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Cc thut ng vit tt SDH : PDH : HDTV : B ISDN : UNI : OAM $ P : STM : C: VC : TU : TUG : AU : AUG : POH : RSOH : MSOH : N: D: I: PTR

R : REI : RFI : RDI : NPI : BIP: DEC : NE : SONET : Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy High Division Television BroadBand Intergrated Sersives Digital Network user - Network Interface Operation Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning Synchronous Transport Module Container Virtual Container Tributary Unit Tributary Unit Group Administrtive Unit Administrative Unit Group Path Overhead Regen Secsion Overhead Multiplex Secsion Overhead New data flag Decrement bit Increment bit Pointer Remote Error Indication Remote Failure Indication Remote Detect Indication (tn gi c: FERF - Remote Alarm) Non Pointer Indication Bit Interleaved Parity Data Communication Channel Network Element Synchronous Optical Network

CCITT : ETSI : TMN : SMX : SDXC : BITS : Q: P: EXT : CNET : LTE : EST : RSU : TM :

Consultative Commite on International Telegraphy and Telephone European Telecommunication Standards Institute Telecommunication Management Network Sychronous Multiplex Sychronous Digital Cross Connect Building Intergrated Timing Supply Quality Priority External Control Network Line terminal Equipment External Sychronisation Interface Remote Subscriber Unit Terminal Multiplexer

Chng I:

gii thiu chung v SDH


I-/ Khi nim c bn v PDH ( Pleislochronous Digital Hierachy) 1-/ Cc tiu chun ghp knh cn ng b PDH. K thut ghp knh cn ng b l mt dng ghp knh vi thi gian, s dng phng php ghp knh theo byte i vi PCM 30/32 v ghp theo bit i vi ghp knh bc cao. Cc cp truyn dn s cn ng b ang tn ti theo tiu chun ca chu u, Bc M, Nht Bn. Theo tiu chun ca Chu u, mun c lung s cao hn phi ghp 4 lung thp hn vi nhau.
2,048 Mb/s K1 K2 PCM 30 1 2 3 4 MUX 2/8 8,448 Mb/s 1 2 3 4 34,36 8 Mb/s 1 MUX MUX 2 34/14 8/34 3 0 4 139,26 4 Mb/s 1 MUX 2 140/5 3 65 4 565,12 8 Mbit/s

K30

Hnh 1-1: Phn cp s cn ng b ca Chu u

Bn cp truyn dn u tin ca chu u c CCITT cng nhn lm tiu chun quc t. Tiu chun ca Bc M nh hnh 1-2.
K1 K2

PCM 24

X4

6,3 Mb/s

X7

45 Mb/s

X9

405 Mb/s

K24 Hnh 1-2: Phn cp s cn ng b ca Bc M

Tiu chun ca Nht nh hnh 1-3


K1 K2

PCM 24

X4

63 Mb/s

X5

32 Mb/s

X3

100 Mb/s

X4

400 Mb/s

K24 Hnh 1-3: Phn cp s cn ng b ca Nht

2-/ Nhc im ca h thng PDH * Tch xen phc tp, yu cu thit b cng knh lm gim cht lng truyn dn. Hin nay nhu cu s dng dch v phi thoi cng ngy cng ln nh truyn d liu trong mt cng ty a quc gia, cho mt t bo pht hnh trn ton quc ... Nhng vi k thut PDH, p ng yu cu mt qu trnh tch xen phc tp, qua nhiu cp.
140 LTE 140 LTE

140 34 34 34 8

140 34

Hnh 1-4 : Qu trnh tch - Xen lung 2Mb/s t lung 140Mb/s

Vi qu trnh xen nh vy, cc knh dng phc v nh k trn s c gi thnh cao, tin cy gim lm nh hng n s phc v v tin cy ca ton h thng. * Kh nng qun l v gim st mng km, c bit l vi mng vin thng tc cao. Do nhu cu v thng tin trc y cha cao, cu hnh mng n gin, d qun l do vy cu trc khung PDH khng to ra kh nng gim st v qun l ring. Cc nghip v cho php trong khung tn hiu l ng b khung, cnh bo mt ng b iu khin chn.

