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UNIVERSITATEA DIN CRAIOVA FACULTATEA DE LITERE SPECIALIZAREA: ROMANA / ENGLEZA INVATAMANT LA DISTANTA PROGRAMA ANALITICA Disciplina: Limba englez.

Curs practic: Exerciii gramaticale Specializarea: Romn- Englez Anul III, Semestrul I Coordonatorul disciplinei: asist. univ. drd. Iulia Ciurezu 8. OBIECTIVELE DISCIPLINEI: Cursul practic i propune: 9. aprofundarea, sistematizarea i lrgirea cunotinelor despre grupul verbal si sintaxa frazei ; exersarea si fixarea folosirii corecte a verbelor modale; subjonctivului in propozitii subordonate; a constructiilor cu infinitivul, participiul si gerunziul (recunoasterea functiilor sintactice ale acestora) 10.revizuirea si aplicarea practica a conceptelor si notiunilor teoretice de baza accumulate in cadrul cursului de sintaxa frazei privind negatia, coordonarea si subordonarea, constructii complexe cu gerunziul si infinitivul, statutul subiectului acestora, transformari sintactice) 11.familiarizarea studentilor cu structuri sintactice complexe, specifice limbii literare/ scrise prin accesul la si lucrul cu texte autentice. 12.TEMATICA CURSURILOR 1. The English verb and related syntactic complexities 1.1. Phrasal verbs; 1.2. Deontic and epistemic uses of English modals 1.3. Negative sentences: syntactic patterns, polarity items, idioms and translation Sentence Coordination 2.1. Sentences with incomplete conjuncs 2.2. Coordinators, correlative coordinators

2.

3.

Finite subordination 3.1. The use of the subjunctive in THAT clausess, the sequence of tenses 3.2. Syntactic functions of finite clauses Non-finite Subordination 4.1. Accusative with Infinitive and Nominative with Infinitive constructions 4.2. The gerundial clause; verbs followed by infinitives and /or gerunds (DO clauses) 4.3. The Infinitive after prepositional verbs and adjectives (PO clauses) 4.4. Participial constructions

4.

13.EVALUAREA STUDENTILOR Forma de evaluare: testare pe parcursul semestrului 14.BIBILIOGRAFIE GENERALA 1. Cornilescu, Alexandra & Iclezan-Dimitriu, Ioan, The Infinitive, Editura Institutul European, Iasi, 2000. 2. Cornilescu, A. (1995): Concept of Modern Grammar, EUB, Bucuresti; 3. Cornilescu, A. (1986): English Syntax, vol. 2, EUB, Bucuresti 4. Foley, Mark & Hall, Diane, Advanced Learners Grammar. A self-study reference & practice book with answers, Longman, 2003. 5. Galateanu-Farnoaga, G., Comisel, E (1993).: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Omegapres & Rai, Bucuresti 6. Graver, B.D.(1986): Advanced English Practice, third edition, OUP 7. Hewings, M. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use, A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners, CUP 8. Radford, A. (1997): Syntactic theory and the structure of English, CUP, Cambridge 9. Vince, M. 2002. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan.

LIMBA ENGLEZA - CURS PRACTIC EXERCIII GRAMATICALE ANUL III SEMESTRUL I

Asist. univ. drd. Iulia Ciurezu

UNITATEA 1: The English verb and related syntactic complexities Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili: 1. S identifice verbele cu particula si/sau prepozitie 2. S foloseasc corect verbele modale si sa distinga intre valorile deontice si epistemice ale acestora 3. S foloseasca corect elementele lexicale polarizate (polarity items). Timp de studiu : 8 ore.

1.1. Phrasal verbs Exercise 1 Insert prepositions/ particles wherever you think they are needed. Make a list of the phrasal verbs you have found, check them with a dictionary and use them in sentences of your own. A. I WAS BORN PREMATURE AND HAVE BEEN LATE EVER SINCE. Those you who are punctual will not know us, the other half of the world, the latecomers. Youll have waited us; the chances are that youve been kept waiting us many a time, but you wont understand. In fact, if the truth be told, youre the enemy. Doubtless, youve seen us. Were quite a spectacle: a vast tribe of electrified anxiety. We glance our watches and see despair. Youve probably noticed us leaping and taxi cabs throwing notes (no time change!). We dodge you the street, jumping puddles, weaving the traffic. We are the strange, scuttling creatures bursting wild eyes restaurants, the hope that youve waited us. Youll have observed us hovering nervously every lobby and entance hall the world. In theatres and cinemas you stand as we creep the row trying so hard not to knock your knees or tread your toes. And you, what do you do? You tut the dark. You dont need to do that, we know what weve done.

But heres a curious thing: these moments we hate ourselves so much that we have no alternative but to transfer our hatred you, the punctilious, instead. Here we see this aggressive lateness action: Im very sorry Im late. Yes, but why are you late? I just am. But why? Where have you been? Whatve you been doing? Do you realise how long Ive been waiting here? Ive been waiting over an hour! Does it matter? Yes. You should respect me enough to show time. But Im not late purpose. Look, Ill go. But youve only just arrived! So you want the truth? Yes. Well, Im late because Ive made a choice a choice to be myself. Im the kind person who has never been time yet and never will be. Thats what Im like. Sorry!

B. TECHNICAL QUERIES Your detailed knowledge computers may lead someone to ask you a technical question. Never be worried these; the fact hat they ask means they wouldnt understand the answer anyway. The most important rule is, claim to know nothing the insides the machines. Computer users should know no more what happens the screen than a television critic. If someone starts talking chips and processors and bus boards, direct them an electronic engineer.( or caf or London Tramsport timetable, as suitable). Questions you will be asked are three tipes: Is there any way I can print sideways my word processor? Im running Megabase IV version 3 under TOS version 2.15 and there seems to be a glich at PC=4A2E which resets the defaults by overwriting four bytes at 3E60 when I run a batch file. How can I get this? My computer wont work, whats wrong it? Adopt the old technique used those manning the talls exhibitions when customers ask them awkward queries: First ask them if its MS-DOS; if they say it is, say regret that you know nothing MS-DOS. If they say its some other system, say you know nothing except MS-DOS. But say you will listen their questions anyway.

Listen intendly and ask what version the program they are talking, then say Ahhh, that version, there were problems that one Go deep thought a few second, then pick the most suitable the following answers: Yes, you can do it, but its very difficult unless you know assembler. (Nobody asking a question you will know assembler so no problem here.) Theres a program the public domain which will do it you a bit tweaking. Ive forgotten the name, but its something V-G8/ W 0.EXE. (This is always true.) I think theres a bug that version which has been fixwd the latest version. (All versions of all programs have bugs which get fixwd the next version to reveal further bugs, so youre safe here too.) Remember, those asking queries only want your time, not your advice. If they really wanted to find how to do it, they would go a computer consultant and pay $50 hour; talking you they think they are getting attention, free. They will therefore be unimpressed a short reply which answers the question perfectly and succinctly. They will the other hand be pathetically grateful ten minutes you scratching your head, erming and ahing and ending saying you can do it but its very difficult, unless you know assembler.

Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with appropriate particles and prepositions: Mike was born a cute African-American guy. "Normal", if you will, and very talented. Despite the current, sad stories about his lonely, sad childhood, Mike grew __ surrounded __ famous people and an adoring public.(...) By age 11, Mike was a Superstar. At age 13 he went solo and had his first #1 hit at 14 with "Ben" (a touching love song __ a rat). Who knew he'd get addicted __ plastic surgery, face accusations __ child molestation and end __ America's Most Famous Sideshow?(...)He had unprecedented sponsorship deals __ Pepsi, and LA Gear Sportswear. People stood __ line __ 1AM to purchase "Thriller" when it came __, even though the store didn't open until 9 AM. (...). He's started the Spin __ the misunderstood, picked-__ __ Victim instead __ an increasingly weird 30 year old man. He's creepy. People are making jokes that only __ America can you be born a black man and end __ a white woman.(...)The public, who forgave his mounting eccentricities because __ his incredible talents nod __ silence __ it all,

unsurprised. Most remark that someone __ this going __ visibly outside has to have a lot __ demons going __ inside. __ his defense, Mike launches his second career as Whining, Weeping, Hurt, Offended, Innocent Victim. (...) The "Alcoholic Housewife" look didn't catch __ either. Even the staunch defenders __ Michael's sanity have to admit the boy's cheese has slid __ his cracker.

Exercise 3 Read and analyze syntactically the following examples of phrasal verb uses of the verbs hand and break: Use these verbs (in as many of their phrasal meanings as you can) in sentences of your own: Hand. hand something back phrasal verb 1 to give something back to the person who gave it to you, with your hand hand something back to Kurt examined the document and handed it back to her. hand somebody something back She handed him his pen back. 2 to give something back to the person who used to own it hand something back to The land was handed back to its original owner. hand somebody something back The government has promised to hand investors back their money. hand over phrasal verb 1 hand something over to give something to someone with your hand, especially because they have asked for it or should have it The soldiers were ordered to hand over their guns. hand something over to He handed the phone over to me.

