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CHNG I : XU HNG PHT TRIN CNG NGH TRUYN TI QUANG

1.1. Xu hng pht trin ca cc dch v vin thng S bng n ca cc dch v trn mng Internet Trong hin ti v tng lai, nhu cu s dng cc dch v Internet cho nhng nhu cu v gii tr v thng mi ngy cng bng n. Cc trang web phc v cho cc nhu cu ny thng c kch thc ln, tch hp nhiu ti nguyn m thanh v hnh nh. Nhu cu giao lu hi tho qua mng ngy cng t ra nh mt nhu cu bc thit trong mt th gii m. Ni dung thng tin a dng v tch hp cao v c c tnh ring t trn mng dn n nhu cu v mt mng thng tin mang tnh bo mt cao. Nhng nhu cu ny thay i mt cch ton b v loi lu lng truyn dn trn h thng vin thng t nhu cu thoi l ch yu chuyn sang nhu cu v truyn s liu nn ko theo i hi v p ng nhu cu truyn dn cao hn. S tch hp dch v Ngi s dng yu cu c mt mng truyn ti c kh nng tch hp dch v. Tch hp dch v mang li cho ngi s dng nhiu li ch to ln nh kin trc mng n gin thit b u cui a tnh nng Kh nng di ng v chuyn vng Mt trong nhng xu th c nhn din sm nht chnh l tnh di ng ca khch hng khi s dng dch v. Cc dch v cung cp cho khch hng b gii hn trong mt phm vi di chuyn hp s c thay th bang nhng dch v c kh nng cung cp kt ni mng bt k u bt k khi no thm ch c khi khch hng ang di chuyn vi mt tc cao. Yu cu QoS theo nhiu mc khc nhau Ty theo mc ch ca ngi s dng m c u tin v QoS khc nhau. Do , ngi s dng ch phi chi tr cc ph mt mc hp l. C th phn chia thnh nhng loi dch v ng dng vi cc yu cu QoS sau. - Nhy cm vi tr v tn tht (video tng tc, tr chi trc tuyn.) - Nhy cm vi tr nhng tn tht va phi (thoi) - Nhy cm v tn tht nhng yu cu tr va phi (d liu tng tc ) - Yu cu i vi tr v tn tht u khng cao(truyn tp..) an ton cao Thng mi in t,giao dch trc tuyn nh ngn hng hay thanh ton trc tuyn. dung trn mng in thoi cng nh mng internet tim n nhiu nguy c b tm cng bi nhng tin tc nhm vo cc thanh ton kiu ny lm nh hng ti quyn li ca c nhn cng nh cc t trc ng ra thc hin cc giao dch ny nh vy nhu cu v mt mng c tnh an ton li c t ln hng u. Tnh linh hot,tin dng Nhn chung, cc khch hng thng i hi mt mng cung cp y cc loi hnh dch v m khng quan tm n phc tp ca cu hnh mng vn hnh. Tnh linh hot hi mng cung cp mt s dch v trong sut theo hng n nhng th mang tnh k thut ca mng i vi ngi s dng. C th t c iu ny bng cch nh ngha cc giao din truy nhp mc cao cng n cc tham s iu chnh v

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang vn hnh mng cng nhiu cng tt. Ch rng tnh trong sut l yu t quyt nh cho s chuyn i. Ngoi ra nh sn sut cng c cc nhu cu nht nh v bo dng v vn hnh, m rng v nng cp thit b Gi thnh Gi thnh l mt yu t kh quan trng trong xu hng s dng dch v. Gi ca cc dch v gim xung trn phm vi ton th gii khi m rng th trng vin thng. Tuy nhin cc dch v mi ang ni ln s chim ly nhng phn doanh thu gim xung ny. Qua nhng phn tch trn c th thy xu hng s dng dch v theo hng tang gi tr, tng tnh di ng, tng kh nng thch nghi gia cc mng, tng tnh bo mt tng tnh tng tc nhm gim chi ph Ngoi ra nhng yu cu ca nh cung cp dch v hay nh hng ca cc yu t chnh tr, x hi kinh t cng nh nhng tc ng khng nh n nh hng v tin trnh pht trin ca mng vin thng ni ring v mng NGN ni ring. Yu cu ca nh cung cp dch v lien quan n vn c th nh sau. - Gi c thng mi: Cc nh cung cp dch v cn to ra li nhun, do gi thnh s dng mng s xc nh im cn bng. - Kh nng m rng: Kh nng m rng cc dch v c cung cp ti khch hng - Qun l: Chc nng qun l thun tin cho nh cung cp dch v - tin cy v kh dng: Cc dch v cung cp n khch hng phi kh dng ti mi thi im. - C s h tn hin ti: Hot ng v u t ca nh cung cp dch v ph thuc vo c s h tng ca nh cung cp mng. Nu c s h tng hin ti ngho nn, cc nh cung cp dch v s kh c th cung cp c cc dch v mi. - T-p mng: C th nh hng ti cc phng thc cung cp dch v cho khch hng v d cc mng theo cu trc im im th kh c th cung cp cc dch v qung b - Tiu chun: Cc mng a truy cp v cc thit b phi tng thch vi nhau trn mng n bo kh nng cung cp dch v ti tn ni yu cu. iu ny ch c th thc hin khi c sn phm tun theo tiu chun. - Vn php l: Mi trng php l s gi vai tr chnh trong s pht trin ca mng vin thng theo hng cng ngh hin i dung lng ln cht lng cao khai thc n gin thun tin v mang li hiu qu kinh t cao. 1.2 Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang 1.2.1. S pht trin ca cu trc mng Theo quan nim pht trin gn y, con ngi mun tch hp mng truy nhp vi mng li v mng metro, c th l h tr iu khin kt ni t u n cui, nh vy cng c s phn b cc chc nng gia mng truy nhp v mng li/ th. Vic chuyn i sang mng thng tin trn c s gi v vic thu hp vai tr ca chuyn mch v tng i truyn thng cng h tr vic xa i ranh gii gia mng truy nhp v mng li.

Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang Bn xu hng mi c quan tm lien quan ti s pht trin ca mng truy nhp/li( metro) - Mng truyn ti quang ( trn c s WDM ) trong mng li c nh v dn m rng ra pha mng truy nhp v mng th (Metro) - Cng ngh trong mng truy nhp s pht trin da trn mng truy nhp c nh hin ti s dng cp ng v cp ng trc cung cp bng tn truy nhp Internet cao hn (tiu biu l xDSL). - Cc cng ngh trong mng truy nhp s h tr kh nng di ng: GPRS, UMTS, WLAN, . - H tr QoS. a) S pht trin ca mng li v mng th Si quang s chim u th trong mng li v mng th. C ti 99% mng li s dng cng ngh truyn ti quang. Ch c 1% cn li l s dng cc cng ngh viba v v tinh trong cc mi trng truyn dn c a hnh phc tp. D on trong 15 nm ti, s lng knh quang s tng ln t 40-80 knh ti 200 knh v tc mi knh s tng ln t 2,5-10Gbit/s ti 40-160Gbit/s song song vi s pht trin ca s knh th mng cn tng tnh phc tp v thng minh hn cc trc nng thc hin ti cc lp s tng ln v loi b cc giao thc trung gian. Do s pht trin, OTN s ko theo rt nhiu kin trc mc cao hn khi s dng SONET/SDH. S khc nhau chnh s sut hin t dng cng ngh chuyn mch c s dng :TDM cho SDH vi ghp bc sng cho OTN. Kin trc OTN bao gm phn li, metro v truy nhp tc cao. Lc u nhu cu qun l bng tn lp quang ch yu mi trng mng li, tuy nhin khi s lng khch hng v my ch trong mng truy nhp tng ln va thnh nt c chai cho truyn ti d liu, kh nng kt ni logic da trn mng mesh trong mng li s h tr thng qua topo vt l, gm c cc OADM trn c s SPRing v OXC da trn cu trc phc hi mesh. Khi nhu cu bng tn cho mng th v truy nhp tng ln, cc b OADM cng s c s dng.

Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang


IP

ATM

IP

IP

SONET/SDH

ATM

SONET/SDH

IP/NG-SDH

Quang/DWDM

Quang/DWDM

Quang/DWDM

Quang/DWDM

Hnh 1.1. Loi b ngn giao thc trung gian iu ny cho thy rng mng li v mng th s pht trin ch trn nn cng ngh IP v WDM. Kin trc mng th h mi s mang nhng u im ca lp mng IP tch hp trc tip trn lp truyn ti WDM. S kt hp ca IP trn WDM c th i theo nhiu hng khc nhau bng cch trin khai n gin ha cc ngn giao thc mng nh gi trn SDH, Gigabit Ethernet. Nguyn tc c bn cho vic tch hp kin trc IP/WDM l WDM c coi nh cng ngh ng trc v IP lin kt vi thit b WDM bin ca mng li. H tng quang s dn c chuyn i xut pht t cng ngh ATM/SDH. Cc topo khc nhau ca thit b WDM c th trin khai khu vc mng trc v th. Cc nh khai thc mng hin ti c th cng trin khai mng nh vy trong trng hp h tch hp mng ATM v SDH hin ti vi thit b DWDM bng cch s dng mng ng trc WDM ti lu lng ATM v SDH. - Phn mng ng trc: gm cc PoP IP li lien kt vi nhau qua mng ng trc WDM. Kch c topo mng ng trc WDM ph thuc vo khong cch gia cc PoP IP. i vi cc mng mesh v cc mng vng ring lien kt t cc h thng WDM im im c khong cch ln v suy hao ng k s ph bin hn trong khi vi nhng khong cch nh hn v cu trc tng t c th p dng phn mng th. - Phn mng th: Bao gm cc li Metro quang WDM vi cu trc mng vng ring chim u th v mng truy nhp Metro s dng PoP IP.PoP IP c th chia lm hai loi: + Mt phn bin s dng cho cc thit b IP ca khch hng + Mt phn li v truyn ti c s dng gom v truyn lu lng ti mng trc IP - Phn mng truy nhp: phc v cho cc khch hng chnh l cc doanh nghip, cng s v cc khch hng nh hn l cc h gia nh.
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 4

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang

IP PoP B nh tuyn CE

SDH

B nh tuyn PP

Pha khch hng


IP LAN

IP PoP

SDH ATM
B nh tuyn (P) nh cung cp IP

n ng trc WDM

IP PoP

T
B nh tuyn bin IP pha khch hng B nh tuyn bin IP pha nh cung cp

WDM OADM RING Metro core OXC


B nh tuyn PE

WDM OADM RING Metro core

Truy nhp Metro

IP PoP

T : B thch ng bc sng

B nh tuyn CE

Hnh 1.2. Mng Metro ca cc ISP trong tng lai Hnh 1.3 m t mng th ca cc ISP trong tng lai gm c phn li Metro quang WDM v truy nhp Metro IP. Phn IP bao gm c mt s PoP IP, ti khch hng c th truy nhp dch v mng IP v lu lng s c chuyn ti cc PoP khc hoc ln mng trc. khach hng c th truy nhp thun tin hn thng qua kt ni ca cc b nh tuyn IP bin pha nh cung cp v b nh tuyn IP bin pha khch hng. Cc thit b ATM v SDH trong hnh c trnh by mang tnh minh ha y cc thit b ca pha nh cung cp c th t cng hoc khng vi thit b khch hng ph thuc vo khong cch gia khch hng v nh cung cp, lu lng s dng ca ca khch hng v cch s dng. Li Metro quang WDM thng c mt mng vng ring c cc OADM c kh nng nh li cu hnh ng thi b sung cc tuyn WDM im im vi cc u cui c th ghp knh cho cc khch hng tim nng. OADM a ra cc giao din qun l chng c th nh li cu hnh t xa xen r cc bc sng (knh quang) cho cc mng vng ring thng qua cc card phn b v ghp chng li di dng cc tn hiu quang trong cc card ng truyn p ng ca mi hng mng vng ring.

Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang Trong trng hp c hai mng vng ring li metro WDM, khi s cn ti cc b u cho quang nh tuyn cc bc sng t mt mng vng ring sang mt mng khc h tr ton quang. Cc b u tro c gi thnh ln nht trong cc thit b mng thng tin quang v c kh nng thc hin cc nhim v b sung nh chuyn mch bc sng v chuyn i hng trm cng di dng ton quang m khng phi chuyn i EO. Mng Metro c th m rng ti LAN thng qua mng li quang. Truy nhp IP Metro c c b nh tuyn PE lien kt thng qua giao din quang vi cc b OADM. pha truy nhp ca cc mng th, Fast Ethernet s tr thnh ph bin. Tuy nhin phng php thch hp hn s dng Ethernet quang (tc 40 Gbits). Cc nh khai thc mng c th gii hn cc khch hng ca h ch vi mt vi Mbit/s tuy nhin cc ng truyn l hng Gigabit v n mt lc no kh nng cung cp cc dch v GigaEthernet s thng hin thc. trong khi ch i, cng ngh v giao thc s c chia s trn ng chuyn hin ti cho hng ngn cc khch hng khc nhau. l mt bc n gin trong qu trnh tin ti cc trung k Ethernet trn cc bc sng ring bit tt c c ghp knh trn mt i si quang s dng cng ngh DWDM. y l phng php cc ng truyn Ethernet im-im c th t c knh 10 Gbit/s vi bng tn c l khong 400 Gbit/s. Tt nhin loi mng nh th ny yu cu v chuyn mch rt ln mi u s quang Bng tn Ethernet quang c l ch b gii hn bi bng tn si quang (khong 25Tbit/s cho loi si hin nay) v vn thoi mi trong kh nng ca Laser v in t hin nay. Tuy nhin bng ngoi suy vi su hng ny chng ta c th ti mc trong khong 5-10 nm ti Trong trng hp cc b nh tuyn cung cp giao din lm vic bc sng 15xx nm truyn dn. s khng cn cc b chuyn tip trong cc b OADM. Trng hp thng thng khi cc b nh tuyn lm vic giao din quang 1310 nm v cn chuyn i bc sng thnh 15xx nm bng cc b chuyn i hai chiu. Cc b chuyn tip chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in ri li chuyn li thnh tn hiu quang. Mng din rng thng c mt phn mng thng tin quang WDM loi mesh. Tc truyn dn ln hn 10GBit/s mi bc sng c cung cp truy nhp ti bng tn Terabit gia cc mng th. Di cng sut cho khong cch ti 1000 km m khng cn trm lp vi cht lng n bo. Cc b khuch i quang c dung tng ton b tn hiu quang c ghp knh hoc ti to tch ri tng knh quang.
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 6

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang b) S pht chin ca mng truy nhp quang Nhu cu truy nhp bng rng ca khch hng tng rt nhanh. Mng ni dung s c trin khai c yu cu cao v tc cng nh yu cu cao v tc cng nh yu cu trao d liu hai chiu. cng ngh mng truy nhp quang c nhng bc pht trin mng p ng tt cc yu cu trn. Si quang ang thm nhp vo phn mng truy nhp. Tuy nhin c c FTTH hay FTTD vn cha th tr thnh hin thc. L do chnh l tnh nhy cm ca gi thnh khi trin khai trn thc t. Mng thng tin th ng (PON) s cung cp thng tin qua s quang m khng phi thc hin vic chuyn i in no c. Hin nay chng s ph hp hn khi thay th cp ng t tng i ti cc im truy nhp linh hot. T chng c th kt hp vi DSL hoc cp ng trc n tn thu bao. Kt hp cc cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau cho php xy dng mt h thng linh hot v t tn km nht. 1.2.2. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang Xu hng pht trin ca mng truyn ti quang trong tng lai l s kt hp ca nhiu cng ngh mi gip h tr vic truyn a dch v trn h thng m h tr mt cch tt nht nhu cu v cht lng ca tng dch v. gii quyt nhng kh khan trc mt ca mng truyn ti quang hin ti ang trin khai trn nn cng ngh SONET/SDH. Cc nh cung cp h tng mng truyn dn tm kim nhng gii php cng ngh tin tin xy dng th h mng mi, p ng c mi nhu cu ca ngi s dng trn mt h tng mng duy nht. Xu hng cng ngh c la chn p dng xy dng mng truyn ti quang th h mi ch yu tp trung vo cc loi cng ngh sau. NG-SONET/SDH DPT ASON Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet (GE) WDM IP Chuyn mch kt ni v iu khin MPLS/GMPLS,.

Cc cng ngh ny b xung nhau v cng h tr cc dch v s liu nh GbE (Gigabit Ethernet), FC (Fibre Channel : knh quang), FICON (Fiber Connection: Kt ni si), ESCON (Enterprise System Connection: h thng kt ni doanh nghp), IP
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 7

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang (Internet Protocol: Giao thc Internet), v PPP (Point Point Protocol : Giao thc im im). Vi mc phc tp gim v chi ph khai thc thp so vi phng thc truyn ti dch v ny qua SONET/SDH. Cc cng ngh trn c xy dng khc nhau c phm vi v phng thc m chng c s dng. Nh cung cp dch v mng c xu hng kt hp mt s loi cng ngh trn ng truyn ca h nhm tn dng nhng u im ca tng cng ngh v khc phc nhc im ca tng cng ngh khi chng ng ring nhm t c nhng mc tiu sau Gim chi ph u t xy dng mng Rt ngn thi gian p ng dch v cho khch hng D phng dung lng i vi s gia tng lu lng mng gi Tng li nhun t vic trin khai cc dch v mi Nng cao hiu sut khai thc mng

a) NG-SONET/SDH NG-SONET/SDH l cng ngh pht chin trn nn cng ngh SONET/SDH truyn thng. N kt tha mt s c tnh ca mng SDH th h c v loi b i nhng tnh cht khng ph hp vi nhu cu truyn ti cc dch v ngy nay, vn cung cp cc dch v TDM nh i vi SONET/SDH truyn thng trong khi vn x l truyn ti hiu qu i vi cc dch v truyn d liu trn cung mt h thng truyn ti. NG-SONET/SDH kt tha cc k thut nh chuyn mch bo v v mng vng ring phc hi qun l lung, gim st cht lng, bo dng t xa v cc chc nng gim st khc. NG-SDH pht trin cc k thut ghp knh mi kt hp cc dch v khch hng a giao thc thnh cc Container SONET/SDH ghp o hoc ghp chun. cng ngh ny c s dng thit lp cc MSPP TDM gi li hoc cung cp nh khung lung bit cho mt cu trc mng gi. im hp dn ca cng ngh ny l n c xy dng trn mt cng ngh c tn dng c nhng u im ca k thut c cng nh mt lng thit b trn ng truyn hin ti Cc gii php NG-SDH bao gm vic trin khai cc cng ngh chun ha vo thit b truyn ti da trn SDH. Cc tiu chun ny gm. - Th tc nh khung chung (GFP): ITU-T G.7041 Ghp chui o (VCAT): ITU-T G.707/783 C ch thch ng dung lng tuyn (VCAT) : ITU-T G.7042 RPR : IEEE 802.17

b) Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet l mt cng ngh c p dng ph bin cho mng cc b LAN (Local Area Network) trong mt thi gian di. Hu ht cc vn k thut cng nh
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 8

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang vn xy dng mng Ethernet u c chun ha bi tiu chun IEEE.802 ca vin k thut in v in T Hoa K (IEEE). xy dng mng MAN hin ti th cng ngh Ethernet ang chim u th nh mt s la trn hng u v n gin trong chc nng thc hin v chi ph xy dng thp. Hn na vic s dng Ethernet m ra c hi cho cc dch v a phng tin, do to ra mt li nhun khng l cho cc nh khai thc ng chuyn. Mc ch ca vic ng dng cng ngh Ethernet vo xy dng mng - Cung cp cc giao din cho cc loi hnh dch v ph thng, c kh nng cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v thoi v s liu, - Ethernet c xem nh mt c ch truyn ti c s, c kh nng truyn ti lu lng trn nhiu tin ch truyn dn khc nhau. Gigabit Ethernet l bc pht chin cao hn ca Ethernet. Ngoi c im ca cng ngh Ethernet truyn thng n b xung thm nhiu chc nng v cc tin ch mi nhm p ng yu cu a dng v loi hnh dch v, tc truyn ti, phng tin truyn dn. hin nay Gigabit Ethernet c chun ha trong cc tiu chun IEEE 802.3z, 802.3ae, 802.1w. Gigabit Ethernet cung cp cc kt ni c tc 100Mbit/s, 1Gbit/s hoc vi chc Gbit/s v h tr nhiu tin ch truyn dn vt l khc nhau nh cp ng, cp quang v cc phng php truyn ti bn song cng (half duplex) hoc song cng (full duplex). Cng ngh Gigabit Ethernet h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau cho nhiu nhu cu khc nhau nh kt ni im im ,ima im kt ni a im-a im in hnh l cc dch v ng kt ni Ethernet (ELS : Ethernet Line Service), dch v chuyn tip Ethernet (ERS : Ethernet Relay Service), dch v kt ni a im Ethernet ( EMS : Ethernet Multipoint Service). Mt trong s nhng ng dng quan trng tp hp chc nng ca nhiu loi hnh dch v kt ni l dch v mng LAN o VLAN (virtual LAN), dch v ny cho php cc c quan, doanh nghip, t chc kt ni mng t cac phm vi a tch ri thnh mt mng thng nht. Cng ngh Gigabit Ethernet c p dng h tr vi lp vt l thuc hai phm vi mng l - LAN PHY vi cc phng thc m ha n gin cho tn hiu truyn trn si quang (dark fiber) hoc bc sng (dack warelengh) vi khong cch ti 40 km trn si n mode. - WAN PHY vi lp con nh khung SONET/SDH (gi l h thng giao din din rng WIS) hot ng ti mt tc d liu tng thch vi tc ti ca
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 9