* Tc tiu chun ho cho mng vin thng cn thp Theo khuyn ngh ca CCITT, tc bit cao nht c tiu chun ho cho mng vin thng quc t l 140 Mb/s, tc bit cao nht cho mng vin thng quc t l 565 Mb/s. Vi gii hn tc nh vy trn mng vin thng quc t khng to ra c mt xa l thng tin, phc v cho nhiu loi dch v to truyn thng khc nhau th hin tnh linh hot ca truyn thng s. * Thit b cng knh Thit b ghp knh bc cao v thit b u cui ng c lp vi nhau. V d nh trong h thng thng tin quang, thit b ghp knh bc cao v thit b u cui quang c lp vi nhau, hn na m ng ca hai loi thit b ny l khc nhau. u ra ca thit b ghp knh l m HDB 3 cn u ra thit b u cui quang l 5B6B. * Trn th gii tn ti hai loi tiu chun phn cp truyn dn khc nhau. l 2 loi tiu chun ca chu u v ca Bc M. Hai tiu chun ny c s khc bit v c lung c s n cc cp tc cao. S khc nhau ny gy ra kh khn trong vic ho mng v ng mng quc t. II-/ Gii thiu v h thng SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierachy) 1-/ Lch s pht trin ca SDH Phn cp s ng b SDH l mt th h truyn dn mi ngy nay trn th gii. SDH to ra mt cuc cch mng trong cc dch v vin thng th hin mt k thut tin tin c th p ng rng ri cc yu cu ca cc thu bao, ngi khai thc cng nh cc nh sn xut ... tho mn cc yu cu t ra cho nghnh vin thng trong thi i mi, khc phc nhc im ca th h PDH m chng ta ang s dng hin nay. Trong tng lai, h thng ng b SDH s ngy cng c pht trin nh cc u im vt tri so vi PDH c bit l SDH c kh nng kt hp vi PDH trong mng hin hnh, cho php thc hin vic hin i ho mng li vin thng trong tng giai on pht trin. Cc tiu chun ca SDH thc s bt u vo nm 1985 ti M, ni m nhiu nm trc y rt nhiu hng sn xut thit b truyn dn cp quang pht trin cc phng php khc nhau m ho cho tn hiu ring ca h. iu ny dn n hu qu l vic quy hoch, khai thc, bo dng, qun l v khai thc mng ht sc phc tp. Trong hon cnh , nm 1985 cng ty BELLCORE l cng ty con ca cng ty BELL ti M ngh mt ng cp truyn dn mi nhm mc ch khc phc cc nhc im ca h thng cn ng b PDH. ng cp mi ny c t tn l SONET (Synchronous Optical Network ; Mng quang ng b) da trn nguyn l ghp ng h vi nhau trong cp quang c s dng lm mi trng truyn dn.

Nm 1988, trn c s tiu chun SONET v tiu chun ghp knh khc nhau chu u, M, Nht, CCITT (nay l ITU - T) a ra tiu chun quc t v cng ngh truyn dn theo cu trc s ng b SDH (Synchronous Digital Hiecrachy) dng cho truyn dn cp quang v viba. Tiu chun SDH c nu trong khuyn ngh G707, G708, G709 ca CCITT nh ngha mt s tc truyn dn c s SDH. Tc nh nht ca SDH l 155 Mvit/s ca lung STM -1. STM (Synchronuos Transport Module - 1: M un truyn ti mc 1). Cc truyn dn cao hn STM -4 l 622 Mb/s v STM -16 l 2.5 Gb/s. 2-/ Khi nim v SDH Phn cp s ng b SDH l mng truyn dn to bi s kt hp cc thit b truyn dn c tc khc nhau l 1,5; 2; 6,3; 34; 45; 140 Mb/s.
34 Mbit/s 1,5 Mbit/s

140 Mbit/s

SDH

6,3 Mbit/s

2 Mbit/s Hnh 1-5 : Cu trc truy nhp

45 Mbit/s

* u im ca SDH - n gin ho cc k thut ghp / tch knh so vi PDH. - M truyn dn cho tn hiu quang c tiu chun ho tng thch vi cc thit b ca nh sn xut. - Truy nhp ti cc lung nhnh tc thp khng cn n qu trnh tch/ghp knh trn vn tn hiu tc cao. iu ny cho php cc ng dng ni xen r v ni cho knh c hiu qu. - Cc knh qun l mng cung cp cc kh nng qun l, vn hnh v bo dng mng c qun l c hiu qu. - D dng pht trin n cc mc ghp cao hn.

- Cho php truyn ti cc tn hiu s cc tc bit xc nh trong khuyn ngh ITU - T G.702 (loi tr 8 Mb/s) v cc tc bit bng rng. iu ny cho php thit b SDH c a vo mng hin ti mt cch trc tip v mt phm vi rng cc dch v. - Tiu chun SDH nh ngha cp trung bnh tip nhn bn trong thit b t cc ngun cung cp khc nhau. * Cc nhc im ca SDH - K thut phc tp hn do cn phi ghi li s tng quan v pha gia tn hiu lung v mo u. - Do xut pht t M nn dung lng khng m bo cho h thng tn hiu CEPT. - Vic nhi byte - byte tng Jitter hn kiu bit - bit ca PDH. - ng h phi c cung cp t ngoi. - Thiu tn hiu ghp trung gian 8 Mb/s - Lung STM -1 tc 155 Mb/s ch cha 63 lung 2 Mb/s hoc 3 lung 34 mb/s. * So snh s khc nhau gia PDH v SDH C th tm tt s khc nhau gia k thut PDH v k thut SDH nh sau:

PDH
B dao ng ni dao ng t do Ghp knh khng ng b Ghp lung theo nguyn l xen bit Truy xut lung ring l sau khi tch / ghp n cp tng ng.