2 to give someone power or responsibility over something which you used to be in charge of hand something over (to somebody) On his retirement, he handed the business over to his son. Political control has been handed over to religious leaders. hand over to Now she feels the time has come to hand over to someone else.

Break break away phrasal verb 1 to leave a group or political party and form another group, usually because of a disagreement More than 30 Labour MPs broke away to form a new left-wing party. break away from They broke away from the national union and set up their own local organization. see also breakaway 2 2 to leave your home, family, or job and become independent break away from I felt the need to break away from home. 3 to move away from someone who is holding you She started crying and tried to break away. break away from She broke away from him and ran to the door. 4 to move away from other people in a race or game Radcliffe broke away 200 meters before the finish. 5 to become loose and no longer attached to something Part of the plane's wing had broken away. break down phrasal verb 1 if a car or machine breaks down, it stops working

The car broke down just north of Paris. The printing machines are always breaking down. see also breakdown 2 to fail or stop working in a successful way Negotiations broke down after only two days. I left London when my marriage broke down. see also breakdown 3 break something down if you break down a door, you hit it so hard that it breaks and falls to the ground Police had to break down the door to get into the flat. 4 break something down to change or remove something that prevents people from working together and having a successful relationship with each other Getting young people together will help to break down the barriers between them. It takes a long time to break down prejudices. 5 if a substance breaks down or something breaks it down, it changes as a result of a chemical process break something down Food is broken down in the stomach. Bacteria are added to help break down the sewage. 6 to be unable to stop yourself crying, especially in public He broke down and cried. She broke down in tears when she heard the news. 7 break something down to separate something into smaller parts so that it is easier to do or understand He showed us the whole dance, then broke it down so that we could learn it more easily. The question can be broken down into two parts. see also breakdown break for something phrasal verb to suddenly run towards something, especially in order to escape from someone He broke for the door, but the guards got there before he did. break in phrasal verb 1 to enter a building by using force, in order to steal something

Thieves broke in and stole 10,000 worth of computer equipment. see also break-in 2 to interrupt someone when they are speaking break in on I didn't want to break in on his telephone conversation. break in with Dad would occasionally break in with an amusing comment. 3 break something in to make new shoes or boots less stiff and more comfortable by wearing them I went for a walk to break in my new boots. 4 break somebody in to help a person get used to a certain way of behaving or working She's quite new to the job so we're still breaking her in. 5 break something in to teach a young horse to carry people on its back We break the horses in when they're about two years old. break into something phrasal verb 1 to enter a building or car by using force, in order to steal something Someone broke into my car and stole the radio. Her house was broken into last week. 2 to become involved in a new job or business activity She made an attempt to break into journalism. It's a profession that is very hard to break into. Many British firms have failed in their attempts to break into the American market. 3 to start to spend money that you did not want to spend I don't want to break into my savings unless I have to. 4 break into a run/trot etc to suddenly start running He broke into a run as he came round the corner. 5 break into a smile/a song/applause etc

to suddenly start smiling, singing etc Her face broke into a smile. He suddenly broke into song. The audience broke into loud applause. break somebody of something phrasal verb to make someone stop having a bad habit Try to break yourself of the habit of eating between meals. break off phrasal verb 1 to suddenly stop talking She started to speak, then broke off while a waitress served us coffee. He broke off in mid-sentence to shake hands with the new arrivals. break something off I broke off the conversation and answered the phone. 2 break something off to end a relationship She broke off their engagement only a few weeks before they were due to be married. The US has broken off diplomatic relations with the regime. 3 if something breaks off, or if you break it off, it comes loose and is no longer attached to something else One of the car's wing mirrors had broken off. break something off He broke off a piece of bread. break out phrasal verb 1 if something unpleasant such as a fire, fight, or war breaks out, it starts to happen I was still living in London when the war broke out. Does everyone know what to do if a fire breaks out? Fighting broke out between demonstrators and the police. see also outbreak 2 to escape from a prison break out of Three men have broken out of a top security jail. see also breakout 3 to change the way you live because you feel bored break out of She felt the need to break out of her daily routine.

4 break out in spots/a rash/a sweat etc if you break out in spots etc, they appear on your skin I broke out in a painful rash. My whole body broke out in a sweat. break through phrasal verb 1 break through (something) to manage to get past or through something that is in your way Several demonstrators broke through the barriers despite warnings from the police. After hours of fierce fighting, rebels broke through and captured the capital. 2 break through (something) if the sun breaks through, you can see it when you could not see it before because there were clouds The sun broke through at around lunch time. The sun soon broke through the mist. 3 to manage to do something successfully when there is a difficulty that is preventing you He's a very talented young actor who's just ready to break through. break through into It is possible that at this election some of the minority parties might succeed in breaking through into parliament. see also breakthrough

break up phrasal verb 1 if something breaks up, or if you break it up, it breaks into a lot of small pieces It seems that the plane just broke up in the air. break something up Use a fork to break up the soil. 2 break something up to separate something into several smaller parts There are plans to break the company up into several smaller independent companies. You need a few trees and bushes to break up the lawn. 3

break something up to stop a fight Three policemen were needed to break up the fight. 4 break something up to make people leave a place where they have been meeting or protesting Government soldiers broke up the demonstration . Police moved in to break up the meeting . 5 if a marriage, group of people, or relationship breaks up, the people in it separate and do not live or work together any more He lost his job and his marriage broke up . The couple broke up last year. Many bands break up because of personality clashes between the musicians. break up with Has Sam really broken up with Lucy? see also breakup 6 if a meeting or party breaks up, people start to leave The party didn't break up until after midnight. The meeting broke up without any agreement. 7 British English when a school breaks up, it closes for a holiday School breaks up next week. break up for When do you break up for Easter? 8 break somebody up American English informal to make someone laugh by saying or doing something funny He really breaks me up! break with somebody/something phrasal verb 1 to leave a group of people or an organization, especially because you have had a disagreement with them She had broken with her family years ago. They broke with the Communist Party and set up a new party. 2 break with tradition/the past to stop following old customs and do something in a completely different way

Now is the time to break with the past. His work broke with tradition in many ways.

Exercise 4 Verbs with particles can be distinguished from verbs which take a PP complement with the help of syntactic tests like those illustrated below: (a) he lived in a hut *he lived a hut in (b) he lived right near a mountain (c) he lived near the forest and next to a river he took off his hat he took his hat off *he took right off his hat *he took off his hat and off his coat

Apply these tests to at least ten sentences (for each MV type) of your choice from any of the exercises above.

1.2. Deontic and epistemic uses of English modals Exercise 1 The text below is the correct and complete version of the text used in exercise (2) above. Make a list of (a) the phrasal verbs in it (with and without prepositions); (b) the modal verbs (specifying whether they have been used in their deontic or epistemic meanings): Mike was born a cute African-American guy. "Normal", if you will, and very talented. Despite the current, sad stories about his lonely, sad childhood, Mike grew up surrounded by famous people and an adoring

public.(...) By age 11, Mike was a Superstar. At age 13 he went solo and had his first #1 hit at 14 with "Ben" (a touching love song to a rat). Who knew he'd get addicted to plastic surgery, face accusations of child molestation and end up America's Most Famous Sideshow?(...) He had unprecedented sponsorship deals with Pepsi, and LA Gear Sportswear. People stood in line at 1AM to purchase "Thriller" when it came out, even though the store didn't open until 9 AM. (...) In a mere year and a half his skin's gone from beautiful cocoa bronze to fish belly white. He first denies this, then blames it on the medical condition Vitiligo which causes people of color to develop light patches of skin that lack pigment.(...) He's talking in a Marilyn Monroe Little Girl Whisper. He's started the Spin of the misunderstood, picked-upon Victim instead of an increasingly weird 30 year old man. He's creepy. People are making jokes that only in America can you be born a black man and end up a white woman.(...)The public, who forgave his mounting eccentricities because of his incredible talents nod in silence about it all, unsurprised. Most remark that someone with this going on visibly outside has to have a lot of demons going on inside. In his defense, Mike launches his second career as Whining, Weeping, Hurt, Offended, Innocent Victim. (...) The "Alcoholic Housewife" look didn't catch on either. Even the staunch defenders of Michael's sanity have to admit the boy's cheese has slid off his cracker. Mike gets a fake chin implant and suddenly loses his cleft chin, the sides of his face are stretched taut, his nose isn't pointing North anymore and it's anyone's guess what the hell he did to his skin this time. The Art of Cosmetology seems to be an unknown science in his part of the world and he's getting his face done at the local morgue. He has new lipstick and jokes abound that he's turned into Diana Ross. (...) Each photo that shows up in the coming years never fails to make people's jaws drop. Mike gets worked up saying he doesn't see why everyone but him can have a little nip and tuck on the nose... He doesn't think he looks that different and wishes people would leave him alone. We wish he'd leave his face alone.

