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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

LI NI U Trong nhng nm gn y, s xut hin ca VoIP gy nn mt s ch c bit trong lnh vc vin thng th gii, li ch m n mang li l rt ln. i vi khach hang, li ch u tin m h t c l chi ph cuc gi s r hn ng k. Cn i vi cc nh sn xut, cung cp v khai thc mng, truyn thoi qua mng Internet m ra nhng thch thc mi nhng cng ha hn kh nng li nhun ng k. y cng l mt bc t ph trong vic tin ti mt xu th mng vin thng mi. Cng ngh VoIP c rt nhiu u im nh: gim cc ph dch v thoi ng di; h tr nhiu cuc gi vi bng tn thp hn; nhiu hn v tt hn cc dch v nng cao; s dng c hiu qu nht giao thc IP Tuy nhin vn tn ti mt s nhc im v bo mt v k thut phc tp. Vi tnh trng pht trin nhanh ca cc dch v mng, di a ch IPv4 ang ngy cng cn kit, VoIP khng th pht huy ht sc mnh vn c ca n. tn dng ht nhng u im ca truyn thoi qua mng Internet ng thi gii quyt c nhc im ca c VoIP th h c v IPv4, th vic nghin cu v th nghim truyn thoi qua IPv6 c rt nhiu cng ty, t chc trn th gii ch . Vit Nam d vn cn nhiu hn ch v c s h tng v ngun lc song khng th nm ngoi xu th pht trin chung ca th gii.

a Nng, thng 11 nm 2011 Sinh vin : Nguyn Kim Hai.

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

MC LC

DANH MC CC T VIT TT

Vit tt VOIP TCP/IP LAN WAN PSTN SIP PBX RTP RTCP RSVP TCP UDP IPv4 IPv6 PC GSM PCM ETSI GK GW SCN ISDN

T ting anh Voice over Internet Protocol Transport control protocol / Internet protocol Local Area Network Wide Area Network Public Switched Telephone Network Session Inititation Protocol Private Branche Xchange Real Time Transport Protocol Real Time Transport control Protocol Reservation Protocol Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol Internet Protocol version 4 Internet Protocol version 6 Personnal Computer Global System for Mobie Pulse Code Modulation European Telecommunications Standards Institute Gatekeeper Gateway Switching Network Integrated Service Digital Network

Ngha ting vit Hnh thc truyn thoi qua Internet Giao thc truyn v sa li i vi Cc d liu. Mng vng cc b Mng rng Mng in thoi cng cng Giao thc khi to phin Tng i chi nhnh ring Vn chuyn thi gian thc iu khin truyn thi gian thc Giao thc gi trc ti nguyn Giao thc iu khin truyn tin D liu ngi s dng Giao thc Internet phin bn 4 Giao thc Internet phin bn 6 My tnh c nhn H thng ton cu cho in thoi di ng iu ch m xung Tiu chun vin thng chu u Cng qun l mng Cng ni mng Mng chuyn mch Mng dch v tch hp s

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6 DSL OAM MGW DTMF SGW RAS QoS DRQ HTTP IETF UA ACK SDP SMTP ITU RTT OPS OSP CPL NAT ID MAC DNS ISP ARP RFC MSN DAD ICMP NS RA Digital Subcribe Line Operation And Maintenance Management Media Gateway Dual Tone Multi Frequency Singnalling Gateway Registration Admission And Status Quality of Service Data Read Queue Hypertext Tranfer Protocol Internet Engineering Task Force User Agent Acknow Ledgement Sesion Descripion Protocol Simple Mail Tranfer Protocol International Telecommunication Union Radio Teletype Operations Per Second Operator Station Test Character Per Line Network Address Translation Information Divce Media Access Control Domain Name Server Internet Service Provider Address Resolution Protocol Request For Comments Multicast Solicited Node Duplicate Address Detection Internet Control Manager ment Protocol Network services Repeat to Address ng k k thut s dng Vn hnh qun l v bo dng Cng trung gian Cng bo hiu Tnh trng ng nhp Cht lng dch v Hng c d liu Giao thc chuyn siu vn bn Nhim v k thut Internet i din ngi s dng Ghi nhn Phin bn m t giao thc Di chuyn giao thc n gin Lin on vin thng quc t My v tuyn in bo Hot ng ph Nh iu hnh trm th nghim K t trn dng Cng ngh thay th a ch Thit b thng tin mng Kim sot truy cp phng tin truyn thng H thng tn min Cung cp dch v Internet Giao thc phn gii a ch Ti liu chun cho Internet Trng cu nt D tm a ch trng lp Cha giao thc qun l Internet Mng li dch v Lp li n a ch
3

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6 DHCP MTU


API ATM B-ISDN CS CoS GSM HLR

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Maximum Transmition Unit


application programming interface asynchronous transfer mode broadband ISDN Canadian Standard Corporation for Open Systems Global System for Mobile Communications Home Location Register interexchange carrier

Giao thc cu hnh a ch ng n v ti a c th truyn c


giao din lp trnh ng dng phng thc truyn dn khng ng b Mng s a dch v bng rng Chun Canada Tp on cc h thng m H thng ton cu cho thng tin di ng ng k v tr ni vng nh khai thc lin tng i

IAX

DANH MC CC HNH V CHNG I GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH 1.1. Mt s khi nim c s 1.1.1. Khi nim chuyn mch Chuyn mch l mt qu trnh thc hin u ni v chuyn thng tin cho ngi s dng thng qua h tng mng vin thng. Ni cch khc, chuyn mch trong mng vin thng bao gm chc nng nh tuyn cho thng tin v chc nng chuyn tip thng tin. 1.1.2. H thng chuyn mch Qu trnh chuyn mch c thc hin ti cc nt mng, trong mng chuyn mch knh cc nt mng thng c gi l h thng chuyn mch (Tng i), trong mng chuyn mch gi thng c gi l thit b nh tuyn (B nh tuyn). Trong mt s mng c bit, phn t thc hin nhim v chuyn mch c th va ng vai tr thit b u cui va ng vai tr chuyn mch v chuyn tip thng tin. 1.1.3. Phn loi chuyn mch Cc h thng chuyn mch cu thnh mng chuyn mch, ta c hai dng mng chuyn mch c bn: Mng chuyn mch knh v mng chuyn mch gi. Tuy nhin, di gc truyn v x l thng tin, chuyn mch cn c th