SDH
Dao ng ni c iu khin ng bvi ngun ng h ngoi Ghp knh ng b Ghp lung theo nguyn l xen byte Truy xut trc tip t ngun tc cao hn.

* Cc khuyn ngh ca ITU - T v SDH G . 707 - Cc tc bit ca SDH G . 708 - Giao din nt mng ca SDH G . 709 - Cu trc ghp ng b G . 773 - Giao thc ca giao din Q G . 774 - M hnh thng tin qun l SDH quan st phn t mng G . 782 - Cc loi v nhng c tnh c bn ca thit b ghp SDH.

G . 783 - Cc c tnh ca khi chc nng trong thit b ghp SDH G . 784 - Qun l SDH G . 803 - Cu trc mng truyn dn da trn c s SDH G . 957 - Cc giao din quang ca thit b v h thng SDH G . 958 - Cc h thng truyn dn SDH s dng cp si quang * Phn cp tc bit ca SDH Theo khuyn ngh G . 707 cc cp tc bit trong SDH nh 1,5 Mb/s; 2Mb/s; 6,3Mb/s ; 34Mb/s; 45Mb/s v 140Mb/s l cc giao din gia h thng PDH v SDH c gi l cc lung nhnh PDH. Cc lung nhnh ny qua b ghp SDH hnh thnh cc lung s ng b STM - N Tc nh nht ca SDH l STM - 1 = 155,52 Mb/s cc tc cao hn bng bi s nguyn ln tc c bn, cc tc ca SDH c lit k trong bng di y. Cp SDH stm 1 stm 4 stm 16 stm 64 Tc (Mb/s) 155,52 622,08 2488,32 9953,28

Chng II:

Cu trc b ghp SDH


I-/ C s ghp knh SDH Qu trnh ghp knh ca SDH gm hai on c lp l qu trnh hnh thnh khi truyn dn ng b c s STM - 1 v s hnh thnh cc khi STM - N cp cao hn bng cch xen byte cc lung STM - 1. S ghp knh SDH c biu din trong hnh 2.1
SDH Multiplexing structure STM N xN AUG x3
AU 3 VC - 3

x1 AU 4

VC - 4

x3 TUG 3

C-4

x1

TU 3

VC - 3

0
C-3

x7 Pointer Procesing Multiplexing Aliging

x7
TUG 2

x1 x3

TU 2 TU 12

VC - 2 0 C - 2

VC 12 VC 11

C12 C11

x4
TU 11

Mapping

Hnh 2-1 : S ghp knh theo khuyn ngh ITU - T

T hnh v trn ta thy theo tiu chun ca ITU- T ta c th ghp vo STM-N cc lung nhnh 1,544 M; 2,048 M; 6,312 M; 34,368 M; 44,736 M; 139;763 M hay lung c tc tng ng AMT (asynchronous Transfer mode). Chc nng ca cc khi trong b ghp SDH c m t nh sau: a. Khi C - n (Container - n) L n v nh nht trong khung truyn dn, l ni b tr vo cc lung tn hiu truyn dn thp nht nh l cc lung PDH, lung hnh, lung s liu.

Cc C - n tng ng vi tc truyn dn khc nhau cho hai h SONET v SDH K hiu C - 11 C - 12 C-2 C-3 C-3 C-4 Cc Container C - n gm c: - Cc byte thng tin - Cc bit hoc cc byte nhi c nh trong khung khng mang ni dung d liu m ch s dng tng thch vi tc bit ca tn hiu PDH c ghp vo tc bit ca Container cao hn. - Cc byte nhi khng c nh t c ng chnh mt cch chnh xc hn. Khi cn thit cc byte ny s dng cho cc byte d liu. Trong trng hp ny trong khung c bit iu khin nhi thng bo cho u thu bit cc byte nhi khng c nh c th l byte d liu. b. Khi VC - n (Vitual Container) : Container o VC = C + POH Chc nng ca POH l mang thng tin b tr thng bo v tr ni m Container ny s c truyn n. Trong VC th POH c gn vo u khung v ti u thu s c dch ra trc khi m Container c gii m. Ngoi ra POH cn c chc nng mang thng tin v gim st v bo tr ng truyn. Ta c th phn bit hai cp VC tu loi tng ng vi kch thc ca Container C. -Tt c cc Container khi c ghp trong Container ln hn th c gi l Container cp thp cc Container o cp l VC - 11, VC - 12, VC -2. - Tt c cc Container c truyn trc tip vo khung STM - 1 c gi l Container o cp cao nh l VC - 4, VC -3. Tn hiu ng truyn (Kb/s) 1.544 2.048 6.312 44.736 34.368 139.264

