 2.7 : Ghp chui lin k VC-4-4c trong khung STM-16. Bng 2.1: Ghp chui lin k ca VC-4-Xc, vi X l s VC-n. SDH VC-4 VC-4-4c VC-4-16c VC-4-64c VC-4-256c X 1 4 16 64 256 Dung lng 149.760 Kbit/s 599.040 Kbit/s 2.396.160 Kbit/s 9.583.640 Kbit/s 38.338.560Kbit/s ng chnh 3 byte 12 byte 48 byte 192 byte 768 byte Truyn ti STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 STM-256

Ghp chui lin k cc VC-4 c nh ngha bi ITU-T tiu chun G.707. Cu trc khung ca VC-4-Xc c th hin hnh 1.11 vi 9 hng v X*261 ct, tc khung l 125s. VC-4-Xc c to thnh bi phng php ghp xen byte ca X VC-4 ring bit k nhau. Trong X ct cha, cc byte POH t cc VC-4 gc ch l mt, c t ti ct u tin, c s dng nh l POH chung cho ton b VC-4-Xc. Ct th hai ti ct X cha cc byte chn c nh. X*260 ct cn li l vng ti trng ca VC4-Xc v c kch thc bng vi C-4-Xc. VC-4-Xc s c truyn trong X AU-4 k nhau trong tn hiu STM-N. Ct u tin ca VC-4-Xc s lun lun c t trong AU-4 th nht. Con tr ca AU-4 th nht ny ch ra v tr ca byte J1 trong POH ca VC-4-Xc. Cc con tr ca AU-4 cn li, ngha l t AU-4 #2 ti AU-4 #X, c thit lp ch th ti trng c ghp chui lin k, ngha l hai byte H1 v H2 ca cc AU-4 ny cha gi tr 1001xx11 11111111. Vic hiu chnh con tr c thc hin chung cho c X AU-4 ghp chui v khi chn s dng X3 byte. 2.4.2 Ghp chui o VCAT Cng ngh khng kt ni v gi nh hng, nh l IP hoc Ethernet khng tha bng thng c cung cp bi ghp chui lin k. thc hin mt ng truyn 1Gbit/s th n s cn dng mt container VC-4-16c m dung lng l 2.4Gbit/s. Nhiu hn gp i bng thng yu cu. Bng 2.2: Dung lng ca ghp chui o SDH VC-n-Xv. SDH Dung lng ring X Dung lng o
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VC-11 VC-12 VC-2 VC-3 VC-4

1.600 Kbit/s 2.176 Kbit/s 6.784 Kbit/s 48.384 Kbit/s 149.760 Kbit/s

1 64 1 64 1 64 1 256 1 256

1.600 102.400 Kbit/s 2.176 139.264 Kbit/s 6.784 434.176 Kbit/s 48.384 12.386 Kbit/s 149.760 38.338.560 Kbit/s

Ghp chui o (VCAT) l mt gii php cho php tng bng thng trn mt n v VC-n. nt ngun MSSP VCAT to ra mt ti trng tng ng vi X ln n v VC-n (Xem Bng 2.2). Vic thit lp X container c hiu l mt nhm container o (VCG) v mi VC l mt phn t ca VCG. Tt c cc phn t VC c gi mt cch c lp n nt ch MSSP. ch n, tt c VC-n c sp xp theo ch s c cp bi byte H4 hoc byte V5, sau cng l phn phi n client. Chnh lch tr gia cc phn t VCG l c kh nng, chng c truyn ring bit v theo cc ng i c tr khc nhau. V vy, MSSP ch s b nhng khong tr khc nhau trc khi rp li vo ti v phn phi dch v. Ghp chui o ch c dng cc nt bin v tng thch vi mng SDH trc , mc d chng khng h tr ghp. thu c li ch ny, nhng container ring bit nn c truyn theo nhng ng khc nhau trn mng. Nu mt kt ni hoc mt nt hng th ch mt phn kt ni b nh hng. y cng l phng php cung cp mt dch v c kh nng phc hi.