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


phn thnh bn kiu: chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch bn tin, chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch t bo. Mng chuyn mch knh thit lp cc mch (knh) ch nh ring cho kt ni trc khi qu trnh truyn thng thc hin. Nh vy, qu trnh chuyn mch c chia thnh 3 giai on phn bit: thit lp, truyn v gii phng. thit lp, gii phng v iu khin kt ni, mng chuyn mch knh s dng cc k thut bo hiu thc hin nh mt thnh phn bt buc. Ngc li vi mng chuyn mch knh l mng chuyn mch gi, da trn nguyn tc phn chia cc lu lng d liu thnh cc gi tin v truyn i trn mng chia s, mi gi tin l mt thc th c lp cha cc thng tin cn thit cho qu trnh x l thng tin trn mng. Cc giai on thit lp, truyn v gii phng s c thc hin ng thi trong mt khong thi gian v quyt nh ng i c xc lp bi thng tin trong tiu gi tin. 1.1.4. K thut lu lng TE K thut lu lng TE (Traffic Engineering) c coi l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht trong khung lm vic ca h tng mng vin thng. Mc ch ca k thut lu lng l ci thin hiu nng v tin cy ca cc hot ng ca mng trong khi ti u cc ngun ti nguyn v lu lng. Ni cch khc, TE l cng c s dng ti u ti nguyn s dng ca mng bng phng php k thut nh hng cc lung lu lng ph hp vi cc tham s rng buc tnh hoc ng. Mc tiu c bn ca k thut lu lng l cn bng v ti u cc iu khin ca ti v ti nguyn mng thng qua cc thut ton v gii php k thut. 1.1.5. Bo hiu trong mng vin thng Bo hiu s dng cc tn hiu iu khin truyn thng, trong mng vin thng bo hiu l s trao i thng tin lin quan ti iu khin, thit lp cc kt ni v thc hin qun l mng. Cc h thng bo hiu c th phn loi theo c tnh v nguyn tc hot ng gm: Bo hiu trong bng v bo hiu ngoi bng, bo hiu ng v bo hiu thanh ghi, bo hiu knh lin kt v bo hiu knh chung, bo hiu bt buc, v..v. Cc thng tin bo hiu c truyn di dng tn hiu in hoc bn tin. Cc h thng bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) c nh s t No1-No7. 1.1.6. Mng tch hp dch v s bng rng B-ISDN Mng tch hp dch v s bng rng c nhim v cung cp cc cuc ni thng qua chuyn mch, cc cuc ni c nh hoc bn c nh, cc cuc ni t im ti im hoc t im ti a im v cung cp cc dch v yu cu, cc dch v dnh trc hoc cc dch v yu cu c nh. Cuc ni trong B-ISDN phc v cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi theo kiu a phng tin, n phng tin, theo kiu hng lin kt hoc phi lin kt v theo cu hnh n hng hoc a hng.

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


1.2. Cc t chc tiu chun Cc tiu chun cho php cc nh cung cp thit b pht trin cc sn phm theo mt tp cc c tnh chung v ngi s dng cng nh cc nh cung cp dch v c th la chn c cc thit b t nhiu nh cung cp. H thng tiu chun c chia thnh hai loi: Tiu chun thc t v tiu chun php l. Tiu chun thc t c pht trin bi mt nh cung cp thit b hoc mt nhm cc nh cung cp c chp thun bi cc t chc tiu chun. Tiu chun php l c lp bi tha thun chung gia cc t chc tiu chun Quc gia hoc y ban tiu chun Quc t. Cc tiu chun lin quan ti lnh vc chuyn mch thuc v c hai loi tiu chun trn, nhng tp trung ch yu trong h thng tiu chun php l. Di y l mt s t chc tiu chun v din n chnh. 1.2.1. Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU (International Telecommunication Union) l mt t chc lin chnh ph gm c cc Quc gia thnh vin v Thnh vin lnh vc. Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU gm 3 lnh vc chnh: Lnh vc thng tin v tuyn ITU-R (Radiocommunication); Lnh vc tiu chun ha vin thng ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization); Lnh vc pht trin vin thng ITU-D (Development). ITU-T c t chc bi 15 nhm nghin cu k thut v a ra cc tiu chun di dng khuyn ngh. Cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T trong series Q lin quan ti bo hiu v chuyn mch. V d, Q.2931 m t th tc bo hiu s dng thit lp knh o im-im qua giao din ngi s dng-mng trong mi trng ATM. 1.2.2. T chc tiu chun Quc t ISO T chc tiu chun Quc t ISO (International Organization for Standardization) gm cc y ban tiu chun ca cc Quc gia. Nhim v ca t chc tiu chun Quc t ISO l xc tin vic tiu chun ha v cc hot ng lin quan trn ton cu nhm to iu kin thun tin trong trao i hng ha v dch v, pht trin s hp tc trn nhiu lnh vc. Tiu chun ISO a ra cc tiu chun ha bao trm tt c cc lnh vc k thut, trong lnh vc vin thng m hnh h thng kt ni h thng m OSI l mt tiu chun ph bin ca ISO. ISO hp tc vi y ban in t Quc t IEC (International Electronical Commission) pht trin cc tiu chun trong mng my tnh v lp ra y ban lin kt k thut JCT1 pht trin cc tiu chun trong lnh vc cng ngh thng tin. 1.2.3. Vin k thut in v in t IEEE IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering) l cng ng chuyn gia k thut ln nht trn th gii pht trin cc tiu chun trong lnh

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


vc in-in t v my tnh thng qua hip hi tiu chun IEEE-SA (Standards Association). 1.2.4. T chc c trch k thut Internet IETF IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) l mt cng ng m Quc t ca cc nh thit k mng, iu hnh mng, cc nh cung cp thit b v cc nh nghin cu lin quan ti s pht trin ca kin trc Internet. Mt s vng chc nng c bn ca IETF nh: ng dng, Internet, qun l mng, cc yu cu iu hnh, nh tuyn, bo mt, truyn ti v dch v ngi s dng. 1.2.5. Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u ETSI ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) l t chc tiu chun ha vin thng, phi li nhun v c lp ca chu u cng nh ca th gii. Mc tiu ca ETSI nhm h tr qu trnh tiu chun ha trong lnh vc vin thng, cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng ton cu thng qua cc din n, to iu kin cho cc thnh vin ch cht ng gp kin xy dng cc tiu chun. 1.2.6. Din n chuyn mch a phng tin MSF MSF (The Multimedia Switching Forum) cung cp cc tiu chun cho chuyn mch a dch v da trn nn tng ATM, h tr cc kiu dch v gm cc dch v IP v dch v ATM cng nh l cc dch v khc. 1.2.7. Din n IP/MPLS Din n IP/MPLS l mt t chc Quc t phi li nhun ca cc nh cung cp dch v, cc nh cung cp thit b, cc trung tm o kim v ngi dng x nghip. Mc tiu ca din n tp trung vo cc gii php pht trin v ng dng trn h tng cng ngh IP/MPLS. 1.3. Qu trnh pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch Vo khong thp nin 60 ca th k 20, xut hin sn phm tng i in t s l s kt hp gia cng ngh in t vi k thut my tnh. Tng i in t s cng cng u tin ra i c iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn SPC (Stored Program Control). Trong nhng nm 70 hng lot cc tng i thng mi in t s ra i. Mt trong nhng tng i l tng i E10 ca CITAlcatel c s dng ti Php. Nm 1976 Bell gii thiu tng i in t s cng cng 4ESS. Nm 1980 tng i DMS100 ca Northem Telecom dng ton b k thut s u tin trn th gii. H thng 5ESS ca hng AT&T a vo nm 1982 ci tin rt nhiu t h thng chuyn mch 4ESS v c cc chc nng tng thch vi cc dch v mng s tch hp dch v ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). Khong nm 1996 khi mng Internet tr thnh bng n trong th gii cng ngh thng tin, n tc ng mnh m n cng nghip vin thng v xu hng hi t cc mng my tnh, truyn thng, iu khin. H tng mng vin thng tr thnh tm im quan tm trong vai tr h tng x hi. Mt mng