10

C-11

C-12

POH : mo u on

VC - 11

VC - 12

Hnh 2-2 : Cu trc VC - 11 v VC - 12 12

C-2

POH

Hnh 2-3 : Cu trc VC - 2 VC - 3 POH J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 Z4 Z5 84

C-3

Hnh 2- 4 : Cu trc VC - 3

c. n v lung TU (Tributary Unit) TU = VC + PTR


VC - 11 PTR 9 3 VC - 12 PTR 9 4

TU - 11

TU - 12

11

PTR (pointer) dng xc nh v tr VC trong khung. C 1 khung 125 s s c 1 byte pointer, byte pointer s c gn vo 1 v tr c nh trong khung cp cao hn.
VC - 2 PTR

12

TU - 12 Hnh 2-5 : Cu trc cc TU

TU - 3 = VC - 3 + PTR 3VC - 3 c th c ghp vo VC -4 theo nguyn tc xen tng byte sau c pht i trong khung AU - 4.
VC - 3 PTR

85

Hnh 2-6 : Cu trc TU - 3

12

d. Nhm n v lung TUG (Tributary Unit Group) TUG l nhm cc TU ghp li theo phng thc xen byte. C 2 loi TUG l TUG -2 v TUG -3 Mt TUG -2 = 3 x TU -12 = 4 x TU -11 = 1 x TU -2 TU - 3 = 7 x TUG -2 = TU -3
TU - 12 # 1 TU - 12 # 2 TU - 12 # 3

TUG - 2 12 Hnh 2-7 Cu trc TUG - 2 t TU - 12

TU -3 PTR

9 byte nhi c nh

TUG - 3

12 Hnh 2-8 Cu trc TUG - 3 t TU - 3

e. Cc n v qun l AU (Administration Unit) AU = VC + PTR Cc AU c t ra t cc VC cp cao, cc con tr AU - PTR dng xc nh v tr bt u ca VC trong khung. AU -3 c to thnh t 3 x VC -3 gm 9 x 87 byte + 3 byte.

13

Ngoi ra v dung lng truyn ca AU -3 (87 ct) ln nn ngi ta b tr cc byte nhi c nh vo trong ct tha.
85

P O P 3

C-3

87

AU - 3 PTR

P O P

C-3

Hnh 2-8 : Cu trc AU - 3 t VC - 3

g. Nhm n v qun l AUG (Administration Unit Group) Nhiu AU c ghp vi nhau theo phng thc xen byte to thnh AUG. AUG c cu trc khung gm 9 x 261 byte.
261

AUG

Hnh 2-9 Cu trc AUG

14

II-/ Cu trc khung SDH * Cu trc khung STM - 1 STM - 1 (Synchronous Transport Module -1): Mun truyn dn ng h mc 1
9 R SOH 3 1 AU - PTR 5 MSOH Trng tin STM - 1 261

Hnh 2-10 : Cu trc khung STM - 1

Cu trc khung STM - 1 c sp xp gm 9 dng x 270 ct, chiu di ca hung l 125 s, mi l 1 byte, cc byte c truyn th t t tri sang phi, t trn xung di, trong mi byte bit no c trong s ln s c pht i trc. Qua hnh v trn ta thy cu trc khung STM -1 gm 3 phn chnh: - Mo u on SOH (Section overhead) - Con tr AU (Administration Unit Pointer) -Trng tin (Payload) Phn mo u chim 9 byte u tin ca cc hng t 1 n 3 v t 5 n 9 v gm 2 phn nh. RSOH (Regennerater SOH) gm 9 byte u tin ca hng 1 n hng 3 phn ny cha thng tin qun l trm lp. MSOH (Multiplex SOH) gm 9 byte u tin ca hng 5 n hng 9 phn ny cha thng tin qun l ghp knh. Con tr AU chim 9 byte u ca hng th 4 Phn cn li gm 261 byte ca hng to nn trng tin truyn ti tin SDH. Tuy nhin nh ta thy trn s ghp knh mt s byte ca phn ny c dng cho cc thng tin qun l thm. Khung STM-1 c truyn dn 8000 ln /1s l tc bit s dng cho tn hiu PCM. Mi khung STM -1 chim 125 s do tc STM -1 l:

15

8000 khung x 9 hng / khung x 270 byte / hng x 8bit/byte =155,52 mb/s. Tc ca mi l: 8000 khung x 8bit/khung = 64 Kb/s * Cu trc khung bc cao STm-N
9xN 3 R SOH Trng tin STM - N 261xN