Hnh 2.8: Ghp chui o VC-4-7v. * Phn phi v phc hi ti trng Vic phn phi ni dung ca container ti trng lin k C-n-Xc, mt s th t duy nht SQ (Sequence Number) c gn vo mi VC-n thnh vin ca VCG bi NMS (Network Management System). SQ xc nh th t m cc byte c phn phi, Gi tr c gn cho SQ trong mt VCG kch thc X s t 0 ti (X-1).

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Hnh 2.9: Phn phi ca C-4-4c. Mi VC-n trong VCG s c truyn ring bit qua mng, ng i ca cc VC-n khc nhau dn n tr ng truyn khc nhau gia cc VC-n. Do , th t ca cc VC-n n s thay i. Ti trm ch, cc VC-n ny phi c b tr trc khi khi phc li VC-n-Xv. pht hin c tr, ch th a khung MFI (Multi-Frame Indicator) c nh ngha. Ti pha pht, MFI ca tt c thnh vin thuc mt VCG u bng nhau v tng sau mi khung. Ti pha thu, MFI c s dng tp hp li ti trng cho tt c cc thnh vin trong nhm. tr c th c xc nh bng cch so snh cc gi tr MFI ti pha thu. Qu trnh x l ti trm ch phi b c khong tr ti thiu 125 s. MFI c xem l mt b m v bt u li bng 0 nu n b trn. Ti trm ch, cc VC-n phi c b tr, sp xp v tp hp li khi phc li khi ti trng ban u.

Hnh 2.10: Minh ha vic khi phc li VC-4-4v. (a) Cc thnh vin ca VCG khi n pha ch c tr khc nhau. (b) Cc thnh vin sau khi qua cc b m b tr s dng thng tin MFI. (c) C-n-4c sau khi xp th t, s dng thng tin SQ.

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Hnh 2.11: Qu trnh phn phi v phc hi VC-3-4v * VCAT ca VC-3/4 Mi VC-3/4 c mo u tuyn ring. Hnh 1.13 trnh by cu trc a khung VC3/4-Xv. Byte H4 ca VC-3/4 c dng ch th th t SQ v ch th a khung MFI. Bng 2.3: Trnh by dung lng ti trng ca cc VC-3/4-Xv. VC-n-Xv (X = 1256) VC-4-Xv VC-3-Xv VC-n VC-4 VC-3 p 260 84 Dung lng ti trng X*149.760 Kbit/s X*48.384 Kbit/s

125s

125s 125s

Hnh 2.12: Cu trc khung VC-3/4-Xv


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phc v cho vic b tr trm ch, pha ngun sp xp cc VC-3/4 li thnh a khung. Mt a khung tng VCAT tc 512 ms c s dng b tr trong khong t 125 s n 256 ms. a khung tng gm 256 a khung v mi a khung gm 16 khung. Ch th a khung gm hai phn. Phn th nht s dng bit [58] ca byte H4 ch th a khung (MFI-1). MFI-1 ny tng mt n v sau mi khung v c gi tr t 0 ti 15. Phn th hai l ch th a khung 8 bit (MFI-2) s dng cc bit [14] ca byte H4 thuc khung 0 (MFI-1=0) s l cc bit [14] ca MFI-2 v thuc khung 1 (MFI-1=1) s l cc bit [58] ca MFI-2 (bng 1.2). MFI-2 tng ln 1 n v sau mi 16 khung (1 a khung) v c gi tr t 0 ti 255. Kt qu l a khung tng gm 4096 khung v di 512 ms (hnh 2.13). Ch th s th t SQ nhn bit th t cc VC-3/4 ring l ca VC-3/4-Xv. Mi VC-3/4 ring l ca VC-3/4-Xv c mt s th t c nh duy nht trong khong t 0 ti (X-1) (hnh 1.8). VC-3/4 truyn trong trong cc khe thi gian 1, (X+1), (2X+1) ca VC-3/4-Xc s c s th t l 0, VC-3/4 truyn trong cc khe thi gian 2, (X+2), (2X+2).ca VC-3/4-Xc s c s th t l 1, vv.. VC-3/4 truyn trong cc khe thi gian X, 2X, 3X.ca VC-3/4-Xc s c s th t l (X-1). Gi tr ca SQ phi do NMS thit lp. S th t SQ 8-bit (cho gi tr ca X ln ti 256) s dng cc bit [1 4] ca byte H4 thuc khung 14 (MFI-1 = 14) s l cc bit [14] ca SQ v thuc khung 15 (MFI-1 = 15) s l cc bit [58] ca SQ (bng 2.4).