Exercise 2 Respond to the statements or questions below (in long, complex sentences or paragraphs) using the modal verb given in brackets: 1. Why didn't she arrive in time yesterday morning? (must) .

2.

Let's not wait any longer. (may) . 3. It's strange that he hasn't said any more about his plans to emigrate. (might) . 4. Be very careful if he starts asking questions. (can) . 5. I'm afraid he failed that test. (be able to) 6. She invited her new neighbours to our party. (need) .. 7. I can see the lights are still on. (must) .. 8. What he told me was really amazing. (can) .. 9. What's going on here? (should) .. 10 This is so like George. (will) 11. I wonder what has come up. (could) . 12. It was such a bad idea to borrow Ann's car. (would) . 13. They should have been here long before now. (may) .. 14. We will have to return to B. next month. (be allowed to) .. 15. I was surprised to hear the news. (ought to) ..

Exercise 3 Study the tables A. and B. below (adapted from Graver 1986) and discuss the meaning of the modal verbs in the following sentences (C.). A. epistemic uses (various degrees of likelihood regarding the truth of the statement)

She

must cant/couldnt will/would may/might can/ could should/ought to

be there already be working on it have told them everything have been lying to Dan

logical conclusion logical conclusion belief possibility possibility probability

B. deontic uses (ability, duty, willingness, permission, etc., in relation to the subject) must/ mustnt obligation neednt absence of obligation She should/ ought to go there immediately recommendation shall promise 1 *be going will willingness * have gone may permission *have been can ability or permission going C. 1. Leaders must lead themselves firsteven when they dont feel like it. 2. In retrospect, losing the author was one of the best things that could have happened to my division; we grew from the experience in ways that would have never happened otherwise. 3. A man does what he must in spite of personal consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers and pressures. 4. Conscience is the inner voice that warns us that someone may be looking. 5. Bennet ought to drop his hypocritical strategy 6. The boys must have seen it coming for some time and so cannot be pitied for what they knew would happen. 7. Such incidents can pose short and long-term health risks to the local population 8. The inhabitants must find it difficult to deal with all that, and some of them might find it much easier to start anew somewhere else.

9. We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be, () 10. He keeps talking about how he could have used different charcters in each season. 11. You neednt have been waiting for us at the station for so long. 12. Legend has it that George Washington could have been king of America, but chose to be president instead; was he really the man who wouldnt be king? 13. Whatever that reason may be, a universe that is exactly like one that is old should be treated as if it were old. 14. I may not always know what I'm doing, but I'll try to make things better. 15. Because he was from the EU, he didn't need to get a visa to visit Britain. 16. She must have been there for a long time, hasn't she? 17. We needn't have rushed to the airport as the plane was late. 18. What did, or did not, happen is not an indication of what could, or could not, have happened. 19. This 25th anniversary disc needn't have been the pointless milestone it is. 20. He must have been too worried about his own exam to remember that promise. 21. No man for any considerable period can wear one face to himself and another to the multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be the true one.

22. Only native-born U.S. citizens (or those born abroad, but only to parents who were both citizens of the U.S.) may be president of the United States. The Constitution originally provided a small loophole to this provision: One neednt have been born in the United States but had to be a citizen at the time the Constitution was adopted. 23. My mother can't have told me, nor can I have heard these things from anyone else, because I had been away for two weeks. 24. You mustnt blame yourself for what has happened, but you shouldnt be trying so hard to put the blame on any of us either. 25. No doubt it is desirable to have international weights, measures, and coins, but not nearly as desirable as is fancied, for there will always be calculations necessary.

Exercise 4 Read the text below and write your personal reactions (approx. 150 words) to each of the points 1-6 ; argue for or against their validity based on a real or imaginary situation in which a friend or colleague either let you down or proved to be surprisingly helpful and understanding; use as many modal verbs as possible, followed by simple/ perfect/continuous/ perfect continuous infinitives (e.g.: She might as well have told me to stop complaining/ she can be so rude at times; I wished she said something, anything about it, but she simply wouldnt; etc.) The Lost Art of Listening by Michael Hyatt One of the greatest gifts any of us can ever receive is the gift of listening. It is also one of the greatest gifts we can ever give. Unfortunately, it appears to be a lost art. We live in a world where everyone is talking but few are listening. What often passes for listening is simply one person pausing to collect their thoughts for their next soliloquy. Just turn on your favorite talk radio or television show to experience a vivid example of this. (My personal favorite is Hannity & Colmes, where no one appears to be listening to anyone!)

Listening is difficult work. I dont pretend to be good at it, but I am trying to learn. Like every skill, the more you do it, the better you get. Here are a few things I am trying to practice and that you can also do to improve your listening skills: 1. Be fully present. This is where every great conversation begins. So often, we are distracted with other things. We try to listen while continuing to work on the computer or watch television. To be fully present means we eliminate these distractions and focus exclusively on the other person. It takes great effort to be fully in the moment, leaning forward, with your earsand heartopen.

2. Ask a question. I am trying to discipline myself to ask more questions. Instead of just commenting when its my turn, I try to ask a question about something the other person said. Perhaps they said something that requires further explanation. Maybe you need an example. Regardless, a question can help the conversation go deeper.

3. Ask a second question. Great questions are the prerequisite for great conversation. Sometimes, like peeling the layers off an onion, you have to peel the conversation back with even more questions. Its good to ask questions. Its even better to ask lots of questions. The

more you listen, the more insight you gather and the more relevant your comments will be.

4. Put yourself in the other persons shoes. Words are only part of the communication. Sometimes we need to experience the other persons feelings to really understand. We need to listen with our heart as well as our mind.

5. Validate their thoughts and feelings. One of the worst things we can do when listening is invalidate the other person. Why would you think that?! Or, You shouldnt feel that way. These kinds of words dont move the conversation along; they stop it dead in its tracks.

6. Repeat back what you have heard. When we do thisand do it accuratelywe communicate that we understand. It also gives you an opportunity to re-calibrate your understanding if you misunderstood something.

Plenty of people are good talkers. Few are good listeners. If you develop the latter skill, you will find yourself invited into amazing conversations that wouldnt otherwise happen.

1.3. Negative sentences: syntactic patterns, polarity items, idioms and translation

Exercise 1 Say whether the following sentences are syntactically negative; prove your point by applying the four syntactic tests: (disjunctive) tag questions; (not) even tags; either conjoining; neither tags. Discuss the D-Structure of negative sentences. 15.He isnt writing any novels at present, is he? 16.He dislikes presents, doesnt he? 17.He hardly understands you, does he? 18.He hasnt ever liked any linguists, not even Noam Chomsky. 19.He isnt working anywhere, and he isnt writing novels either. 20.This approach is non-scientific. 21.John is not kind. / John is unkind. 22.Mike doesnt like smart girls, not even pretty ones. 23.John is unhappy and his wife is also unhappy. / John is unhappy, and

his wife isnt happy either. / John isnt happy, and neither is Mary. John is unhappy and neither is Mary.

Exercise 2 Explain the derivation of the following sentences: (1) You cannot say that. (2) Carol has not been listening to this lecture. (3) He should not ever have responded to her. (4) Horace often does not believe the New York Times. (5) Horace does not often believe the New York Times. (6) Wont you stay until tomorrow? (7) Couldnt you have rescheduled that lecture? (8) He doesnt love her. You are wrong; he does love her. (9) Didnt he say he was coming? (10) Well, I never did hear anything like that.

Exercise 3 Sentences with negative quantifiers. (a) Show that the following sentences are negative: 24.They found nobody alive. .. 25.Nobody has helped her so far and nobody will help her from now on, either. .. 26.He could find nothing of interest there. .. (b) Use the examples below to explain the difference between negative-concord languages and non-negative-concord languages: STANDARD ENGLISH Harry didnt talk to anyone. There isnt any cat there. I cant tell anyone. She wont give me any cookies. NON-STANDARD ENGLISH Harry didnt talk to nobody. There aint no cat there. I cant tell no one. She wont give me no cookie.

She didnt say anything to anyone. Youll go nowhere.

She didnt say nothing to no one. You wont go nowhere.

(c) Explain the structure of the sentences of the standard dialect.

Exercise 4 (a) Negation and Quantification Comment on the relative scope of quantifiers and negation. Specify the preferred reading of potentially ambiguous sentences: 1. Every man loves a woman. . 2. Every man fights for a cause/ his cause/ this cause. 3. Every arrow hit one target. . 4. John visited a museum every day. . 5. Someone has always come late. 6. (a) They always havent liked their leaders. (b) They havent always liked their leaders. . 7. (a) He hasnt once come to this class. (b) He once hasnt come to this class. ..