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang SONET OC 192c v SDH VC4-64c. c th hot ng qua bt k khong cch no kh thi trn mt mng WAN. Ethernet 10 Gbit/s c th c s dng thit lp cc mng mesh, chuyn mch, Ethernet, hng kt ni hoc loi b SONET/SDH (Si quang thng qua cc tuyn im-im trc tip s dng LAN PHY) hoc cc mng SONET/SDH (S dng WAM PHY), ngoi ra cn c th hot ng nh mt b tp hp cc kt ni Ethernet 1 Gbit/s. Li th ca Ethernet l cng ngh ny c s dng ph bin trn ton cu cc mng LAN. Nhn chung c khong 85% lu lng gi s liu bt u v kt thc di dng cc gi Ethernet. Hin nay trn ton th gii c khong 250 triu cng Ethernet. Do cc khch hng rt quen thuc v thy tin ch v d tip cn vi cc loi hnh dch v c cung cp bi cng ngh Ethernet. Ngoi ra cng ngh Ethernet cn c mt s li ch khc nh : Cc tc dch v phn cp rt rng. C th cung cp cc loi dch v im-im, im-a im. a im-a im. Tnh tng thch cao v kt ni ca Ethernet vi cng ngh mng hin ti. Chi ph xy dng mng thp. Thi gian p ng cung cp dch v cho khch hng nhanh. Cng ngh Ethernet c cc nh cung cp thit b mng th v cc nh

khai thc mng quan tm. Tuy nhin nhng lo ngi v kh nng cung cp cc loi hnh dch v v bao QoS cng nh tnh kh dng ( duy tr ) ca mng. L ro cn chnh cc nh cung cp dch v mng s dng cng ngh ny nh mt cng ngh ch o. Thc tin cho thy cng ngh Ethernet khng t c n nh khi thc thi trn h topo mng ch o ngy nay l mng vong ring. iu dn n s pht chin ca giao thc mi l MAC Ethernet (IEEE 802.17 RPR). Giao thc ny cho php s dng hiu qu bng thng ca mng vng ring, v chuyn mch bo v chuyn mch vng ring Thc tin cng cho thy topo mng mesh n bo kh nng phc hi mng nhanh hn topo mng vng ring, v chng thc hin cc c ch phc hi bo v dng n+1 thay v 1+1 trong mng vng ring. Do , xt v kin trc th cng ngh Ethernet trin khai trn topo mng mesh hiu qu hn trin khai trn topo mng vng ring. c) MPLS/GMPLS MPLS l mt giao thc cho php cung cp mt mt phng iu khin chung cho lp dch v nhm cung cp ng v nhanh cc dch v s liu. Chc nng c bn
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 10

Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang ca MPLS l cho php cc b nh tuyn/chuyn mch thit lp cc lung im-im (hay cn gi l lung chuyn mch nhn) vi cc c tnh QoS xc nh qua bt k mng loi gi hay t bo. Do vy cho php cc nh khai thc cung cp cc dch v hng kt ni (v d nh VPN cho doanh nghip), x l lu lng v qun l bng tn. Kh nng tng thch vi IP v ATM cho php thit lp cc chuyn mch IP/ATM kt hp nhm vo cc l do kinh t hay m ra mt chin lc loi b ATM. Cc tiu chun MPLS c nghin cu nhng chng vn cha c ban hnh. V d tiu chun MPLS h tr cc VPN lp 2 vn ch mi dng draft. VPN lp 2 lin kt hot ng (cc mng ring o) rt cn thit cho vic cung cp cc mng ring ti cc khch hng doanh nghip. MPLS c thit k cho cc dch v trong cc mng gi, nhng mt phin bn mi l GMPLS th li c pht trin cho cc mng ton quang, bao gm cc kt ni SONET/SDH, WDM v truyn trc tip trn si quang. GMPLS c kh nng cu hnh cc lung lu lng dng gi v c cc dng lu lng khc. GMPLS m ra kh nng t c s hp nht cc mi trng mng s liu truyn thng v quang. Tuy nhin, vn cn rt nhiu kh khn khi trin khai GMPLS trn cc mng lp t. d) Cng ngh IP S pht trin ca cng ngh IP gn lin vi s pht trin ca mng Internet. Rt nhiu vn ny sinh trong mng Internet cn c gii quyt. Sc mnh ca Internet c th thuyt phc c chnh ph hu ht cc nc, cc cng ty ln nn nhng d n lin quan n Internet c u t tho ng. Phin bn IPv4 v ang c s dng rng ri trn ton cu trong hn 20 nm qua nh thit k linh hot v hiu qu. Tuy vy vi s bng n cc dch v v cc thit b trn Internet hin nay IPv4 bc l nhng hn ch. Khng gian a ch 32 bit ca Ipv4 khng cn p ng c s pht trin Internet ton cu n nm 2020. IETF a ra phin bn mi l Ipv6. Giao thc IPv6 gi li nhiu c im lm nn thnh cng ca Ipv4: h tr phi kt ni, kh nng phn on, nh tuyn ngun... c im c bn ca IPv6 l : khng gian a ch ln hn Ipv4, phn cp a ch c m rng, nh dng header n gin, h tr vic t ng cu hnh v nh s li, tng thm cc ty chn, kh nng cht lng dch v QoS (mt kh nng mi c thm vo cho php nh a ch cc paket), kh nng bo mt v xc nhn. a ch IPv6 di 128 bit c dng nh danh cc giao din n v tp cc giao din. a ch IPv6 c gn cho cc giao din ch khng phi cho cc nt. Nu mi giao din thuc v mt nt n th bt k a ch Unicast ca giao
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Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang din ca nt c th c s dng nh l nh danh cho nt . Phin bn hin ti ca Ipv6 cho php ta m ho a ch Ipv4 vo a ch Ipv6. e) WDM Cng ngh truyn dn quang ghp knh theo bc sng WDM l mt cng ngh li quang cho php truyn ng thi nhiu tn hiu quang thng qua cc bc sng khc nhau trn mt si quang. iu ny cho php tng nng lc li thng tin ca si quang ln hng chc ti hng trm ln (cng ngh ny hin ti cho php xy dng cc h thng WDM c th li ng thi 160 bc sng quang, mi bc sng c th truyn thng tin vi tc 80Gbps). Hin nay cng ngh WDM c quan tm rt nhiu trong vic la chn gii php xy dng mng li quang cho mng th. Cc h thng WDM thng mi thng thng c cu hnh c th truyn ng thi ti 32 bc sng vi tc 10Gbit/s v c th trin khai vi cc cu trc tp mng ring, ring/mesh hoc mesh. Cng ngh WDM cho php xy dng cc cu trc mng xp chng s dng cc tp v cc kin trc khc nhau. V d, nh cung cp dch v c th s dng WDM mang lu lng TDM (nh thoi) trn SONET/SDH trn mt bc sng, trong khi vn trin khai mt cng ngh li d liu trn mt bc sng khc. IP tch hp trn WDM IP l giao thc c thit k xc nh a ch mng lp ba v t nh tuyn qua cc mng con vi cc cng ngh lp hai khc nhau. Pha trn tng IP tn ti rt nhiu cc dch v v ng dng da trn nn tng IP khc nhau. Trong khi , pha di lp IP th si quang s dng cng ngh WDM l cng ngh truyn dn ha hn nht, cho php dung lng mng v cng ln p ng c s pht trin ca Internet. Cng ngh ny s tr nn hp dn hn nhiu khi gi thnh ca cc h thng WDM gim i. Mt phng iu khin c nhim v truyn dn cc bn tin iu khin chuyn i cc thng tin sn c v c th tip cn c, tnh ton cng nh thit lp ng truyn dn d liu. Mt phng d liu c nhim v truyn dn lu lng ng dng v lu lng ngi s dng. Mt chc nng in hnh ca mt phng d liu l m v chuyn tip gi tin. IP khng phn tch mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin v do n i hi cc c ch QoS ti cc b nh tuyn phn bit cc bn tin iu khin v cc gi tin d liu. Mt h thng iu khin mng WDM truyn thng s dng mt knh iu khin ring bit, cn c gi l mng truyn thng d liu, truyn dn cc bn tin iu khin. Mt h thng qun l v iu khin mng WDM, theo TMN, c trin khai theo cu trc tp trung. Kt hp IP v WDM c ngha l, trong mt phng d
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Chng 1. Xu hng pht trin cng ngh truyn ti quang liu ta c th yu cu cc ti nguyn mng WDM chuyn tip lu lng IP mt cch hiu qu cn trong mt phng iu khin ta c th xy dng mt mt phng iu khin ng b. IP/WDM cng nh a ch tt c cc mc trung gian ca cc mng quang intra- v inter-WDM v cc mng IP. Cc ng lc thc y IP/WDM bao gm: - Cc mng quang WDM c th nh a ch lu lng Internet ang pht trin bng cch khai thc c s h tng si quang sn c. S dng cng ngh WDM c th tng mt cch ng k vic tn dng bng thng si quang. - Hu ht lu lng d liu qua cc mng l IP. Gn nh tt c cc ng dng d liu u cui ngi s dng u s dng IP. Lu lng thoi truyn thng cng c th ng gi nh cc k thut VoIP. - IP/WDM tha hng s mm do v kh nng thch ng m cc giao thc iu khin IP cho php. - IP/WDM c th t c hoc nhm vo s phn b bng thng ng theo nhu cu (hay gim st thi gian thc) trong cc mng quang. Bng cch pht trin t cc mng quang iu khin tp trung truyn thng sang mng t iu khin phn b, mng IP/WDM tch hp khng nhng gim thiu chi ph qun l mng m cn cung cp phn b ti nguyn ng v gim st dch v theo nhu cu. - Vi s gip ca cc giao thc IP, IP/WDM c th hy vng nh a ch c WDM hay cc nh khai thc hot ng trung gian NE. - IP/WDM c th t c s phc hi ng bng cch phn mc cc c ch iu khin phn tn c dng trong mng. - T quan im dch v, cc mng IP/WDM c th li dng cc c ch, chnh sch, m hnh, c cu QoS c ngh v pht trin trong mng IP. - Rt kinh nghim t tch hp IP v ATM, IP v WDM cn mt s tch hp mnh hn na tng tnh hiu qu v kh nng mm do. V d nh, IP trn nn ATM c in l tnh v phc tp v chuyn i a ch IP sang ATM l bt buc phi chuyn i gia cc a ch IP v cc a ch ATM.Tch hp IP/WDM s cho php truyn dn mng quang mt cch hiu qu, lm gim chi ph cho lu lng IP v tng cng s tn dng mng quang

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH CHNG II GII PHP CNG NGH NG-SDH 2.1. Gii thiu chung v cng ngh NG-SDH NG-SDH l cng ngh truyn dn c pht trin trn nn cng ngh SDH truyn thng, nhng n vn tn dng c c s h tng mng hin c ng thi khc phc c nhng hn ch ca cng ngh SONET/SDH c. 2.1.1. Hn ch ca cng ngh truyn dn SONET/SDH truyn thng SONET/SDH truyn thng l cng ngh TDM c ti u ha li cc lu lng dch v thoi. Khi li cc lu lng da trn dch v IP, cc mng s dng cng ngh SONET/SDH truyn thng gp phi mt s hn ch sau: Lin kt cng: do cc tuyn kt ni gia hai im kt ni c xc lp c nh, c bng tn khng i, thm ch khi khng c lu lng i qua hai im ny th bng thng ny cng khng th c ti s dng li lu lng ca kt ni khc dn ti khng s dng hiu qu bng thng ca mng. Trong trng hp kt ni imim (hnh 2.1a), mi kt ni gia hai im ch s dng 1/4 bng thng ca c vng ring. Cch xc lp kt ni cng nh vy lm gii hn bng thng ti a khi truyn d liu i qua hai im kt ni, y l mt hn ch c bn ca mng SONET/SDH truyn thng khi li cc dch v IP, do cc dch v ny c c im thng c s bng n v nhu cu lu lng mt cch ngu nhin. Lng ph bng thng khi s dng cu hnh mesh: khi mng SONET/SDH thit lp cc lin kt logic to ra cu trc mesh nh hnh 2.1b, bng thng ca vng ring buc phi chia thnh 10 phn cho cc lin kt logic. Vic nh tuyn phn chia lu lng nh vy khng nhng rt phc tp m cn lm lng ph rt ln bng thng ca mng. Khi nhu cu lu lng truyn trong ni b mng MAN tng ln, vic thit lp thm cc node, duy tr v nng cp mng tr nn ht sc phc tp. Cc lu lng truyn d liu qung b: Trong cc Ring SONET/SDH, vic truyn cc d liu qung b ch c th thc hin c khi pha pht v tt c cc im thu u c xc lp kt ni logic. Cc gi tin qung b c sao chp li thnh nhiu bn v gi n tng im ch dn ti vic phi truyn nhiu ln cng mt gi tin trn vng ring. iu ny gy lng ph ln i vi bng thng ca mng. Lng ph bng thng cho vic bo v mng: Thng thng i vi cc mng SONET/SDH 50% bng thng ca mng c dnh cho vic d phng cho mng. Mc d vic d phng ny l ht sc cn thit nhng cc cng ngh SONET/SDH
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH truyn thng khng cung cp kh nng cho php nh cung cp dch v la chn lng bng thng s dng cho vic d phng cc s c. Ngoi cc hn ch trn th khi s dng mng SONET/SDH truyn thng cn c mt yu t hn ch na l tc ca Ethenet khng tng ng vi SONET/SDH. iu ny dn n phi thit lp cc tuyn kt ni ca mng SONET/SDH c tc cao hn so vi ca dch v Ethenet, y li l nguyn nhn lm gim hiu qu s dng bng thng ca mng li.
Si quang Kt ni logic

Hnh 2.1. Kt ni trong mng SONET/SDH: a. im ni im, b.Cu hnh mesh 2.1.2. Nhng c trng ca NG SONET/SDH. Nhu cu li cc loi dch v nh IP, Ethernet, Fiber Channel, qua mng SONET/SDH xut hin t rt lu. Tuy nhin ch n khi lu lng s liu bng n trong nhng nm u thp k 90 ngi ta mi thc hin nghin cu cc giao thc nhm sp xp lu lng s liu vo trong ti ng b SONET/SDH. T cho n nay c nhiu giao thc thc thi c cng b v chun ha trong cc t chc tiu chun nh ANSI, ETSI, ITU-T v t chc cng nghip nh EITF, IOF,... POS (Gi qua SONET/SDH) C hai kiu giao din IP/SDH: - VC4 hoc ng kt chui VC4 cung cp bng tn tng hp, khng c bt c s phn chia no gia cc dch v IP hin din trong lung si. - Giao din knh ha, y u ra quang STM-16 c th cha 16 VC4 ring r vi dch v phn bit cho tng VC4. VC4 khc nhau cng c th c nh tuyn qua mng SDH ti cc b nh tuyn ch khc nhau. Phin bn IP/SDH c xem xt y s dng giao thc PPP v khung HDLC. Phin bn ny cng c bit n vi tn gi khc l POS. PPP l mt phng php chun ng gi cc gi IP v cc kiu gi khc cho truyn dn qua
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH nhiu mi trng t ng in thoi tng t ti SDH, v cng bao gm chc nng thit lp v gii phng cc tuyn (LCP). HDLC l phin bn chun ha ca SDLC theo ISO, giao thc ny c IBM pht trin trong nhng nm 1970. Khung HDLC cha dy c phn nh ranh gii im u v im cui ca khung cng mt trng kim tra CRC kim sot li. MAPOS (Giao thc a truy nhp qua SONET) Giao thc MAPOS l giao thc lp tuyn s liu h tr IP trn SDH. Giao thc MAPOS cng c gi di mt tn khc l POL. y l mt giao thc chuyn mch gi phi kt ni da trn vic m rng khng POS (PPP-HDLC) c NTT pht trin. Trc y MAPOS c pht trin vi mc ch m rng dung lng tc cao SONET cho LAN nhng hin nay s hin din ca Gigabit Ethernet dng nh lm cho ngi ta lng qun n. Hin ti cng c mt s chuyn mch MAPOS c th nghim ti Tokyo, Nht bn. LAPS(Giao thc truy nhp tuyn SDH) Giao thc truy nhp tuyn SDH (LAPS) l mt giao thc tuyn s liu c thit k cho mc ch IP/SDH v Ethernet/SDH c ITU-T chun ha ln lt trong khuyn ngh X.85 v X.86. LAPS hot ng nh khung HDLC bao gm dch v lin kt s liu v ch tiu giao thc thc hin vic sp xp gi IP vo ti SDH. IP/SDH s dng LAPS nh mt s kt hp kin trc thng tin s liu giao thc IP (hoc cc giao thc khc) vi mng SDH. Lp vt l, lp tuyn s liu v lp mng hoc cc giao thc khc c hin din tun t gm SDH, LAPS, v IP hoc PPP. Mi lin h ny c biu din nh ngn giao thc/lp cho IP trn STM-n.
TCP/UDP Giao thc internet IP

LAPS VC bc thp VC bc cao on ghp knh on lp on in quang G.703/G.957 G.707/Y.1322

Hnh 2.2. Ngn giao thc/lp cho IP trn STM-n s dng LAPS X.85 Phn tip theo s trnh by mt b giao thc c ITU-T v ANSI chun ha. y l b giao thc lin quan n vn lm th no li hiu qu lu lng s liu qua mng SONET/SDH. B giao thc ny gm: Giao thc lp khung tng qut (GFP), Kt chui o (VCAT) v C ch thch ng dung lng tuyn (LCAS); chng c s dng kt hp vi nhau trong h thng thit b NG SONET/SDH.
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH 2.1.3. c tnh k thut ca NG-SDH a) Gi trn SONET/SDH (POS ) Gi trn SONET/SDH (POS) s dng sp xp IP trong SDH hoc SONET chun ho nh giao thc im-im (PPP) hoc iu khin tuyn s liu tc cao (HDLC) nh nh ngha trong IETF [RFC1619]. Gi trn SONET/SDH hoc IP trn SONET/SDH nht thit lin quan n vic thm cc giao din SONET/SDH cho b nh tuyn m kt cui PPP. PPP cung cp bao gi a giao thc, kim sot li v cc c tnh iu khin khi to tuyn. Cc gi s liu IP to bi PPP c lp thnh khung nh giao thc HDLC [RFC 1662] v sp xp trong ti SDH (SPE). Chc nng chnh ca HDLC l ch ra cc gi s liu IP c bao bi PPP qua tuyn truyn dn ng b. FCS (Dy kim tra khung) khung HDLC tnh ton xc nh li v gi to ra l cc byte nhi. Sau khung HDLC c trn m bo c s lng chuyn tip thch hp trc khi to thnh khung SDH cui cng. Khung SDH thm 36 byte tiu ngoi tng kch thc 810 byte. Ngoi ra, giao thc PPP dng nhi byte lm tng ng k kch thc ti tin. iu ny c th gy nguy hi n vic phn b bng tn kt ni vi s qun l QoS. POS khng s dng chc nng ghp knh ca SDH. Kt ni nhiu container vi nhau to ra mt container n (m ti c sp xp trong ) v tc giao din cao. S sp xp ny cng c bit di mt tn gi khc, l kt chui ti SDH.
IP PPP

a ch

iu khin

ID giao thc 1 hoc 2 byte

Thng tin Thay i

Nhi Thay i

FCS 2 hoc 4 byte

PPP/HDLC
01111110 11111111 00000011 01111110

SONET/SDH

Hnh 2.3. Ngn giao thc v khung POS * Kh nng m rng POS cung cp kt ni song cng hon ton im-im gia hai giao din b nh tuyn, s dng khung SDH. Kh nng m rng khng phi l vn : lin kt gia h thng SDH v WDM l tuyt vi v khng c gii hn thuc bn cht v s lng nt. Tuy nhin, c hai im cn quan tm: i vi cc b nh tuyn c giao din SDH tc bit cao hn 155 Mbps, cc container o thng c kt chui v truyn qua mng SDH truyn

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH thng s khng thc hin c v chng khng h tr kt chui container o . Do cn phi thit lp tuyn ni trc tip gia cc b nh tuyn. Kt ni trc tip gia hai b nh tuyn cn tuyn cn s dng tuyn SDH v y cng chnh l gii hn v phi cn n s lng ln giao din trn cc b nh tuyn v tuyn kt ni. * H tr VPN v QoS H tr VPN v QoS ch c cung cp bi nng lc POS li nhn MPLS. L do l v POS ch cung cp ti kt chui (v d VC-4c) ging nh kt ni im-im gia cc b nh tuyn IP. VPN i hi cung cp phn nh ti kt chui.MPLS l c ch cung cp kt ni o qua giao din POS (VPN). MPLS cng c th thm kh nng h tr cn thiu i vi QoS cho POS . Bng cch thm cc thuc tnh trung k MPLS xut [RFC 2702] cho giao din POS th b nh tuyn IP c th coi thng tin ny ging nh nhng b nh tuyn c thit lp. * Bo v v Khi phc Khi phc c th thc hin ti cc lp IP, SDH hoc l quang. Trong lp IP, khi phc c thc hin bng cch cp nht bng nh tuyn qua giao thc nh tuyn. Ti Lp 2, khi phc c thc hin bng cch chuyn mch ti ng MPLS d phng (tng i nhanh) hoc nh n giao thc LDP nh ngha ng mi (tng i chm). Trong mng WDM, cc Khi li quang (OTU) c nh tuyn qua mng. Tng t, bo v c th thc hin trong lp SDH hoc lp quang. Xu hng d thy l n gin ho lp SDH vi chc nng khi phc ch yu trong lp IP v bo v trong lp quang. Lp IP ch thc hin chc nng nh tuyn, ng vi cc tiu chun POS, cc gi IP c thch ng li trong lp SDH nh giao thc PPP v khung tng t nh HDLC. Lp SDH c th phn theo tnh nng thnh hai lp: Lp lung v Lp on (bao gm Lp on ghp knh v Lp on lp). Do c hai la chn thc thi: - Mng SDH thc s vi s hin din ca c hai tnh nng Lp on v Lp lung - SDH xut hin ch vi giao din b nh tuyn v do ch c tnh nng Lp on c s dng.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Trong trng hp u tin, SDH cng c th thc hin nh tuyn lung qua thit b ADM hoc DXC.Trng hp ny c th p dng khi mng SDH c xem nh lp ch cho mng client khc v IP ch l mt trong s chng. Trong trng hp th hai, vai tr ca SDH ch l cung cp truyn dn imim cc gi IP gia cc b nh tuyn, do phi cn n tnh nng Lp on v SDH b b trong cc giao din b nh tuyn, ngha l khng c thit b thun tu SDH lp t trong mng. Trng hp ny in hnh cho mng trc c ti u li IP. * Cc c ch duy tr hin c Nh bit, lp WDM c th cung cp chc nng bo v nhanh cho c lp OMS v OCh trong khi khi phc ch c thc hin trong lp OCh. Nng lc duy tr ca 3 lp mng trong kin trc IP/POS/WDM c tng kt trong bng 2.1. Bng 2.1: Nng lc duy tr ca cc lp mng trong kin trc IP/POS /WDM Lp IP Tuyn SDH SDH MS WDM OCh WDM OMS Bo v Khi phc X

