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MIMO Channel capacity in Rayleigh fading

Tm hiu v xy dng cng thc tnh dung lng knh


V nh Tin, o Vn Dng, Nguyn Th Thanh H, Nguyn H Nam,Triu nh Nguyn, L Th Thy Lp D09VT5,C s o to 1,Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng H ng ,H Ni, Vit Nam Email:dinhtien8910@gmail.com

I.

GII THIU

Ngy nay cc h thng SISO(Single-Input-Single-Output) mt u vo mt u ra khng th p ng c ht cc nhu cu v tc truyn tin cng nh dung lng ng truyn. V vy h qu tt yu l phi pht trin mt h thng mi p ng c tc truyn tin cng nh dung lng knh nhng ng thi cng phi m bo v bng thng.H thng MIMO(Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) nhiu u vo nhiu u ra c pht trin p ng c cc yu cu m hin nay h thng SISO khng cn p ng c na.H thng MIMO ra i cng chu s tc ng ca nhiu fading.Do phn ny chng ta s tm hiu v xy dng cng thc tnh dung lng knh MIMO c nhiu rayleigh fading phng.

II TM HIU CHUNG V KNH MIMO C NHIU RAYLEIGH FADING PHNG


A. Khi nim v knh MIMO MIMO l h thng knh vi nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu truyn v nhn d liu [1]

Hnh 1:H thng MIMO

Thng tin chuyn qua mt knh ri rc khng tng quan c coi l rayleigh fading nhiu u vo nhiu u ra (MIMO),ni m c truyn v nhn u khng bit v thng tin trng thi knh ngoi tr cc s liu thng k fading.Mt m hnh knh v hng c pht trin do s vng mt ca thng tin trong giai on fading rayleigh khng kt hp,khi dung lng knh ln nht c th(supremum) tng ng vi s lng anten nhn ti bt k t l tn hiu trn nhiu SNR no v s dng ti u ha Lagrage gii quyt cc bi ton lin quan[2]. t c dung lng th u vo cn phi c s phn b ri rc ca hu hn cc im v nht thit phi c mt im nm ti gc ta .Tim cn dung lng l 2 ln logarit khi u vo l ln. tnh ton dung lng trong cu hnh nhiu anten ti bt k t s SNR no th chng ta s dng iu kin ti u Kuhn-Tucker.

B u im v nhc im ca knh MIMO B.1 u im u im ca h thng MIMO l gia tng tc v m rng tm ph sng trn cng mt bng thng ng thi gim chi ph truyn ti. Tng tc phn tp ca knh truyn fading do gim c xc sut li BER hay FER Tng dung lng ca knh truyn B.2 Nhc im Gii thut x l tn hiu phc tp. ..

III

M HNH KNH

Mi quan h gia u vo v u ra ca mt knh MIMO c biu din bng biu thc sau [2]: Y=HX+N (1)

Hnh 2 :M hnh knh MIMO

Khi u ra Y l ma trn nr 1 knh ma trn H l nr nt , u vo X l ma trn nt 1 v nhiu N c gi nh l khng c ngha phc Gausian.Mi phn t cu H l hij (i=1 nr ,j=1 nt ) v N gi nh l bin khng nm trn ng trn phc Gausian ngu nhin vi mt phng sai n v trong mi kch thc .K hiu X= X v Y= Y biu th bin ngu nhin v hng theo tin clit v x,y l mi i din cho thc hin X,Y. u vo l mt cng sut trung bnh b gii hn bi [2]:

nr v nt l ch s truyn v nhn ca anten tng ng.

p X ( x)dx P

Hng s euler:
= e y log ydy 0,5772
0

(...) v (...) l hm gama v psi tng ng.

IV CN TRN DUNG LNG


A Lng thng tin tng h Hm mt xc sut c iu kin u ra(pdf) ca knh khng kt hp MIMO rayleigh fading vi u thu khng tng quan nr c cho bi [2]:
y2 ] 2(1 + x 2 ) P(Y X ) ( y x ) = nr 1 2 (nr )(1 + x 2 ) nr y 2 nr 1 exp[-

(2)

Lng tin tng h gia u vo v u ra ca knh :


1 (nr ) 1 I ( X ; Y ) = pY ( y ) log pY ( y )dy E x (log(1 + x 2 )) log[ ] + (nr ) ( nr ) nr 2 2 2 0

(3)