8.

(a) Carol hasnt contacted many of them. (b) Many of them havent been contacted by Carol. .. 9. The police didnt catch three (of the) escaped convicts. . (b) SOME / ANY Define inherent scope. Comment on the interpretation of SOME / ANY in the following sentences:

1. I saw some of your friends at your party. I didnt see some of your friends at your party. I didnt see any of your friends at your party. 2. He talked to some of my students at the lecture. He didnt talk to any of my students at the lecture. He didnt talk to some of my students at the lecture. 3. Dont you open a window. You open a window. *Dont somebody open a window. Somebody open a window. Dont everybody open a window. ?Nobody open a window. Dont anybody open a window. *Anybody open a window. 4. There are three unicorns in the garden. There are some unicorns in the garden. *There are any unicorns in the garden. There are no unicorns in the garden. There arent three unicorns in the garden. ??There arent some unicorns in the garden. There arent any unicorns in the garden. . (c) What is the relative position of ANY words with respect to negation? State the relevant .rules. 1. I saw no one. / I didnt see anyone. 2. No one can help her in her present condition./ *Anyone cannot help her in her present condition. 3. No student could find the right answer. / *Any student couldnt find the right answer. 4. I can find no pickles anywhere in my house. / *I can find any pickles nowhere in my house. 5. She told nothing to any of the investigators about any money.

*She told anything to none of the investigators about any money. *She told anything to any of the investigators about no money. She told none of the investigators anything about any money. *She told any of the investigators nothing about any money. (d) Comment on the interpretation and derivation of the following sentences: 1. Not many people attended the lecture. . 2. Not much rain fell and neither did any snow. . 3. They sent not many of them to study abroad. They didnt send many of them to study abroad. Not many of them were sent to study abroad. *They were unhappy. .. 4. I saw not some of them. / *Not several of them/ *some of them came. / *Not each of them received flowers. ..................................... 5. Not all her letters were concerned with these technicalities. / We are not cotton spinners all. / But all men are not born to reign. / Not all that glitters is gold. / All the money in the world wont make her happy. . 6. Not everyone can understand that. / Everyone is not able to stand the temptations of political life. / What we would like to suggest is that every pro-Iranian paper which lays any claims to honesty should not print such stuff. / I don'tlook on every politician as a scoundrel. .. 7. Not a word fell from her lips. / A certain fellow she was expecting did not show up. / It all took a minute. / That next lunch she said not a word when I spoke to her and I said I was ready to let bygones be bygones. / He rested but two hours and rested not at all. .

Exercise 5

Emphatic negatives. Rephrase the sentences below using other negative sentence patterns, comment on the differences: 1. He scarcely likes linguistics. 2. Hardly anyone likes linguistics. ... 3. Seldom has anyone performed so well. .. 27.Nothing have I seen that would rival London. 28.Hardly ever does anyone buy turnips. .. 29.Never has Ferguson written anything half so exciting.

Exercise 6 Polarity Items. Identify the negative and affirmative polarity items (NPIs/APIs) in the sentences below. Give possible corresponding APIs/NPIs for each of them; translate the sentences into Romanian. 30.If you dont like my manners, I wont speak to you at all in the future. .. 31.She wouldnt marry him until/before his mother died. .. 32.The eclipse isnt there yet/anymore. 33.Not everyone can do what they want with their spare time. 34.She isnt any smarter for having learned linguistics.

... 35.You neednt write any exercise as far as Im concerned. 36.You need have no fear. . 37.You must be Mr. Smith. . 38.He never touches a drop before noon. . 39.He would rather marry Janes sister. .. 40.I fired the gun right under his nose, but he didnt budge. 41.No one has found a solution to some of these problems. . 42.She isnt all that interested in modern art after all. . 43.I dont like it much. .. 44.She lives a long way off. .. Exercise 7 Polarity Items. Give the affirmative counterparts of the sentences below; give alternatives where possible: 45.Someone came here sometime after five. . 46.She managed to find something appropriate somewhere else. 47.He may be somewhat displeased when you tell him the news. . 48.Anyone can swim. 49.John will arrive here before midnight. 50.I would much rather live in London.

51.Some of the questions on this test he knew how to answer. .. 52.I think that John is a fool. .. 53.Many people can sing and dance. .. 54.There has been only one train since two oclock. .. 55.Peter knows some English and so does John. 56.Both John and Peter have pretty wives. 57.Its a long time since we last saw them. .. 58.She lives a long way off from here. .. 59.He is already an expert on the sublect. 60.He drinks a lot of coffee, and now he misses it quite badly. . 61.I nearly always have to clean it myself. 62.Almost everyone of them did well on that exam. .. 63.You must pay that fine. 64.You must be telling lies. . 65.You may smoke in the nursery. .

Exercise 8 Translate into English (use negative phraseology, polarity items): 66.Nevoia te duce si pe unde nu-ti e voia. .............

67.A:Si cum spui c-a iesit concertul? B:Cum nu se poate mai bine. ............. 68.Cu dragostea nu e de glumit. ............... 69.In chestiunea asta, principalul este sa nu te dai niciodata batut. Nu te teme. Dumnezeu are sa te tina mereu in calea cea dreapta. .............. 70.Pe usa scria;Intrarea oprita/ Fumatul interzis. ............. 71.Ce ti-e scris infrunte ti-e pus. ............. 72.Asta nu e in stare sa cinte de fel. .............. 73.Nu se poate compara nimeni cu el. ............... 74.Are bani cu toptanul si mai e si un baiat de zahar. ................ 75.Cine nu staruieste, nu izbuteste. .. 76.Sens interzis .. 77.Nu-i nimic de facut. 78.Am varsat cafeaua pe covor. Vai, dar nu face nimic. .................... 79.Rectorul insusi ne-a invatat fonologie. Serios, domle? .................... 80.Propun sa facem seminarul in parc. Destul cu prostiile. ................... 81.Nu este padure fara uscaturi. ..................... 82.Parcarea interzisa./ In aceasta zona parcarea este interzisa. .................... 83.Nu are nici un dram de minte/ nici cea mai mica dovada. .................... 84.Nu e nici pe departe la fel de bun ca fratele lui. .................... 85.Nu se afla pe acolo nici tipenie de om. .................... 86.O sa capete el bursa. Pentru nimic in lume.

. 87.N-a miscat un deget ca sa ne ajute. . 88.Nimeni nu misca cind vine seful in inspectie. ......................... 89.Toata afacerea asta nu face nici cit o ceapa degerata. .......................... 90.Cind i-am spus adevarul trist nu a aratat nici cel mai mic semn de surprindere. .......................... 91.In fata ei, nu e in stare sa zica nici pis. ......................... 92.Cu asa tintas nu avem cum cistiga. Asta nu nimereste tinta nici dela un pas. ......................... 93.Fata asta n-o sa se impuna in fata clasei. Nu vezi ca nu e in stare sa omoare o musca? ......................... 94.Era o bezna de nu vedeai la un pas. ......................... 95.Hai, scoala-te. Nu vezi ca n-ai patit nimic? ........................... 96.Nu prea e intreg la minte. ........................... 97.Nu e prea aratos, si nici nu e ceea ce se cheama un savant, dar e totusi sotul meu. ......................... 98.Nici mort n-as iesi cu asa o femeie in oras. ........................ 99.Cum isi permite sa spuna ca ma imbrac fara gust. Nici n-are habar cum arat la fata. ........................ 100.Nu e mare lucru de capul robotului asta. ........................ 101.Halal organizare. Nu stie stinga ce face dreapta. .......................... 102.Iti spun eu. Asta nu mai apuca batrinetile. ......................... 103.Perspectivele nu sint prea luminoase. Ca sa vorbim pe sleau, situatia e de-a dreptul disperata.

........................... 104.N-am inchis ochii toata noaptea. . 105.Nu mai ploua. .. 106.Nu poti decit sa-l admiri daca ajungi sa-l cunosti. .. 107.Poti sa nu mergi daca spui ca te doare capul. . 108.Nu juca tenis cind era tinar. ............................ 109.Abia daca-l cunosc pe noul profesor. ........................... 110.Foarte rar se culca inainte de miezul noptii. .......................... 111.E asa de frig ca s-ar putea sa nu mai merg la bazinul de inot. .......................... 112.Nu s-a plins vreodata de munca lui si nici nu cred ca se va plinge vreodata. .......................... 113.Nu trebuie sa platesti despagubiri decit daca vrei. .. 114. - Ce e cu mine? A intrebat Mitrea ursuz. Unde e scrisoarea? - Nu e nici o scrisoare. Chestia e ca trebuie sa ne faci o marturisire. - Nu fac. N-am ce face. - Asculata, Mitre, fii cu minte. Nu raspunde asa ca nu e bine. .............................. .............................. 115. - Ti-e foame, Darie? - Nu, tata, nu mi-e foame. Nu mi-e nici macar sete. .............................. ............................... 116. - Cum trebuie sa mearga scolarul pe ulita? - Linistit, sa nu asmuta cainii, sa nu injure si sa nu se bata. . . 117.Nu-i rau, mai Stefane, sa stie si baietul tau oleaca de carte, nu numaidecit pentru popie, cum chiteste Smaranda, ca si popia are multe nacafale, e greu de purtat. .