X X X

Cc chun SDH to nn mt lot cc c ch bo v v khi phc, tuy nhin ch c c ch bo v mi p dng cho kch bn ny. y SDH c tch hp trong giao din ca b nh tuyn theo cu hnh MSP tuyn tnh 1+1 (Bo v on ghp knh). y l mt c ch bo v nhanh c th bo v tn hiu STM-n vi thi gian chuyn mch nh hn 50 ms. Lp IP cung cp c ch khi phc rt mnh da trn chc nng ti nh tuyn gi trong trng hp sai hng v tch hp vi cc giao thc nh tuyn. * Duy tr a lp Theo ni dung tho lun trn v c tnh chnh ca mi c ch bo v v khi phc p dng trong kch bn IP/POS /WDM th vic kt hp gia bo v OCh WDM vi khi phc IP l iu hon ton hp l. Bo v OCh c th cung cp kh nng khi phc nhanh trong trng hp xut hin li n lp mng quang gm c Transponder trong khi ti nh tuyn IP cho php duy tr i vi nhng kiu sai hng khc nh sai hng cng b nh tuyn hoc a sai hng.
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH S khc bit ng k v tc gia hai c ch duy tr ny bt buc chng ta phi trnh s tng tc khng mong mun gia chng. Trong kch bn ny, MSP 1+1 trong lp SDH dng nh khng c ng dng r rng bi v hu nh n c cng c tnh v ch tiu nh bo v OCh. Tuy nhin, thi gian pht hin v chuyn mch ca SDH v bo v quang cng tng t nh nhau cho nn hai c ch chuyn mch ny s cnh tranh nhau nu nh chng cng pht hin ra sai hng. Hnh 2.4 a ra mt v d p dng ca nhng khi nim ny cho mng n gin.
OADM

Vng Ring WDM vi bo v Och 1+1

Hnh 2.4. V d duy tr a lp trong kin trc mng IP/POS /WDM Trong v d ny, mng chuyn mch quang thc hin trn mi ring OADM trong khi khi phc IP bo v chng li nhng sai hng ca cc giao din b nh tuyn, sai hng ca mt trong s nhng tuyn ni i (ng mu xm) hoc nhiu sai hng trong mng WDM. b) LAPS LAPS l mt phin bn PPP c thay i mt cht. V c bn, LAPS vn gi nhng c tnh sau ca PPP: s dng khung nh HDLC, s dng nhi byte/c ch phn nh khung bng mu c, ch h tr topo Lp 2 im-im (ngha l khng s dng trng nhn/a ch). im khc bit: - S dng phin bn giao thc tuyn s liu rt n gin (khng c trng giao thc, cho nn khng c khung LCP - S dng trng a ch nhn dng IPv4 v IPv6. Giao thc ny hin vn c s dng truy nhp vo ti nguyn mng li vn khng c thit k ti u cho vic mang lu lng s liu. Cc h thng thit b SONET/SDH th h c thng vn s dng giao thc ny.
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Nhng tho lun v LAPS l hon ton tng t nh POS. im khc bit nm ch POS c kh nng kt chui ti ca SONET/SDH to nn tuyn c dung lng thch ng vi dung lng gia hai b nh tuyn, trong khi LAPS ch thun tu cung cp ti SONET/SDH c nh nh thit lp cu hnh ban u. c) MAPOS Trong mng MAPOS, cc gi IP c bao trong nhng khung MAPOS. Khung MAPOS l mt khung HDLC c thay i mt cht bng cch thm a ch MAPOS trc HDLC. Mng ny thc hin chuyn mch gi ti tc 10 Gbps. Mng MAPOS da trn truyn dn SDH s dng th tc POS PPP/HDLC, mng ny c h tr bi mng li quang (WDM). * H tr VPN v QoS MAPOS phin bn 1 (V1) c a ch 8 bit v MAPOS phin bn 2 c a ch 16 bit c thit k tng thch vi nh dng PPP/HDLC trn khung POS SDH. MAPOS phin bn 3 hi t nhiu chc nng mi rt hu ch nh QoS, MPLS v ti u vic pht chuyn qung b (broadcast v multicast). VPN c cung cp trc tip bi nng lc ca MAPOS li nhn MPLS. * Bo v v khi phc Khng c chc nng bo v v khi phc ging nh trong giao thc MPOA. Ch mt s chc nng chun on hn ch c xy dng trong thc thi hin thi, l: + Trng thi giao din (= tng/gim/diag) + Trng thi ng truyn (=sng mang/khng sng mang) + Trng thi cng + Cnh bo thay i (ch yu cho nh khai thc) Do , MAPOS ch c th khi to cnh bo khi c chc nng hot ng sai v thng tin trng thi t cc lp giao thc khc cho mc ch bo v v khi phc mng. d) GFP/SDH trn WDM Mt c ch bao gi IP trong khung SONET/SDH (DoS) hoc khung G.709 (Digital Wrapper) c a chung l Giao thc lp khung tng qut (GFP). Giao thc ny gii phng dng lu lng khi yu cu bt buc ca tc s liu ng b c nh v s lng ph bng tn quang khi lu lng s liu bng n khng lp y phn dung lng li c nh c cp cho n.
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21

Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH GFP c th phc v bt c kiu lu lng client no nh khung Ethernet v cc gi IP c di bin thin, v bao chng trong khung li qua mng. N c bit ph hp vi kiu lu lng IP khng th d bo trc (khng theo quy lut no). GFP cng cho php thc hin ghp knh nhiu dng s liu truyn dn qua mt tuyn v c th s dng m rng mng LAN hng n mng WAN hon ton trong sut. Trong hnh 2.5, b nh tuyn gi tp hp lu lng v nh tuyn n ti phn sp xp SONET/SDH c kch thc ph hp. Phn sp xp SONET/SDH bao gi trong khung GFP s dng giao thc PPP [RFC 1548] (PPP trn GFP v sp xp cc khung GFP trong ti SONET/SDH). Qu trnh sp xp bao gm bin i 8B/10B gia 8 bit k hiu s dng trong Ethernet v 10 bit k hiu s dng trong SONET/SDH, v cng nhn th lm mt thng tin iu khin c truyn nh k hiu trong knh. Cc khung SONET/SDH (m trong c gn cc khung GFP) c gi qua mng quang ti b nh tuyn k tip. Do mng quang ng vai tr nh ni cung cp tuyn kt ni dng ng gia cc b nh tuyn gi IP tc cao.

Tp hp lu lng gi
B phn xp GFP SDH (STM-16 nd STM-64)

Mng quang cung cp cc ng dung lng cao

Tp hp lu lng gi
B phn xp GFP SDH (STM-16 nd STM-64)

Tiu li

Tiu ti

Ti gi PPP

FCS

Hnh 2.5. Giao thc lp khung tng qut v qu trnh bao gi IP trong khung SONET/SDH * H tr VPN v QoS Vi mt cu trc khung n gin da trn vic cn chnh byte, gim thiu byte tiu nn GFP khng c chc nng h tr cho VPN cng nh QoS. GFP kt hp vi VCAT khng thay lm i bn cht im-im ca SONET/SDH truyn thng. i vi kt ni mesh ca tn hiu client yu cu SONET/SDH phi cung cp knh SONET/SDH dng mesh k c vi kt chui o. Hin vic cung cp knh SONET/SDH dng mesh vn l thch thc i vi nh khai thc v s to nn chi ph cung cp dch v qu ln (do chi ph khai thc cho mng ny rt ln). C ch thch ng ng kch c ca knh SONET/SDH ca LCAS l mt giao thc m bo ng b gia pha pht v thu khi tng/gim kch thc cc knh kt
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH chui o theo cch khng can thip vo tn hiu s liu. Do n khng th thch ng linh hot knh SONET/SDH theo tnh s dng bng n tc thi ca ngi s dng. Hn na, n thiu mt giao thc xc nh kh dng ca cc Container va gii phng v khng th phn b cc knh cung cp cho cc nt trung gian. V vy kh nng h tr CoS l tng i hn ch. * Bo v v khi phc Mng hot ng trn GFP kt hp vi cc cng ngh VCAT v LCAS c li bi cc khung SONET/SDH. Do n khng c chc nng bo v v khi phc; chc nng ny c tn dng t giao thc ASP sn c trong SONET/SDH. Tnh a dng trong nh tuyn ca LCAS cho php bo v mt nhm kt chui o vi bng tn ti thiu trc mt s kin sai hng mng. Theo nguyn l, nhm kt chui ny c th c thc hin bng c ch bo v SONET/SDH tuy nhin c tnh ng ca nh tuyn trong LCAS dng nh lm cho c ch bo v ny mt hiu lc. e) Cu trc in hnh ca mt h thng NG-SDH
PDH PDH Ethernet Ethernet VPN DVN DVN SAN SAN Sp xp trong khung
GFP VCAT LCAS SDH

NG-SDH
VPN

Truyn contener o Qun l bng thng ng dn


SDH SDH

GFP VCAT LCAS

ng dn

SDH

Khch hng

NG-SDH

SDH sn c

NG-SDH

Khch hng

Hnh 2.6. M hnh cu trc ca NG-SDH Cng ngh NG-SDH cho php cc nh khai thc c kh nng cung cp nhiu hn na cc dch v li v ng thi tng hiu sut ca h tng mng SDH c bng cch thm vo cc nt MSSP (Multiservice Provisioning Platforms). iu ny c ngha rng khng cn thit phi lp t mt mng truyn dn mi hay thay i tt c cc thit b nt mng hay cc tuyn cp quang, nh vy s gim c chi ph v thu ht c cc khch hng mi trong khi vn duy tr c cc dch v c. Hnh 2.6 m t cu trc cng ngh NG-SDH. Chng ta c th thy rng NGSDH to ra phng thc li cc dch v khch hng c tc c nh (nh PDH) v cc dch v c tc bin i nh Ethernet, VPN, DVB, SAN... qua cc thit b v
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH mng SDH hin c. t c iu , ch cn b xung mt s thit b phn cng v cc th tc cng nh giao thc mi. Cc th tc v giao thc ny c phn thnh cc lp l: GFP, VCAT, LCAS... 2.1.4. Kh nng cung cp dch v Kh nng cung cp dch v ca mng SDH-NG v thc cht l cung cp cc tuyn kt ni truyn dn quang gia cc nt mng (s dng cc giao din quang hoc giao din in). Vic cc thit b nt mng s dng giao thc li no li thng tin l ph thuc vo cng ngh p dng pha trn lp mng SDH nh m t trn. Do cc loi hnh dch v trin khai ti khch hng s quyt nh bi cng ngh . Tuy nhin mng trin khai trn c s cng ngh SDH-NG c nhng kh nng cung cp nhng dch v c tnh cht c th. Mng li da trn cng ngh SDH-NG c th cung cp cc loi hnh dch v nh i vi mng SDH truyn thng, ngoi ra mng ti cc ADM ca thit b SDHNG c th cho php cung cp cc nhiu loi hnh giao din vi tc khc nhau kt ni vi cc thit b mng NGN, chng hn nh: 622 Mbit/s (STM-4), 2,5 Gbit/s (STM-16), 10 Gbit/s (STM-64), 40 Gbit/s (STM-128)... M hnh cung cp dch v mng trin khai trn c s cng ngh SDH-NG c m t hnh 2.7.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH

Mng WDM

OXC

ADM ADM

Mng NG-SDH
ADM

Dch v mng: - Dch v Internet tc cao - Dch v truyn hnh TV: CATV, SDTV, HDTV - Dch v in thoi truyn hnh, hi nghj truyn hnh - VPN - Cc dch v thu knh vin thng - Cc dch v truyn d liu (c hoc khng lin kt) IP Router Dch v mng: - Dch v Internet tc cao - Dch v truyn hnh TV: CATV, SDTV, HDTV - Dch v in thoi truyn hnh - Cc dch v khc nh mua hng ti nh, dy hc ti nh, cc dch v thng tin qung co...

IP Router

Hnh 2.7. M hnh cung cp dch v mng trin khai trn c s cng ngh SDHNG 2.2. Th tc lp khung tng qut (GFP) Th tc lp khung tng qut (GFP) c ANSI tho lun u tin trong T1X1.5 v hin nay c ITU-T chun ha trong khuyn ngh G.704.1. GFP l mt th tc lp khung to nn ti c di thay i theo byte t cc tn hiu khch hng mc cao hn cho vic sp xp tn hiu trong lung ng b. Mi quan h GFP vi tn hiu khch hang v lung li c ch ra hnh 2.8. GFP l mt thut ng chung cho hai hng xp chng: lp phadi lin quan n dch v li s dng GFP; lp pha trn lin quan n sp xp cc dch v cung cp bi GFP. i vi lp pha di GFP cho php s dng bt c kiu cng ngh li no, mc d hin ch chun ha cho SONET/SDH v OTN. Ti lp pha trn, GFP h tr nhiu kiu gi khc nhau nh IP, khung Ethernet v khung HDLC nh PPP.

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25

Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH GFP c hai phng php sp xp thch ng cc tn hiu khch hng vo trong ti SONET/SDH: GFP sp xp theo khung (GFP-F) v GFP trong sut (GFP-T) - GFP-F: GFP-F s dng c ch tm hiu chnh li tiu phn tch khung GFP ni tip (Ging nh c ch s dng trong ATM) trong dng tn hiu ghp knh cho truyn dn. Do di ti GFP thay i nn c ch ny i hi khung tn hiu khch hng c m ton b li xc nh di trc khi sp xp vo khung GFP. - GFP-T: mt s lng c tnh tn hiu khch hng c nh c sp xp trc tip vo khung GFP c di xc nh trc (sp xp theo m khi cho li trong khung GFP, hin thi ch mi nh ngha cho m 8B/10B trong chun G.704.1 ITUT).
Ethernet IP/PPP Cc dng tn hiu khc

GFP - Kiu lp client xc nh (Ti ph thuc)

GFP - Kiu chung (Ti c lp)

Lung SDH VC-n

Lung ng b byte khc

Lung ODUk OTN

Hnh 2.8. Mi quan h GFP vi tn hiu khch hng v lung li 2.2.1. Cc vn v GFP 2.2.1.1. Cu trc khung GFP Cu trc khung GFP gm nhng thnh phn c bn: tiu li, phn ti tin v chui kim tra khung (FSC). a) Tiu li ca GFP nh dng tiu li ca GFP nh minh ho trong hnh 2.9, bn octet ca Tiu li GFP bao gm mt trng ch th di ti tin 16-bit v mt trng kim tra li tiu li (cHEC) 16-bit. Tiu ny cho php m t khung GFP c lp v ni dung cho cc PDU lp cao hn.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH

PLI 1 2 3 4 cHEC PLI cHEC

(15:08) (7:00) (15:08) (7:00) Th t truyn bit

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Hnh 2.9. nh dng tiu li ca GFP * Trng ch th di ti tin (PLI) Hai octet ca trng PLI bao gm mt s nh phn biu th s lng octet trong Phn ti tin GFP. Gi tr nh nht tuyt i ca trng PLI trong mt khung khch hng GFP l 4 octet. Cc gi tr PLI t 0-3 dnh ring cho khung iu khin GFP. * Trng Kim tra li tiu li (cHEC) Hai octet trong trng Kim tra li tiu li l mt m sa li CRC-16 bo m tnh ton vn ni dung ca tiu li bng cch thc hin c vic sa li n bit v pht hin li a bit. Chui cHEC c tnh ton trn cc octet ca tiu li. Thc hin Kim tra li tiu (HEC): a thc thc sinh ca HEC l G(x)=x 16 + x12 + x5 + 1, vi gi tr ban u l 0, trong x16 tng ng vi Bit c ngha nht (MSB) v x0 tng ng vi Bit t ngha nht (LSB). Cch sa li ny c thc hin trn tiu li. B x l sp xp ti pha thu GFP s t chi bt k khung GFP c nhiu bit li. B x l sp xp ti ngun pht cng cp nht mi bn tin h thng thch hp cho mc ch nh dng chnh. * Trn tiu li Tiu li c trn cho cn bng DC bng cch thc hin OR-duy nht (cng modun 2) vi B6AB31E0 trong h 16. S ny l chui c di 32-bit ging nh chui Barker, c sidelobe cc tiu, trng thi chuyn dch cc i. S trn tiu li GFP nhm mc ch ci thin ng k phng thc m t khung GFP v to ra mt s c cc chuyn dch 0-1 v 1-0 trong cc khong truyn dn ri. b) Phn ti tin GFP Phn ti tin GFP, bao gm tt c cc octet trong khung GFP theo sau tiu li GFP, dng chuyn thng tin ca giao thc c trng lp cao hn. Vng c di thay i ny c th gm t 4 n 65535 octet. Phn ti tin GFP bao gm hai thnh
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 27

Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH phn thng thng: mt tiu ti tin v mt trng thng tin ti tin. Ngoi ra c th thm mt trng FCS ti tin tu (pFCS). Cc kch thc thc t ca n v truyn dn cc i (MTU) trong GFP cho phn ti tin GFP l tu thuc ng dng. Khi ng dng phi h tr truyn dn v nhn ca cc khung GFP cho vng ti tin GFP t nht l 1600 octet. Tuy nhin, GFP c th s dng cc gi tr MTU khc nhng theo th t u tin. Cc thc hin h tr knh quang sp xp theo khung phi cung cp phn ti tin GFP t nht 2156 octet.
Th t truyn octet

5 6 7 8 9 . . . . . n

Tiu ti tin

X = 4 n 64

Trng ti tin 0 n 65535 - x FSC ti tin (tu chn) 4

Th t truyn bit

Hnh 2.10. nh dng phn ti tin GFP * Tiu ti tin Tiu ti tin l mt vng c di thay i t 4 n 64 octet, mc ch h tr cc phng thc qun l tuyn d liu c trng cho tn hiu khch hng lp cao hn. Cu trc ca tiu ti tin GFP c m t trong hnh 2.11. Vng ny gm 2 trng bt buc, trng Kiu loi (Type) v trng Kim tra li tiu kiu loi (tHEC), v mt s cc trng khc thm vo tiu ti tin. Nhm cc trng tiu ti tin thm vo ny gi l tiu m rng. S c mt ca tiu m rng, nh dng ca n, v s c mt ca FCS ti tin tu chn c ch th trong trng Kiu loi. Trng tHEC m bo tnh ton vn ca trng Kiu loi. Thc hin phi h tr vic nhn mt khung GFP vi mt tiu ti tin c di bt k trong khong t 4 n 64 octet.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH


Th t truyn octet

5 6 7 8 9 . . . . . n

Kiu loi

tHEC

Trng tiu m rng 0 n 60 eHEC 2

Th t truyn bit

Hnh 2.11. nh dng tiu ti tin GFP * Trng kiu loi GFP Trng kiu loi GFP l mt trng hai-octet bt buc ca Tiu ti tin ch ra ni dung v nh dng trng Thng tin ti tin GFP. Trng Kiu loi phn bit dng khung GFP ny vi dng khung GFP khc v phn bit gia cc dch v khc nhau trong mi trng a dch v. Nh minh ho trn hnh 2.12, trng Kiu loi gm mt trng Nhn dng kiu loi ti tin (PTI), mt trng Ch th FCS ti tin (PFI), mt trng Nhn dng tiu m rng (EXI) v mt trng Nhn dng ti tin i tng s dng (UPI).
Th t truyn octet 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 S bit

PTI

PFI

EXI

UPI

7 1

6 2

5 3

4 4

3 5

2 6

1 7

0 8

S bit Th t truyn bit

Hnh 2.12. nh dng trng Kiu loi GFP - Trng nhn dng kiu loi ti tin (PTI) Mt trng con 3-bit trong trng Kiu loi dng xc nh kiu loi ca khung khch hng GFP. Hin nay c hai loi khung khch hng c xc nh l:

