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fusion of powers

responsible government

2010

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Roskin et al., 2010: 240

Bundesversammlung
1,244

598
5%

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separation of powers

Roskin et al., 2010Linz


1994

100435

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subcommittee10173

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1995
36%
200738.3%200847.8%

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pagelayout/committees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/committees_home.htm

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Congressional Budget Office


Congressional Accountability OfceCongressional
Research Service

going for public

Maurice Duverger1980(1)
(2)(3)
Duverger

1958
1962

1986

cohabitation19931995

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200125

1988
481

37

38

443

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2007

2008

6
8

49

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2011

Elgie and Griggs, 2000;


Samuels and Shugart, 2010

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1999

2000

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Disraeli

56

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20002008
party leadershiplegislative
leadership

leadership models

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2008

1958
1997

2000

Single NonTransferable Vote System

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2005

2262221010

73%

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Duverger, Maurice. 1980. "A New Political System Model: Semi-Presidential
Government." European Journal of Political Research 8: 165-87.
Elgie, Robert and Steven Griggs. 2000. French Politics: Debates and
Controversies. London and New York: Routledge.
Linz, Juan J. 1994. "Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy: Does it Make
a Difference?" in Juan J. Linz and Arturo Valenzuela eds. The Failure of
Presidential Democracy: Comparative Perspectives I: 3-87. Baltimore: The
Johns Hopkins University Press.
Roskin, Michael G. et al. 2010. Political Science: an Introduction. 11th edition.
New York: Longman.
Samuels, David, and Matthew Shugart. 2010. Presidents, Prime Ministers and
Political Parties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


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Panebianco, 1988

2004
2008a

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personal vote

Cain,FerejohnandFiorina,1987;CareyandShugart,
1995

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ISBN 978-957-11-6490-8
1. 2. 3.
576.88

100023405

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