118.Uite ca nu ies, cucoane. Nu vreau sa ies. Ca nici nu mai e curtea dumitala si nici n-am pofta sa ies, uite-asa. ..................................... 119.Eminescu n-avea ochi pentru asemenea amanunte din mijlocul lumii in care se afla. Oricit de multa lume si oricit de mare galagie ar fi fost imprejurul sau, el tot nu se abatea de la cele ce se petrec in sufletul sau. ........................................ ........................................... 120. - Ce mi-o dai mie? Arat-o boierului. - Ce, sa ma bata iar? Arata-i-o dumneata. - Ba eu nu ma duc la el ca ma intraba de datorie. ........................................... ............................................

Exercise 9 Parapfrase the following sentences using: no soonerthan; scarecely when; hardlywhen. 121.I turned round the corner and bumped into a stanger. .. 122.I read only a few pages and the main ideea of the book became clear to me. . 123.She left the house and remembered the appointment. . 124.He entered the room and immediately the telephone rang. . 125.He took a seat at the table and a plate of steaming soup appeared before him as if by magic. 6)He came into the garden and was enchanted by its beauty.

BIBILIOGRAFIE : 126.Foley, Mark & Hall, Diane, Advanced Learners Grammar. A self-

study reference & practice book with answers, Longman, 2003. 127.Galateanu-Farnoaga, G., Comisel, E (1993).: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Omegapres & Rai, Bucuresti. 128.Graver, B.D.(1986): Advanced English Practice, third edition, OUP. 129.Hewings, M. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use, A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners, CUP. 130.Vince, M. 2002. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan.

UNITATEA 2: Sentence Coordination Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili: 1. S recunoasca elementele coordonatoare si proprietatile sintactice ale frazei prin coordonare in limba engleza. 2. S recunoasca structurile eliptice cu incomplete conjuncts (membri incompleti ai coordonarii). 3. S alcatuiasca corect fraze prin coordonare cu incomplete conjuncts. Timp de studiu : 4 ore.

Exercise 1 Perform deletions on the following strings; identify the rules you are using:

131.She hasnt answered your letters, but her sister has answered your letters. . 132.Those boring papers and those boring articles wear me out. . 133.She danced at the party and he drank himself under the table at the party. .. 134.Before the end of the journey they were tired and before the end of the journey they were short of money. 135.Some of them enjoyed that show, but many others were simply mad about that show. . 136.I asked Dan to help us and Jane asked Mary to help us. .. .. 137.I surely enjoyed asking those questions and you definitely hated answering those questions. She likes to read poems and I like to read short stories. 138.Everybody knows the right answer to that, but you dont know the right answer to that. 139.Many times they didnt understand you, or many times they didnt understand your work. 140.You just spend your week-ends in that house, but your mother really lives in that house. ....

Exercise 2 In the text below, find all the coordinated structures, establish whether they are instances of sentence or phrasal coordination, whether Reduction rules (may) have applied and discuss the correlative elements (conjunctions, coordinators). From the corner of the divan of Persian saddle-bags on which he was

lying, smoking, as was his custom, innumerable cigarettes, Lord Henry Wotton could just catch the gleam of the honey-sweet and honey-colored blossoms of a laburnum, whose tremulous branches seemed hardly able to bear the burden of a beauty so flame-like as theirs; and now and then the fantastic shadows of birds in flight flitted across the long silk curtains that were stretched in front of the huge window, producing a kind of momentary Japanese effect, and making him think of those pallid, jade-faced painters of Tokyo who, through the medium of an art that is necessarily immobile, seek to convey the sense of swiftness and motion. The sullen murmur of the bees shouldering their way through the long un-mown grass, or circling with monotonous insistence round the dusty gilt horns of the straggling woodbine, seemed to make the stillness more oppressive. The dim roar of London was like the bourdon note of a distant organ. In the centre of the room, clamped to an upright easel, stood the full-length portrait of a young man of extraordinary personal beauty, and in front of it, some little distance away, was sitting the artist himself, Basil Hallward, whose sudden disappearance some years ago caused, at the time, such public excitement and gave rise to so many strange conjectures. As the painter looked at the gracious and comely form he had so skillfully mirrored in his art, a smile of pleasure passed across his face, and seemed about to linger there. But he suddenly started up, and closing his eyes, placed his fingers upon the lids, as though he sought to imprison within his brain some curious dream from which he feared he might awake. "It is your best work, Basil, the best thing you have ever done," said Lord Henry languidly. "You must certainly send it next year to the Grosvenor. The Academy is too large and too vulgar. Whenever I have gone there, there have been either so many people that I have not been able to see the pictures,

which was dreadful, or so many pictures that I have not been able to see the people, which was worse. The Grosvenor is really the only place." BIBILIOGRAFIE: 141.Cornilescu, A. (1986): English Syntax, vol. 2, EUB, Bucuresti. 142.Foley, Mark & Hall, Diane, Advanced Learners Grammar. A selfstudy reference & practice book with answers, Longman, 2003. 143.Hewings, M. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use, A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners, CUP. 144.Radford, A. (1997): Syntactic theory and the structure of English, CUP, Cambridge. 145.Vince, M. 2002. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan.

UNITATEA 3: Finite subordination Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili: 1. S identifice diversele tipurile de propoziii subordonate, atat dupa criteriul structural (THAT -complements, Wh -complements, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, etc), cat si dupa cel functional (subject/object/ predicative clauses, etc) si proprietatile lor sintactice. 2. S foloseasc corect pronumele i adjectivele relative, conjunctiile si alte elemente subordonatoare. 3. S utilizeze corect timpurile indicativului si/ sau subjonctivul subordonatele introduse prin THAT. Timp de studiu : 8 ore.

Exercise 1

Read the text below and identify all the finite clauses. For each clause specify: 146.its structural type (complement clause - THAT complement, WH complement, Relative, Adverbial); 147.its syntactic function as a constituent of the matrix (the functional type) 148.for THAT complements discuss the use of mood and tenses in the embedded clause in re lation with the matrix verb. In a peculiar sense he will be aware also that he must inevitably be judged by the standards of the past. I say judged, not amputated, by them; not judged to be as good as, or worse or better than, the dead; and certainly not judged by the canons of dead critics. It is a judgment, a comparison, in which two things are measured by each other. To conform merely would be for the new work not really to conform at all; it would not be new, and would therefore not be a work of art. And we do not quite say that the new is more valuable because it fits in; but its fitting in is a test of its valuea test, it is true, which can only be slowly and cautiously applied, for we are none of us infallible judges of conformity. We say: it appears to conform, and is perhaps individual, or it appears individual, and may conform; but we are hardly likely to find that it is one and not the other. To proceed to a more intelligible exposition of the relation of the poet to the past: he can neither take the past as a lump, an indiscriminate bolus, nor can he form himself wholly on one or two private admirations, nor can he form himself wholly upon one preferred period. The first course is inadmissible, the second is an important experience of youth, and the third is a pleasant and highly desirable supplement. The poet must be very conscious of the main current, which does not at all flow invariably through the most distinguished reputations. He must be quite aware of the obvious fact that art never improves, but that the material of art is never quite the same. He must

be aware that the mind of Europethe mind of his own countrya mind which he learns in time to be much more important than his own private mindis a mind which changes, and that this change is a development which abandons nothing en route, which does not superannuate either Shakespeare, or Homer, or the rock drawing of the Magdalenian draughtsmen. That this development, refinement perhaps, complication certainly, is not, from the point of view of the artist, any improvement. Perhaps not even an improvement from the point of view of the psychologist or not to the extent which we imagine; perhaps only in the end based upon a complication in economics and machinery. But the difference between the present and the past is that the conscious present is an awareness of the past in a way and to an extent which the past's awareness of itself cannot show. Some one said: "The dead writers are remote from us because we know so much more than they did." Precisely, and they are that which we know. I am alive to a usual objection to what is clearly part of my programme for the mtier of poetry. The objection is that the doctrine requires a ridiculous amount of erudition (pedantry), a claim which can be rejected by appeal to the lives of poets in any pantheon. It will even be affirmed that much learning deadens or perverts poetic sensibility. While, however, we persist in believing that a poet ought to know as much as will not encroach upon his necessary receptivity and necessary laziness, it is not desirable to confine knowledge to whatever can be put into a useful shape for examinations, drawing-rooms, or the still more pretentious modes of publicity. Some can absorb knowledge; the more tardy must sweat for it. Shakespeare acquired more essential history from Plutarch than most men could from the whole British Museum. What is to be insisted upon is that the poet must develop or procure the consciousness of the past and that he

should continue to develop this consciousness throughout his career. What happens is a continual surrender of himself as he is at the moment to something which is more valuable. The progress of an artist is a continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality. There remains to define this process of depersonalization and its relation to the sense of tradition. It is in this depersonalization that art may be said to approach the condition of science. I shall, therefore, invite you to consider, as a suggestive analogy, the action which takes place when a bit of finely filiated platinum is introduced into a chamber containing oxygen and sulphur dioxide. (from Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood: Tradition and the Individual Talent)

THAT complement s

(Bound)Relat ive Clauses / functioning as attributes exam functi exa functi examp the ple onal mple onal le synta type type ctic (Su, functi DO, on of PO, the Pred., relati Attrib ve ., ) prono un

Whcomplement s

Free Relative Adverbial Clauses clauses

exam ple

fun ct. typ e of the RC

the exa sema synt mple ntic . type func t. of the relat ive pro n.