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29

Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH khung D liu i tng s dng (PTI = 000) v khung Qun l khch hng (PTI=100). Cc loi khc dng d phng. - Trng ch th FCS ti tin (PFI) Mt trng con 1-bit trong trng Kiu loi dng ch ra s c mt (PFI=1) hoc khng c (PFI=0) ca trng FCS ti tin. - Trng xc nh tiu m rng (EXI) Mt trng con 4-bit trong trng Kiu loi dng xc nh kiu loi tiu m rng ca GFP. Ba dng ca tiu m rng c xc nh, tiu m rng khng, tiu m rng tuyn tnh v tiu m rng vng. - Trng xc nh ti tin i tng s dng (UPI) Mt trng 8-bit dng xc nh loi ti tin chuyn i trong trng Thng tin ti tin GFP. Trng UPI c quan h vi kiu loi khung khch hng GFP nh xc nh bi trng con PTI. * Trng Kim tra li tiu kiu loi (tHEC) Trng Kim tra li tiu kiu loi 2-octet gm mt m iu khin li CRC16 nhm bo m tnh ton vn ni dung cho trng Kiu loi bng cch thc hin sa li n bit v pht hin li a bit. Tiu kiu loi gm trng Kiu loi v tHEC. B x l sp xp ti pha thu GFP s thc hin sa li n bit trong trng Kiu loi m trng ny c bo v bng trng tHEC. B x l sp xp ti pha thu GFP s loi b mi khung GFP ny khi c pht hin li a bit. Qu trnh x l ti im ch cng cp nht mi thng tin h thng lin quan phc v cho mc ch gim st cht lng. * Cc tiu m rng ca GFP Tiu m rng ti tin l mt trng m rng t 0 n 60 octet (cha c eHEC), m h tr cc tiu tuyn d liu c trng cho cng ngh nh l: cc xc nh tuyn o, cc a ch ngun/ch, s cng, lp dch v, iu khin li tiu m rng v.v Kiu ca tiu m rng c ch ra bi ni dung ca cc bit EXI ca trng Kiu loi trong tiu ti tin. Ba bin ca Tiu m rng c xc nh hin ti h tr cho d liu c trng khch hng truyn qua trn mt cu hnh vng logic vng hoc im-im logic (tuyn tnh). Cc trng khc nhau trong Tiu m rng s c m t di y. Gi tr mc nh cho mi trng khng xc nh l 0 tr khi c ch nh khc.
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 30

Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH - Tiu m rng khng Tiu ti tin cho mt khung vi mt tiu m rng khng c minh ho nh hnh 2.15. Tiu m rng ny p dng cho cu hnh im-im logic. Mc ch dng cho cc trng hp lung chuyn ti dnh ring cho mt tn hiu khch hng.
Th t truyn octet

Kiu loi 5 6 7 8 Kiu loi

(15:08) (7:00)

tHEC tHEC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Th t truyn bit

Hnh 2.13. Tiu ti tin ca mt khung GFP c tiu m rng khng - Tiu m rng cho mt khung tuyn tnh Tiu ti tin cho khung tuyn tnh (im-im) vi mt Tiu m rng c minh ho nh hnh 2.14, nhm mc ch dng cho cc trng hp c mt vi tuyn c lp yu cu tch hp thnh mt ng chuyn ti n. Trong , trng Nhn dng knh (CID): CID l mt s nh phn 8 bit dng ch th mt trong 256 knh thng tin ti im u cui GFP; trng D phng 8 bit dng cho s dng sau ny; trng HEC m rng eHEC.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH

Th t truyn octet

Kiu loi 5 6 7 8 9 CID D phng eHEC eHEC 1 2 3 4 5 Kiu loi tHEC tHEC

(15:08) (7:00) (15:08) (7:00) (7:00) (7:00) (15:08) (7:00) 6 7 8 Th t truyn bit

10 11 12

Hnh 2.14. Tiu ti tin cho mt khung tuyn tnh (im-im) gm c tiu m rng * Trng HEC m rng (eHEC) Trng Kim tra li tiu m rng 2-octet gm mt m sa li CRC-16 nhm bo v tnh ton vn ni dung cho tiu m rng bng cch thc hin sa li n bit v pht hin li a bit. B x l sp xp ti pha thu GFP s thc hin sa li n bit trong trng Kiu loi m trng ny c bo v bng trng tHEC. Sa li n l chc nng tu chn ca Tiu m rng. B x l sp xp ti pha thu GFP s loi b mi khung GFP ny khi c pht hin li a bit hoc c li xy ra mt trng tiu lm mt s dng chc nng sa li n. B x l sp xp ti pha thu cng cp nht mi thng tin h thng lin quan phc v cho mc ch gim st cht lng. * Trng thng tin ti tin Trng thng tin ti tin cha PDU nh dng khung i vi GFP sp xp khung hoc trong trng hp GFP-T l mt nhm cc c tnh tn hiu khch hng. Trng c di thay i ny c th gm t 0 n 65535-X octet, trong X l kch thc tiu ti tin. Trng ny cng gm mt trng FCS ti tin tu . PDU/tn hiu khch hng lun c truyn trong trng thng tin ti tin GFP nh mt lung gi octe-lin kt. * Trng Chui kim tra khung ti tin (pFCS) FCS ti tin GFP, nh minh ho trong hnh 2.15, l mt chui kim tra khung, di 4-octet, tu chn. N gm mt chui CRC-32 nhm bo m tnh ton vn cho
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH trng Thng tin ti tin GFP. Gi tr 1 ca bit PFI trong trng Kiu loi xc nh s c mt ca trng FCS ti tin.
Th t truyn octet

pFCS

(31:24)

pFCS

(23:16)

pFCS

(15:08)

pFCS

(7:00)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Th t truyn bit

Hnh 2.15. nh dng chui kim tra khung ti tin GFP - To FCS ti tin FCS ti tin c to ra s dng a thc sinh CRC-32, G(x)=x32+ x26+ x23+ x22+ x16+ x12+ x11+ x10+ x8+ x7+ x5+ x4+ x2+ x1+1 vi x32 tng ng vi MSB v x0 tng ng vi LSB. - Trn vng ti tin Vic trn ca Vng ti tin GFP c yu cu m bo s an ton thng tin chng lp li t trn (hoc nghch o ca n) t mt ngun trn ng b khung nh thng dng trong lp SDH RS hoc trong knh OTN OPUk. Tt c cc octet trong Vng ti tin GFP c trn s dng mt ngun trn t ng b 1+x43. Vic trn c thc hin theo th t bit trn mng. Ti u vo, vic trn c thc hin bt u t octet truyn dn u tin ngay sau trng cHEC v kt thc ti octet cui cng trong khung GFP. Khi ngun trn hoc gii trn khng thc hin, trng thi ca n c nh li. V vy, trng thi ca ngun trn hay gii trn khi bt u Vng ti tin khung GFP s l 43 bit cui ca vng ti tin ca khung GFP truyn i trong knh ngay trc khi n khung GFP hin ti. Hot ng ca b gii trn x l sp xp ti pha thu cng ph thuc vo trng thi hin ti ca thut ton kim tra cHEC: + Trong trng thi HUNT v PRESYNC, b gii trn khng hot ng.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH + Trong trng thi SYNC, b gii trn hot ng ch i vi cc octet nm gia trng cHEC v im cui ca khung GFP. c) Cc khung khch hng GFP Hai dng khung khch hng GFP c xc nh hin nay l: D liu khch hng v Qun l khch hng. Cc khung d liu khch hng GFP thng dng chuyn ti d liu cho tn hiu khch hng. Cc khung qun l khch hng GFP thng dng chuyn ti thng tin kt hp vi qun l ca tn hiu khch hng hoc kt ni GFP. * Cc khung d liu khch hng D liu khch hng c chuyn ti trn GFP s dng cc khung d liu khch hng. Cc khung d liu khch hng l khung khch hng GFP gm mt Tiu chnh v mt Vng ti tin. Trng Kiu loi ca cc khung d liu khch hng dung cho cc gi tr trng con Kiu loi sau: - PTI = 000 - PFI = c trng ti tin - EXI = c trng ti tin - UPI = c trng ti tin M ch th FSC ti tin (PFI) phi c thit lp nh yu cu ph thuc vo FSC c hot ng hay khng. M nhn dng tiu m rng (EXI) phi c thit lp ph hp vi cc yu cu hnh hc v ghp khung cho kt ni GFP. M xc nh ti tin i tng s dng phi c thit lp tu theo dng tn hiu khch hng c li . * Cc khung qun l khch hng Cc khung qun l khch hng to ra mt c ch chung cho b x l sp xp ti ngun pht ring ca khch hng GFP gi i tu cc khung Qun l khch hng ti b x l sp xp ti pha thu ring ca khch hng GFP. Cc khung Qun l khch hng l cc khung khch hng GFP gm mt Tiu ti tin v mt Vng ti tin. Trng Kiu loi ca cc khung d liu khch hng s dng cc gi tr trng con ca kiu loi di y: - PTI = 100 - PFI = c trng ti tin - EXI = c trng ti tin - UPI = c trng ti tin

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH s dng mt khung qun l khch hng GFP, m xc nh FCS ti tin (PFI) phi c thit lp nh yu cu ph thuc vo chc nng FCS c hot ng hay khng. (Ch rng, s dng FSC trong khung qun l khch hng GFP lm gim tng s bng thng d phng). M xc nh tiu m rng (EXI) phi c thit lp nh yu cu ph thuc vo tiu m rng c c thc hin hay khng. (Ch rng, s dng Tiu m rng trong khung qun l khch hng GFP lm gim ng k tng s bng thng d phng ). UPI xc nh vic s dng ti tin khung qun l khch hng GFP. Trong cch ny khung qun l khch hng GFP c th s dng cho nhiu mc ch. 2.2.1.2. Cc khung iu khin GFP Cc khung iu khin GFP c s dng trong vic qun l kt ni GFP. Cc khung GFP ri: Khung GFP ri l mt khung iu khin GFP gm 4 octet ch cha phn tiu li GFP vi cc trng PLI v cHEC c t l 0, v khng c phn ti. Khung ri c dnh s dng nh mt khung chn dnh cho qu trnh thch ng ngun GFP nhm thc hin thch ng lung octet GFP vi bt k mt mi trng li no m trn knh mi trng li c dung lng cao hn so vi dung lng c yu cu bi tn hiu khch hng. Cc khung iu khin khc: Cc khung iu khin vi PLI = 1, 2 v 3 hin ang c nghin cu. 2.2.1.3. Cc chc nng mc khung GFP a) Thut ton m t khung GFP GFP s dng mt phin bn ca thut ton kim tra HEC m t khung GFP.M t khung GFP c thc hin da trn mi tng quan gia hai octet u tin ca khung GFP v trng cHEC gm hai octet.Trn hnh 2.17 l s trng thi ca phng php m t khung GFP. S trng thi lm vic nh sau: - Trong trng thi HUNT, th tc GFP thc hin m t khung bng cch tm kim phn tiu li c nh dng chnh xc theo tng octet ca dy nhn c cui cng gm 4 octet. - Trong trng thi PRESYNC, th tc GFP s thc hin m t khung bng cch kim tra theo tng khung trng cHEC trong phn tiu li on trc ca khung GFP tip theo. Trng PLI trong phn tiu li ca khung GFP trc c s dung tm v tr u tin ca khung GFP tip theo. Trong trng thi ny tiu li khng c kh nng sa li n. Th tc trn s c lp li n c DELTA cc cHEC ng lin tip c xc nhn, khi th tc s chuyn n trng thi SYNC. Nu pht hin
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH mt cHEC khng ng th th tc s quay tr v trng thi HUNT. Tng s cc cHEC chnh xc lin tip c yu cu chuyn t trng thi HUNT sang trng thi SYNT l (DELTA + 1). - Trong trng thi SYNC, th tc GFP thc hin m t khung bng cch kim tra mt cHEC ng trn khung GFP tip theo. Trng PLI trong phn tiu li ca khung GFP trc c s dng tm v tr bt u ca khung GFP tip theo. Trong trng thi ny, phn tiu li c kh nng sa li. M t khung s b mt khi cHEC pht hin ra cc li bit a trong phn tiu li. Trong c mt s kin mt m t khung GFP c thng bo th th tc nh khung s quay tr li trng thi HUNT, v mt s c tn hiu server (SSF) s c ch th n th tc thch ng khch hng. - Cc khung GFP ri tham gia vo qu trnh m t v sau s b loi b. b) Ghp khung Cc khung GFP t cc cng v cc loi tn hiu khch hng khc nhau s c ghp li theo tng khung. Khi khng cn khung GFP no truyn th cc khung GFP ri s c chn vo v do m bo c c mt chui cc khung lin tc sp xp vo mt lp vt l lin kt theo octet.
Theo tng khung (sa li khng hiu lc) Cc khung o ( M khung) PRESYNC (cHECID) cHEC b li PRESYNC (cHECMD) cHEC sa DELTA lin tip

PRESYNC (cHECII)

PRESYNC (cHECMI)

Sa cHEC HUNT

Sa cHEC SYNC Theo tng khung (sa li khng c hiu chnh)

Tng bit (sa li khng c hiu chnh)

HEC b li (li a bit)

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Hnh 2.16. S trng thi m t khung GFP c) Ch th s c tn hiu khch hng GFP cung cp mt c ch chung truyn ch th s c tn hiu khch hng (CSF) khi pht hin ra s c tn hiu khch hng li vo. Khi pht hin ra s c th mt th tc thch ng ngun GFP s pht mt khung qun l khch hng (PTI=100). Trng PFI c t l 0 v trng EXI c t theo loi tiu m rng thch hp. C hai loi CSF u s dng cc gi tr trng UPI sau: - Mt tn hiu khch hng (UPI=0000 0001) - Mt ng b c tnh khch hng (UPI=0000 0010) Khi pht hin ra iu kin CSF th c 100msT1000ms, th tc thch ng ngun GFP s gi cc ch th CSF n th tc thch ng ch GFP mt ln, bt u ti khung GFP tip theo. Cc khung tm thi s l cc khung GFP ri. Khi nhn c ch th CSF, th tc thch ng ch GFP s thng bo l c mt s c tn hiu khch hng ch. Qu trnh x l s c s c cp phn sau. Th tc thch ng ch GFP s xo iu kin li khi: - Sau khi khng nhn c cc ch th CSF trong Nx1000ms (3 l gi tr ngh i vi N) - Khi nhn c mt khung d liu khch hng hp l. d) X l s c trong GFP Hnh 2.17 m t mi quan h nhn qu gia cc s c khc nhau c pht hin hoc c ch th bi th tc GFP. Cc s kin TSF l cc s kin s c c pht hin trong mng li SDH hoc OTN nh c nh ngha trong G.783 v G.798. Cc s kin s c tn hiu server (SSF) GFP l cc s kin mt m t khung GFP hoc l s lan truyn ca cc s kin TSF n cc tn hiu khch hng GFP. Cc s kin CSF l cc s kin s c c pht hin trong tn hiu khch hng trn li vo (thng tin vi u xa nh khung qun l khch hng CSF) hoc li ra (cc s c sp xp tn hiu nh li ti tin).

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH


Th tc khch hng i vo Th tc thch ng ngun xc nh khch hng khung GFP Th tc GFP chung (Thch ng ngun khch hng) Mng truyn ti Th tc khch hng i ra Th tc thch ng ngun xc nh khch hng khung GFP Th tc GFP chung (Thch ng ngun khch hng) Mng truyn ti CFS SSF TSF

Hnh 2.17. S lan truyn tn hiu li trong GFP Khi pht hin ra mt s kin TSF hoc mt s kin mt m t khung GFP, th tc thch ng ch GFP s pht mt ch th SSF n cc th tc thch ng ch.Cc s kin s c ny s b loi b ngay khi th tc GFP khi phc c ng b tuyn. Khi pht hin ra cc s kin CSF th th tc thch ng ch ca GFP s thc hin gii quyt cc s c ny. 2.3. Ghp chui o (VCAT) Ghp chui l qu trnh gom bng tn ca X ti (C-i) thnh mt ti c bng tn ln hn. Qu trnh ny cho bng tn ln gp X ln C-i. C 2 phng php ghp chui: - Ghp chui lin tc: l qu trnh to cc ti ln hn, cc ti ny khng b phn chia thnh cc phn ti nh hn trong qu trnh truyn dn. Do , mi NE u phi c chc nng ghp chui. - Ghp chui o: l qu trnh truyn ti cc VC ring l v nhm chng li ti im cui ca lung truyn dn. Do , chc nng ghp chui ch cn c ti thit b u cui lung. Tuy nhin, phng php ghp chui lin tc hin ch c ngha v l thuyt hn l thc t do khng hiu qu v mt bng tn. Phng php ghp chui lin tc v ghp chui o c m t hnh 2.18.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH


Ghp chui lin tc (1 ti tin c ghp chui) VC4-4c (2) STS-12c SPE 622 Mbps 1 ng
(3)

Yu cu bng tn (1)

Ghp chui o 3 ti tin c ghp chui) VC4-3v hoc STS-9v (II) 3 VC Vi ng (3 trong SDH 3x hoc 9 trong 155 Mbps SONET) 1 VCG

SDH (III)

(4) Chuyn giao bng tn (430 Mbps)

(IV)

Hnh 2.18. Ghp chui lin tc v Ghp chui o Ghp chui o l mt c ch cung cp kh nng khai thc ti SONET/SDH hiu qu v mm do. C ch ny ph v gii hn do s phn cp tn hiu truyn dn ng b SONET/SDH c thit k cho ti PDH (tc knh c phn thnh tng cp th STM-1, STM-4). T o ng ni xu chui cc ti trong SONET/SDH cung cp bng tn mm do ph hp vi kch thc s liu. Cc ti ghp chui trong mng c x l nh nhng ti ring bit v c lp. Do nh khai thc mng li c th t do thc hin chc nng ghp chui m khng s nh hng n h thng ang s dng hin ti. Hn na, h thng qun l phn t mng (EMS)/h thng qun l mng (NMS) ngy nay c th d dng cung cp chc nng ny. Phng php ghp chui lin tc khng em li mn bng tn ph hp cho cc cng ngh phi kt ni v hng gi nh IP hoc Ethernet. V d, li 1 Gbps th cn mt ti VC4-16c c dung lng l 2,4Gbps, tc l gp hn 2 ln lng bng tn cn thit. Ghp chui o VCAT l mt gii php cho php gia tng mn bng tn trn tng khi VC-n. Ti node ngun MSSP, VCAT to mt ti lin tc bng X ln VC-n. Tp gm X ti c gi l mt nhm ti o (VCG) v mi VC ring l l mt thnh vin ca VCG. Tt c cc VC thnh vin u c gi n node ngun MSSP mt cch c lp, trn bt k lung ri no nu cn thit. Ti ch, tt c cc VC-n c
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH nhm li, theo cc ch th cung cp bi byte H4 hoc K4, v cui cng c phn pht n a ch (hnh 2.19).
Nt ngun MSSP Phn on, nh x
t0 + 125 t0 + 125 t0 VC4-7v MFI=k+2 (1,05 Gbps) VC4-7v MFI=k+1 (1,05 Gbps) VC4-7v (1,05 Gbps)
MFI=k

Mng SONET/SDH Truyn dn Cc VCG thnh vin 25%


A 5 5 B
5

Nt ch MSSP Kt hp, nn tr

35%
5

MFI=I SQ=0...6 5 45 4

t1 t1 - 125

MSPP

G
5

MSPP

5 45 4 MFI=k SQ=0...6

t1 - 125 VC4-7v (1,05 Gbps) VC4-7v (1,05 Gbps) MFI=i VC4-7v (1,05 Gbps)
MFI=i-1 MFI=i-2

40%
E 3 3 F

Ti lin tc Nhm VC

Cc VCG thnh vin

Nhm VC

Ti lin tc

Hnh 2.19. Qu trnh ghp chui o VCAT h tr c ghp ti bc cao


v ghp ti bc thp

Do cc VC thnh vin c pht i mt cch c lp v c th trn cc lung khc nhau vi khc nhau nn s tn ti tr khc nhau gia cc VC. Do vy, MSSP ch phi b tr chnh lch ny trc khi nhm ti v phn pht dch v. Chc nng ghp chui o ch c yu cu ti cc node bin. tn dng c ht nhng li th ca qu trnh ny th cc ti ring l phi c truyn trn cc tuyn khc nhau qua mng, do nu mt tuyn hoc mt node b s c th kt ni ch b nh hng tng phn. y chnh l mt cch cung cp dch v bo v s dng VCAT VACT h tr c ghp ti bc cao v ghp ti bc thp. 2.4. C ch iu chnh dung lng tuyn (LCAS) Nh trnh by trn, ghp chui o c thc hin to nn nhng ti c dung lng khc nhau. Mc d mt s lng ti ghp chui c xc nh trc cho phn ln ng dng nhng thc t vn cn phn pht ng mt s ti cho mt vi ng dng c th. LCAS, c chun ho trong ITU-T G.7042, c thit k thc hin chc nng trn. LCAS c th a thm hoc loi b mt s ti thnh vin