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


c th truyn bng rng vi cc loi hnh dch v thoi v phi thoi, tc cao v m bo c cht lng dch v QoS (Quality Of Service) tr thnh cp thit trn nn tng ca mt k thut mi: K thut truyn ti khng ng b ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Cc h thng chuyn mch in t s cng phi dn thay i theo hng ny cng vi cc ch tiu k thut, giao thc mi. Mt v d in hnh l cc h thng chuyn mch knh khi cung cp cc dch v Internet s c tin cy khc so vi cc cuc gi thng thng vi thi gian chim dng cuc gi ln hn rt nhiu. S thay i ca h tng mng chuyn i sang mng th h sau NGN v ang tc ng rt ln ti cc h thng chuyn mch, sau y trnh by mt s vn lin quan ti mng NGN v cc c im ca qu trnh hi t mng ca h tng mng cng cng. Mng chuyn mch knh cng cng PSTN v IP (Internet Protocol) ang dn hi t ti cng mt mc tiu nhm hng ti mt h tng mng tc cao c kh nng tng thch vi cc ng dng a phng tin tng tc v m bo cht lng dch v. Hnh 1.1. ch ra xu hng hi t trong h tng mng cng cng:

Hnh 1.1. Xu hng hi t cng ngh mng cng cng T nhng nm 1980, PSTN chuyn hng tip cn sang phng thc truyn ti bt ng b ATM h tr a phng tin v QoS, sau chuyn hng sang cng ngh kt hp vi IP chuyn mch nhn a giao thc hin nay. Trong khi Internet a ra mt tip cn hi khc vi PSTN qua gii php trin khai kin trc phn lp dch v CoS (Class Of Service) v hng ti m bo cht lng dch v QoS thng qua m hnh tch hp dch v IntServ v phn bit dch v DiffServ, cc chin lc ca Internet theo hng tng thch vi IP, mng quang v hng ti mng chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switch). Cng ngh

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS ra i vo nm 2001 l s n lc kt hp hai phng thc chuyn mch hng kt ni (ATM, FR) vi cng ngh chuyn mch phi kt ni (IP). Trong mi trng mng hin nay, s phn cp h thng thit b bin (ni ht), thit b qu giang v thit b li trong mng cung cp cc dch v PSTN vn ang tn ti. Cc mng bao trm nh FR, ATM v Internet ang c trin khai song song v to ra nhu cu kt ni lin mng. Cc truy nhp cng thm gm cp ng, cp quang v truy nhp khng dy ang c trin khai lm a dng v tng mt truy nhp t pha mng truy nhp. S tng trng ca cc dch v truy nhp to nn sc p v t ra 3 vn chnh i vi h thng chuyn mch bng rng a dch v: Truy nhp bng thng rng, s thng minh ca thit b bin v truyn dn tc cao ti mng li. Vi mi trng mng PSTN trc y, cc thit b li mng chu trch nhim chnh trong iu hnh v qun l v iu ny c thay i chc nng cho cc thit b g mng trong mi trng NGN. Cc h thng chuyn mch phi c mm do ln nhm tng thch v p ng cc yu cu tng trng lu lng t pha khch hng. V vy, c ch iu khin cc h thng chuyn mch c pht trin theo hng phn lp v module ha nhm nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch v m bo QoS t u cui ti u cui. Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS (Call Server) v hng trin khai phn h a dch v IP (IMS) c trnh by di y ch ra nhng s thay i ln trong lch s pht trin h thng chuyn mch. 1.3.1. Chuyn mch mm v hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS c hnh thnh trong qu trnh chuyn i cc h tng mng chuyn mch knh sang chuyn mch gi trong mng PSTN. thc hin qu trnh chuyn i v truyn thoi trn nn IP, mt gii php c th thc thi l to ra mt thit b lai c th chuyn mch thoi c dng knh v gi vi s tch hp ca phn mm x l cuc gi. Thit b b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller) c coi l thnh phn mu cht trong gii php k thut chuyn mch mm Softswitch. Thc cht ca khi nim chuyn mch mm chnh l phn mm thc hin chc nng x l cuc gi trong h thng chuyn mch c kh nng chuyn ti nhiu loi thng tin vi cc giao thc khc nhau. Theo thut ng chuyn mch mm th chc nng chuyn mch vt l c thc hin bi cng a phng tin MG (Media Gateway), cn x l cuc gi l chc nng ca b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC. Chuyn mch mm thc hin cc chc nng tng t chuyn mch knh truyn thng nhng vi nng lc mm do v tnh nng u vit hn. Cc u

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


im ca chuyn mch mm mang li l do vic chuyn mch bng phn mm da trn cu trc phn tn v cc giao din lp trnh ng dng m. Trong chuyn mch truyn thng, phn cng chuyn mch lun i km vi phn mm iu khin ca cng mt nh cung cp. iu ny lm tng tnh c quyn trong vic cung cp cc h thng chuyn mch, khng cung cp mt mi trng kin to dch v mi, lm gii hn kh nng pht trin cc dch v mi ca cc nh qun tr mng. Khc phc iu ny, chuyn mch mm a ra giao din lp trnh ng dng m API (Application Programable Interface), cho php tng thch phn mm iu khin v phn cng ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Chuyn mch mm c xy dng trn c s mng IP, x l thng tin mt cch trong sut, cho php p ng nhiu loi lu lng khc nhau. c xy dng theo cu hnh phn tn, tch cc chc nng khc khi chc nng chuyn mch cng lm cho nhim v chuyn mch tr nn n gin hn v do nng lc x l mnh m hn. Cng ngh chuyn mch mm lm gim tnh c quyn ca cc nh cung cp, gp phn tng tnh cnh tranh v do gim gi thnh ca h thng chuyn mch mm. 1.3.2. Hng tip cn phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) thc hin hi t gia mng di ng vi mng c nh theo hng IP ha hon ton, mng th h k tip NGN ng dng ti mng 3G trong nhiu cch. Vo nm 2000, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) thit lp cc c tnh ca WCDMA R4 (Wireless Code Division Multiple Access Release 4), l ln u tin a ra khi nim chuyn mch mm vo trong h thng mng li di ng. S thay i ny nh hng ti kin trc mng, cc giao din mng, s pht trin ca cc dch v trong h thng thng tin di ng hng s pht trin ca 3G ti NGN. NGN v 3G a ra rt nhiu giao thc. 3G v NGN khng ch cung cp cc dch v nh thoi m cn l cc dch v a phng tin thng qua cc giao din dch v m. 1.4. Vai tr v v tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng 1.4.1. Cc thnh phn ca mng vin thng (Telecommunications network) L mt tp hp bao gm cc nt mng v cc ng truyn dn kt ni gia hai hay nhiu im xc nh thc hin cc cuc trao i thng tin gia chng. Mng vin thng cung cp a dng cc loi hnh dch v vin thng cho khch hng, t nhng dch v truyn thng nh in thoi, Fax, truyn s liu cho n cc dch v mi nh Internet, VOD, thng mi in t, 1.4.1.1. Thit b u cui Thit b u cui l cc trang thit b ca ngi s dng giao tip vi mng cung cp dch v. Hin nay c nhiu chng loi thit b u cui ca nhiu hng khc nhau ty thuc vo tng dch v (v d nh my in thoi, my fax, ). Thit b u cui thc hin chc nng chuyn i thng tin cn trao i thnh cc tn hiu in v ngc li.