Exercise 2 Make up complex sentences of your own that contain THAT complements functioning as: (a) subjects; . . . . (b) attributes - consider the differences between these Attributive clauses and Relative clauses functioning as attributes (refer to exercise 3. below); . . . . (c) direct objects; . . . . (d) prepositional objects (identify the deleted prepositions! - rephrase these complement as non-finite ones); . . . . (e) predicatives . . . .

Exercise 3 Which of the following sentences are ungrammatical and why? 149.That they have been working so well together in spite of everyting

proves (that) they are very civilised people. .. 150.It proves (that) they are very civilised people that they have been working so well together. .. 151.I hated it that she was partly right. . 152.I hated it so badly that she was partly right. . 153.I hated so badly that she was partly right. . 154.That they couldn't answer any of the professors' questions seemed. . 155.That they couldn't answer any of the professors' questions seemed incredibly sad to me. .. 156.It seemed that they couldn't answer any of the professors' questions. .. 157.It seemed that they couldn't answer any of the professors' questions incredibly sad to me. . 158.It seemed incredibly sad to me that they couldn't answer any of the professors' questions. . 159.Seems that something might connect these two stories. . 160.That something might connect these two stories it seems. . 161.These two stories seem that might be connected. . 162.He hated it that he was looked up to and admired because of his football ability. .

Exercise 4 Put the verbs given at the end of each sentence in the appropriate form(s); explain your choices and the differences in meaning where

more than one form is possible.


163.The chairman put forward a plan that they

other (take over)

companies engaged in complementary activities.

164.Several insurance companies have now reluctantly made the

decision that they from the American Market. (withdraw)


165.I now regret having made a promise that I in the

scheme.

(join)

166.Most people would support a proposal that such programs

. (extend -passive)
167.A suggestion that they further discussion pending

investigations was accepted by a majority of three to one. (postpone)


168.Six companies have signed an agreement that the costs of

research and development. (share)


169.What our team seems to lack at the moment is the determination that

it . (win)
170.How often have I made a resolution that I smoking.

(give

up)

Exercise 5 Discuss the following sentences; specify the type of RC and the syntactic function of the RC and of the relative pronoun: 1. This law was what the Senator thought of as his legislative masterpiece.

. 2. The little girl, whose broken toy was still lying on the pavement, had been taken to the hospital. . 3. I will teach whomever I speak with to speak civilly to me. .. 4. Any boy that is lazy must be punished. .. 5. Whom a serpent has bitten a lizard alarms. 6. That J. Smith, whom she mentioned in her letter, had just arrived from Chicago. 7. The woman that I saw on the train was a real beauty. 8. They were interested in alchemy, astrology, as much as in what we should call philosophy. 9. There is no evidence from which to infer that. 10. Even John, who is a friend of ours, left early. 11. He adopts the word and manner of whoever he happens to live with. 12. What he had to say was the truth. 13. This happens at times when the light intensity is low. 14. Dans new article, which youve all been talking about lately, is quite a success. 15. As for the magazines, he could take whichever of them he liked. 16. He performed a dance whose intricate movements were nothing but a ritualized "repetition" of the labyrinth experience. 17. In these private Upper East Side schools, the emphasis becomes all about whose remark is more insightful or wittier or more analytical. 18. It may mean that you're setting up a trade that can go either way, and

you want to be prepared for whichever way the market breaks. 19. However implausibly the conspirators argued the case for Caesar's murder being a benefit to Caesar their main argument was that it was a benefit to others 20. It is considered to be a kind of art, a craft, which some people are born with, or attain without study.

BIBILIOGRAFIE: 171.Cornilescu, A. (1995): Concept of Modern Grammar, EUB, Bucuresti. 172.Cornilescu, A. (1986): English Syntax, vol. 2, EUB, Bucuresti. 173.Foley, Mark & Hall, Diane, Advanced Learners Grammar. A selfstudy reference & practice book with answers, Longman, 2003. 174.Galateanu-Farnoaga, G., Comisel, E (1993).: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Omegapres & Rai, Bucuresti 175.Graver, B.D.(1986): Advanced English Practice, third edition, OUP. 176.Hewings, M. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use, A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners, CUP. 177.Radford, A. (1997): Syntactic theory and the structure of English, CUP, Cambridge. 178.Vince, M. 2002. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan.

UNITATEA 4:

Non-finite Subordination

Obiective: Studenii vor fi capabili: 179.S identifice tipurile de constructii sintactice complexe cu infinitivul, gerunziul si participiul si proprietatile sintactice ale acestora. 180.S identifice corect functia sintactica pe care aceste constructii o au in fraza. 181.S utilizeze corect aceste constructii ( cu subiect exprimat sau neexprimat in structura de suprafata) in fraza. Timp de studiu : 8 ore.

Exercise 1 In the complex sentences below, identify the non-finite clauses, specify their syntactic function and discuss their subjects (for raised subjects, identify the resulting constructions) and complete the table C at the end of the exercise, also adding one example of your own for each type. A: 1. I had undertaken to offer some kind of apology to them for my behaviour. 2. I had obliged them to offer some kind of apology for their behaviour. 3. She appeared to have been lying all the time. 4. Its always amusing to feed ducks. 5. Ducks are always amusing to feed. 6. The noise began/ seemed to annoy the children. 7. There were two circumstances which would have made it necessary for them to have lost no time.

8. It was very nice of you to join us. .. 9. They preferred him to be their new leader. 10. She then felt it would be safer for her sister to be with her, as she did not want to be alone . 11. That poem was difficult for us to recite. . 12. They are sure to be late as usual. 13. He remembered that very coat to have been frequently worn by his nephew. 14. She was thought to be honest. 15. They all considered you their best friend. 16. She appeared ignorant. 17. Calendula has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. . B: The artist is the creator of beautiful things. To reveal art and conceal the artist is art's aim. The critic is he who can translate into another manner or a new material his impression of beautiful things. The highest as the lowest form of criticism is a mode of autobiography. Those who find ugly meanings in beautiful things are corrupt without being charming. This is a fault. Those who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are the cultivated. For these there is hope. They are the elect to whom beautiful things mean only beauty. There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well

written, or badly written. That is all. The nineteenth century dislike of realism is the rage of Caliban seeing his own face in a glass. The nineteenth century dislike of romanticism is the rage of Caliban not seeing his own face in a glass. The moral life of man forms part of the subject-matter of the artist, but the morality of art consists in the perfect use of an imperfect medium. No artist desires to prove anything. Even things that are true can be proved. No artist has ethical sympathies. An ethical sympathy in an artist is an unpardonable mannerism of style. No artist is ever morbid. The artist can express everything. Thought and language are to the artist instruments of an art. Vice and virtue are to the artist materials for an art. From the point of view of form, the type of all the arts is the art of the musician. From the point of view of feeling, the actor's craft is the type. All art is at once surface and symbol. Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril. Those who read the symbol do so at their peril. It is the spectator, and not life, that art really mirrors. Diversity of opinion about a work of art shows that the work is new, complex, and vital. When critics disagree, the artist is in accord with himself. We can forgive a man for making a useful thing as long as he does not admire it. The only excuse for making a useless thing is that one admires it intensely. All art is quite useless. (from Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray)

C:
FOR- TO

TO infinitives Toug h move ment Be deletio n

infinitives

Gerundi al clauses

Participi al clauses

FOR

ACC Su

delete d Su

SSR (Nom+I nf)

SOR (Acc+I nf)

SOR+ Passiv e (Nom +Inf)

ex.

Su

ex.