Hnh 2.13 Cu trc a khung tng VC-3/4-Xv. Bng 2.4: Ch th th t v a khung trong byte
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* VCAT ca VC-1/2 Mi VC-1/2 c mt mo u ring. Cu trc khung cng tng t nh VC-3/4Xv c trnh by trong hnh 1.16.

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500s

500s 500s

Hnh 2.14: Cu trc a khung VC-1/2-Xv. Bng 2.5: Trnh by dung lng ti trng ca VC-1/2Xv. Gi tr ca X b gii VC-12 34 X*2.176 Kbit/s hn t 1 ti VC-11 25 X*1.600 Kbit/s 64 bi v khng th sp xp nhiu hn 63 VC-11 hoc VC-12 vo mt VC-4 v do trng SQ b gii hn v c 6 bit. Bit th 2 ca byte K4 trong VC-1/2 POH c s dng mang thng tin v ch th th t SQ ca VC-1/2 v ch th a khung MFI. Cc bit th 2 thuc byte K4 ca mt a khung (gm 32 khung) s hnh thnh mt chui 32 bit c sp xp nh trong Hnh 1.17. Chui bit ny lp li sau mi 16ms (32bit x 500s). Cc bit [15] l trng ch th a khung MFI. Vi 5 bit MFI n cho php tr ln ti 512ms , bng 32 ln di a khung (32 x 16ms). Cc bit [611] l trng ch th th t SQ. 21 bit cn li c dng d tr cho tng lai c thit lp bng 0. VC-m-Xv (X = 164) VC-12-Xv VC-11-Xv VC-m p Dung lng ti trng

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MFI l mt b m khung, tng ln mt sau mi khung. Ch th s th t SQ nhn bit th t cc VC-1/2 ring l ca VC-1/2-Xv. Mi VC-1/2 ring l ca VC-1/2Xv c mt s th t c nh duy nht trong khong t 0 ti (X-1) (Hnh 2.16). R : bit d tr c thit lp bng 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 3 1 32

MFI

SQ

..

Hnh 2.15: Ch th th t v a khung trong chui 32 bit (bit th 2 ca byte K4).

Hnh 2.16: Cu trc a khung tng VC-1/2-Xv. 2.4.3 So snh ghp chui o v kt chui lin k S khc nhau gia hai phng thc ghp chui l cch thc truyn ti cc VC gia cc u cui. Vi ghp chui lin k khi ti trng cn truyn c sp xp vo cc container ph hp ri truyn, do yu cu chc nng ghp chui ti mi phn t mng. i vi ghp chui o, khi ti trng c chia nh v sp xp vo cc VC-n ring l ri c truyn i v c ti kt hp ti u cui ca tuyn truyn. Do ch yu cu chc nng ghp chui ti u cui ca tuyn (hnh 2.17).

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Hnh 2.17: So snh hai phng thc Hn na, phng thc ghp chui o cho hiu sut truyn cao hn phng thc ghp chui lin k nh minh ha trong bng 2.6 . Bng 2.6 : So snh hiu sut hai phng thc Dch v Ethernet Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet Fiber Channel ATM DVB ESCON Tc bit 10 Mbit/s 100 Mbit/s 1000 Mbit/s 1700 Mbit/s 25 Mbit/s 270 Mbit/s 160 Mbit/s Ghp chui lin k VC-3 (20%) VC-4 (67%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-4-16c (42%) VC-3 (50%) VC-4-4c (37%) VC-4-4c (26%) Ghp chui o VC-11-7v (89%) VC-3-2v (99%) VC-4-7v (95%) VC-4-12v (90%) VC-11-16v (98%) VC-3-6v (93%) VC-3-4v (83%)