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

10

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 1.2. Cc thnh phn ca mng vin thng 1.4.1.2. H thng chuyn mch H thng chuyn mch l thnh phn ct li ca mng vin thng c chc nng thit lp ng truyn gia cc thu bao (u cui). Ty theo v tr ca h thng chuyn mch trn mng, ngi ta chia thnh tng i chuyn tip quc t, tng i chuyn tip lin tnh v tng i ni ht hoc router bin, router li. 1.4.1.3. Thit b truyn dn Thit b truyn dn c s dng ni cc thit b u cui hay gia cc tng i vi nhau v truyn cc tn hiu mt cch nhanh chng v chnh xc. Thit b truyn dn c phn loi thnh thit b truyn dn thu bao, ni thit b u cui vi mt tng i ni ht, v thit b truyn dn chuyn tip, ni gia cc tng i. Da vo mi trng truyn dn, thit b truyn dn c th c phn loi gm thit b truyn dn hu tuyn s dng cp kim loi, cp si quang v thit b truyn dn v tuyn s dng khng gian lm mi trng truyn dn. 1.4.2. Vai tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng H thng chuyn mch (tng i, Node chuyn mch) c chc nng chnh l thit lp u ni gia thit b u cui pht vi thit b u cui thu da vo a ch mng (s thu bao). H thng chuyn mch c t cc v tr nt mng. N bao gm tp hp cc phng tin k thut thc hin vic thu, x l v phn phi cc thng tin chuyn ti t cc knh thng tin kt ni vi h thng chuyn mch. Cc chc nng c thc hin bi mt h thng chuyn mch, hay mt phn h ca n cung cp cc tnh nng dch v cho khch hng. Khi h tng

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

11

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


mng thay i, vic thit k cc h thng chuyn mch cng tr nn phc tp hn c th cung cp cc phng tin b sung cho php cc mng c kh nng cung cp nhiu dch v phong ph v cht lng ti khch hng v gip cho vic vn hnh cng nh bo dng tr nn d dng hn. Mc d cc h thng chuyn mch hin i c phc tp nhng n vn thc hin y cc chc nng c bn ca mt h thng chuyn mch. H thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng tr thnh mt thnh phn phc tp nht, tp trung cao nht hm lng cng ngh hin i, hm lng cht xm v hm lng cc chc nng x l thng tin. 1.4.3. V tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng 1.4.3.1. V tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng PSTN

GW TE HLE REL Sub

Hnh 1.3. V tr ca tng i trong mng PSTN : Gateway Tng i quc t : Transit Exchange Tng i chuyn tip quc gia : Host Local Exchange Tng i ni ht : Remote Local Exchange Tng i xa (Tng i v tinh : Subcriber Thu bao

Mng PSTN l mng vin thng cng cng c chun ha do ITU, cng ngh nn tng l cng ngh chuyn mch knh. H thng chuyn mch c t ti cc node mng v c gi l tng i. Ty theo v tr, chc nng ca tng i m trong mng phn chia thnh cc loi: Tng i cng quc t Tng i chuyn tip vng Toll Tng i chuyn tip ni ht Tandem Tng i ni ht Local 1.4.3.2. V tr ca cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng GSM

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Chc nng chuyn mch chnh trong mng thng tin di ng ton cu GSM c thc hin bi h thng con chuyn mch (SS). N bao gm mt s cc khi chc nng: Tng i chuyn mch trung tm MSC: Thc hin cc cng vic lin quan n thit lp/gii phng cuc gi, qun l thu bao, u ni vi cc mng khc thc hin cc cuc gi lin mng. MSC qun l cc BTS v c trang b cc c s d liu cho php nhanh chng cp nht cc thng tin v thu bao, v tr thu bao c cc p ng ph hp (HLR, VLR). Tng i chuyn mch ca ng GMSC: Kt ni vi cc mng khc nh mng in thoi c nh hay mng Internet. GMSC thc hin iu khin cc cuc gi t mng di ng vo mng in thoi c nh v ngc li.

Hnh 1.4. V tr ca tng i trong mng GSM 1.4.3.3. V tr ca cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng NGN

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 1.5. Cu trc mng NGN Cng ngh nn tng ca NGN l chuyn mch gi, v vy cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng NGN l cc thit b nh tuyn Router. Cc khi trong tng i hin nay c phn chia thnh cc lp mng ring l, cc lp ny lin kt vi nhau qua cc giao din m tiu chun. S thng minh ca x l cuc gi c bn trong chuyn mch PSTN c tch ra t phn cng ca ma trn chuyn mch. S thng minh nm trong mt thit b tch ri gi l chuyn mch mm hay b iu khin cng phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller) hay tc nhn cuc gi (Call Agent), ng vai tr phn t iu khin trong kin trc mng mi. . c im ca NGN S dng cng ngh chuyn mch mm (Softswitch) thay th cc thit b chuyn mch phn cng (Hardware) cng knh. Cc mng ca tng dch v ring r c kt ni vi nhau thng qua s iu khin ca mt thit b tng i duy nht, thit b tng i ny da trn cng ngh Softswitch c v nh tri tim ca NGN. Mng hi t thoi v d liu, c nh v di ng. Cc loi tn hiu c truyn ti theo k thut chuyn mch gi, xu hng sp ti ang tin ln s dng mng IP vi k thut QoS nh MPLS. Mng bng thng rng cung cp a dch v: mng truyn dn quang vi cng ngh WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) hay DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing).

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


2.4. Cu trc NGN

Hnh 1.6. Cu trc lp mng ca NGN Cu trc NGN bao gm 5 lp chc nng: Lp truy nhp dch v (service access layer). Lp truyn ti dch v (service transport/core layer). Lp iu khin (control layer). Lp ng dng/dch v (application/service layer). Lp qun l (management layer). Lp truy nhp dch v: Bao gm cc thit b truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni vi cc thit b u cui thu bao qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, hoc cp quang, hoc thng qua mi trng v tuyn (thng tin di ng, v tinh, truy nhp v tuyn c nh ). Lp truyn ti dch v: Bao gm cc nt chuyn mch (AMT+IP) v cc h thng truyn dn (SDH, WDM) thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn cuc gi gia cc thu bao ca lp truy nhp di s iu khin ca thit b iu khin cuc gi thuc lp iu khin. Lp iu khin: Bao gm cc h thng iu khin ni cuc gi gia cc thu bao qua vic iu khin cc thit b chuyn mch (AMT+IP) ca lp truyn ti v cc thit b truy nhp ca lp truy nhp. Lp iu khin c chc nng kt ni cuc gi thu bao vi lp ng dng/dch v. Cc chc nng nh qun l, chm sc khch hng, tnh cc cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Lp ng dng/dch v: Cung cp cc ng dng v dch v nh dch v mng thng minh IN (Intelligent Network), tr tin trc, dch v gi tr gia tng Internet cho khch hng thng qua lp iu khin Trong mi trng pht trin cnh tranh s c rt nhiu thnh phn tham gia kinh doanh trong lp ny. Lp qun l: y l lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp trn. Cc chc nng qun l c ch trng l: qun l mng, qun l dch v, qun l kinh doanh. 2.5. Cc thnh phn ca NGN Mi tng quan gia cu trc phn lp chc nng v cc thnh phn chnh ca NGN c m t trong hnh 2.2.

Hnh 1.7. Cu trc phn lp v cc thnh phn chnh trong NGN Theo hnh 2.2. ta nhn thy, cc thit b u cui kt ni n mng truy nhp (Access Network), sau kt ni n cc cng truyn thng (Media Gateway) nm bin ca mng trc. Thit b quan trng nht ca NGN l Softswitch nm tm ca mng trc (hay cn gi l mng li). Softswitch iu khin cc chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn qua cc giao thc. Hnh 2.3. lit k chi tit cc thnh phn NGN cng vi cc c im kt ni ca n n mng cng cng (PSTN).