Su

Exercise 2 Rewrite the sentences from exercise 4, Unit 3 (repeated below for convenience), using infinitival clauses instead of the finite ones.
182.The chairman put forward a plan that they

other (take over)

companies engaged in complementary activities. ........................................................

183.Several insurance companies have now reluctantly made the

decision that they from the American Market. (withdraw) .


184.I now regret having made a promise that I in the

scheme. (join) .. 185.Most people would support a proposal that such programs . (extend -passive) .. 186.A suggestion that they further discussion pending investigations was accepted by a majority of three to one. (postpone) . 187.Six companies have signed an agreement that the costs of

research and development. (share) 188.What our team seems to lack at the moment is the determination that it . (win) 189.How often have I made a resolution that I smoking. (give up)

Exercise 3 In the complex sentences below, replace the finite object clauses by suitable infinitive / gerundial clauses. (Remember to use the simple infinitive to express future reference with respect to the matrix verb or the perfect infinitive to express anteriority with respect to the matrix verb.) 190.He hopes that he will win the lottery one day. .. 191.They will always remember that they visited London. 192.It seemed that most participants had already forgotten about these restrictions. ....... 193.She could distictly remember the fact that she had been stared at by a stranger for ten or fifteen minutes before the show began.
194.After she had carefully printed the information I had asked for, she

left the cottage. .. 195.He professed that he had spent two years at Oxford.

.. 196.Everyone supposed that the new guy had been seeing Dan's ex girlfriend since June. .. 197.The fact that you haven't answered any of her letters yet proves her right. .. 198.She claims that she has been in love with him for many years. 199.First, the longer-tenured staff resented the fact that she had been given the job of assistant manager without having paid any dues on the front lines of the department. 200.Robert expects that they will welcome him on his return back home. 201.The fact that he now knows the secret creates a rather difficult situation. 202.John made believe that he had solved the puzzle all by himself. .
203.Then I would strongly prefer that they not stop me from helping their

opponents. . 204.She longed that the holidays would come so that she could be with her family again. .

Exercise 4 There is at least one mistake in each sentence. Suggest appropriate corrections.(sentences from Hewings 1999) 205.They longed the Easter holidays to come so that they could visit again. .. 206.I overheard say that he's thinking of moving to Manchester. .. 207.We watched to play football until it started to rain. .. 208.Very reluctantly, he consented her to lend the money to Janet. 209.My parents always encouraged work hard at school. 210.For years the group has been campaigning an inquiry to hold into the accident. . 211.I think we should let them to stay until the weekend. 212.Sam promised me to show me how to fish for salmon, but he never had the time. 213.Hospital workers had to make them to do with a 1.5% pay increase this year. .. 214.I hear her tell that she's got a new job. (= someone told me about it) . 215.This card entitles to take an extra person with you free. . 216.They let me to borrow their car while they were on holiday. ..
217.I heard the baby cry for most of the night.

.. 218. I felt the snake to biting me and saw it slither off into the bushes.

.. 219.When you came out of the station, did you notice the children to play musical instruments across the street? 220. I noticed her quickly slipping the necklace inside her coat and to leave the shop. .... Exercise 5 In the text below, rephrase the non-finite structures (infinitives, gerunds, participles) as finite ones (That complements and Adverbial clauses, respectively). Comment on the subjects of the non-finite clauses. In English writing we seldom speak of tradition, though we occasionally apply its name in deploring its absence. We cannot refer to "the tradition" or to "a tradition"; at most, we employ the adjective in saying that the poetry of So-and-so is "traditional" or even "too traditional." Seldom, perhaps, does the word appear except in a phrase of censure. If otherwise, it is vaguely approbative, with the implication, as to the work approved, of some pleasing archological reconstruction. You can hardly make the word agreeable to English ears without this comfortable reference to the reassuring science of archology. Certainly the word is not likely to appear in our appreciations of living or dead writers. Every nation, every race, has not only its own creative, but its own critical turn of mind; and is even more oblivious of the shortcomings and limitations of its critical habits than of those of its creative genius. We know, or think we know, from the enormous mass of critical writing that has appeared in the French language the critical method or habit of the French; we only conclude (we are such unconscious people) that the French are "more critical" than we, and sometimes even plume ourselves a little with

the fact, as if the French were the less spontaneous. Perhaps they are; but we might remind ourselves that criticism is as inevitable as breathing, and that we should be none the worse for articulating what passes in our minds when we read a book and feel an emotion about it, for criticizing our own minds in their work of criticism. One of the facts that might come to light in this process is our tendency to insist, when we praise a poet, upon those aspects of his work in which he least resembles anyone else. In these aspects or parts of his work we pretend to find what is individual, what is the peculiar essence of the man. We dwell with satisfaction upon the poet's difference from his predecessors, especially his immediate predecessors; we endeavour to find something that can be isolated in order to be enjoyed. Whereas if we approach a poet without this prejudice we shall often find that not only the best, but the most individual parts of his work may be those in which the dead poets, his ancestors, assert their immortality most vigorously. And I do not mean the impressionable period of adolescence, but the period of full maturity. Yet if the only form of tradition, of handing down, consisted in following the ways of the immediate generation before us in a blind or timid adherence to its successes, "tradition" should positively be discouraged. We have seen many such simple currents soon lost in the sand; and novelty is better than repetition. Tradition is a matter of much wider significance. It cannot be inherited, and if you want it you must obtain it by great labour. It involves, in the first place, the historical sense, which we may call nearly indispensable to anyone who would continue to be a poet beyond his twentyfifth year; and the historical sense involves a perception, not only of the pastness of the past, but of its presence; the historical sense compels a man to write not merely with his own generation in his bones, but with a feeling

that the whole of the literature of Europe from Homer and within it the whole of the literature of his own country has a simultaneous existence and composes a simultaneous order. This historical sense, which is a sense of the timeless as well as of the temporal and of the timeless and of the temporal together, is what makes a writer traditional. And it is at the same time what makes a writer most contemporaneity. No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His significance, his appreciation is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists. You cannot value him alone; you must set him, for contrast and comparison, among the dead. I mean this as a principle of sthetic, not merely historical, criticism. The necessity that he shall conform, that he shall cohere, is not one-sided; what happens when a new work of art is created is something that happens simultaneously to all the works of art which preceded it. (from Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood: Tradition and the Individual Talent) Exercise 5 Combine each group of sentences to form not more than two complex sentences. You may use the skeleton structures suggested and/or make any necessary changes, as long as the original sense remains unchanged. (adapted from Graver 1986) 221.No one was watching. The thief first made sure of this. He climbed up to a window on the first floor. He suceeded in entering the house through the window. He was not observed. Having first , the thief to a first floor acutely conscious of his place in time, of his

, through which .. unobserved. 222.I had the opportunity of spending my holidays at sea. I had no experience of sailing. Nevertheless, I decided to take the opportunity. Some friends of mine invited me to join them. They were very keen yachtsmen. They wanted to sail round the British Isles. Despite , I decided when some friends , who and who . , invited . 223.A man may be pronounced guilty only by twelve of his fellow citizens. They must be left free to make their decision. They must be left to do so without influence from the judge. He may, however, direct them as to points of law. This is the jury system. It is an outstanding characteristic of British judicial procedure. An outstanding is , under which a man . 224.The English queue up for public transport. They do so in an orderly way. Visitors from the Continent are surprised at this. They innocently join the front of the queue. They do this when they first arrive in England. Angry glares are given them. They cannot understand this. Visitors at the .. in which , and they when, on first , they innocently . 225.The bubonic plague raged in England during the Middle Ages.

The name given to it was "The Black Death". It carried off thousands of the population. In some cases, it exterminated whole towns and villages. "The Black Death" , carrying and exterminating 226.Fleet Street was once famous for its coffee houses. Men used to meet there. They were prominent in the literary world. It is now synonymous with journalism and English national newspapers. It takes its name from the Fleet Stream. this used to run from Hampstead. It ran down into the Thames at Blackfriars. Fleet Street, once where men and now , takes .... .

Exercise 6 Translate into English (give variants with both finite and non finite clauses where possible); 227.Cand noul lor prieten s-a napustit in incapere cu cartile in brate, toata lumea s-a oprit din ras. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 228.Pe parcursul urmatoarelor trei zile, eu si cu Bonnie n-am oprit sa sta be vorba deseori. ..................................................................................................... ...................... 229.Apoi se opri sa asculte, tinandu-si respiratia accelerata.

..................................................................................................... ...................... 230.Dupa pauza, Pavarotti a cantat in continuare o arie din Tosca. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 231.Desi l-a rugat sa se opreasca, el a continuat sa loveasca cu pixul in masa. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 232.As sfatui mai multa miscare. / V-as sfatui sa faceti mai multa miscare. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 233.Nu eram de acord ca el sa fumeze in casa. ..................................................................................................... ........................ 234.I-am descoperit pe copii ascunzandu-si ciocolata sub paturi. ..................................................................................................... ........................ 235.Aproape ca imi si imaginam cum masina pica la inspectia anuala. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 236.Ma amuza sa mi-l imaginez stand la birou cu costum si cravata. ..................................................................................................... ..........................