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH trong mt VCG, do s dng lng bng tn hiu qu hn m khng lm nh hng n d liu c li . LCAS l mt giao thc bo hiu thc hin trao i bn tin gia hai im kt cui VC xc nh s lng ti ghp chui. Vi yu cu ca ngi s dung, s lng ti ghp chui c th tng/gim ph hp vi kch thc lu lng trao i. c tnh ny rt hu dng vi nh khai thc thch ng bng tn thay i theo thi gian, theo ma gia cc b nh tuyn. C c hot ng ca LCAS da trn vic trao i gi iu khin gia b pht (So) v b thu (Sk). Mi gi iu khin s m t trng thi ca tuyn trong gi iu khin k tip. Nhng thay i ny c truyn i ti pha thu b thu c th chuyn ti cu hnh mi ngay khi nhn c n. Gi iu khin gm mt lot cc trng dnh cho nhng chc nng nh trc v cha thng tin t b pht n b thu cng nh thng tin t b thu n b pht. Hng i: - Trng ch th a khung (MFI) - Trng ch th dy (SQ) - Trng iu khin (CTRL) - Bit nhn dng nhm (GID) Hng v: - Trng trng thi thnh vin (MST) - Bit bo truyn li dy (RS-Ack) C hai hng: - Trng CRC - Cc bit cha s dng d tr v c t l 0 2.4.1. ng dng ca LCAS - Phn b bng tn LCAS, vi mc ch b sung cho VCAS, cung cp cc kh nng nh c li ng lu lng ang s dng, LCAS cung cp mt c ch iu khin c th tng hoc gim dung lng trong mt VCG nhm p ng nhu cu bng tn tu theo ng dng c th. LCAS cn c th t ng loi b mt ti thnh vin nht nh ca VCG nu ti b s c, do trnh s c cho ton b kt ni VCAT.
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH - Cc cu hnh khng i xng Cn lu rng LCAS l mt giao thc n hng c thc hin mt cch c lp ti 2 im u cui. c tnh ny cho php cung cp bng tn khng i xng gia hai node MSSP nhm cu hnh cc tuyn khng i xng ph hp vi yu cu ca khch hng. - Phc hi mng LCAS c s dng trin khai chin lc phc hi (hnh 3.48). Phng php ny hin cn c th p dng cho SDH s dng VCAT. Lu lng c gi trn mt s tuyn khc nhau. Trong trng hp c s c b phn mt tuyn th LCAS s cu hnh li kt ni MSSP bng cc thnh vin VCG cn hot ng duy tr lu lng. 2.4.2. Giao thc LCAS * Cc bn tin LCAS LCAS c thc hin gia node ngun v node ch nhm gim st trng thi cc thnh vin, ch th v nhng thay i trong vic s dng bng tn, v thng bo v nhng thay i ny. Giao thc LCAS c cha trong byte H4 (i vi HO-VCAT), hoc trong byte K4 (i vi LO-VCAT). LCAS nm trong cc byte H4 v K4 ca phn tiu lung, cng l cc byte c ghp chui o s dng cho cc s MFI v SQ. LCAS s dng mt s trong s cc byte cha c dng cho MFI v SEQ. Gia node ngun v node ch LCAS thit lp mt giao thc iu khin cc thnh vin ca VCG. Thng tin bao gm trng thi ca mi thnh vin, CRC bo v bn tin, cc thng bo t ngun n ch a ra nhng thay i. Di y l cc tham s trong bn tin iu khin VCAT v LCAS (theo G.7042): - Trng ch th a khung (MFI): l c ch c trin khai gia b pht VCG v b thu VCG nhm xc nh tr chnh lch v s dng cho vic t chc li cc thnh vin trong cng mt VCG. Gi tr ca trng ny c th nh nhau i vi tt c cc thnh vin ca VCG, nm trong khong 0-4095 i vi HO-VCAT v 0-31 i vi LO-VCAT. - Trng ch th dy (SQ): l ch s xc nh cho cc thnh vin trong VCG. i vi HO-VCAT th SQ nm trong khong 0-255 (256 l s thnh vin ln nht trong mt VCG), v trong khong 0-63 i vi LO-VCAT (64 l s thnh vin ln nht trong mt VCG).
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH - Trng iu khin (CTRL): yu cu iu khin LCAS c gi t b pht n b thu: + Fixed: ch th v khai thc bng tn c nh (non-VCAT), LCAS khng c h tr trong ng VCAT ny + Add: yu cu thm mt thnh phn mi vo VCG ca knh VCAT hin ti. Nu knh ny khng tn ti th knh mi s c thit lp. + Norm: mode truyn dn bnh thng, khng thay i trng thi n nh. + EOS: Cui ca dy, thnh phn cui cng ca mt VCG c s SQ cao nht, quay v mode truyn dn bnh thng. + Idle: y l mt ti khng nm trong knh VCG v n c th b loi b khi VCG. + DNU: Khng s dng thnh vin ny ca VCG. B thu pht hin ra mt s c. - Bit nhn dng nhm (GID): nhn dng nhm i vi VCG. Tt c cc thnh vin ca cng mt VCG u c cng mt gi tr GID. GID m bo rng tt c cc tn hiu thnh vin u xut pht t cng mt b pht xc nh. - Trng trng thi thnh vin (MST): y l mt bo co trng thi ngn gn ca tt c cc thnh vin ca mt VCG (OK hoc FAIL) gi t b thu tr li b pht. Phng thc a khung c s dng gi ton b bo co ny ca tt c cc thnh vin trong VCG. - Trng kim tra (CRC): Kim tra CRC c thc hin trn tng gi tin iu khin sau khi nhn c, v ni dung b loi ra nu kim tra thy li. Nu gi tin iu khin qua c kim tra CRC, th ni dung ca n c s dng ngay lp tc. n gin ho a khung MFI cho php b qua kt qu kim tra CRC cho gi tin iu khin i vi phn t MFI c kim tra bi CRC sao cho x l a khung c th s dng phn t MFI tng ng vi trng hp x l lin kt o khng dng LCAS. 2.5. Cc tiu chun lin quan n cng ngh NG-SDH ca cc t chc tiu chun trn th gii Cng ngh NG-SDH c s quan tm rt ln ca cc nh khai thc, cc nh sn xut thit b v c bit l cc t chc tiu chun trn th gii nh ITU-T, IEEE, ANSI, ETSI. Cc khuyn ngh v tiu chun ny ch yu tp trung vo cc giao thc mi l GFP, LCAS v VCAT.

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Trong , GFP, VCAT v LCAS l b cc tiu chun c thit k nhm ci thin hiu sut, mn bng tn, tnh linh hot ca SONET/SDH truyn thng. Cng cn lu rng cc giao thc ny khng lm thay i bn cht knh, im-im ca cc mng SONET/SDH truyn thng. Cc giao thc ny l cc giao thc lp 1. GFP, c hai phng thc, l mt giao thc sp xp khung lp 1 vo SDH. Bng 2.2: Cc tiu chun lin quan n cng ngh NG-SDH ca cc t chc tiu chun trn th gii T chc tiu chun ITU-T IEEE ANSI ETSI Tiu chun G.7041/Y.1303; G.707; G.783; G.7042/Y.1306; G.709/G.798 IEEE 802.17 T1.105-2001; T1.105.02-2001 EN300 417-9-1

2.5.1. Cc tiu chun ca ITU-T Cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T lin quan n cng ngh NG-SDH: - G.707/Y.1322: khuyn ngh ny cung cp cc yu cu cho cc tn hiu STMN ti giao din node mng ca mt mng s ng b, trong c cp n ghp chui o VCAT cho cc lung bc cao v bc thp, bao gm: + Ghp chui o X ln VC-3/4 (VC-3/4-X, X=1...256) to thnh ti c dung lng VC-4-Xc + Ghp chui o X ln VC-2/1 to thnh ti c dung lng VC-2/1-Xv - G.709/Y.1331: Khuyn ngh ny xc nh cc yu cu ca module li quang ca cc tn hiu bc n (OTM-n) ca mng li quang, trong c cp n vic sp xp cc khung GFP vo n v ti knh quang (OPUk). Ni dung chnh ca khuyn ngh bao gm : + Kin trc li quang + Chc nng ca tiu trong vic h tr cc mng quang a bc sng + Cc cu trc khung + Cc tc bit + Cc dng sp xp tn hiu khch hng Cc giao din c xc nh trong khuyn ngh ny c th c p dng ti cc
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH giao din khch hng-mng (UNI) v cc giao din node mng (NNI) ca mng li quang. - G.783: Khuyn ngh ny cung cp cc c tnh ca cc khi chc nng thit b SDH (gm c cc yu cu h tr chc nng VCAT). Khuyn ngh xc nh mt tp hp cc khi chc nng v mt b cc quy tc hp nht cc khi chc nng ny thnh mt thit b truyn dn s. Khuyn ngh cng a ra cc thnh phn v phng php lun c th c s dng m t qu trnh x l SDH. Phng php m t da trn vic phn tch chc nng ca thit b thnh cc chc nng nguyn t v hu c. Thit b sau s c m t bi c tnh chc nng thit b (EFS) ca n, bao gm cc chc nng nguyn t v hu c, kt ni bn trong, cc ch tiu c tnh cht lng tng qut (v d: tr chuyn giao, kh dng...) - G.7041/Y.1303: Khuyn ngh ny xc nh mt th tc nh khung chung (GFP) c cc ti c chiu di thay i t cc tn hiu khch hng bc cao cho vic sp xp lin tip vo cc lung ng b nh nh ngha trong ITU-T G.707/Y.1322 v G.709/Y.1331. Ni dung ca khuyn ngh gm: + Cc dng khung cho cc khi PDU c chuyn giao gia cc im u v cui GFP + Th tc sp xp cc tn hiu khch hng vo GFP - G.7042/Y.1305: Khuyn ngh ny cp n c ch iu chnh dung lng (LCAS) c s dng tng hoc gim dung lng bng tn ca tn hiu VCAT trn cc mng SDH/OTN. Hn na, c ch ny s t ng gim dung lng ca ti nu mt thnh vin b s c, v tng dung lng ti khi s c mng c khc phc. C ch ny c p dng cho mi thnh vin ca nhm ghp o. Khuyn ngh ny xc nh cc trng thi yu cu ti node ngun v node ch ca tuyn v thng tin iu khin c trao i gia ngun v ch ca tuyn nhm cho php nh c li mt cch linh hot tn hiu ghp o. Cc trng thng tin s dng chuyn thng tin iu khin qua mng li c nh ngha trong cc khuyn ngh lin quan l ITU-T G.707 v G.783 cho SDH v ITU-T G.709 v G.798 cho OTN. 2.5.2. Tiu chun ca IEEE IEEE l mt t chc gm hn 360.000 thnh vin hn 170 nc v l t chc phi li nhun v chuyn v vn k thut. IEEE hot ng trn nhiu lnh vc ca khc nhau v vin thng v trong hot ng trn 2 kha cnh quan trng ca mng

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH quang. V s pht trin ca cng ngh Ethernet vi tc truyn dn 10Gbps ang c nhm lm vic 802.3 thuc u ban chun ho LAN/MAN IEEE 802 ph trch. Ton b lu lng trn ring s c nh r mt mc dch v (CoS) v tiu chun IEEE 802.17 xc nh 3 mc dch v. Lu lng mc A (mc cao) l loi lu lng CIR thun tu v c thit k nhm h tr cc ng dng i hi mc jitter v tr thp nh thoi v hnh nh. Lu lng mc B (mc trung bnh) l loi lu lng pha trn gia CIR v EIR. Mc C (mc thp) l lu lng best effort, y l lu lng ch yu c s dng h tr truy nhp internet. 2.5.3. Cc tiu chun ca ANSI ANSI (Vin tiu chun quc gia M) l mt t chc phi li nhun c chc nng qun l v phi hp vic tiu chun ho v xy dng h thng nh gi hp chun ca M. ANSI a ra mt s cc tiu chun lin quan n cng ngh NGSDH m ch yu l cp n qu trnh ghp cc tn hiu vo ti SONET. - T1.105-2001: xc nh dng v cu trc ghp knh cho phn cp ng b SONET - T1.105a-2002: M t LCAS - T1.105.02: M t qu trnh sp xp cc tn hiu phn cp s v khng phn cp s vo cc bao ti ng b SONET. 2.5.4. Tiu chun ca ETSI ETSI l t chc tiu chun ca chu u c nhim v a ra cc tiu chun v cc cng ngh thng tin v vin thng (ICT) chu u. ETSI a ra tiu chun EN300 417-9-1 vi ni dung:Cc yu cu chung v chc nng li ca thit b cho cc lp lung ghp chui SDH. 2.6. Cc sn phm NG-SDH in hnh ca mt shng sn xut trn th gii 2.6.1. Cc sn phm NG-SDH ca Cisco Cisco Systems l cng ty hng u v cc gii php mng quang. Cisco gip cc nh cung cp dch v trin khai cc kin trc mng quang c tnh sn dng cao, c th cung cp cc ng dng chng hn nh lu tr v cc dch v khc i hi bng tn cao. Cc gii php mng quang ca Cisco c nhiu u im, gip khch hng gim chi ph mng v tng hiu qu kinh doanh. Cc gii php hng u ca Cisco to ra gii php end - to - end cho cc mng quang Metro, h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau chng hn nh thoi, video, s liu v cc dch v v lu tr trong khi kh nng nng cp v qun l rt cao. a) Dng sn phm ONS 15400
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Thit b cung cp a dch v Cisco ONS 15454 SONET v ONS 15454 SDH hin ang ng u th trng vi hn 1000 khch hng v hn 40000 h thng c trin khai trn ton th gii. Thit b Cisco ONS 15454 to ra cc chc nng ca nhiu phn t mng SONET v SDH truyn thng ngay trong cng mt thit b, kt hp li SDH/SONET ci tin qua cc giao din OC-192/STM-64, mng quang ghp knh theo bc sng tch hp v cc giao din a dch v. L mt phn ca dng sn phm v truyn dn v a dch v quang, ONS 15454 kt hp kh nng ca li quang ci tin vi tnh thng minh ca ca IP n vic phn phi cc dch v thoi v s liu hiu qu v chi ph. - Thit b li a dch v ONS 15454 (MSTP) Thit b ONS 15454 MSTP cung cp cc chc nng v ghp knh, tch xen cu hnh li (ROADM) v ghp knh theo bc sng thng minh (DWDM), m bo tnh mm do v d dng khi s dng. Gii php dng thit b Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP to ra tp giao din dch v bc sng trong sut, bao gm: + DCN v SAN: knh quang 1 v 2 Gbps, ESCON, FICON + Ethernet: Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet (LAN/WAN) + Quang: SONET/SDH: OC-3/STM-1 n OC-192/STM-64 + DWDM thng minh: D1, HDTV, v cc dch v s liu da trn bc sng Thit b Cisco ONS 15454 MSTP lm n gin ho cc hot ng nh cung cp kh nng ROADM, cho php h tr cho nhiu kin trc mng khc nhau, cc cu hnh node, kh nng nng cp khi ang cung cp dch v v cc kh nng bo v tu chn. - Thit b cung cp a dch v 15454 (MSPP) Thit b 15454 SDH MSPP tch hp chc nng ca nhiu phn t mng trong cng mt thit b. Thit b ny cung cp cc gii php TDM vi cc giao din E1, E3 v DS3, cc gii php s liu vi Ethernet 10/100/1000 tc bit li quang t STM-1 n STM-64. Thit b ONS 15454 SDH h tr cc dch v sau: + Tp hp v li cc dch v t E1 n STM-64 + Chuyn mch Ethernet 10/100/1000Mbps nhm ci thin vic s dng bng tn. + H tr cu hnh mng linh hot gm Ring, im - im, tch/xen, cu hnh sao, v cu hnh hn hp.
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH + C cc c ch hi phc tu chn: SNCP, 2 - si v 4 - si MSSPR, 1+1 APS... Hu ht cc mng Metro SDH u da trn k thut TDM vn thit k cho lu lng thoi. Nhng mng ny da vo cc thit b ADM truyn thng v cc b kt ni cho s truyn thng (DXC) c thit k v ti u ho cho thoi chuyn mch knh. Cc thit b ADM truyn thng c ti u ho ch x l mt loi tc , nh STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, hoc STM-64 - v ch h tr hn ch s giao din dch v. Mi tc cn 1 ADM ring v yu cu cc DXC ring kt ni. iu ny to ra kin trc mng cng knh, do lm cho chi ph u t ban u cao hn tn nhiu thi gian qun l. Thit b ONS 15454 MSPP nh tch hp chc nng u ni cho s v ghp knh tch/xen trong mt phn t mng, cng vi vic h tr cc giao din a dch v v a tc , lm gim s lng cc phn t mng cn thit. iu ny lm ci thin ng k thi gian khai thc, qun l v dn n doanh thu cao cho nh qun tr mng. b) Dng thit b ONS 15300 Dng thit b ny l tp hp cc thit b truy nhp v tp hp quang tin tin, c kh nng phn phi cc dch v khc nhau gm cc tu chn v ti quang, cc dch v Gigabit Ethernet, DS1, E1, E3 v DS3. - Thit b truy nhp a dch v ONS 15302 Dng thit b ONS 15302 to ra mt gii php n gin cho vic phn phi dch v Ethernet v TDM n thit b khch hng. Cng vi cc thit b ONS 15305 v ONS 15454 SDH, thit b Cisco ONS 15302 to ra gii php end-to-end cho li a dch v qua mng SDH. Thit b truy nhp a dch v ONS 15302 m rng mng truy nhp quang n gn vi thit b khch hng hn. Vi mt ng STM-1 n cc mng SDH quang, ONS 15302 c th tp hp lu lng thoi v s liu cho cc dch v chuyn mch, truy nhp Internet, v cc mng ring. N c th kt hp lu lng s liu v thoi bng cch truyn cc knh TDM v Ethernet bn trong mt cu trc khung SDH STM-1. C cu chuyn mch lp 2 cho php gn 10/100BASE-T Ethernet vo cc VC-12 (2 Mbps) truyn im-im hoc im-a im. Bng tn ca cc knh Ethernet c th c cu hnh ln n 63 VC-12 (136 Mbps). Cisco ONS 15302 c th cu hnh tu chn vi mt modul WAN to thm linh hot dch v Ethernet. Modul WAN b sung thm 3 cng cho li Ethernet qua
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH cc giao din tng th STM-1. i vi mi cng WAN, modul ny c th to 1 knh cha mt s c kh nng cu hnh VC-12. Lu lng Ethernet trn cng WAN c gn vo ti ca cc VC-12. S VC-12 c chn quyt nh n bng tn ca knh. Cisco ONS 15302 cng c th mang lu lng Ethernet qua SDH m khng s dng n modul WAN. Kh nng ny to ra mt knh gm 50 VC-12 c chia s bi 4 cng LAN trong mt phn t s dng chuyn mch lp 2 Ethernet tch hp. ONS 15302 cng c th lm vic nh mt thit b li quang cho cc mng ring ca cc doanh nghip. Mt thit b Cisco ONS 15305 c t ti trung tm hoc ti to nh chnh trong mt trng hc, cng vin c th tp trung lu lng TDM v Ethernet t cc v tr xa (hnh 2.21) ti y cc thnh phn Cisco ONS 15302 c s dng nh cc thit b kt cui. Mt ng dng tng t c dng trong cc to nh cao tng, y Cisco ONS 15305 c dng nh cc u cui 15302 ti cc tng khc nhau. Hnh 2.21 m t cu hnh mng cung cp a dch v vi thit b Cisco ONS 15302/15305.
Chi nhnh vn phng

Cisco ONS 15302 Cisco ONS 15302

Chi nhnh vn phng

PBX Ethernet Chi nhnh vn phng STM-1

PBX Ethernet STM-1 Trung tm vn phng

Cisco ONS 15302 PBX Ethernet STM-1 PBX Chi nhnh vn phng STM-1 Cisco ONS 15305 GigE Cisco Catalyst 6500 Cisco ONS 15302 GigE nxE1 PIT

PBX Ethernet

Hnh 2.20: Cu hnh mng cung cp a dch v vi thit b Cisco ONS 15302/15305
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH - Thit b cung cp a dch v ONS 15327 SONET MSPP Thit b ONS 15327 SONET MSPP l m hnh li quang bin Metro u tin. Thit b ny phn phi cc tnh nng mng SONET, cc a dch v mi theo nhu cu. c xy dng trn cng ngh c dng trong thit b Cisco ONS 15454, thit b ang dn u th trng li mng Metro hin nay. Vi kh nng thch ng SONET v c thit k ph hp vi cc nhu cu mng ang thay i hin nay, thit b Cisco ONS 15327 lm cho cc mng li da trn k thut TDM ngy nay tr nn linh hot v ph hp vi lu lng s liu hn. Thit b ny kt hp cc giao din SONET vi cc giao din s liu truyn thng v th h mi, to ra cc tu chn li quang v bng tn li quang mang tnh cnh tranh cao. Thit b Cisco ONS 15327 tp hp cc dch v thoi, s liu v video truyn hiu qu hn. Thit b ny cng h tr cho bt c dch v no, bao gm TDM, 10/100/Gigabit Ethernet, to ra cc chc nng kt ni cho v chuyn mch s liu tch hp. Cc lung s liu khc nhau c th c mang ring bit hoc cng vi nhau v li trong ch bng tn gn ring hoc trong ch kt ni khng gii hn t l lu lng ng gp ca tng thnh phn. Thit b ONS 15327 cung cp kh nng qun l bng tn mt cch ti u cc dch v s liu IP tc cao, cung cp dch v nhanh chng, v nhiu giao din quang khc nhau. 2.6.2. Sn phm NG-SDH ca Siemens Sn phm MSPP SURPASS hiT 70xx ca Siemens tch hp nhng tnh u vit ca gii php truyn dn hin i. Cc tnh nng mi linh hot v gn nh ca sn phm ny cho php xy dng v m rng mng SDH mt cch hiu qu v kinh t nht. Kt ni gia SURPASS hiT 70xx vi cc thit b SDH truyn thng c thc hin thng qua cc giao din SDH chun. a) Cc c im - Dung lng v linh hot cao hn Sn phm SURPASS hiT 70xx cung cp nhiu chng loi giao din, t cc chun PDH, SDH cho ti 10Gbit/s. Ma trn chuyn mch, bao gm t 1,25G VC-12 dng cho thit b lp di CPE cho ti 160G @ VC-4 ca cc thit b lp trn, l nhng tnh nng phn cp tt nht hng ti cc ng dng trong mng a dch v th h mi. Ngoi ra, sn phm SURPASS hiT 70xx ca Siemens cn cho php bo v card v lu lng SDH. - Metro DWDM
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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH Surpass hiT 70xx cung cp giao din 10Gb, t loi 4x10Gbit/s trn mt si quang, cho ti 32x10Gbit/s, c th nng dung lng mng cho nh khai thc. Ngoi ra cc giao din mu ca thit b cho php kt ni thng vo mng ng trc DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) ng di hoc ni . Nhng gii php ny khng nh tnh hiu qu kinh t ca sn phm SURPASS hiT 70xx. - Ghp ni dung lng o VCAT Nh tnh nng ghp ni o (Virtual Concatenation), thit b Surpass hiT 70xx cho php truyn i cc khung Ethernet cc mc VC-x khc nhau nh VC-12/-3/-4. - GFP v LCAS Cc chun ha Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) v Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) lm nng cao tnh nng kt ni im - im Ethernet linh hot hn rt nhiu. GFP cho php ghp cc tn hiu Ethernet hiu qu nht vo cc khung VC-x ca thit b SDH nhm hiu chnh vic s dng bng thng trong mng theo nhng yu cu dch v ca ngi tiu dng. LCAS cho php truyn cc tn hiu Ethernet c kch c khch hng yu cu trn bng thng. - Ethernet Service Multiplexer Nh c b trn trung tm, cc knh GFP t pha cc khch hng c a im khc nhau c gom li vi nhau, sau chng c truyn ti mt b dn ng Router (chng hn BRAS, hay b dn ng truy cp). Vic gom lu lng Ethernet ny (dng DSLAM (B ghp knh truy nhp ng dy thu bao s) hay b iu khin trm gc) gp phn lm gim s lng cc giao din Ethernet cn thit cho khch hng. b) Chc nng gom thng tin DSLAM vi loi hnh a dch v SURPASS hiT 70xx ca Siemens c chc nng truyn tn hiu Ethernet, va c chc nng thay cho mt b chuyn mch DSLAM ti u nht. SURPASS hiT 70xx cho php ghp nhiu giao din DSLAM vo B-RAS hoc mng li nhm em li mt hiu qu v chi ph. Ngoi ra, dch v truyn thng nh c ghp vo cc khung SDH an ton nn cng mang li thm li nhun i cho dch v bng thng rng. c) Xy dng mng th h mi SURPASS hiT 70xx ca Siemens cho php xy dng mi v m rng cc mng thnh ph v khu vc, ng thi cng trang b cho cc doanh nghip khch hng c y giao din c chc nng dch v tng hp, nh Ethernet, SDH

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Chng 2.Gii php cng ngh NG-SDH SURPASS hiT 70xx l gii php quan trng trong mng th h mi cho cc nh khai thc. Ngoi vic cho php cc nh khai thc tip tc cung cp dch v cho thu knh thoi, sn phm cn h tr gia tng dch v s liu/Ethernet nhm to ra nhiu li nhun mi. 2.7. Kt lun Cng ngh NG-SDH c thit k cho c dch v TDM v dch v s liu vi s h tr ca b cc giao thc mi l GFP, VCAT v LCAS. H thng li quang NG-SDH l gii php cng ngh ph hp trin khai trong mng NGN ca VNPT-HD vi cc l do sau: - Tn dng c c s h tng sn c c xy dng trn nn cng ngh SDH th h c. - p ng ng thi nhu cu cung cp kt ni cho dch v truyn ti lu lng chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi vi hiu sut s dng ti nguyn mng cao, ph hp vi xu hng xy dng mng NGN trn c s h tng chuyn mch gi, c bit ph hp vi bi cnh lu lng li d liu ang tng rt nhanh trong hin ti v tng lai.