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Hnh 1.8. Cc thnh phn chnh trong NGN Thit b Softswitch: L thit b u no trong mng NGN. N lm nhim v iu khin cuc gi, bo hiu v cc tnh nng to mt cuc gi trong mng NGN hoc xuyn qua nhiu mng khc (PSTN, ISDN). Softswitch cn c gi l Call Agent (v chc nng iu khin cuc gi ca n) hoc Media Gateway Controller MGC (v chc nng iu khin cng truyn thng Media Gateway). Thit b Softswitch c kh nng tng tc vi mng PSTN thng qua cc cng bo hiu (Signalling Gateway) v cng truyn thng (Media Gateway). Softswitch iu khin cuc gi thng qua cc bo hiu, c hai loi chnh: Ngang hng (peer-to-peer): Giao thc gia Softswitch v Softswitch, giao thc s dng l BICC hay SIP. iu khin truyn thng: giao tip gia Softswitch v Gateway, giao thc s dng l MGCP hay Megaco/H.248. Cng truyn thng: Nhim v ca cng truyn thng (MG-Media Gateway) l chuyn i vic truyn thng t mt nh dng truyn dn ny sang mt nh dng khc, thng thng l t dng mch (circuit) sang dng gi (packet), hoc t dng mch analog/ISDN sang dng gi. Vic chuyn i ny c iu khin bng Softswitch. MG thc hin vic m ha, gii m v nn d liu. MG cung cp phng tin truyn thng truyn ti thoi, d liu, fax v hnh nh gia mng truyn thng PSTN v mng IP. Cng truy nhp: Cng truy nhp (AG Access Gateway) l mt dng ca MG. N c kh nng giao tip vi my PC, thu bao ca mng PSTN, xDSL v giao tip vi mng gi IP qua giao tip STM. Trong NGN, cng truy nhp

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c iu khin t Softswitch qua giao thc MGCP hay Megaco/H.248. Lc ny, lu lng thoi t thu bao s c ng gi v kt ni vo mng trc IP. Cng bo hiu: Cng bo hiu (Signalling Gateway SG) ng vai tr nh cng giao tip gia mng bo hiu s 7 (SS7 Signalling System 7, giao thc c dng trong PSTN) v cc im c qun l bi thit b Softswitch trong mng IP. Lu rng SG ch iu khin SS7, cn MG iu khin cc mch thoi thit lp bi c ch SS7. Mng trc IP: Mng trc c th hin l mng IP kt hp cng ngh ATM hoc MPLS. Vn s dng ATM hay MPLS cn ang tch thnh hai xu hng. Cc dch v v ng dng trn NGN c qun l v cung cp bi cc my ch dch v (server). Cc my ch ny hot ng trong mng thng minh (IN Intelligent Network) v giao tip vi mng PSTN thng qua SS7.

Chng 2 TNG QUAN V VoIP 2.1 Khi nim VoIP : VoIP (vit tt ca Voice over Internet Protocol ngha l truyn ging ni trn giao thc IP) l truyn ting ni ca con ngi (thoi) qua mng thng tin s dng b giao thc TCP/IP

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 2.1: m ha m thanh VoIP l mt cng ngh m cho php to cuc gi dng kt ni bng thng rng thay v dng ng dy in thoi tng t (analog). VoIP cho php thc hin cuc dng my tnh qua mng d liu nh Internet. VoIP chuyn i tn hiu thoi t in thoi tng t analog vo tn hiu s (digital) trc khi truyn qua Internet, sau chuyn i ngc li u nhn. Khi to mt cuc gi VoIP dng in thoi vi mt b iu hp, chng ta s nghe m mi gi, quay s s xy ra sau tin trnh ny. VoIP c th cng s cho php to mt cuc gi trc tip t my tnh dng loi in thoi tng ng hay dng microphone. VoIP cho php to cuc gi ng di qua mng d liu IP c sn thay v phi c truyn qua mng PSTN.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 2.2 M hnh truyn thoi qua IP Nguyn tc ca VoIP bao gm vic s ha tn hiu ting ni, thc hin vic nn tn hiu s, chia nh cc gi nu cn v truyn gi tin ny qua mng, ti ni nhn cc gi tin ny c rp li theo ng th t ca bn tin, gii m tn hiu tng t phc hi li ting ni ban u. thc hin vic ny, in thoi IP thng c tch hp sn cc nghi thc bo hiu chun nh SIP hay H.323, kt ni ti mt tng i IP ( IP PBX ) ca doanh nghip hay ca nh cung cp dch v. in thoi IP c th dng nh mt in thoi thng thng ( ch khc l thay v ni vi mng in thoi qua ng dy th in thoi IP ni trc tip vo mng LAN qua cp Ethernet ) hoc phn mm thoi (soft-phone) ci trn my tnh. Cu trc phn lp ca h thng VoIP ph bin hin nay c m t ging nh cu trc phn lp ca m hnh TCP/IP v c biu din nh sau: H.323 RTP, RTCP, RSVP TCP, UDP

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IPv4, IPv6

20

Network, Access

Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 2.3 cu trc phn lp ca h thng VoIP 2.2 c im ca in thoi IP v mng VoIP:

Gim chi ph cuc gi: u im ni bt ca in thoi IP so vi dch v in thoi hin ti l kh nng cung cp nhng cuc gi ng di gi r vi cht lng chp nhn c.

Tch hp mng thoi, mng s liu v mng bo hiu: Trong in thoi IP, Kh nng m rng: Nu nh cc h tng i thng l nhng h thng kn,

tn hiu thoi, s liu v ngay c bo hiu u c th i trn cng mt mng IP. th rt kh thm vo nhng tnh nng th cc thit b trong mng Internet thng c kh nng thm vo nhng tnh nng mi. Chnh tnh mm do mang li cho dch v in thoi IP kh nng m rng d dng hn so vi in thoi truyn thng.

Khng cn thng tin iu khin thit lp knh truyn vt l: Gi thng tin

trong mng IP truyn n ch m khng cn mt s thit lp knh no. Gi tin ch cn mang a ch ca ni nhn cui cng l thng tin c th n c ch.

Qun l bng thng: Trong in thoi chuyn mch knh ti nguyn bng

thng cung cp cho mt cuc thoi l c nh, nhng trong in thoi IP vic phn chia ti nguyn cho cc cuc thoi linh hot hn nhiu.

Nhiu tnh nng dch v: Cho bit thng tin v ngi gi ti hay mt thu

bao in thoi IP c th c nhiu s lin lc m ch cn mt thit b u cui duy nht.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Kh nng multimedia: Trong mt cuc gi ngi s dng c th va ni

chuyn va s dng cc dch v khc nh truyn file, chia s d liu, xem hnh nh ca ngi ni chuyn bn kia. Tuy nhin cng ngh IP cng c nhng hn ch nh:

K thut phc tp: c c mt dch v thoi chp nhn c cn phi c

mt k thut nn tn hiu t c nhng yu cu kht khe nh: t s nn ln, tc x l ca cc b Codec (Coder and Decoder-b m ha v gii m) phi nhanh. ng thi c s h tng ca mng cng cn c nng cp ln cc cng ngh mi c tc cao hn v c c ch thc hin chc nng QoS (Quality of Service-cht lng dch v).