2.5 C ch iu chnh dung lng tuyn LCAS Nh c trnh by trn, ghp chui o m rng dung lng ti trng truyn qua mng SDH. Mt khc, ghp o cung cp tnh mm do trong vic lm cho kch thc container c ghp chui ph hp vi phn ln bng thng ca tn hiu khch hng. Tuy nhin, mt s ng dng yu cu bng thng truyn s thay i theo thi gian. Hn na, nu mt VC-n thuc VCG b li, ton b VCG s b li. LCAS (Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme) c thit k gii quyt vn ny. LCAS l phn m rng ca VCAT c nh ngha bi ITU-T khuyn ngh G.7042. LCAS l mt giao thc bo hiu thc hin trao i bn tin gia hai im kt cui VC-n xc nh s lng ti ghp chui. ng vi yu cu ca ngi s dng,
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s lng ti ghp chui c th tng/gim ph hp vi dung lng, lu lng trao i. LCAS cn cung cp kh nng tm thi loi b thnh vin khi b li. 2.5.1 Gi iu khin: LCAS hot ng da trn vic trao i gi iu khin gia u pht v u thu. Nhng gi iu khin c gi lin tc, ngay c khi khng c thay i trong thng tin m n cha. Mi gi iu khin m t trng thi ca thnh vin trong gi iu khin k tip. Nhng thay i c gi ti pha nhn c th chuyn ti mt cu hnh mi ngay khi n ti v c xc nhn.
Trong hng i :

Trng ch th a khung (MFI Multi Frame Indicator). Trng ch th s th t (SQ Sequence Number). Trng iu khin (CTRL - Control). Bit nhn dng nhm (GID - Group Identification). Trng trng thi thnh vin (MST Member Status). Bit xc nhn thay i th t ( RS-Ack : Re-Sequence Acknowledge).

Trong hng v :

Ch : cc gi iu khin ca tt c thnh vin thuc mt VCG cha MST v RS-Ack ging nhau. c hai hng: - Trng CRC. - Nhng bit khng c s dng c d tr v s c thit lp bng 0. * Trng ch th a khung MFI Ti pha ngun gi tr MFI ca tt c cc thnh vin trong nhm ghp chui o VCG l bng nhau v tng sau mi khung. Ti pha ch gi tr MFI phi c s dng ng b li tt c cc khung container thnh vin ca mt VCG trc khi qu trnh khi phc li khung container ti trng gc C-n-Xc c thc hin. MFI c s dng xc nh s khc nhau v tr lan truyn ca cc thnh vin ring l thuc mt VCG gy ra bi qu trnh nh tuyn khc nhau thng qua mng. * Trng ch th th t SQ Cc thnh vin ca VCG c gn mt s th t SQ duy nht bng qu trnh LCAS ti pha ngun. Ch rng iu ny khc vi VCAT vi SQ c cung cp bi NMS. * Trng iu khin CTRL s dng truyn trng thi ca mi thnh vin t pha ngun n pha ch. Thng tin trng thi c s dng ng b ha pha ch vi pha ngun v cung

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cp trng thi ca mi thnh vin ring l trong mt nhm (bng 2.7). Vo thi im ban u ca mt VCG, tt c thnh vin s gi m CTRL = IDLE. Bng 2.7: Cc t m iu khin Gi tr 0000 0001 0010 0011 1111 0101 M FIXED ADD NORM EOS IDLE DNU ngha Bng thng c nh v khng s dng LCAS. Thnh vin chun b c thm vo VCG. Truyn ti bnh thng Thnh vin c s th t cao nht v truyn bnh thng. Thnh vin ny khng thuc nhm hoc sp b loi b. Khng s dng (ti trng), pha thu nhn bit li.