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Chng 3 NG DNG CNG NGH NG-SDH CHO MNG TRUYN TI QUANG CA VNPT-N

ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-NAM INH (VNPT-ND) trc ht ta cn tm hiu cc gii php p dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti. Hin nay, mng li ca VNPT-N l mng truyn ti quang s dng cng ngh WDM. Do , chng III ca ti n tp trung nghin cu vo cc gii php cng ngh NG-SDH/WDM v so snh u nhc im ca cc gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH/WDM vi cc cng ngh khc lm c s cho vic la chn gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH/WDM trn mng truyn ti quang ca VNPT-N. Trn c s cng ngh NG-SDH c nghin cu chng II v kt qu so snh cc gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH/WDM, cng vi nhng d liu v hin trng mng vin thng ca VNPT-N, ni dung tip theo ca chng III ti n s xut gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng ng truyn ti ca VNPT-N

3.1. HIN TRNG MNG TRUYN DN QUANG CA VNPT-N . 3.1.1 Hin trng mng truyn ti ca VNPT-N * Tng quan v hin trng mng vin thng ca VNPT-N Mng vin thng ca VNPT-N hin ang trong giai on chuyn i, hng ti mng NGN. Hin nay mng ca VNPT-N vn ch yu da trn cng ngh TDM v cng ngh ny s vn chim u th trong nhng nm ti. Mng truyn dn ca VNPT-N hin c quang ho. Ngoi cc tuyn cp quang ng trc (tuyn dc quc l 21b,tnh l 55,tnh l 10), hu ht cc huyn trong c tnh trin khai cc tuyn truyn dn bng cp si quang s dng cng ngh SDH. Cu hnh trin khai ch yu l mch vng ring khai thc kh nng bo v ca cng ngh SDH. Mng truy nhp ca VNPT-N ch yu da trn mch vng thu bao s dng i cp xon, cung cp dch v truy nhp tc thp. D n mng truy nhp bng rng cng c trin khai trn cng ngh ADSL trn ton tnh. Khch hng s dng cng ngh truy nhp ny c th khai thc bng thng ln t vi trm kbit/s n megabit/s (theo hp ng vi nh cung cp). Cc phng thc truy nhp qua mi trng cp si quang ban u c trin khai.
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND * Hin trng mng truyn ti ca VNPT-N - Cu hnh mng truyn ti quang Mng truyn ti ca VNPT Nam nh ch yu l cc h thng cp quang, mt phn nh l cc h thng vi ba. Trong , mng truyn ti quang phn ln l dng Ring SDH (4 Ring) v dung lng ca cc Ring l STM-16. Cc Ring ca VNPT Nam nh bao gm:( Ti Liu 10/2010 ) Ring 1: Gii Phng Khu Tm H Huy Tp Gii Phng Ring 2: Gii Phng M X Ch Cha Trc Ct V Tnh Quan Gii Phng Ring 3: Khu Tm ng X Lm Gi Khu Tm Ring 4: H Huy Tp Giao Lc Ch Cn Yn nh Ng ng Xun Bng H Huy Tp S cc Ring truyn dn ca VNPT Nam nh c ch ra cc hnh di y.

Hnh 3.1. Ring1 Ring li

Hnh 3.2. Ring2-STM16 Gii Phng M X Ch Cha Trc Ct V Tnh Quan Gii Phng

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Hnh 3.3. Ring3-STM16 Khu Tm ng X Lm Gi Khu Tm

Hnh 3.4. Ring4-STM16 H Huy Tp Giao Lc Ch Cn Yn nh Ng ng Xun Bng H Huy Tp Cc thit b truyn dn quang SDH (STM-16) c ngun gc t mt s hng sn xut thit b ln trn th gii nh Siemens v Fujitsu. c im ca nhng thit b ny l c ch to theo cng ngh c, thit k ti u cho li lu lng TDM. Nhng thit b ny hu nh kh c kh nng m rng thch ng cho truyn ti gi (ngha l, hin vn c kh nng truyn ti lu lng dng gi nhng hiu qu khng cao), do khng c trang b nhng giao tip ph hp mang lu lng gi. Trong khi , nhu cu truyn ti d liu di dng gi v IP ngy mt tng nhanh. V dung lng, cc tuyn truyn dn SDH ca VNPT Nam nh cn rt thp so vi nhu cu truyn dn trong tng lai. 3.2. D BO NHU CU DCH V V LU LNG TRUYN TI TRN MNG VIN THNG CA VNPT-N 3.2.1. Khi qut iu kin a l, kinh t- x hi VNPT-N Nam nh l mt tnh ln vi hn 2 triu dn nm pha Nam ng bng Bc B . Theo quy hoch nm 2008 th Nam nh thuc vng duyn hi Bc B iu kin
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND a l, kinh t-x hi ca tnh Nam nh nh hng rt ln n nhu cu pht trin cc dch v v s thu bao vin thng v cng ngh thng tin ca tnh. c bit, ngy nay cc iu kin ny nh hng rt ln n nhu cu pht trin cc dch v v s thu bao bng rng ca vin thng tnh. Ngc li, pht trin vin thng v cng ngh thng tin s l ng lc pht trin kinh t-x hi ca Tnh Nam nh. Chnh v vy, trong nhng nm qua Cty in Thoi 3 tp trung pht trin c s h tng vin thng cho tnh Mng vin thng ca khu vc VNPT-N c xy dng trn c s ph hp vi nh hng chin lc ca VNPT. Vi chin lc xy dng mng theo hng mng th h sau (NGN), tng bc tin ti mt c s h tng mng duy nht vi s hi t ca cc dch v thoi, s liu v bng rng, cho php xy dng v pht trin mng vin thng ph hp vi xu th pht trin tt yu ca mng vin thng ton cu. V vy tip tc thc hin chin lc BCVT theo nh hng ca Ngnh ra, vic u t tip tc m rng v nng cp mng li vin thng ca Vin thng Nam nh l hon ton ph hp v rt cn thit. Theo xu th pht trin ca x hi s pht trin ca x hi nhu cu s mng bng rng ngy cng tng. Nm bt xu th Tp on BCVT ch trng xy dng mng MAN Ethernet. y l mng bng rng, tc cao tri rng trn tt c cc tnh thnh. Khi mng hon thnh s c ng truyn quang n tn cc thu bao bng rng phc v nhu cu: truyn s liu, internet, truyn hnh trc tuyn.... Cc nh khai thc ang to ra nhng m my in t l ni lu tr thng tin v cc dch v gi tr ra tng trong truyn hnh... dn n bng n v lu lng, lng thu bao kt ni tng vi khi lng dung lng ln lc ny cn phi m bo ng truyn tc cao. 3.2.2. Cc bc d bo nhu cu dch v v s thu bao D bo nhu cu dch v v pht trin thu bao l mt qu trnh phc tp nhng v c bn c th c phn thnh 6 bc chnh (xem Hnh 3.5).

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND
Xc nh mc tiu d bo X l cc iu kin ban u Thu thp d liu Phn tch xu hng nhu cu La chn k thut d bo v tnh ton nh hng ca cc dch v khc v cnh tranh

Xc nh cc gi tr d bo dch v v pht trin thu bao

Hnh 3.5. Quy trnh d bo nhu cu dch v v pht trin thu bao Xc nh mc tiu d bo: Bc u tin ca cng vic d bo l phi xc nh r cc mc tiu d bo. Cc mc tiu d bo bao gm nhu cu ca dn c v nhu cu cho sn xut kinh doanh. Vng mc tiu d bo l ton b Tnh hay vng phc v ca trm. Giai an d bo c th l 5 nm, 10 nm hoc 15 nm. X l cc iu kin ban u: Trong qa trnh d bo nhu cu dch v th cc yu t tc ng n nhu cu dch v l rt quan trng v cn phi c xem xt. Cc yu t ny c th c chia lm 2 loi: yu t khch quan v ch quan.Yu t khch quan gm cc yu t v kinh t v cc yu t v x hi nh. Yu t ch quan gm: gi thit b, tin thu bao hng thng, chnh sch pht trin khch hng, cc ph ph khc v cc yu t v tip th nh qung co, h thng phn phi. D bo nhu cu dch v s nghin cu v phn tch cc yu t trn xc nh v mt s lng nhu cu dch v trong tng lai. Thu thp d liu: Trong bc ny phi xc nh c yu t no nh hng n cc mc tiu d bo v nhng s liu no nn thu thp. Tip theo, cc s liu thu thp c phi phn loi sao cho vic phn tch chng c d dng. Cc s liu lin quan n d bo nhu cu dch v gm: nhu cu dch v, mt thu bao hin ti, dn s, s h gia nh, s cc c quan, tc tng trng kinh t, cc k hoch pht trin th, cc doanh nghip cung cp dch v, . v.v. Cc s liu ny c sp xp theo thi gian, theo cc nhn t v theo vng phc v. Tip cn v phn tch xu hng nhu cu: Xu hng nhu cu c phn tch theo quan im nh sau : Cc gi tr qu kh. C cu th trng dch v.
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 57

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Ngun nhu cu. Mt thu bao. Cc c im ca vng nghin cu. So snh vi cc vng khc v cc Quc gia khc. La chn k thut d bo v tnh ton: Hin nay c nhiu phng php d bo khc nhau. Cc phng php ny c phn chia thnh cc dng chnh da trn phng php chung: nh gi d bo hoc da trn cc s liu thng k. i vi mi phng php chung trn s c nhiu phng php d bo khc nhau tu theo ngi nh gi, vai tr nh gi hay s lng cc s liu thng k. Mt phng php d bo c xc nh thng qua cc s liu thu thp. Tuy nhin cho gi tr d bo bo m chnh xc cao hn, iu quan trng l nn chn phng php kh thi nht v chn cc gi tr ti u. Xc nh cc gi tr d bo: T vic phn tch kt qu nhn c t bc 2 5 v xem xt nh hng ca cc dch v khc, yu t cnh tranh ca cc nh cung cp khc iu chnh la chn cc gi tr ti u. 3.2.3. Phng php d bo dch v v thu bao Theo s liu thng k v nhu cu pht trin in thoi c nh hin nay gn nh bo ho. S lng thu bao gn nh khng thay i hoc thay rt t so vi nm trc v t b tc ng bi cc yu t bn ngoi. Nhu cu dch v bng rng, s thu bao bng rng pht trin trong nhng nm gn y pht trin rt mnh nhng li khng theo mt quy tc pht trin no v ph thuc nhiu vo chnh sch pht trin th trng, gi cc, chnh sch khuyn mi. Tuy nhin, cng vi vic pht trin thu bao bng rng li c mt s lng khng nh cc thu bao c nhu cu hu b dch v. Nhu cu ny li ph thuc rt nhiu vo cht lng dch v, chnh sch gi cc, chnh sch khuyn mi, cng ngh ca nh cung cp v c bit l ca i th cnh tranh. Chnh v vy c c mt s liu d bo nhu cu dch v bng rng st vi kh nng pht trin thc t i hi ngi d bo phi nm vng v tnh hnh kinh t, dn s, chnh sch pht trin kinh t ca Nam nh v chnh sch pht trin dch v ca cc nh cung cp dch v trn a bn. T nhng phn tch trn em xut chn phng php d bo theo kin chuyn gia d bo nhu cu dch v bng rng v pht trin thu bao ca VNPT-N trn c s cc chuyn gia quy hoch pht trin mng vin thng ca VNPT-N. Phng php d bo theo kin chuyn gia l phng php da trn cc nh gi ca cc chuyn gia trong lnh vc cn d bo hoc c lin quan. Cc s liu d
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 58

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND bo ca cc chuyn gia a ra s c xem xt, nh gi v tng hp a ra kt qu d bo cui cng. 3.2.4. La chn m hnh d bo nhu cu dch v v v pht trin thu bao Trn c s chn phng php d bo theo kin chuyn gia, em xut chn m hnh d bo nhu cu dch v bng rng v pht trin thu bao ca VNPT-N
M t dch v d bo

Thu thp s liu: - S liu qu kh - S liu kinh t-x hi - Chnh sch - Gi cc - Qung co,... S liu d bo khc

S dng phng php d bo chuyn gia

D bo nhu cu dch v

M t th trng v s dng phng php chuyn gia d bo th phn cho VNPT-N

D bo s lng thu bao

Hnh 3.6. M hnh d bo nhu cu dch v v pht trin thu bao 3.3 NH GI KH NNG NG DNG CNG NGH NG-SDH TRN MNG VIN THNG CA VNPT-N GIAI ON 2011-2015 Cn c vo hin trng mng vin thng ca VNPT-N, ta thy: - Hin ti phn ln cc thit b truyn dn trn mng vin thng ca VNPT-N u s dng thit b truyn dn trn c s cng ngh SDH vi vic trin khai cc vng ring hoc cc thit b kt ni im-im vi dung lng STM-16. Do vn tn dng c s h tng truyn dn hin c l mt trong nhng yu cu t ra cho mc ch tit kim chi ph u t xy dng mng. - Trong vng vi nm tr li y VNPT-N u t rt ln vo h tng mng trong vic pht trin cc tuyn cp quang ni ht. Phn ln cc tuyn cp quang c lp t vi dung lng si trong cp l 8, 16, 24 si, h s s dng si cn kh thp. Do vy, ti nguyn v si quang trong mng quang ni ht ca VNPT N l kh ln. y l mt thun li ln khi xem xt trin khai cc h thng truyn dn quang da trn c s kt hp cc cng ngh mi nh l WDM, NG-SDH,...
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 59

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND - Nhu cu li lu lng IP trn mng ngy cng tng v c nh gi l s tng khong 100% - 130% mi nm trong khi lu lng thoi ch tng khong 10% mi nm.(Kho st nm 2010 ca VNPT-N) Do vy trong tng lai lu lng IP s tr nn vt tri so vi lu lng thoi. Mt khc, cc sn phm thit b da trn cng ngh NG-SDH c nhiu u im nh: - p ng c nhu cu thu knh dch v TDM (E, E3), STM-1/4/16 v cc dch v hng s liu: POS, FE, GE... Cng ngh thit b hin ang ni ln di tn MSxP-Multi Service Provisioning/Switching/Transport Platform. MSxP c xem l ph hp vi nh khai thc truyn thng (nh VNPT-N), p ng c s a dng nhu cu dch v, tn dng c cc cng ngh hin c m vn m bo duy tr c s pht trin ln cc th h mng mi. - Cung cp cc kt ni c bng thng c nh cho khch hng - tin cy ca knh truyn dn cao, tr truyn dn thng tin nh. - Cc giao din truyn dn c chun ha v tng thch vi nhiu thit b trn mng. - Qun l d dng - Cng ngh c chun ha - Thit b c trin khai rng ri c bit, mng truyn ti quang SDH-NG c th cung cp cc loi hnh dch v nh i vi mng SDH truyn thng, ngoi ra mng ti cc ADM ca thit b SDHNG c th cho php cung cp cc nhiu loi hnh giao din vi tc khc nhau kt ni vi cc thit b mng NGN, chng hn nh: 622 Mbit/s (STM-4), 2,5 Gbit/s (STM-16), 10 Gbit/s (STM-64), 40 Gbit/s (STM-128)... ng thi, mng c trin khai theo cng ngh SDH-NG c kh nng tch hp c s h tng mng SDH c. iu ny cho php tn dng c s h tng mng truyn dn c, tit kim chi ph u t xy dng mng. Vi nhng phn tch trn v da vo thc trng mng ca VNPT-N, em thy rng vic xy dng h tng truyn dn quang da trn cng ngh NG-SDH l hon ton ph hp vi bi cnh hin nay ca mng, va tn dng c c s h tng sn c, va p ng c nhng mc tiu pht trin mng trong tng lai. Tuy nhin, vi s pht trin mnh m ca cng ngh WDM nn c s h tng mng truyn dn quang c th p dng nhiu gii php cng ngh truyn dn quang
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 60

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND ph hp ch khng nht thit phi la chn mt cng ngh duy nht, y cng l xu hng xy dng mng truyn ti quang hin ti v tng lai (c bit l mng MAN). Do , vic la chn cng ngh NG-SDH pht trin mng truyn ti quang ca VNPT-N cn phi c xem xt mt cch c th, ty theo cc nhu cu c th hay cc iu kin c th. V d, khi xy dng mi hay nng cp cc tuyn truyn dn quang. Khi xy dng mi, nn p dng ngay cng ngh NG-SDH p ng c nhu cu truyn ti cc dch v mi nh d liu gi hay internet. Cn khi nng cp cc tuyn SDH c th c 2 kh nng: - Tn dng c s h tng mng truyn dn quang SDH c, tch hp h thng NG-SDH mi vi cc h thng truyn dn SDH c p ng c nhu cu truyn ti cc dch v mi nh d liu gi hay internet. iu ny cho php tn dng ti nguyn mng c sn, tit kim kinh ph u t. - i vi bi cnh mng di do v ti nguyn si th khng bt buc phi b h thng c s h tng mng truyn dn c, c th s dng h thng NG-SDH trn cc si cn cha s dng hoc c th s dng 2 h thng c v mi trn cc bc sng khc nhau bng cch s dng cng ngh WDM. iu ny va tn dng c s h tng truyn dn SDH c ng thi p ng c nhu cu cung cp dch v s liu bn cnh dch v TDM truyn thng. 3.4 PHNG N NG DNG CNG NGH NG-SDH CHO MNG TRUYN TI QUANG CA VNPT-N GIAI ON 20112015 Hin nay, trn th gii c 4 gii php chnh p dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti: - Ethernet over SONET/SDH-NG, - RPR over SONET/SDH-NG, - SONET/SDH-NG over WDM, - SONET/SDH-NG trc tip. Di y, em xin trnh by cc gii php v so snh cc gii php cng ngh trn mng truyn ti quang v xut ca em v kh nng p dng cng ngh NGSDH cho mng truyn ti quang ca VNPT- N. 3.4.1. Gii php Ethernet over NG-SDH (EoS) Cc nh cung cp dch v hin ang tm kim cc phng thc truyn ti s liu hiu qu. Mt trong nhng gii php kh thi m cc hang sn xut thit b ang tin hnh nghin cu l Ethernet over NG-SDH (EoS), s dng phng php truyn
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 61

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND ti tn hiu Ethernet qua cc mng SONET/SDH-NG. EoS tn dng phn chi ph u t vo thit b SONET/SDH ADM v cho php cc nh cung cp dch v nng cp mng c sn c th cung cp c dch v Ethernet. EoS thc hin x l thch ng cc khung Ethernet vo cc khung SDH. y chnh l chc nng lin kt hot ng (inter-working function- IWF) ca EoS. IWF c th nm trong: 1) thit b SONET/SDH ca nh cung cp dch v; 2) trong thit b chuyn mch s liu ca nh cung cp dch v nh chuyn mch hoc b nh tuyn Ethernet; hoc 3) khch hng c th t trin khai IWF - loi khi dch v knh (CSU). IWF thc hin mt s chc nng trn lu lng Ethernet, bao gm: - Thc hin thch ng khung Ethernet thnh khung SONET/SDH. - Thc hin ghp knh ng hoc tp hp lu lng Ethernet. - Thc hin mt s chc nng chuyn mch Ethernet, nh bc cu, tp hp tuyn v iu khin lung Ethernet. Mi IWF EoS c th c trin khai theo mt phng thc khc nhau v c th thc hin mt s hoc ton b cc chc nng trn. Cc lung lu lng Ethernet c chuyn mch v nh dng, sau c sp xp vo cc ng EoS ng (chia s hoc dnh ring) vi kch c c xc nh theo cc bc tng VC-3, VC-4 hoc STS-1. Cc mc SLA, vi vic m bo cc tc phn b ln nht v/hoc nh nht, c h tr trn tng VLAN, trn tng cng hoc trn tng khch hng. S sp xp lu lng Ethernet vo knh SDH ca thit b NG-SDH c ch ra hnh 3.1.
ng EoS c bc tng STSNc hoc VC-4-Nv Dung lng dnh sn cho cc dch v s liu dng bng n

ng EoS Ring OC-48/12 hoc STM-4/16

GE
Truy nhp Internet 400Mbps Ethenet TLS 200Mbps

Ethernet

ng EoS
Ethernet

Ethenet IP 60Mbps

Bng tn nh nht vi bc tng 1 Mbps

Hnh 3.7. Sp xp lu lng Ethernet vo knh SDH ca thit b NG-SDH


Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 62

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Nhn chung, mt mng EoS cung cp cc dch v Ethernet s dng cc kt ni LAN im-im, cc dch v kt ni im-a im hoc a im-a im. Hnh v di y s minh ha v m hnh kt ni ca mt doanh nghip vi mt s v tr khc (trung tm s liu, chi nhnh) qua mng EoS. Cc khch hng ISP c kt ni n b nh tuyn/chuyn mch ca ISP qua mng EoS. Gii php Ethernet over SONET/SDH-NG c m t hnh 3.2. Cc chc nng chnh khi x l lu lng Ethernet l PHY, ma trn chuyn mch gi, v cc chc nng thch ng.