Vn bo mt: Mng Internet l mng c tnh rng khp v hn hp, trong

c rt nhiu loi my tnh khc nhau, cc dch v khc nhau cng s dng chung mt c s h tng.

Ngoi ra: VoIP c th gp nhng vn nh khng th s dng c dch

v khi cp in, khng th kt ni n cc dch v khn nh: cp cu, bo chy...

) ng dng ca VoIP:
+ Internet Telephone: l thit b ging nh in thoi thng thng nhng c th kt ni vo mng my tnh ng thi c th h tr hoc khng h tr kt ni vo mng in thoi cng cng PSTN. Internet Telephone cn c kh nng truyn v nhn tn hiu m thanh trc tip t cc mng s liu. + Gateway IP PSTN: c th s dng mng VoIP vi mng in thoi cng cng PSTN th gateway IP PSTN l mt cng kt ni cho php trao i cc thng tin trn hai mng. Gateway c th trc tip hai mng ni trn hoc c th s dng kt hp vi cc PBX. Gateway IP PSTN c hai giao din chnh l: giao din vi mng PSTN v giao din vi mng Internet. + Cc ng dng m rng: Trn c s gateway IP PSTN, chng ta c th pht trin thit k gateway IP mobile c th trc tip trao i thng tin gia mng di ng vi mng Internet. Ngoi ra c th pht trin cc ng dng VoIP nh truyn hnh hi tho hay in thoi c hnh.

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


2.3 Cc hnh thc truyn thoi qua IP 2.3.1 M hnh PC to PC Trong m hnh ny, mi my tnh cn c trang b mt sound card, mt microphone, mt speraker v c kt ni trc tip vi mng Internet thng qua modem hoc card mng. Mi my tnh c cung cp mt a ch IP v hai my tnh, vy l c th trao i tn hiu thoi vi nhau thng qua mng Internet. 2.3.2 M hnh PC to phone M hnh PC to phone l mt m hnh c ci tin hn so vi m hnh PC to PC. M hnh ny cho php ngi s dng my tnh c th thc hin cuc gi n mng PSTN thng thng v ngc li. 2.3.3M hnh phone to phone y l m hnh m rng ca m hnh PC to phone, s dng Internet lm phng tin lin lc gia cc mng PSTN. 2.4 C ch lm vic ca VoIP: Khi ni vo ng nghe hay microphone, ging ni s to ra tn hiu in t, l nhng tn hiu analog. Tn hiu analog c chuyn sang tn hiu s dng thut ton c bit chuyn i. 2.4.1 S ha tn hiu Analog: Biu din tn hiu tng t thnh dng s l cng vic kh khn. V bn thn dng m thanh nh ging ni con ngi dng analog do cn mt s lng ln cc gi tr digital biu din bin , tn sv pha, chuyn i nhng gi tr thnh dng s nh phn l rt kh khn. Cn thit cn c c ch dng thc hin s chuyn i ny v kt qu ca s pht trin ny l s ra i ca nhng thit b c gi l codec hay l thit b m ha v gii ma.
2.4.2

Ly mu (Sampling):

Tn hiu m thanh trn mng in thoi c ph nng lng t n 10Khz. Tuy nhin, hu ht nng lng u tp trung phn thp hn trong di ny. Do tit kim bng thng trong cc h thng truyn c ghp knh theo FDM v c TDM. Cc

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


knh in thoi thng gii hn bng tn trong khong t 300 n 3400Hz. Tuy nhin trong thc t s c mt t nng lng nhiu c chuyn qua di dng cc tn s cao hn tn s hiu dng 3400Hz. V th ph tn s c th c m rng n 4Khz.
2.4.3

Lng t ho (Quantization):

Tin trnh k tip ca s ha tn hiu tun t l biu din gi tr chnh xc cho mi mu c ly. Mi mu c th c gn cho mt gi tr s, tng ng vi bin (theo chiu cao) ca mu. Sau khi thc hin gii hn u tin i vi bin tng ng vi di mu, n lt mi mu s c so snh vi mt tp hp cc mc lng t v gn vo mt mc xp x vi n. Qui nh rng tt c cc mu trong cng khong gia hai mc lng t c xem c cng gi tr. Sau gi tr gn c dng trong h thng truyn. S phc hi hnh dng tn hiu ban u i hi thc hin theo hng ngc li.
2.4.4

M ha (Encoding):

Mi mc lng t c ch nh mt gi tr s 8 bit, kt hp 8 bit c 256 mc hay gi tr. Qui c bit u tin dng nh du gi tr m hoc dng cho mu. By bt cn li biu din cho ln; bit u tin ch na trn hay na di ca dy, bit th hai ch phn t trn hay di, bit th 3 ch phn tm trn hay di v c th tip tc. Ba bc tin trnh ny s lp li 8000 ln mi giy cho dch v knh in thoi. Dng bc th t l ty chn nn hay tit kim bng thng. Vi ty chn ny th mt knh c th mang nhiu cuc gi ng thi.
2.4.5

Nn ging ni(Voice Compression):

Mc d k thut m ha PCM 64 Kps hin hnh l phng php c chun ha, nhng c vi phng php m ha khc c s dng trong nhng ng dng c bit. Cc phng php ny thc hin m ha ting ni vi tc nh hn tc ca PCM, nh tn dng c kh nng ca h thng truyn dn s. Chc hn, cc m ha tc thp ny s b hn ch v cht lng, t bit l nhiu v mo tn s.
2.4.6

Packetizing voice:

Mi khi ging ni c s ho v c nn li, n phi c chia thnh nhng phn nh, t vo gi IP, VoIP th khng hiu qu cho nhng gi tin nh, trong khi nhng gi tin ln th to ra nhiu tr, do nh hng ca vi loi

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


header m kch thc cua d liu thoi (voice data ) cng s nh hng. S lng d liu thoi bn trong gi tin cn cn bng gia s hiu qu trong s dng bng thng v cht lng ca cuc thoi. 2.5 Cc vn cht lng ca VoIP: i hi c bn nht ca h thng VoIP l phi c cht lng thoi tng ng vi cht lng thoi trong mng PSTN. C 3 tham s chnh quyt nh cht lng thoi l : tr, trt v mt gi.

Cht lng nh ni chuyn trc tip Cht lng in thoi C th hiu c nhng cht lng cha tt lm Khng hiu ht t nhng hiu ca ngi ni Khng hiu c t v ca ngi ni Hnh 2.4 Cc mc nh gi cht lng thoi Tr (Delay): Tr l mt nhn t nh hng nhiu n cht lng thoi, thi gian tr ln lm gim cht lng thoi rt nhiu. Thi gian tr c phn chia thnh 2 loi l thi gian tr c nh (nh thi gian tr truyn dn) v tr bin i (nh thi gian tr do xp hng i router). Yu cu gim tr l rt cn thit trong h thng VoIP c th nng cao cht lng dch v. Trt (Jitter): Trt l s chnh lch v thi gian n ca cc gi trong mng gy ra do s chnh lch thi gian truyn dn ca cc gi thoi theo cc ng khc nhau t ngun n

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


ch. c th ti to ting ni mt cch chnh xc trung thc th bn bn thu cn phi loi b Jitter. Phng php c s dng loi b Jitter hin ang c s dng l dng b m Mt gi (packet loss): Mng Internet khng th m bo rng tt c cc gi tin u c chuyn giao. Yu cu t l mt gi l nh hn 10%. duy tr cht lng thoi mc chp nhn c mc d khng th trnh khi cc nguyn nhn bt thng trong mng, mt s k thut c a ra. l k thut thay th cc gi tin mt bng nhng khong im lng.