* Bit ch th nhm GID Dng nhn dng VCG. Tt c thnh vin thuc mt VCG s c cng gi tr GID trong nhng khung vi cng gi tr MFI. Pha ch s dng bit GID xc nh xem cc thnh vin n c cng mt trm ngun hay khng. Ni dung ca bit GID l gi ngu nhin s dng mu 215-1. * Trng CRC c s dng bo v mi gi iu khin. Thc hin kim tra CRC trn mi gi iu khin sau khi c nhn v gi s b loi b nu kim tra b li. * MST c s dng bo co trng thi ca tt c cc thnh vin trong mt VCG v c gi t pha ch ti pha ngun. MST s dng 1 bit vi hai trng thi OK=0 v FAIL=1. Khi bt u mt VCG, tt c thnh vin gi MST=FAIL. Cc thnh vin ti pha ch m khng phi l mt thnh vin ca mt VCG (IDLE) c c thit lp trng thi FAIL. * RS-Ack Bt k thay i no lin quan s th t, pha ch nhn c v gi v pha pht thng qua o bit RS-Ack nhm thng bo chp nhn thay i. Bit RS-Ack ch c th b o sau khi nh gi trng thi ca tt c thnh vin. Vic o bit RS-Ack s cng nhn gi tr MST ca a khung trc. Nu nh vic o RS-Ack khng c pht hin ti pha ngun, vic ng b ha gia pha ngun v ch c thc hin bng cch s dng b m thi gian ch RS-Ack. B m ny bt u khi c s thay i s th t ca cc thnh vin trong mt VCG. 2.5.2 Cc chc nng chnh ca LCAS * Thm thnh vin (tng dung lng) Cc thnh vin thm vo m cha phi l mt phn ca VCG s truyn SQ = (max) v m CTRL l IDLE ti pha ngun v MST = FAIL ti pha ch. thng
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bo cho pha ngun bit sp thm thnh vin, NMS gi lnh ADD. Khi mt thnh vin c thm vo VCG, n s lun c gn mt s th t ln hn s th t cao nht hin ti (c t m CTRL=EOS hoc DNU nu c li mng). Sau lnh ADD thnh vin tr li MST=OK u tin s c ch nh s th t cao nht (tip theo s th t cao nht hin ti) v i m CTRL thnh EOS ng thi thnh vin c s th t cao nht hin ti thay m CTRL thnh NORM (hoc vn gi DNU). Trong trng hp thm nhiu thnh vin (v d x thnh vin) v nhn c ng thi tr li MST = OK, vic ch nh s th t c thc hin mt cch ty , min l chng to thnh mt dy x s th t tip theo s th t cao nht hin ti. T m CTRL ca thnh vin cao nht hin ti s chuyn thnh NORM, ng thi t m CTRL ca thnh vin mi cao nht c thay i thnh EOS, CTRL ca tt c cc thnh vin mi cn li c thit lp bng NORM. Ch l khi CTRL = EOS/NORM cng vi gi tr SQ c gi i bi thnh vin mi c thm vo, qu trnh LCAS pha ngun s ngng nh gi thng tin MST cho ti khi pha ch thng bo v s thay i trong SQ bi bit o RS-Ack. Bc cui cng l thm vng ti trng ca thnh vin mi vo container ti trng ca VCG. Khung container u tin cha s liu ti trng cho thnh vin mi s l khung container ngay sau bit cui cng ca khung cha bn tin NORM/EOS.

Hnh 2.18: Thm hai thnh vin * Xa thnh vin (gim dung lng) Khi cc thnh vin b xa khi VCG, cc s th t v trng thi c ch nh li.