E 1G

Trung tm d liu/ISP

Tr s chnh

IWF
1 GE

IWF Mng NG-SDH

IWF
-3 OC

IWF

rnet Ethe bps M 1/100

Chi nhnh Chi nhnh IWF: Chc nng lin kt hot ng EoS

Hnh 3.8. Ethernet over NG-SDH/SONETs * Chc nng ca node EoS Thng thng chc nng EoS s c trin khai trn tng card giao din. Cc chc nng EoS chnh gm: - Ethernet PHY - cha cc giao din Ethernet quang hoc in, nh cc giao din 10/100Mbps v 1/10GBE. - C cu chuyn mch gi - thng thng c cu chuyn mch gi c th thc hin chc nng thm, bt, xp hng i theo th t u tin v iu khin lung. - Chc nng thch ng- chc nng thch ng x l vic sp xp cc khung Ethernet vo SONET/SDH. Cc c ch sp xp khc nhau c th c s dng nh PPP, GFP, X.86. - Chc nng ghp chui o VCAT
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND - C cu ADM TDM * Cc c im ca gii php EoS - Kh nng phn mc: Lu lng Ethernet c mang mt cch trong sut qua mng SDH, do EoS c kh nng phn mc c trn cc phng din s dch v, khong cch gia cc UNI v bng tn. VCAT kt hp vi LCAS cho php cc nh cung cp dch v cung cp o cc tc vi bc tng rt nh. Vic ghp o VCAT lu lng Ethernet c ch ra hnh 3.3.
Phn cp ng Knh o vi bc tng 10Mbps Knh o vi bc tng 1Mbps

VCATG VC-3-2v VC-4-4v

Knh o vi bc tng 1Mbps

GE

Fast Ethernet

VC-4/3/12

Hnh 3.9. Ghp o VCAT lu lng Ethernet - Bo v: Bo v l mt trong cc th mnh ca SDH. Phng thc EoS c th t thi gian khi phc dch v l 50ms. - QoS v OAM: Cc c tnh OAM ca SDH th hin v kh nng gim st c tnh v pht hin s c ti mi lp trong phn cp SDH. Kh nng h tr cc c tnh OAM ny cho php cc nh khai thc qun l v iu khin cc dch v theo phng thc im-im. 3.4.2. Gii php RPR over NG-SDH RPR l mt giao thc mi c pht trin bi nhm lm vic IEEE 802.17 v gn y c chun ho. RPR c thit k dnh cho mang lu lng s liu trn topo ring. RPR c u im c trong vic cung cp dch v bo v v s dng bng tn hiu qu trn cc topo ring. RPR nh ngha mt lp MAC mi gip trnh c vic phi chuyn mch ti cc lp cao (lp 2 v 3) v trnh xp hng i. iu c ngha l RPR c th cung cp mc jitter, tr thp.

* Cc c im ca gii php da trn RPR:


Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 64

STM-N

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND - Kh nng phn cp: Hn ch chnh ca phng thc ny l RPR ch p dng cho cc topo ring. Hn na, RPR c chun ho cho ring n, do kh nng phn cp s l vn nu lu lng i qua nhiu ring. - Bo v: RPR l mt cng ngh hp nht nhng c im mnh ca SDH v Ethernet. Cng ngh ny cho thi gian bo v thp (sub-50ms) v ng thi c kh nng s dng ti nguyn ring hiu qu (RPR khng i hi phn b bng tn dnh ring cho bo v). - QoS v OAM: RPR h tr cc mc phn cp dch v nh trin khai c ch phn lu lng theo cp u tin. Rt nhiu cc phn cp dch v c xc nh nhm h tr thc hin u tin v qun l lu lng. RPR cng xc nh cc c ch OAM, nh RPR OAM ping, gip cc nh khai thc c th kim tra kh nng tin n ti lp MAC ca cc mng RPR. Tm li, RPR l mt gii php tt cho ring n, ph hp vi cc nh khai thc vng trng ch cung cp cc dch IP hoc cc ng dng hnh nh. Nhng lu rng do RPR nh ngha mt lp MAC c lp v phng tin nn n c th c mang qua mi trng vt l khc l Ethernet hoc cc mng truyn ti SDH. S dng GFP sp xp cc khung RPR vo SDH trong thc t l mt gii php cho cc nh khai thc nhm tn dng c s h tng rt ln ca h c xy dng trn nn SDH cung cp cc dch v RPR.

* Trin khai RPR trn thit b NG-SDH:


RPR c trin khai trn cc thnh phn mng quang SDH bng cch tch hp cc card giao din Ethernet c h tr RPR v cc kh nng chuyn mch gi to nn mt chuyn mch lp 2 phn tn v thng minh c kh nng s dng bng tn SDH nh mt backplane o gia cc im u cui. Hnh 3.67 m t phng thc ny. Mi card giao din RPR l mt chuyn mch Ethernet lp 2 vi tnh thng minh cao. Cc card RPR c thng mi ho c s cng ln h tr nhiu loi giao din khc nhau nh 10/100BASE-T, 10/100BASE-FX v GbE. Chng cung cp cc giao thc Ethernet chun nh IEEE-802.1Q v IEEE 802.1p. Cc mng SDH h tr RPR cho php ton b hoc mt phn ca tng bng tn ca ring c cung cp nh mt qu chung v c phn b ng gia cc card giao din RPR c trin khai qua ring. Mi qu chung ng ca bng tn s c coi nh mt ring RPR o (nh hnh 3.4). Mt mng c th h tr nhiu ring o c lp khi cn thit.

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65

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND
RPR: - Kh nng phn cp dch v - robustness

Ethernet: - Chi ph thp - n gin - Ph bin

Server

Server
Node quang Node quang

SDH

Node quang

Node quang

Server

Server

Hnh 3.10. Gii php trin khai RPR trn NG-SDH u im chnh ca cc mng truyn ti SDH c h tr RPR l kh nng phn b bng tn ng cho lu lng gi trong khi vn tip tc s dng phn bng tn non RPR ca mng cung cp cc dch v TDM. Do , cc dch v TDM c th c h tr theo phng thc truyn thng m khng lm suy gim cht lng dch v. V vy, cc nh cung cp dch v c th s dng c s h tng SDH c ca h cung cp cc dch v gi vi cc mc m bo SLA trong khi vn tip tc khai thc cc dch v TDM m khng b suy gim cht lng dch v. Gii php tch hp truyn ti TDM v RPR trn h tng mng NG-SDH c ch ra hnh 3.5.
Cc card Ethernet RPR cung cp chc nng chuyn mch lp 2 phn tn. Bng tn truyn ti RPR c phn b ng gia tt c cc card Ethernet RPR, cho php kt ni mesh o

Ring RPR o: qu bng tn ng dng chung chia s cho tt c cc card RPR

NE SONET/SDH da trn RPR

Ring RPR o Qu bng tn ng dng chung Bng tn RPR

DM tn T Bng

Ring vt l 2 si: OC-12, OC-48, STM-3, STM16, STM-64c

Ring TDM SDH truyn thng: bng tn dnh ring cho cc kt ni nh DS1/DS3/OC-n

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Hnh 3.11. Gii php tch hp truyn ti TDM v RPR trn h tng mng NG-SDH

* Tch hp RPR vo MSPP:


C nhiu platform RPR ban u c thit k nh cc h thng RPR thun tu. Phng thc ny tn dng trit cc li ch ca RPR khi mang cc dch v gi. Tuy vy phng thc ny khng phi lc no cng l phng thc c li v chi ph nu dch v c t trng cao trn mng li l TDM. gii quyt vn ny, mt phng thc la chn khc l tch hp RPR vo MSPP thng qua vic s dng cng ngh RPR o. Trong trng hp ny, chc nng RPR c thc hin trn MSPP ch khng phi ton h thng. Kt hp vi GFP ( ghp khung), VCAT (cho thit lp knh) v LCAS (cho cung cp v nh c li cc VCG), RPR c s dng nh mt phng thc to cc ring RPR o trong cc ti SDH i qua nhiu ring vt l SDH. u im: cc nh khai thc c th chuyn n RPR, trin khai RPR t mt MSPP. RPR o c th c s dng to cc vng chuyn mch VPN phn cp cho cc khch hng c bit qua cc topo SDH. Nh khai thc c th trin khai cc MSPP c kh nng h tr RPR gn cc v tr khch hng, sau s dng ghp chui o v GFP to mt ring o (vi bc tng l VC-3) cc v tr mong mun gn cc trung tm s liu khch hng hoc cc trung tm ti nguyn mng khc. Do cc node trung gian khng cn h tr kh nng VCAT nn ring RPR o c th i qua c c s h tng mng c v mng th h sau. Ch cc im u cui mi cn h tr VCAT v RPR. Gii php ny cung cp cho khch hng c tnh v duy tr ci thin vi thp, s hop chuyn mch nh v tin cy cao do cc kh nng chuyn mch tng b phn v phc hi la chn. 3.4.3. Gii php NG-SDH over WDM Giao thc GFP gii phng dng lu lng khi yu cu bt buc ca tc s liu ng b c nh v s lng ph tng tn quang khi lu lng s liu bng n khng lp y phn dung lng li c nh c cp cho n. GFP c th phc v bt c kiu lu lng client no nh khung Ethernet v cc gi IP c di bin thin, v bao chng trong khung li qua mng. N c bit ph hp vi kiu lu lng IP khng th d bo trc (khng theo quy lut no). GFP cng cho php thc hin ghp knh nhiu dng s liu truyn dn qua mt tuyn v c th s dng m rng mng LAN hng n mng WAN hon ton trong sut. - Kh nng m rng GFP l mt giao thc Lp 2 thc hin sp xp tn hiu client vo khung GFP di s h tr ca VCAT v LCAS trc khi a vo ti SPE ca SONET/SDH li qua mng.
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND S dng tiu nh gm 4 byte trong 2 byte CRC-16 va ng vai tr kim tra li va phn tch khung. ng b cu trc khung ny, pha thu tm kim mu 32 bit c thit lp gi tr 0 ca CRC cn li. Chnh nh vy, GFP trnh c hin tng bt trc mu bit ng b khung nh HDLC hay POS (mt yu cu bt buc khng cho php ti bt trc mu ny trnh nhm ln gia cc khung) do tng c bng tn hiu dng. GFP c kh nng x l tn hiu c Lp 1 (Fiber Channel, FICON, ESCON) v Lp 2 (PPP, MPLS, MAPOS, RPR). Tc c th m rng t 1 Gbit/s cho n 40 Gbps da trn giao din ca SONET/SDH c chun ho. - H tr VPN v QoS Vi mt cu trc khung n gin da trn vic cn chnh byte, gim thiu byte tiu nn GFP khng c chc nng h tr cho VPN cng nh QoS. GFP kt hp vi VCAT khng thay lm i bn cht im-im ca SONET/SDH truyn thng. i vi kt ni mesh ca tn hiu client yu cu SONET/SDH phi cung cp knh SONET/SDH dng mesh k c vi kt chui o. Hin vic cung cp knh SONET/SDH dng mesh vn l thch thc i vi nh khai thc v s to nn chi ph cung cp dch v qu ln (do chi ph khai thc cho mng ny rt ln). Hin ti GFP ch c s dng cung cp ng kt ni cho lu lng Lp 2 im-im. Chnh v vy chc nng VPN v QoS s c h tr bi giao thc Lp 2 khc c sp xp trong khung GFP. C ch thch ng ng kch c ca knh SONET/SDH ca LCAS l mt giao thc m bo ng b gia pha pht v thu khi tng/gim kch thc cc knh kt chui o theo cch khng can thip vo tn hiu s liu. Do n khng th thch ng linh hot knh SONET/SDH theo tnh s dng bng n tc thi ca ngi s dng. Hn na, n thiu mt giao thc xc nh kh dng ca cc Container va gii phng v khng th phn b cc knh cung cp cho cc nt trung gian. V vy kh nng h tr CoS l tng i hn ch. - Bo v v khi phc Mng hot ng trn GFP kt hp vi cc cng ngh VCAT v LCAS c li bi cc khung SONET/SDH. Do n khng c chc nng bo v v khi phc; chc nng ny c tn dng t giao thc ASP sn c trong SONET/SDH. Tnh a dng trong nh tuyn ca LCAS cho php bo v mt nhm kt chui o vi bng tn ti thiu trc mt s kin sai hng mng. Theo nguyn l, nhm kt
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND chui ny c th c thc hin bng c ch bo v SONET/SDH tuy nhin c tnh ng ca nh tuyn trong LCAS dng nh lm cho c ch bo v ny mt hiu lc. 3.4.4. So snh cc gii php mng truyn ti p dng cng ngh NG-SDH a. Nng lc truyn ti Tr truyn ti v kh dng Bng 3.1 a ra cc mc tr ca mt s gii php cng ngh da trn NG-SDH c th p dng cho mng truyn ti quang. EoS c thi gian tr phc hi ngn nhng tr truyn ti ln. Trong khi cng ngh RPR cho gi tr tr truyn ti nh hn so vi cng ngh NG-SDH do p dng chc nng chuyn gi (packet forwarding). Bng 3.1. So snh tr mng gia cc gii php cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over NG-SDH NG-SDH over WDM NG-SDH Tr bo v phc hi Tr truyn ti 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms Ln Nh nht Nh Trung bnh kh dng 99,9 - 99,999 % 99,999 % 99,999 % 99,999 %

kh dng cng l mt yu t cn phi a ra xem xt. Hu ht cc gii php cng ngh u c th thc hin mang nhm t c kh dng nm s chn (99,999%), nhng b li chi ph xy dng mng c th tng rt nhiu. Mt vn t ra l c cn thit phi thc hin mng vi kh dng cao nh vy khng? Phn ln khch hng thng tho mn vi mc kh dng nh, c bit trong trng hp gi ca cc loi hnh dch v gim i ng k. Bo v v phc hi i vi chc nng bo v v phc hi mng; tnh hiu qu ca vic thc hin chc nng ny ngoi vic ph thuc vo bn cht cng ngh n cn ph thuc vo cu trc t-p mng c p dng. Cng ngh RPR v NG-SDH vi cu hng ring cung cp chc nng bo v mng rt hiu qu, nhng khng ph hp vi cc cu trc t p mng kiu khc. Trong khi mng xy dng trn cng ngh Ethernet li cung cp c cu bo v rt hiu qu vi cu hnh li lan hoa (Hub-and-Spoke) nhng khng ph hp vi cu hnh ring. Bng 3.2 a ra so snh v hiu qu bo v i vi mt s gii php cng ngh.
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Bng 3.21. So snh kh nng bo v v chi ph cho xy dng c cu bo v Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over NG-SDH Ng-SDH over WDM NG-SDH Thng lng Khi so snh thng lng gia cc cng ngh, chng ta cn lu mt iu rng: tc ng thng l khc so vi tc bng thng cung cp. V d trong cng ngh Ethernet, nu nh chng ta c mt giao din GbE vi bng thng l 1 Gigabt/s th tc ng thng phi l 1,25 Gigabt/s. i vi cng ngh SDH, d liu ca phn nh dng khung v xo trn d liu lm cho tng 3 % lu lng cho phn tiu . Thng lng s dng ng thng v bng thng ca mt s loi hnh cng ngh c th hin trong bng 3.3, trong ch tnh n lu lng phn tiu tng ng vi cc cng ngh m cha tnh n lu lng qun l v iu khin p dng cho mi mt cng ngh. Bng 3.3. So snh thng lng ng thng v phn t l s dng bng thng ng vi cc loi hnh cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS NG-SDH NG-SDH over WDM RPR over NG-SDH b. Gi thnh mng Gi thnh thit b mng
Sinh Vin thc hin : Nguyn B Linh 07VT1 70

Kh nng bo v Tt, chi ph hi cao Tt, chi ph hi cao Rt tt Tt, chi ph hi cao

Thng lng ca bng thng 88 % 89 % 90% 87 %

Thng lng ca ng thng 88 % 89 % 90% 87 %

Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Mng cp quang chim mt t trng rt ln trong gi thnh xy dng mng, c bit l trong cc th ng dn c, nhng ni cha c tuyn cp. trong trng hp mng c sn cc tuyn cp quang v cht lng cp vn m bo th s tit kim c rt nhiu chi ph u t xy dng. Bng 3.4 cho chng ta mt ci nhn tng quan nht v s so snh gi c ca mt s gii php cng ngh in hnh c th p dng cho xy dng mng truyn ti quang. Tuy nhin gi thnh thc t xy dng mng cn ph thuc vo rt nhiu cc yu t khc, nht l cc yu t m chng ta cp cc mc trn. Do vy gi thnh thit b cng ch l mt trong nhng tiu ch ch yu cn phi cn nhc khi xy dng mng. Bng 3.4. So snh gi thnh xy dng mng da trn c s mt s gii php cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over NG-SDH khng tch hp SDH Ng-SDH over WDM NG-SDH khng tch hp SDH RPR over NG-SDH tch hp SDH NG-SDH tch hp SDH Gi thnh thc hin qun l v iu khin i vi cng ngh SDH truyn thng, chc nng qun l gim st v iu khin (OAM &P) c xy dng hon chnh v c tiu chun ho v i km vi thit b, do vy gi thnh thnh ca cc phn t thc hin chc nng ny trong mng SDH l ph bin v khng qu t. i vi cng ngh Ethernet, mt vn t ra l hin ti cc hng cha cung cp nhng c cu thc hin chc nng qun l v gim st dch v i km vi h thng. Nguyn nhn l do thc hin chc nng ny cn phi c kin to phn lp qun l mi (yu cu rt mm do v linh hot) thc hin chc nng ny trong h thng thit b. Mt trong nhng gii php qun l iu khin c th p dng c l p dng chc nng qun l v iu khin mng Ethernet c xy dng trong cng ngh Gi thnh thit b Khng t Rt t Khng qu t t Khng qu t Khng qu t

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND MPLS (Ethernet over MPLS- EoMPLS), n cho php gim st mng tp trung, ch nh bng thng, thc hin hi phc ng... trong mng Ethernet. Mt trong nhng u im ca gii php cng ngh l mng c th cung cp cc y dch v Ethernet trong khi vn bo ton tt c cc chc nng qun l v iu khin bn trong mng SDH, trong c nhng chc nng rt quan trng nh l bo v phc hi, gim st v iu khin ng thng. Trnh pht trin cng ngh hin ti cho php thc hin chc nng qun l v iu khin tp trung i vi mng truyn ti quang, tuy nhin nhiu cng on thc hin vn ch c th lm nhn cng v c ch iu khin cn cha linh hot v mm do, iu ny s lm cc nh cung cp dch v s gp rt nhiu kh khn khi cn phi m rng mng trin khai cung cp cc loi hnh dch v mi. Do vy, hin ti cc nh sn xut thit b cng nghip vn cn ang tm kim cc gii php qun l v iu khin hiu qu nhm gim thiu tnh phc tp ca vic thc hin cung cp knh kt ni, d dng v linh hot trong vic p ng yu cu ca khch hng, gim gi thnh xy dng chc nng qun l iu khin v hng ti vic chun ho. c. Kh nng v chi ph nng cp m rng mng Bng 3.5 cho chng ta mt cch nh gi v kh nng nng cp mng i vi mt s gii php cng ngh. Gii php cng ngh EoS c v thch hp hn c xt v phc tp cng nh gi thnh nng cp v tnh ph bin v s chun ho sn xut cng nghip ca cc hng sn xut thit b thuc v cng ngh ny. Cc gii php nh l RPR over NG-SDH v NG-SDH khng nhng kh thc hin v mt nng cp m gi thnh thit b phn cng khi nng cp cng kh t. Bng 3.5. So snh kh nng nng cp mng i vi mt s gii php cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over NG-SDH NG-SDH over WDM NG-SDH d. Vn m bo cht lng dch v Kh nng nng cp v chi ph nng cp m rng D v r Rt kh v rt t D v khng qu t Kh v t