CHNG 3 KIN TRC H THNG VoIP 3.1.1 Kin trc v cc giao din ca mng VoIP : 3.1.1 Kin trc ca mng VoIP : Theo tiu chun ca t chc ETSI, cu hnh chun ca mng VoIP c th gm cc phn sau:

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Thit b u cui kt ni vi mng IP. Mng xng sng, mng truy nhp Ip. Gateway iu khin phng tin. Gateway phng tin. Gateway bo hiu. Gatekeeper (GK). Mng chuyn mch (SCN). Thit b u cui kt ni vi mng in thoi SCN. Cc dch v u cui (Back-end service).

3.2 -

Cc thnh phn ca mng VoIP: 3.2.1 Thit b u cui: Mt thit b u cui l mt nt trong cu hnh chun ca mng VoIP. Mt thit b u cui c th cho php mt thu bao trong mng IP thc hin mt cuc gi ti mt thu bao khc trong mng chuyn mch. Cc cuc gi s c nm di s gim st ca Gk ca thit b u cui m thu bao c ng k.

3.2.2

Mng truy nhp IP:

Mng truy nhp IP cho php thit b u cui, gateway, gatekeeper truy nhp vo mng IP thng qua c s h tng sn c. Mt vi loi giao din chun truy nhp IP c s dng trong cu hnh chun ca mng VoIP l: Truy nhp PSTN Truy nhp ISDN Truy nhp LAN Truy nhp cp, DSL Truy nhp GSM

Trn y khng phi l tt c cc giao din truy nhp IP, bi cn mt vi loi khc ang c nghin cu s dng trong mng VoIP. c im ca cc giao din ny c th gy nh hng n cht lng v tnh bo mt ca cuc gi VoIP.

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


3.2.3 Gatekeeper: 3.2.4 Gatekeeper l phn t mng chu trch nhim qun l vic ng k Gateway: chp nhn trng thi ca cc thit b u cui v gateway. Mt gateway c th kt ni vt l mt hoc nhiu mng IP vi mt hoc nhiu mng SCN. Mt gateway c th bao gm: gateway bo hiu, gateway iu khin phng tin v gateway phng tin. Mt hay mt s chc nng ny c th thc hin bi GK hoc mt GW khc. 3.3 Giao thc bo hiu H.323: Giao thc H.323 l chun do ITU-T pht trin cho php truyn thng a phng tin qua cc h thng da trn mng chuyn mch gi (v d nh Internet). H.323 cung cp nn tng k thut cho truyn thoi, hnh nh, s liu mt cch ng thi qua mng IP, gii quyt cc ng dng ct li ca in thoi IP. H323 bao gm c chc nng iu khin cuc gi, qun l thng tin a phng tin, qun l bng thng, cung cp giao din gia mng LAN v cc mng khc.

Hnh 3.1 cu trc H.323

SVTH: Nguyn Kim Hai VT2B

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 3.1 s khi thit b u cui H.323 3.3.1 Giao thc RAS (Registration Admission and Status): Cc bn tin RAS c dng trao i gia cc u cui v cc Gatekeeper cho cc chc nng nh tm Gatekeeper, ng k, qun l bng thng Knh bo hiu RAS c ti i trong gi tin UDP mang thng ip dng trong qu trnh tm Gatekeeper v ng k. 3.3.2 Giao thc bo hiu cuc gi H225 (Q.931): H225 c dng thit lp lin kt gia cc im cui H323 ( u cui, gateway ), qua lin kt d liu thi gian thc s c truyn i. Do yu cu tin cy nn cc thng bo ca H225 s c truyn i trong gi tin TCP. 3.3.3 Giao thc vn chuyn thi gian thc RTP/RTCP: RTP: L mt th tc da trn k thut IP to ra cc h tr truyn ti cc d liu yu cu thi gian thc. RTP c coi nh mt giao thc truyn t u cui n u cui (end to end) phc v truyn d liu thi gian thc nh audio v video.

RTCP:
RTCP l giao thc h tr cho RTP, gim st cht lng ca qu trnh phn phi d liu v cung cp thng tin phn hi v cht lng truyn d liu. 3.3.4 Giao thc gi trc ti nguyn (RSVP):

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Giao thc RSVP c s dng nh mt giao thc bo hiu h tr cho RTP, mc ch ca RSVP l cung cp mt c ch m bo bng thng cho cc hot ng ca cc ng dng.
3.3.5 Hot ng ca H.323:

Hnh 3.2 m t hot ng ca H.323

Hot ng pht hin gatekeeper:


L hot ng bt buc i vi mi im cui khi n ng nhp mng. u cui gi bn tin yu cu gatekeeper (GRQ), gatekeeper p ng li vi bn tin xc nhn (RCF), nu Gatekeeper chn khng lm Gatekeeper cho im cui s gi bn tin GRJ.

Hot ng ng k vi gatekeeper:
Khi hot ng pht hin gatekeeper xy ra, tin trnh ng k bt u. Hot ng ny nh ngha mt im cui tham gia vo mt vng nh th no v cung cp cho Gatekeeper s cng v a ch ca n.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 3.3 tin trnh ng k vi gatekeeper

Thit lp knh media:


Knh iu khin H.245 c thit lp gia gateway A v gateway B, Gateway A s dng H.245 a ra kh nng ca n bng cch gi bn tin Terminal Capability Set n Gateway B.

Hnh 3.4 tin trnh thit lp knh media

Hot ng thay i bng thng:


Cc im cui (hoc Gateway) cng c th yu cu thay i bng thng. Gatekeeper phi qun l cc yu cu thay i bng thng ny (tng hoc gim).

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 3.5 Tin trnh thay i bng thng

Thit lp cuc gi Gatekeeper ni vng:

Hnh 3.6 tin trnh thit lp cuc gi ni vng 1: Thit lp cuc gi gatekeeper lin vng: Khc vi ni vng l c s lin kt gia hai Gatekeeper trn mng thit lp cuc gi cho hai thu bao u cui.

Hnh 3.7 thit lp cuc gi lin vng

Ngt kt ni gia hai u cui H.323 lin vng:

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 3.8 tin trnh ngt kt ni lin vng 3.4 Giao thc bo hiu SIP: SIP l giao thc iu khin bo hiu thuc lp ng dng, c pht trin nh l mt chun m RFC 2543 ca IEFT. Khc vi H.323, n da trn ngun gc Web (HTTP) v c thit k kiu modul, n gin v d dng m rng vi cc ng dng thoi SIP. SIP l mt giao thc bo hiu thit lp, duy tr v kt thc cc phin a phng tin nh: thoi IP, hi ngh v cc ng dng tng t khc lin quan n vic truyn thng tin a phng tin. 3.4.1 Cc thnh phn ca SIP:

Hnh 3.9 cu trc ca SIP Giao thc SIP gm hai thnh phn: i l trm ca ngi s dng (user agent) v my ch mng (network server). User agent l mt ng dng kt cui h thng m n bao gm c user agent client (UAC) khi to cuc gi v user agent server (UAS) n s tr li cuc gi. C UCA v UAS u c th kt thc cuc gi. 3.4.2 Cc bn tin trong giao thc SIP v phn hi:

Cc bn tin:
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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


