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Petroleum Hydrocarbons (mostly H, C, bits of S, N, 0)

What is Petroleum?

Gas Natural Gas Condensate Liquids Oil, Crude oil Plastic Asphalt, Tar Solids Coal Kerogen- Insoluble in organic solvents Bitumen-Soluble

Liquid Volume: 1 oil barrel= 42 gallons =0.15 cubic meters (in Europe) Gas Volume: Thousand cubic feet of gas (Mcf) Million cubic feet of gas (MMcf) Billion cubic feet of gas (Bcf) Trillion cubic feet of gas (Tcf) Flow rates Barrels of oil per day (BOD) Thousand cubic feet of gas per day (McfD)

Natural Gas
Chains of 1 to 4 Carbons CH4 - Methane C2H6 - Ethane C3H8 - Propane C4H10 Butane Plus He, Ar, Kr, Radon, N2, O2, CO2, H2, H2S

Natural Gas
Paraffins (Alkanes) Saturated Chains



Propane Isomer

Energy Equivalence
Approx: 1 Barrel of Oil = 6000 Cubic Feet of Gas Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Methane Cool to -160oC Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propane (60%)+ Butane (40%) Compressed 250:1

Economics of Natural Gas

Abundant Cleanest of fossil fuels Hard to transport: need a pipeline or LNG facility

Crude Oil
Mix of hydrocarbons of different types 30% Paraffins- Chains 50 % Naphtenes- Single bond rings 15 % Aromatics Double bond rings 5 % Asphaltics- Include impurities (N, S, O)

C1 to C80 chains Millions of possible branched chains C1-C4 Gases C5-C14 Liquids >C15 Solid Waxy C5-C8 in gasoline

Naphetenes (Cycloparaffins)
Rings with single bonds Most common HC in crude oil (~50%) C5 - Cyclopentane C6 - Cyclohexane

Unsaturated rings Based on benzene High octane rating Concentrate in heavy fraction Carcinogenic



Kekules snake 1865

Average Crude 35 API

Paraffin Naphtene Aromatic Asphaltic Weight % 25% 50% 17% 8%

Heavy Hydrocarbons
Medium length chains (C11-C18) Thicker liquids Kerosene Diesel Long chains (C19- >40) Viscous to solid Motor oil Tar Asphaltics Impurities- O, N, S S 0.1 - 4% Pollution and Acid rain


Cracking of Hydrocarbon Chains distillery

250oF 370oF 500oF

Ten Carbon Chain



Boiling Point oC

Normal Paraffins
a lP ma f raf in s

Typical Crude 35o API Crude

Chemical Composition of Crude
Vol. % Gasoline (C5-C10) Kerosine (C11-C13) 27% 13% API 60 50 45 Density g/cm3 0.74 0.78 0.79 Viscosity millipoise 6 20 100

r No

% of molecular types

Naphtnenes (cycloparaffins)

s cs tic ati ma om aro Ar no the ph N, S, and O Na compounds

Diesel (C14-C18) 12% Heavy Gas Oil (C19-C25) Lubricating Oil (C26-C40) Residuum (>C40) 10% 20% 18%

30 10

0.85 1

500 >105

Ga s

m uu si d Re 40 l >C oi ng ati ic 0 25 br C4 -C Lu 2619 C lC oi sGa y 18 -C Hv 14 lC 3 C1 1C1 e Di

e in os er



in e

C4 -C 10

API Gravity
= (141.5/(Specific Gravity/Water@60oF))-131.4 10oAPI= Specific gravity of water Low API = High Density, high viscosity High API = Low Density, low viscosity

API Gravity
Condensate Light Crude Intermediate Heavy Extra Heavy >55o > 31.1o 31.1o 22.3o 10o - 22.3o <10o

West Texas Intermediate