1 AU - PTR 5 MSOH

Hnh 2-11 : Cu trc khung STM N

Khung STM - N c to thnh nh vic ghp cc khung STM-1 tng ln N ln theo phng thc ghp tng byte to thnh cp STM -1 c tc truyn dn l 4 x 155,52 = 622,08 Mb/s, STM-16 c tc truyn dn l 16 x 155,52 = 2,488 Gb/s. Cu trc khung STM -N ging cu trc khung STM -1 ch khc l tc ca d liu truyn c trong 125 s l N x 9 x 270 byte.
STM - N Multiplex : STM -1 (AU - 4) STM - N

STM - 1 STM - 1 STM - 1

AAA BBB CCC

AU - 4 AU - 4 AU - 4 N CBAN CBA STM - N byte interleaved multiplex

STM - 1

NN N 9xN

AU - 4 261 x N ABC NABC N

9 rows

RSOH AUPTR MSOH ...........N 125 s

16

III-/ Sp xp cc lung PDH thnh STM -1 Trong cu trc ghp knh ca ETSI, qu trnh ghp knh SDH chia thnh 2 giai on: - Sp xp cc lung nhnh vo cc gi tng ng - Ghp cc gi vo khung STM -1 Hin nay nc ta ch s dng cc my ghp knh SDH theo tiu chun ca ETSI nn khng cp n cc ch tiu ca Nht v Bc M.
sdh multiplexing structure 140 M ATM 34 M 2M

STM1

AU G

AU - 4

VC - 4

C-4 x3
TUG -3

x1 x7
TUG -2

TU -3

VC -3 C-3

x3

TU -12

VC -12

C -12

Hnh 2-13 : Cu trc b ghp knh SDH (ETSI)

A-/ Sp xp cc lung nhnh vo VC - n. i vi mi loi tn hiu c cch sp xp tng ng, vic sp xp nh r cc bit chn in y cc trng tin ng thi cho php b s lch tng gia SDH v PDH bng vic hiu chnh. 1-/ Sp xp lung 140 Mb/s Sp xp lung 140 mb/s vo STM -1 theo trnh t sau: C - 4 VC - 4 AU - 4 AUG - 4 STM -1 Trnh t sp xp 140 Mb/s thnh STM -1 nh hnh v 2 - 14 Lung cp 4 chu u c s byte trn 125 s l 139264 bit/s : 8000 = 2176 byte Khung tn hiu ca C - 4 c 260 ct x 9 dng. Nh vy khi C - 4 tip nhn lung 140 Mb/s trong 125 s l 2176 byte chn thm 164 byte

17

VC - 4 b xung thm 9 byte VC - 4 POH vo ct tin ca khung VC - 4 sp xp thnh khung c 260 ct x 9 dng. Mi VC - 4 gm 9 byte (1 ct) POH v mt trng tin 9 x 260 byte dng ti tn hiu 140 Mb/s.
Sp xp 140 mb/s thnh STM - 1

270 = 261 + 9 SOH STM - 1 9 AU4 PTR SOH 9 SOH AU - 4 9 AU4 PTR 125 m 261 P VC - 4 9 O H 125 m Hnh 2-14 : Trnh t sp xp 140 Mb/s thnh STM 1 261 125 m

- Mi hng c chia thnh 20 khi mi khi gm 13 byte. - Trong mi hng 1 bit c hi hiu chnh (s) v 5 bit iu khin hiu chnhC. - Byte u tin ca mi khi gm:

18

+ 8 bit thng tin (byte W) hoc + 8 bit n c nh (byte Y) hoc + 1 bit iu khin hiu chnh (C), 5 bit nhi c nh (R) v 2 bit mo u (O) (byte X) hoc + 6 bit thng tin I, 1 bit c hi hiu chnh (s) v 1 bit nhi c nh R(byte X). - 12 byte cn li ca khi thng tin.
270 byte 9 byte 261 byte VC4 RSOH

Con tr AU

MSOH

STM - 1

J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 K5 Z5

VC - 4 POH

20 khi 13 byte

Hnh 2-15 : Ghp 140 Mb/s vo VC - 4

- Cc bit O c dng thng tin qun l trong tng lai. B 5 bit iu khin chnh c dng iu khin vic s dng bit S CCCCC = 00000 ch ra S l bit thng tin CCCCC = 11111 ch ra S l bit hiu chnh Au tip nhn VC - 4 v b sung 9 byte con tr AU - 4 PTR vo dng 4 ca ct 1 9 (vng A) sau STM - 1 b sung thm cc byte SOH to ra khung c 270 ct x 9 dng.