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Hnh 2.19: Qu trnh loi b thnh vin th 4 v 5 trong VCG c kch thc n=5. (1) Nu thnh vin b xa c s SQ cao nht trong VCG v CTRL = EOS, thnh vin c s SQ cao th hai s i m CTRL = EOS ng thi gi iu khin ca thnh vin b xa s gi m IDLE. (2) Nu thnh vin b xa c s SQ cao nht trong VCG v CTRL =DNU, s th t v trng CTRL ca nhng thnh vin khc trong nhm khng thay i. (3) Nu thnh vin b xa khng c s SQ cao nht, th cc thnh vin khc c s SQ trong khong t thnh vin b xa ti s SQ cao nht s cp nht s SQ trong cc gi iu khin ca chng ng thi m CTRL ca thnh vin b xa b i t m NORM/DNU thnh IDLE. Ch rng khi CTRL = IDLE c gi cng vi s thay i SQ, qu trnh LCAS pha ngun s ngng nh gi thng tin MST cho ti khi pha ch thng bo v s thay i trong SQ bi bit o RS-Ack. Sau khi qu trnh pha ch pht hin v x l loi b thnh vin, thnh vin c th b xa ti pha ch. Khi thnh vin b xa gi i t m iu khin IDLE, khung container cui cng ca thnh vin ny cn cha s liu ti trng l khung cha bit cui cng ca gi iu khin.

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* Tm loi b thnh vin (gim dung lng)

Hnh 2.20: Tm thi loi b thnh vin cui Khi mt thnh vin gi m NORM /EOS trong trng CTRL b li trong mng, pha ch pht hin v s gi MST=FAIL cho thnh vin . Pha ngun s hoc l thay m NORM thnh m DNU, hoc l thay m EOS thnh m DNU ng thi thnh vin ngay trc s gi EOS trong trng CTRL. Bc cui cng ca vic loi b tm thi thnh vin l loi b vng ti trng ca thnh vin khi VCG. Khung container cui cng cha ti trng ca thnh vin b loi b l khung cha bit cui cng ca gi iu khin cha t m DNU. Khung tip theo khung cui cng s cha ton bit 0 trong vng ti trng. Khi khuyt im c loi b, pha ch s gi MST = OK cho thnh vin . Pha ngun s hoc l thay m DNU bng m NORM nu thnh vin khng c s SQ ln nht, hoc l thay m DNU bng m EOS ng thi thay m EOS ca thnh vin ngay trc bng m NORM. Bc cui cng sau khi khi phc l bt u s dng vng ti trng ca thnh vin . Khung container u tin cha s liu ti trng cho thnh vin ny l khung ngay sau khung cha bit cui cng ca gi iu khin c t m NORM/EOS u tin cho thnh vin . 2.6 Kt lun: SDH th h sau (NG-SDH) l mt c ch truyn ti cho php tn ti ng thi cc dch v truyn thng v cc dch v mi trn cng mt mng m khng lm nh hng ln nhau. Cc giao thc quan trng c s dng trong SDH th h sau phc v cho vic truyn ti s liu qua mng SDH bao gm: Giao thc to khung chung (GFP), ghp chui o (VCAT) v c ch iu chnh dung lng tuyn (LCAS). GFP l k thut sp xp d liu c tc bit khng i v thay i vo khung ng b SDH. GFP h tr nhiu giao thc c s dng trong mng LAN v SAN. C hai loi thch ng tn hiu client c nh ngha cho GFP: GFP-F v GFP-T. Ghp chui l mt qu trnh tp hp bng thng ca X container (C-i) vo mt container ln hn. Bng thng ln hn nn s tt cho vic truyn cc ti trng
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(payload) ln, yu cu mt container ln hn VC-4, nhng n cng c kh nng ghp chui cc container dung lng thp nh VC-11, VC-12 hay VC-2. LCAS l phn m rng ca VCAT c nh ngha bi ITU-T khuyn ngh G.7042. LCAS l mt giao thc bo hiu thc hin trao i bn tin gia hai im kt cui VC-n xc nh s lng ti kt chui. ng vi yu cu ca ngi s dng, s lng ti ghp chui c th tng/gim ph hp vi dung lng lu lng trao i. LCAS cn cung cp kh nng tm thi loi b thnh vin khi b li. Trn y, l nhng giao thc lm nn tng chng ta tip thu, nm bt cng ngh ca cc thit b NG-SDH.

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