237.Alice a considerat ca ar trebui sa evitam sa intram cu masina prin centrul orasului. ..................................................................................................... ........................ 238.Au dat ordine ca acea cladire sa fie demolata. ..................................................................................................... ........................ 239.Am cerut insistent ca studentilor sa li se spuna imediat. ..................................................................................................... .......................... 240.Toata lumea a fost de acord ca firma sa nu creasca preturile. ..................................................................................................... ........................ 241.Ei au recomandat ca toate cererile sa fie trimise la acea adresa. (au fost trimise) ..................................................................................................... ....................... 242.Au recomandat ca toate cererile sa fie trimise la acea adresa. (nu au fost trimise inca) ..................................................................................................... ........................... 243.Nu se cade sa li se acorde atata atentie unor oameni ca ei. ..................................................................................................... ........................... 244.E important ca ea sa inteleaga ce presupune decizia ei. ..................................................................................................... ...........................

245.Guvernul urmeaza sa puna capat sistemului prin care fermierii castiga mai multi bani daca lasa pamantul necultivat dacat din cultivarea graului. ..................................................................................................... ........................... 246.In romanul lui Peters, dupa care este facut filmul, eroul principal este un adolescent. ..................................................................................................... ........................... 247.Pritenii ei, printre care imi place sa ma consider si eu, au incurajat-o. ..................................................................................................... .......................... 248.Terenul care se intindea catre stanga ii apartinea in intregime domnului Thompson. ..................................................................................................... ......................... 249.Politia l-a ridicat pe Dr. Li impreuna cu diverse lucruri care ii apartineau. ..................................................................................................... .......................... 250.Nedorind sa o trezeasca, Steve parasi locuinta in liniste. ..................................................................................................... .......................... 251.Odata ajuns la petrecere, o zari pe Ruth stand singura. ..................................................................................................... .......................

252.Dorindu-si de o viata sa conduca un tren, se gandi ca e o ocazie ce nu trebuie ratata. ..................................................................................................... ............................. 253.Dupa ce a condus cinci ore sa ajunga la sedinta, Dan a aflat ca aceasta s-a amanat. 254. Stiindu-se despe el ca nu accepta astfel de scuze, nimeni nu a mai indraznit sa ii spuna adevarul. ..................................................................................................... ....................... 255.Dat fiind ca asistase la tot ceea ce s-a intamplat, ne-a marturisit tuturor ca se simte putin vinovata. ..................................................................................................... ...................... 256. Faptul ca a asistat la tot ceea ce s-a intamplat nu o face cu nimic mai vinovata decat sunt toti ceilalti. ..................................................................................................... .........................

Exercise 7 Translate into Romanian (revise the use of gerunds/ infinitives/ participles/ the subjunctive/ relative pronouns/ etc. in finite and non finite clauses. Analyze the finite and non finite clauses. (most of examples adapted from Hewings 1999)
257.This is one of the reasons why I stopped playing with orchestras,

since they usually play in the evening.

.
258.They stopped laughing when Malcolm walked into the room.

259.Over the next three days, Bonnie and I stopped to chat often.

..
260.Then he stopped to listen, holding his panting breath.

.
261.After the interval, Pavarotti went on to sing an aria from Tosca.

..
262.Although she asked him to stop, he went on tapping his pen on the

table. .
263.I'd advise taking more exercise.

.
264.I'd advise you to take more exercise

..
265.She let (it) slip that she's leaving.

.. 266.I disapproved of him smoking in the house. I disapproved of his smoking... .. 267.We discovered the children hiding the chocolates under their beds. .. 268.The plan envisages Tony becoming Director next year. . 269.If the authorities catch anyone breaking the rules, the punishment is severe.

270.I could imagine the car failing its annual inspection. .. 271.We objected to the company building a petrol station in our road. 272.It amuses me to think of him sitting at a desk in a suit and tie. 273.My mother disapproved of the cat sleeping in my bedroom.
274.They have proposed that Jim should move to their London office.


275.Alice thinks that we should avoid driving through the centre of town.


276.I suggested that Mr Clarke should begin to look for another job.


277.It has been agreed that the company should not raise its prices.


278.They directed that the building should be pulled down.

..
279.The report recommends that the land should not be sold.

..
280.We urged that the students should be told immediately.

.
281.We insist that the money should be available to all students in

financial difficulties. .
282.We insist that the money be available to all students in financial

difficulties. .
283.It was agreed that the company not raise its prices.


284.They recommended that he should give up writing.

.
285.They recommended that he give up writing, (more formal)

.
286.They recommended that he gives up writing, (less formal)

..
287.They recommended that he gave up writing. (= he gave it up)


288.The police gave an order that all weapons (should) be handed in

immediately. ..
289.The weather forecast gave a warning that people (should) be

prepared for heavy snow. .


290.I am concerned that she should think I stole the money. or

I am concerned that she thinks I stole the money, (not ...that she think I stole...)
291.It is inappropriate they (should) be given the award again, (or ...they

are given...) .
292.It is important that she (should) understand what her decision

means, (or ...she understands...) .


293.Stevenson is an architect whose designs have won international

praise.

.
294.Dr Rowan, whose secretary resigned two weeks ago, has had to all

his own typing.


295.The film was made in Botswana, whose wildlife parks are larger

than those in Kenya. .


296.We need to learn from companies whose trading is more healthy

than our own. .


297.The newspaper is owned by the Mearson Group, whose chairman is

Sir James Bex. .


298.I received a letter, whose poor spelling made me think it was written

by a child ..
299.Do you know the date when we have to submit the first essay? (or

...the date on/by which we have to submit the first essay?)


300.The government is to end the system whereby (= by which means)

farmers make more money from leaving land unplanted than from growing wheat, (or ...the system in/by which farmers...)
301.In the novel by Peters, on which the film is based, the main character

is a teenager.
302.An actor with whom Gelson had previously worked contacted him

about the role. .


303.Her many friends, among whom I like to be considered, gave her

encouragement. .
304.We stood on the bridge connecting the two halves of the building,

(or ...which connects/connected the two halves...) ..


305.The weapon used in the murder has now been found, (or The

weapon that was used...)


306.The prisoners being released are all women, (or ...who are being

released...)


307.The man driving the bus is my brother, (or The man who is driving

the bus...) ..
308.The land stretching away to the left all belongs to Mrs. Thompson,

(o r The land which stretches away to the left...) .


309.Police took away Dr Li and items belonging to him.

..
310.Opening her eyes, the baby began to cry.

..
311.Faced with a bill for 10, 000, John has taken an extra job.

.
312.Feeling tired, Louise went to bed early.

.
313.Louise, who was feeling tired, went to bed early .

.
314.Formed 25 years ago next month, the club is holding a party for past

and present members.

..
315.Being imported, the radios were more expensive.


316.Having been hunted close to extinction, the rhino is once again

common in this area.


317.Not wanting to wake her, Steve left the house silently.


318.Preferring not to go out that night, I made an excuse.

..
319.Arriving at the party, we saw Ruth standing alone.


320.Having wanted to drive a train all his life, he thought this was an

opportunity not to be missed. ..


321.The score being level after 90 minutes, a replay will take place.

.
322.Glancing over his shoulder, he could see the dog chasing him.

323.Having completed the book, he had a holiday.

.
324.Putting on a serious face, she began to tell the story.

.
325.'Wait a minute,' said Frank, running through the door.

..
326.Having driven five hours to the meeting, Don learnt that it had been

postponed. ..
327.Taking off / Having taken off his shoes, Ray walked into the house.

..
328.Knowing exactly what I wanted, I didn't spend much time shopping.

..
329.Being slim, he could squeeze through the opening in the fence.

..
330.Having been invited to the party, we could hardly refuse to go.

BIBILIOGRAFIE:

331.Cornilescu, Alexandra & Iclezan-Dimitriu, Ioan, The Infinitive,

Editura Institutul European, Iasi, 2000. 332.Cornilescu, A. (1986): English Syntax, vol. 2, EUB, Bucuresti. 333.Foley, Mark & Hall, Diane, Advanced Learners Grammar. A selfstudy reference & practice book with answers, Longman, 2003. 334.Galateanu-Farnoaga, G., Comisel, E (1993).: Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Omegapres & Rai, Bucuresti. 335.Graver, B.D.(1986): Advanced English Practice, third edition, OUP. 336.Hewings, M. (1999): Advanced Grammar in Use, A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners, CUP. 337.Radford, A. (1997): Syntactic theory and the structure of English, CUP, Cambridge. 338.Vince, M. 2002. Advanced Language Practice. Macmillan.