19

12 byte 96I X 96I Y 96I Y 96I Y 96I

POH W

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

96I

Y: R R R R R R R R X: C R R R R R 0 0 Z: I I I I I I S R I: Bit thng tin R: Bit n c nh 0: Bit qun l S: Bit chn C: Bit iu khin chn Hnh 2-16 : Cu trc mt hng trong khung VC - 4

2-/ Sp xp lung 34 Mbit/s Sp xp lung 34 Mb/s thnh STM -1 theo trnh t sau: C - 3 VC - 3 TU - 3 TUG -3 VC - 4 AU - 4 STM - 1 Tn hiu 34 Mb/s u tin c a vo khung C - 3, khung ny gm c 84 ct x 9 dng. Khi VC - 3 tip nhn khung C - 3 v b sung tn hiu qun l lung 9 byte VC - 3 POH vo ct u tin to thnh khung 85 ct x 9 dng. (Xem hnh 2-17) Container o VC - 3 gm 9 byte POH v 1 trng tin 9 dng x 84 ct chia thnh 3 khung con mi khung gm: - 1431 bit thng tin - 2 b 5 bit iu khin hiu chnh (C1, C2 = 10 bit) - 2 bit c hi hiu chnh (S1, S2) - 573 bit n c nh (R)

20

Cc bit C1, C2 c dng iu khin ln lt S1, S2. C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 = 00000 ch ra rng S1 l bit thng tin

A/ 3 Byte 3 Byte 3 Byte

G1 P O H G2 G3

B/ 1 B 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3 B 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

1Byt e

84 Byte
1B

3B 3* 8I 3* 8I
A B 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

3* 8I 3* 8I 3* 8I

K hiu : = RRRRRRRRR A B = RRRRRRRRS1S2 I I I I I I I 8I = RRRRRRRC1C2 3* 8I = 3*8bit I = 3 byte I

= 1 byte

* I : Bit thng tin t lung nhnh


* R: Bit chn c nh * S1,S2 : Cc bit cho php chn m v dng tng ng * C1,C2 : Cc bit ch th chn

Hnh 2-17 : Sp t lung nhnh 34 M vo VC - 3.

A/ Sp t lung nhnh 34 M vo VC - 3. B/ Sp t lung nhnh trong nhm Gn (n = 1,2,3)

21

C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 = 11111 ch ra rng S1 l bit hiu chnh. Bit C2 cng iu khin S2 mt cch tng t. Trong trng hp c li bit C th kiu nh gi theo a s c s dng. Sau y ta xt qu trnh sp xp VC - 3 thnh STM - 1 Ta bit rng cn 3VC - 3 ghp thnh 1VC - 4 d vy mi TU - 3 ch cn 3 byte con tr (H1H2H3) t 3 x TU - 3 s cn 9 byte con tr. Khi TU - 3 b xung 3 byte con tr TU -3 v n thm 6 byte v to thnh khung TU -3 c 86 ct v 9 dng. Khi TUG -3 n thun ch tip nhn khung Tu -3 v gi nguyn khung . 3 khung TUG -3 ghp xen byte to thnh khung VC -4. Nhng 3 khung TUG -3 ch c 258 ct v vy khi VC - 4 b xung thm ct VC - 4 POH v n thm 2 ct gm 16 byte khng mang tin S. Khi AU - 4 b xung con tr AU - 4, khi AUG tip nhn VC - 4. Khi STM - 1 b xung thm cc byte SOH.

TUG - 3 (1)
PTR

TUG - 3 (2)
PTR

TUG - 3 (3)
PTR

1 2 3 4 5 6
H H H 1 1 1 H H H 2 2 2 H H H 3 3 3

261

S S S

VC - 4POH Hnh 2-18 Ghp xen byte 3 x TUG - 3 thnh VC 4

22

270 = 261 +9 9

STM - 1

AU4PTR SOH SOH 125 s 261 =86 x 3 + 3

AU - 1 VC - 1
H S 1 H 2 H 3

P 9 OS S H

S H 1 H 1

H H

2 2 H H 3 S 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

...

1 2 3 125 s

1 1 3 1 2

x3
P T R

TUG - 3

S 125 s

x1 86 = 85 + 1
P T R

TU 3

S 125 s X1 85 P O H 125 s Hnh 2-19 : Trnh t sp xp 3 VC - 3 thnh STM 1

VC - 3

23

3-/ Sp xp lung 2 Mbit/s Cc byte ca lung nhnh 2 Mbit/s trong 125 s c ghp vo C - 12 l 32 byte sau trong C - 2 n thm 2 byte khng mang tin thnh 34 byte. Cc bit v cc byte chn c s dng duy tr kch thc xc nh cho khung VC- 12. VC - 12 to thnh 1 a khung 500 s dng chung 1 byte VC - 12 POH (byte V5) v ng u a khung, 3 khung cn li c 1 byte n c nh (R) ng u khung ta c s byte trong mt VC - 12 l 35 byte.
2 Mb s POH PTR 3 2 1
Pointer offset value

PDH C12

C12

VC 12 TU 12 1 TUG - 2

VC - 12 2 TU - 12

TUG - 2

1 TUG - 3

POH

TUG - 3

1 VC - 4

PTR

VC - 4 AU - 4

AU - 4 AUG 1 STM - N

SOH

AUG

Hnh 2-20 : Sp xp lung 2Mbit/s Trong SDH c 3 ch ghp c th s dng l: - Ghp khng ng b - Ghp ng b bit