Lng tin tng h ny c th s dng tnh tc truyn dn cho mt phn b u vo p X ( x) .i vi dung lng knh th (3) cn c ti a trn tt c cc phn b u vo. B Dung lng ln nht c thn t c(Supremum)
2 Ti a ha (3) tun theo rng buc p X ( x)dx = 1 v x p X ( x)dx = P p dng 0 0

cho h thng mt u vo hoc l pdf ca SISO hay l cc h thng MIMO nhng tng i kh khn. khc phc kh khn ny chng chng ta p dng k thut ti u ha tng t cho SISO khng kt hp rayleigh fading cc knh ti u ha lng tin tng h trong (3). Xc nh cc rng buc sau y pY ( y )dy = 1 v
0

y
0

pY ( y )dy = 2nr (1 + P ) ,

p
0

( y ) log ydy =

1 ( + ( nr ) + log 2) 2

(4)

ti u ha (3) thi s dng = Ex {log(+ x 2 )}

Hn ch th hai l nng lng trung bnh c ngha l bnh phng ca y Y c coi l nng lng gy ra ti u ra bi u vo, s knh tng thm v nhiu xut hin . S dng bin Lagrage L v cc h s nhn 1 , 2 v 3 chng ta xc nh c[2] :
1 L = I ( X ; Y ) + 1[ pY ( y )dy 1] + 2 [ y pY ( y )dy 2nr (1 + P) + 3[ pY ( y ) log ydy ( + (nr ) + log 2)] 2 0 0 0
2

(5) Gii (5) vi pY ( y ) ta c gi tr ti u ca hm pdf : (6) Lng thng tin tng h (5) v cc bin lagrage .S dng cc rng buc nh ngha trn u ra chng ta c c pdf u ra ti u ha (5):t
y 2 1 y2 exp[ ] vi >0 (7) nr (1 + P ) ( ) 2nr (1 + P ) Khi = 2 nr (1 + p) v 2 <0 mt biu thc cho nh ngha trn c cho
pY ( y ) = pY ( y ) = exp[(1 1) + 2 y 2 + 3 log y ]

bi:
= log{

nr (1 + p) } + ( ) (nr )

(8)

Ta thay pY ( y ) t (7) v t (8) vo (3) chng ta c c dung lng knh khng kt hp[2] : C ( ) = G ( ) G (nr ) (bps) (9) Khi G ( ) = log ( ) + (1 ( )) v 0 log(1 + P) cn trn c tnh theo bt dng thc Jensen.Dung lng knh C ( ) l mt hm n iu gim ca t C ( ) = 1 ( ) m n (..) l o hm o hm cp n ca (.) mt khc trong (8) l mt hm n iu gim ca ,do ( ) = + 1 ( ) nen chng ta c gi tr max ca (9)[2]:
Csup = C ( s ) = G ( s ) G (nr ) (bps) 1

(10) Vi =0 m tng ng s c cho bi :


( s ) log( s ) = (nr ) log[nr (1 + P )]

(11) (12)

Gi tr max ca pY ( y ) trong (9) c cho bi :


pY ( y ) = p X ( x) pY X ( y x )dx =
0

y 2 1 y2 exp[ ] nr (1 + P ) ( ) 2nr (1 + P )

Tch phn (12) c dng K ( s, t ) f (t )dt = g ( s) l mt phng trnh tch phn


a

Fredholm loi mt .K(s,t) phn tch trong y trn ton b mt phng cho bt k nr .Tuy nhin pha bn phi ca ca (12) v o hm ca n i vi y l v hn khi y 0 cho bt k nr v (0,1) .Do (12) khng a ra mt nghim lin tc p X ( x) m trong Csup trong (10) t c .iu ny dn chng ta tm thy mt u vo ri rc phn b dng p X ( x) = pi ( x xi )
i =1 N

m pi v xi c c trong qu trnh gii g ( s ) = pi K ( s, ti ) .Nu phng php


i =1

tn ti n s cung cp tt s ph thuc thp hn vo Csup .Cc dung lng ln nht c th t c trong (10)c th coi l mt cn trn i vi dung lng knh MIMO fading rayleigh khng kt hp. Chng ta phn tch tim cn ca dung lng trong (11) khi P vi P trong (11) tin ti khi s 0 t
P=

lim e
s 0

s ( s )

.Khi s = 1 th:

1 exp[ (nr ) + log 2 + ] 1 2nr

(13)

Vi nr = 1 th cng sut u vo l 0 v khc 0 vi nr >1 .V vy s = 1 l khng hp l trong trng hp ny v s trong cng sut P = 0 c th tm c bng cch thay cc gi tr nr vo log s ( s ) = log(nr ) (nr ) Ta c mt kt qu cho s khi P tin ti th s 0 .T (11) ta nhn c : log s = ( s ) + log nr (1 + P ) (nr ) (14) Nhn c 2 v ca (14) vi s v s dng
1

lim
s 0

sl

log s = 0

lim (
s 0

) = 1

ta c s log n (1 + P) thay s vo (10) ta c[1] : r Csup log[log nr (1 + P )] (bps)

NG DNG CA H THNG MIMO TRONG VIN THNG

Khng gian k thut ghp knh lm cho ngi nhn rt phc tp nn MIMO thng c kt hp vi ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) hoc truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA (Orthogonal frequency division multiple access) iu ch ni m cc vn c to ra bi nhiu con ng knh c s l hiu qu[3] . Cng ngh MIMO cn c s dng trong h thng thng tin lin lc khng dy v nhiu ng dng khc.[1]

TI LIU THAM KHO [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIMO [2] Rasika R.perera,TonyPollock and Thushara D.Abhayapala Non-coherent Rayleigh fading MIMO channels, [3] citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.139..