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Bng 3.6 a ra mt s nh gi v kh nng cung cp cht lng dch v i vi mt s gii php cng ngh in hnh. C th ni kh nng m bo cht lng dch v i vi c 4 gii php cng ngh u c nh gi mc tt. Gii php cng ngh RPR over NG-SDH c ci thin v chc nng m bo cht lng dch v do c chc nng m bo cht lng dch v vi cc ng kt ni o tuy mc hi th (vi 3 cp m bo cht lng dch v High, Medium v Low). Cng ngh NG-SDH cho php tng cng hn v mc m bo cht lng dch v ca cc ng thng bng cc chc nng ghp knh o theo chui v c cu iu chnh bng thng ph hp vi cng lu lng trao i gia cc nt u cui. Cng ngh SDH cho mt kh nng m bo cht lng dch v mc cao nht v bn cht ca cng ngh ny l ghp knh TDM. Bng 3.6. So snh kh nng m bo cht lng dch v gia cc gii php cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over NG-SDH NG-SDH over WDM NG-SDH e. Tnh mm do ca mng Bng 3.7 cho ta mt ci nhn tng quan v tnh mm do ca cc gii php mng. Gii php cng ngh EoS cho php tha mn nhiu yu t v tnh mm do ca mng, gii php RPR over NG-SDH c mt nhc im do s hn ch v kh nng trin khai vi cc cu trc t-p mng khc ngoi cu trc ring. Bng 3.7. So snh tnh nng mm do ca cc gii php cng ngh Gii php cng ngh EoS RPR over Ng-SDH Ng-SDH over WDM mm do v linh hot Tt Tt Tt Kh nng m bo cht lng dch v Tt Tt Tt Tt

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND NG-SDH Khng tt

Trn y l mt s tiu ch ch yu cn phi xem xt la chn gii php p dng cng ngh NG-SDH trong mng vin thng . Cc gii php mng cng c so snh nh gi da trn mt s tiu ch ny. Tuy nhin cng cn thy rng, nh lng nhng tham s trn l vic rt kh. Bi v mt s tiu ch c th p dng hon ton ph hp cho gii php ny nhng li khng ph hp hoc khng th s dng cho gii php khc mc d c hai gii php cng c p dng cho mt mc tiu xy dng mng c th no . Trong cc gii php cng ngh c xem xt v so snh theo nhng tiu ch ch yu ca vic xy dng mng nh l nng lc truyn ti ca mng, gi thnh ca mng, kh nng nng cp v m rng mng. Xt v tnh hiu qu, cc gii php da trn cng ngh NG-SDH u c u im l c th tn dng c c s h tng mng SDH truyn thng c trong khi vn c th trin khai nhng loi hnh dch v mi m khng nh hng ti nhng loi hnh dch v c trin khai trn mng SDH c. Hn na, cc gii php ny u m bo c c tnh truyn ti d liu tin cy vi (latency) thp ca cng ngh SDH truyn thng. Tuy vy tnh mm do, kh nng nng cp ca mng s l mt vn cn cn nhc khi la chn gii php NG-SDH. Gii php NG-SDH ch ph hp cho nhng trng hp xy dng mng khi lu lng truyn ti ch yu l TDM v trong tng lai khng c s bng n cc dch v s liu v bn thn cng ngh NG-SDH khng thc s hiu qu khi c s dng truyn ti lu lng gi. Gii php RPR over NG-SDH cho php tng hiu qu s dng bng thng trong vng ring, m bo cht lng dch v nhng cp nht nh. Tuy nhin, mng p dng cng ngh ny i hi phi u t cc thit b mi cho cc nt mng. Do gii php cng ngh ny c v thch hp vi vic xy dng mng mi hon ton c v c s h tng v cung cp dch v. Gii php EoS cng c nhiu u im, trong ni bt l u im v chi ph, kh nng nng cp v m rng mng. Tuy nhin, y l gii php c tr truyn ti ln nht trong cc gii php k trn. EoS ph hp p dng cho bi cnh xy dng mng cn tn dng c s h tng c sn nhm tit kim chi ph. NG-SDH over WDM c nh gi l gii php c kh nhiu u im so vi ba gii php trn. NG-SDH over WDM va tn dng c c s h tng c, tc l p ng c yu cu v chi ph (gi thnh xy dng mng khng qu t), va p ng c cc yu cu v k thut.
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

. Mt s nh gi Trn c s phn tch nh gi v cc gii php cng ngh p dng NGSDH trn ta c th rt ra mt s nhn xt cho mi gii php nh sau:
* i vi gii php EoS: - u im: + Gi thnh xy dng mng tng i r + C kh nng h tr rt tt cho ng dng li d liu tc cao v c c tnh lu lng mng tnh t bin v tnh bng n. + Cho php li lu lng vi hiu sut bng thng v thng lng li ln. + Hu ht cc giao thc, giao din li ng dng trong cng ngh Ethernet c chun ho (h giao thc IEEE.802.3). + Thun li trong vic kt ni cung cp dch v cho khch hng. Khng i hi khch hng phi thay i cng ngh, thay i hoc nng cp mng ni b, giao din kt ni. - Nhc im: + Khng ph hp cho vic truyn ti loi hnh ng

dng c c tnh l-u l-ng nhy cm vi s thay i v tr truyn ti (jitter) v c (latency) ln. - Kh nng ng dng:
+ Ph hp p dng cho bi cnh xy dng mng cn tn dng c s h tng

c sn nhm tit kim chi ph.


+ Ph hp p dng cho khu vc mng truy nhp ni c c s h tng mng

c xy dng trn c s cng ngh Ethernet


* i vi gii php RPR over NG-SDH: - u im: + Thch hp cho vic truyn ti l-u l-ng dng d

liu vi cu trc ring. + Cho php xy dng mng ring cu hnh ln (ti a c th n 200 nt mng). + Hiu sut s dng dung l-ng bng thng ln do thc hin nguyn tc ghp knh thng k v dng chung bng thng tng. + Hi tr trin khai cc dch v multicast/broadcast

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND
+ Qun l n gin (mng -c cu hnh mt cch t

ng) + Ph-ng thc cung cp kt ni nhanh v n gin + Cng ngh -c chun ha


+ + + + - Nhc im:

Gi thnh thit b t Kh nng m rng, nng cp kh khn Hn ch v topo Cng ngh mi c chun ha do vy kh nng kt ni tng thch kt ni thit b ca cc hng khc nhau l cha cao

- Kh nng p dng:
+ Ph hp vi vic xy dng mng cung cp kt ni vi nhiu cp tha

thun dch v kt ni khc nhau trn mt giao din duy nht


+ Thch hp vi vic xy dng mng mi hon ton c v c s h tng v

cung cp dch v.
* i vi gii php NG-SDH over WDM: - u im:

+ Nng lc li tt. + Kh nng m rng v nng cp d dng. + Cung cp cc h thng li quang c dung lng ln, p ng c cc yu cu bng n lu lng ca cc loi hnh dch v. + Nng cao nng lc truyn dn ca cp si quang, tn dng kh nng li ca h thng cp quang c xy dng. + Kh nng m bo cht lng dch v tt. - Nhc im: + Gi thnh mng t - Kh nng ng dng: + Ph hp cho nhng ni m mng cn thiu ti nguyn cp/si quang, cn phi tn dng nng lc li ca si quang + Nng cp dung lng, thay th h thng li quang hin c + ng dng cho nhng ni cn dung lng h thng li ln nh mng li, mng ng trc C 3 gii php u c nhng im mnh v im yu nht nh. Tuy nhin, vic la chn gii php cng ngh no l cn ph thuc rt nhiu cc yu t khc cng khng km phn quan trng nh l qui m, nng lc ti chnh ca nh u t xy dng mng. Do vy, vic nghin cu xem xt p dng cc tiu ch nh gi v la
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND chn gii php mng p ng c nhu cu truyn ti thng tin khng ch cho hin ti m cn cho c tng lai ca nhn dn, ca cc c quan, x nghip, 3.4.5. Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPTN giai on 2011-2015 Nh phn trn trnh by, hin nay c 4 gii php chnh p dng cng ngh NGSDH cho mng truyn ti: - Ethernet over SONET/ NG-SDH, - RPR over SONET/ NG-SDH, - SONET/ NG-SDH over WDM, - SONET/ NG-SDH trc tip. Trn c s phn tch nh gi v cc gii php cng ngh p dng NGSDH mc 3.1.4, c th rt ra mt s nhn nh nh sau. C 4 gii php u c nhng im mnh v im yu nht nh. Tuy nhin, vic la chn gii php cng ngh no l cn ph thuc rt nhiu cc yu t khc cng khng km phn quan trng nh l qui m, nng lc ti chnh ca nh u t xy dng mng. Do vy, vic nghin cu xem xt p dng cc tiu ch nh gi v la chn gii php mng p ng c nhu cu truyn ti thng tin khng ch cho hin ti m cn cho c tng lai ca nhn dn, ca cc c quan, x nghip, doanh nghip ti Nam nh, t a ra cc cu hnh ph hp l mt vic cn thit. Trn c s m hnh t chc mng truyn ti ca VNPT Nam nh cng nh trn c s p ng nhu cu truyn ti thng tin hin ti v tng lai ca Nam nh, ng thi m bo hiu qu u t, vic la chon cc gii php p dng cng ngh NG-SDH pht trin mng truyn ti ca VNPT Nam nh cn phn 2 trng hp:
+ Mng li (mng ng trc) ca VNPT Nam nh, + Mng MAN thnh ph Nam nh.

Tuy nhin, vic phn nh ny cng mang tnh cht tng i v ch ph hp vi giai on hin nay v mt vi nm ti ca VNPT Nam nh. Xu hng thit k mng truyn ti ca th gii theo khuynh hng t u cui n u cui (End - to - End), tc l xa nha danh gii gia mng li (mng ng trc) v mng Metro. a. i vi mng li ca VNPT Nam nh

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Vic la chn gii php cng ngh truyn dn cho mng li cn da vo cc tiu ch sau: - Gim thiu chi ph/bit (cost per bit) - Kh nng m rng, nng cp mng - Nng lc truyn ti ca mng Trn c s so snh bn gii php trn v cn c vo nhng tiu ch la chn ch yu c th thy rng c EoS v NG-SDH over WDM u p ng c nhng yu cu ca mng li ca VNPT Nam nh. Do , em xin xut p dng 2 gii php s dng cng ngh NG-SDH l EoS v NG-SDH over WDM cho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh. Ty theo tng iu kin c th p dng cc gii php cho ph hp. * M hnh NG-SDH over WDM cho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh

Hnh 3.12. M hnh mng NG-SDH over WDMcho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh

* M hnh gii php EoS cho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Hnh 3.13. M hnh mng EoS cho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh Tuy nhin, mc d gii php NG-SDH over WDM c gi thnh mng cao hn so vi EoS nhng gii php ny li c nhng c im ni tri hn nh: - Gii php ny hon ton p ng c cc yu cu chuyn hng n mng IP/quang trong tng lai. - Cung cp h thng li c dung lng ln. - Kh nng nng cp v m rng rt tt khi nhu cu lu lng tng - H tr tt MPLS (IP-MPLS) khi trin khai cng ngh hai cng ngh l IP v MPLS (m hnh xp chng giao thc IP/MPLS) cho phn lp nh tuyn/ chuyn mch lp 3. M hnh IP/MPLS/NG-SDH/WDM c kh nng cung cp dch v theo yu cu QoS/CoS cho khch hng. Nng cao nng lc hot ng ca mng trc nh kh nng thit k lu lng v cung cp QoS m bo ca MPLS. Do vy, nu phi la chon mt trong hai gii php trong cng mt iu kin nh nhau th em u tin la chn gii php truyn dn NG-SDH over WDM cho mng li ca VNPT Nam nh vi m hnh giao thc l IP/MPLS/NG-SDH/WDM.

b. Mng MAN ca VNPT Nam nh

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Mng MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) l mt khi nim tng i mi. Khi nim ny c s dng rng ri cc nc pht trin, t nhiu lin quan n kt cu th. i vi nhng nc ny, trong mt vng (tnh) s gm mt thnh ph ln v thnh ph v tinh, cc khu cng nghip v thng mi (Metropolitan). Mng lin kt cc khu vc nh vy s c vai tr ging nh mng vng. Trong ti, khi nim mng MAN y s l mng kt ni thnh ph v cc khu cng nghip/cng ngh v thng mi ln bao quanh. Xt v cu trc phn lp dch v, mng MAN c chia lm 2 lp: - Lp truy nhp thc hin chc nng tch hp cc loi hnh dch v bao gm c dch v t ngi s dng v dch v mng. Lp mng ny thc thi kt ni cung cp cc loi hnh dch v xut pht t mng truy nhp ng dng bi nhiu cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau nh cc dch v trn c s cng ngh Ethernet, ATM, Frame Relay, DSL, cp ng, cp quang...v vi nhiu loi giao din khc nhau. - Lp mng li thc hin chc nng li lu lng tch hp trong mng th mt cch hp l; lp ny thc hin chc nng nh tuyn li lu lng trong ni vng th hoc chuyn giao lu lng vi mng trc (backbone). Theo m hnh phn lp chc nng, mng MAN c th phn chia thnh 2 lp mng: lp mng bin v lp mng li. Trong mi lp mng c th b tr cc thit b mng c chc nng khc nhau thc thi cc chc nng cn phi thc hin ca lp mng ny ty thuc vo mc tiu, qui m, kch c ca mng MAN cn phi xy dng. Cc nt mng thc hin chc nng l: - Nt truy nhp khch hng: l nt mng u tin phn ranh gii tip gip gia khch hng v nh cung cp dch v mng MAN v thuc v nh cung cp dch v. Nt mng ny c lp t ti pha khch hng hoc c b tr trong phm vi mng ngoi vi ca nh cung cp dch v. Khch hng c th kt ni vi nt truy nhp khch hng ny thng qua cc thit b chuyn mch (lp 2) hoc cc thit b nh tuyn (lp 3). Chc nng ca nt mng ny l: + Cung cp cc loi hnh giao din mng v ngi s dng (UNI) ph hp vi thit b kt ni ca khch hng. + m bo bng thng cung cp cho khch hng c thit lp tng ng vi tha thun cp dch v (SLA), loi hnh dch v (CoS) hoc cc c tnh m bo cht lng dch v (QoS) i vi khch hng. - Nt tp trung: l nt trung chuyn gia nt truy nhp khc hng v nt kt ni mng li (POP). Nt ny ng vai tr l nt tp hp lu lng t cc nt truy nhp khch hng chuyn ln nt kt ni mng li, dung lng x l ca nt ny quyt
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND nh ti s lng nt truy nhp khc hng c th trin khai trong mt khu vc no c bit i vi khu vc c s lng khch hng ln. i vi mng khu vc c kch thc, dung lng nh, s lng khch hng t c th khng cn c nt mng ny. - Nt kt ni mng li: Nt ny c thc hin tp hp lu lng li ln mng li MAN, n thc hin cc chc nng nh:
+ m bo kt ni mt cch tin cy vi cc phn t mng li + Kt ni cc nt mng li MAN vi nhau + Kt ni vi cc phn t mng li bng giao thc thng nht li cc

loi hnh dch v - Nt kt ni ng trc: nt ny c th l nt ring bit hoc l nt kt ni mng li c thm giao din v giao thc kt ni ph hp kt ni vi phn t mng ng trc li cc lu lng ca cc loi hnh dch v lin mng. Cc tiu ch la chn gii php truyn dn cho mng MAN:
+ H tng hp nht + Kh nng m rng, nng cp mng + Tng hp vi c s h tng hin c + a dng v dch v khch hng + Gi thnh xy dng mng ph hp

Cc gii php cng ngh cho mng MAN quang s c la chn cho tng lp mng v da trn cc bi cnh khc nhau nh xy dng mng mi hoc c c s h tng mng v cn tn dng c s h tng ny. Vi phm vi ca ti n tt nghip ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT Nam nh, nn em tp trung vo ni dung nghin cu ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng li ca mng MAN cho VNPT Nam nh. ng thi, lu lng thng tin truyn ti cc khu vc ca thnh ph v cc khu cng nghip/cng ngh v thng mi ln bao quanh thng rt ln v thng xuyn tng cao. Trong khi , cng ngh NG-SDH kh c th p ng c nhu cu truyn ti cc khu vc ny trong tng lai. Do , vic xy dng cc mng MAN khng nn s dng mt cng ngh NG-SDH, m kt hp cc cng ngh nh Ethernet/WDM v IP/WDM,...

Giai on 2011- 2013:

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Trong giai on ny, lu lng thng tin truyn ti cc khu vc ca thnh ph v cc khu cng nghip/cng ngh v thng mi ln bao quanh tng i ln. Tuy nhin, vi cu hnh ring sn c c th vn p ng c yu cu truyn ti lu lng trao i thng tin ca x hi trong giai on ny. Tuy nhin, v mt cng ngh ngoi vic s dng cng ngh NG-SDH nn tn dng cc cng ngh sn c ca cng ty m c VNPT u t trong giai on trc nh cng ngh Ethernet/WDM,... ng thi, trong giai on ny trin khai gii php PoS kt ni cc b nh tuyn IP li trong mng MAN VNPT-N:
- Tn dng c h tng truyn dn SDH trin khai, v vy gim c chi ph u t mi (CAPEX), - Kin trc mng n gin do khng c s tham gia ca cc thit b mi vo mng, d vn hnh khai thc v bo dng, d gim chi ph khai thc bo dng (OPEX), - D dng trin khai m hnh qun l/iu khin mng ng cp la chn IP/WDM, - H tr tt MPLS cung cp chc nng thit k lu lng v QoS trong mng, nn tng li nhun nh khai thc hiu qu ti nguyn mng.

Xy dng POP-trc Metro a dch v: p ng tt nhu cu mi ca khch hng s dng dch v cnh tranh trn nn cng ngh gi.
Phng n cu hnh mng MAN v kin trc POP Metro cho VNPT-N giai on 2011- 2013

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Hnh 3.14. Mng MAN cho VNPT-N giai on 2011- 2013

Hnh 3.15. Kin trc POP Metro giai on 2011- 2013

Giai on sau 2013:


Trong giai on ny, lu lng thng tin truyn ti cc khu vc ca thnh ph v cc khu cng nghip/cng ngh v thng mi ln bao quanh l rt ln v
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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND thng xuyn tng nhanh. Do , vi cu hnh ring sn c kh c th p ng c yu cu truyn ti lu lng trao i thng tin ca x hi trong giai on ny. Nn chuyn cu hnh mng MAN sang cu hnh mesh. ng thi, bn cnh vic tip tc s dng gii php cng ngh ca giai on 2011-2013, trong giai on sau 2013 VNPT-N nn pht trin mng truyn ti quang theo hng s dng chuyn mch quang (mesh OXC hoc ring OADM) v xy dng POP-trc Metro da trn ng dng IP. Giai on ny cc vn v cng ngh lin quan n IP v quang nh QoS IP, nh tuyn bc sng, chuyn mch quang,... s c gii quyt v thng mi ha. V vy, m hnh mng s n gin v hiu qu, mng li nhiu li nhun. Phng n cu hnh mng MAN v kin trc POP Metro in hnh cho VNPTN giai on sau 2012 c ch ra cc hnh 3.12 v 3.13.

Hnh 3.16. Mng MAN cho VNPT-N giai on sau 2013

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND

Hnh 3.17 Kin trc POP Metro in hnh cho VNPT-N giai on sau 2013 3.5. KT LUN Qua vic tn hiu, nghin cu cc gii php cng ngh v da trn hin trng mng quang ca VNPT-N ta thy, gii php cng ngh NG-SDH l la chn thch hp trin khai ng dng cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-N trong giai on u xy dng mng truyn ti IP/WDM. Trin khai cc h thng truyn dn quang NG-SDH nhm thay th dn cc h thng truyn dn SDH truyn thng c c cc h thng quang tch hp cung cp kt ni a tc , a giao din trong mng NGN. i vi mng ng trc giai on hin ti s dng cc thit b truyn dn quang vi cc thit b ADM cung cp cc giao din SDH truyn thng (cc giao din E1, STM-n). Trong giai on xy dng cc h thng li quang mi trn cc tuyn cp quang mi ni tnh v nng cp, m rng cc h thng li hin c cn xy dng cc h thng NG-SDH c cc tnh nng cung cp a loi hnh giao din h tr cho cc thit b nh tuyn/chuyn mch gi ca mng NGN. i vi phm vi mng li ca mng th Metro nn trin khai h thng li quang NG-SDH vi m hnh trin khai h tr li lu lng Ethernet v trin khai NGSDH trn h thng WDM. Ty thuc vo hin trng cu trc t-p mng v dung lng mng theo qui hoch c th ca tng vng trin khai cc m hnh thch hp. M hnh kin trc giao thc ph hp s l IP/MPLS/NG-SDH hoc IP/MPLS/NGSDH/WDM. Cc thit b SDH th h mi c th trin khai c th l MSPP, MSTP hoc MSSP ph hp vi cc yu cu thit k mng c th.

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Chng 3 : Gii php ng dng cng ngh NG-SDH cho mng truyn ti ca VNPT-ND Trin khai cng ngh NG-SDH trong mng li truy nhp quang nhm p ng yu cu xy dng mng, p ng nhiu mc tiu khc nhau nh l cung cp a dng dch v, a dng giao din, tch hp c s h tng mng li quang hin c, ng dng cc cng ngh mng tin tin, hng ti qun l tp trung thng nht trong tng lai.

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