24

- Ghp ng b byte
Mapping of 2M Signal into VC - 12 V5 R 32bytes R J2
C1C20000RR

1.0RRRRR R

V5

V5
P0P1RRRRRR

32bytes R J2 100000R R 32bytes R Z6


10RRRRRR

R ch1 - 15 M ch16 30 R J2
P0P1RRRRRR

32bytes 140 byte 500 s R Z6


C1C20000RR

35 byte 125 s

R ch1 - 15 M ch16 30 R Z6
P0P1RRRRRR

32bytes R K4

32bytes R K4
10RRRRRR 32bytes+7 bit

C1C2RRRRRS 1

R ch1 - 15 M ch16 30 R K4
P0P1RRRRRR

1: Information O:Everhead C: Justification Control S1: Justification Opportunity S2:Fixed Stuff

S211111 11

32bytes+7 bit

R
Asynchronou s

R Bit synchronous

R ch1 - 15 M ch16 30 R Byte


synchronous

The latest recommendation delted The bit Synchronous mapping

Hnh 2-21 : Cc ch ghp trong SDH

* Ghp khng ng b: Lung tn hiu 2 Mb/s khng ng b vi lung tn hiu SDH. Trong mng dng ch ny khng th truy nhp vi cc knh 64 Kb/s mt cch trc tip. Kiu ghp ny rt ph hp vi cc lung 2 Mb/s PDH hin nay. * Ghp ng b bit: Tc bit c ng b vi tn hiu SDH khng ng b cc tn hiu nhn dng khung. * Ghp ng b byte: C tc bit v tn hiu ng b khung 2 Mb/s u c ng b vi tn hiu SDH. Khung VC - 12 c chia lm 4 phn, mi phn gm 35 byte. Cc byte c gii thch nh sau:

25

- V5: POH ca VC - 12 lm chc nng qun l tuyn ni 2 VC - 12. Byte ny mang cc thng tin cho vic qun l u cui ti u cui lung nh thng tin cnh bo, tnh trng truyn gi (c /khng) gim st hot ng, tnh trng chuyn bo v... - I : cc bit thng tin - O : bit mang thng tin v qun l hin cha c nh ngha. - S1, S2 : cc bit c hi iu chnh, cc bit ny dng hiu chnh s chnh lch tn s gia SDH v PDH. - C1, C2 : iu khin vic iu chnh (bng cc bit c hi iu chnh). Cc bit C1 dng iu khin S1. C1 C1 C1 = 000 ch ra S1 mang thng tin. C1 C1 C1 = 111 ch ra S1 l bit hiu chnh (bit chn) ti u thu vic quyt nh S1, S2 l bit thng tin hay bit chn c xc nh theo kiu a s trong trng hp c mt li bit C. - PO, P1: dng cho vic bo hiu CAS trong ch ng b byte. Trong nhng khung c mang tn hiu bo hiu knh kt hp khe 15 v 30, hai bit ny c gi tr 1, trong trng hp khc cc bit ny c gi tr O. - J2: nh tuyn ni cho VC - 12 (dng xc nh im truy nhp lung bc thp) - R: l byte n c nh. Hin nay mt hng thay i cc byte R nh sau: + R u khung 2 thay bng J2 + R u khung 3 thay bng Z6 (NEC) + R u khung 4 thay bng K4 Z6: truyn tn hiu bo dng (dnh cho ngi iu hnh) K4: chuyn mch bo v t ng tuyn bc thp (tuyn VC - 12) (Xem hnh 2-22) Sau khi VC - 12 c to thnh khi TU - 12 tip nhn khung 35 byte do VC -12 chuyn ti v b sung thm 1 byte con tr thnh 36 byte/khung. Tip theo sp xp 3 TU - 12 thnh khung TUG - 2 c 12 ct x 9 dng, sp xp 7 x TUG - 2 thnh khung TUG - 3 c 86 ct x 9 dng. S dng 3 TUG -3 sp xp thnh VC - 4. Khi sp xp 7 x TUG - 2 thnh TUG - 3 th TUG - 3 b sung 3 byte NPI (Non Pointer Indication - ch th con tr khng hiu lc) vo u ct th nht v 6 byte n S cng vo ct th nht v 9 byte S vo ct th hai. Khi sp xp 3 TUG - 3 thnh VC - 4 cng phi n thm 2 ct S tip n l 6 ct S do 3 TUG - 3 chuyn sang, (S - Stuff Fixed- Byte n c nh). AU - 4 b sung con tr AU - 4 PTR. STM - 1 b sung cc byte SOH. Nh vy l trong khung TUG - 3 c 21 byte con tr Vn, phi s dng mt a khung VC - 4 ghp con tr Tu - 12 vo VC - 4.

26

VC - 12 V5

VC - 12 V1

35 byte
J2 V2

35 byte
Z6

V5

35 byte
K4

V3

35 byte

V4

500 s Hnh 2-22 : Ghp cc VC - 12 vo TU 12

500 s

B-/ Ghp cc gi khung STM - 1 * Ghp TU - 12 vo TUG - 2: Mi TU - 12 mang mt on 35 byte ca VC - 12 v con tr TU - 12 (trong ch ng). TUG - 2 l mt cu trc gm 9 dng x 12 ct cha 3 x TU - 12. trong TUG - 2, v tr cc VC - 12 c xc nh bi cc con tr, v tr ca cc VC trong TUG - 12 c th thay i dch ln hoc dch xung cn v tr cc con tr l hon ton xc nh. (Xem hnh 2-23) Kch thc ca TUG - 3 l 9 hng x 85 ct va vn cho mt TU -3. Ct u tin TUG -3 s cha cc byte nhi c nh v con tr TU -3, con tr ny ch ra nh pha gia Vc -3 v khung TUG -3. (Xem hnh 2-24) * Ghp TUG - 2 vp TUG -3: Mt TUG -3 c th cha ht 7TUG - 2 khi ct u tin ca TUG - 3 s cha cc bit nhi c nh, 84 ct cn li c chia u cho 7 TUG - 2. V tr cc con tr TU - 2 trong trng hp ny cng l

27

VC Ptr

VC Ptr

VC Ptr

9 hng TU12

TU12 TU12

TU-2 4 ct 12 ct Hnh 2-23 : Cch ghp cc TU -12 vo TUG -2

85 ct H1 H2 H3 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 Z3 K3 Z5 Fix stuff : Cc bit chn c nh Hnh 2-24 : Ghp TU - 3 vo TUG -3 C-3 85 ct

F I X S T U F F

28

c nh i vi khung TUG -3. Trong hnh v trn ta ch a ra khi nim v cch sp xp dung lng cc khi nh vo cc khi ln hn, thc t cc khi c xp lch nhau theo kiu xen byte. Cch ghp xen byte c minh ho hnh v sau:
86 ct F I X S T U F __ F I X S T U F TU2 ptr TU2 ptr

TUG-3 (7xTUG2)

TUG-2

TUG-2

Fix stuff: Cc bit chn c nh

12 ct Hnh 2-25 : Ghp 7 TUG -2 vo TUG -3

* Ghp TUG -3 vo VC - 4: Trng tin ca 1 x VC - 4 c th in y bng 3 TUG -3. Trng tin ca VC - 4 c th c coi l 1 khi 9 hng x 260 ct, 2 ct u tin c in y cc bit nhi. 3 TUG -3 c xp theo kiu xen byte in y 9 hng x 258 ct cn li ca trng tin VC -4. V tr cc con tr ca VC - 4 l hon ton xc nh so vi khung VC -4. V tr ca VC -4 tng ng vi AU -4 c ch ra bi con tr AU -4.

29

TUG - 3
1

TUG - 3 (A)

8 6

TUG - 3 (B)
1

8 6

TUG - 3 (C)
1

8 6

POH VC-4

ABCABCABC

ABC ABCABCABC

1 2 3

261

Hnh 2-26 : Ghp cc TUG - 3 vo VC - 4

* Ghp cc AUG vo STM - N S sp xp N x AUG trong mt khung STM - N m t nh sau: Mi AUG l mt cu trc gm 9 hng x 261 ct cng thm 9 byte hng th 4 cho con tr AU - N. Khung STM - N gm SOH ca khung v cu trc 9 hng x N x 261 ct mi hng v N x 9byte hng th t. N x AUG c xp theo kiu xen byte vo cu trc v c pha c nh tng ng vi khung STM- N (v tr ca cc AUG trong khung STM - N l xc nh) Mt AU - 4 c th ghp va vn trong mt AUG 9 byte u hng th t c dng cho con tr AU -4; 9 hng x 261 ct cn li c dng cho VC -4. Pha ca Vc 4 so vi Au - 4 l khng c nh (v tr khng c nh) v tr ca byte u tin ca VC -4 c ch ra bi gi tr con tr AU - 4.
1 9

AUG (1)

AUG (1)

RSOH
123...N 12 3...N

123...N 12 3...N

MSOH
Nx9 N x 261

123...N 12 3...N

Hnh 2-27: Ghp cc AUG vo cc khung STM -N

30

TU-12

TUG-2 A B C A B C A B C A B C (1) (2) (3) (7)

TUG-3 1 2 Nhi

1 2 34 5 671 2 34 5 671 2 34 5 671 2 34 5 671 2 3 4 5 671 2 3

4 5 67

1 2 3 4 5 67

86

Hnh 2-28 : Ghp TU - 12 vo TUG - 3

31