INVITE: Khi mt UAC mun khi to mt phin mi nh: video, audio hay

game th n s to ra mt bn tin INVITE. Bn tin ny gi yu cu v server cho php thit lp mt phin lm vic. Bn tin ny c th c gi qua cc proxy, cc UAS. Cc UAS s kim tra thng xuyn xem ngi s dng c ng li mi khng. Nu ng (ngha l phin lm vic c thit lp) th cc UAS s gi bn tin phn hi 2xx v. Cn nu li mi khng dc chp nhn th phn hi 3xx, 4xx, 5xx hay 6xx s c gi i ty theo l do t chi. Trc khi gi tn hiu phn hi cui cng ny, UAS cn gi km mt bn tin 1xx thng bo UAC tip tc gi qu trnh lin lc vi ngi c gi. ACK: bn tin ny khng nh my trm nhn c bn tin tr li bn tin INVITE. SIP thc thi qu trnh bt tay qua ba bc: Pha gi gi bn tin INVITE; Pha c gi gi bn tin ACK chp nhn yu cu; Pha gi gi bn tin ACK thng bo qu trnh bt tay hon tt v qu trnh thit lp cuc gi bt u. Cho d bn tin INVITE u tin bao gm gi tin SDP (Session Description Protocol) hay khng th bn tin ACK u tin s c SDP ca pha c gi. Cc bn tin ACK khc c gi i kt thc qu trnh bt tay v bao gm SDP cn thit lp cuc gi. BYE: c s dng kt thc mt phin lm vic c th hoc mt phin lm CANCEL: Ging nh tn gi, bn tin CANCEL c s dng hy yu cu vic tm thi. trc c gi t pha cilent. N yu cu UAS tm dng x l yu cu v to ra mt phn hi li cho yu cu . Bn tin ny s khng c tc dng i vi yu cu m UAS gi i phn hi cui cng.V vy bn tin ny s rt c ch i vi nhng yu cu m server mt nhiu thi gian phn hi. Do , bn tin CANCEL thch hp nht vi bn tin INVITE, l bn tin mt nhiu thi gian phn hi. REGISTER: Bn tin ny s dng ng k UA vi UAS. OPTIONS: Bn tin ny cho php mt UA xc nh kh nng c th ca Proxy Ngoi ra cn mt s giao thc khc na c s dng nh: INFO, NOTIFY,

Server hay UA khc. SUBCRIBE, UNSUBCRIBE, UPDATE, MESSAGE, REFER

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Cc phn hi:
cu. 4xx (CLIENT ERORR): thng bo yu cu cha cu trc sai hoc khng c 5xx (SERVER ERORR): thng bo server khng th p ng c yu cu c p ng server. cu trc hp l. - 6xx (GLOBAL FAILURE): thng bo yu cu khng th x l c bt c server no. 3.4.3Cc bc thit lp, duy tr v hy cuc gi: 3.4.4 ng k, khi to v xc nh v tr ngi dng. Xc nh bng thng cn thit c s dng. Xc nh s sn sng ca pha c gi, pha c gi phi gi mt bn tin phn Cuc gi c thit lp. Chnh sa cuc gi (chuyn cuc gi v duy tr). Kt thc cuc gi. Hot ng ca SIP: +) User : tn ngi dng hoc s in thoi. +) Host: tn min hoc a ch mng. Mi a ch SIP l duy nht. M t cuc gi SIP: +) Hot ng ca my ch y quyn (proxy server): Cuc gi SIP c nh tuyn qua Proxy server. 1xx ( PROVISIONAL): phn hi tm thi, cho bit nhn c yu cu , tip 2xx (SUCCESS): thng bo nhn c y , hiu v chp nhn. 3xx (REDIRECTION): thng bo cn c cc bn tin khc hon thnh yu tc qu trnh yu cu.

hi th hin cuc gi (chp nhn hay t chi).

a ch SIP tn ti di dng user@host. Trong :

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 3.10 thit lp cuc gi qua Proxy server +) Hot ng ca my ch chuyn i a ch (Redirect Server):

Hnh 3.11 thit lp cuc gi qua Redirect Server 3.5 So snh giao thc SIP v H.323: H.323 c xy dng nhm to ra mt h thng hon chnh, khng nhng hot ng tt trong vn truyn ting ni qua mng IP m cn c kh nng k tha v tng thch tt vi cc h thng trc y So snh c th nh sau:

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


SIP IETF Ngang cp K tha cu trc HTTP SIP Proxy Server Redirect Server Location Serve Khun dng Tr thit lp cuc gi Gim st trng thi cuc gi Registrar Server Text, UTF-8 1.5 RTT C hai la chn: - trong thi gian thit lp cuc gi. - sut thi gian cuc gi. Bo hiu qung b S dng cc giao thc khc Cht lng dch v nh: RSVP, OPS, OST m bo cht lng dch v ng k ti Registrar server Bo mt c xc nhn u cui v m Getaekeeper iu khin bng thng. H.323 khuyn ngh dng RSVP lu d ti nguyn mng. Ch ng k khi trong mng c gatekeeper, xc nhn v m ha theo tiu chun H.232 nh v u cui s dng E.164 hoc tn o H.323 v phng nh v u cui v nh tuyn cuc gi Dng SIP-URL nh a ch. nh tuyn nh s dng Redirect v Location Server php nh x a ch nu trong mng c gatekeeper. Chc nng nh tuyn do gatekeeper m nhim. c thit k nhm h tr C h tr Nh phn 6.7 RTT hoc hn My ch phi gim st trong sut thi gian cuc gi v phi gi trng thi kt ni TCP. iu ny hn ch kh nng m rng v gim tin cy. Khng H.323 ITU-T Ngang cp K tha Q.931, Q.SIG H.323 H.323 Gatekeeper

Ngun gc Quan h mng Khi im u cui Server

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


H tr cc tnh nng ca Tnh nng thoi cuc gi c bn rt nhiu tnh nng hi ngh, k c thoi, hnh nh v d liu, qun l tp trung nn c th gy To tnh nng v dch v mi Kh nng m rng 3.6 Giao thc SGCP (Simple Gateway Control Protocol): Giao thc ny cho php cc thnh phn iu khin cuc gi, c th iu khin kt ni gia trung k, cc thit b u cui vi cc gateway. Cc thnh phn iu khin c gi l call Agent. SGCP c s dng thit lp, duy tr v gii phng cc cuc gi qua mng IP. Call Agent thc hin cc chc nng bo hiu cuc gi v gateway thc hin chc nng truyn tn hiu m thanh. SGCP cung cp 5 lnh iu khin chnh nh sau: Notification Request: yu cu gateway pht cc tn hiu nhc t my v cc tn Notifi: gateway s dng lnh ny thng bo vi call Agent v cc tn hiu Create Connection: Call Agent yu cu khi to kt ni gia cc u lin lc Modify Connection: Call Agent dng lnh ny thay i cc thng s v kt hiu quay s DTMF. c pht trn. trong GW. ni c thit lp. Lnh ny cng c th dng iu khin lung cho cc gi tin RTP i t GW ny sang GW khc. Delete Connection: Call Agent s dng lnh ny gii phng cc kt ni Nm lnh trn y iu khin GW v thng bo cho call agent v s kin xy ra. Mi lnh hay yu cu bao gm cc thng s c th cn thit thc thi cc phin lm vic. c thit lp. D dng, s dng SIP-CGI v CPL D dng tc nghn gatekeeper. H.450.1 Hn ch

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


3.7 Giao thc MGCP: Giao thc MGCP cho php iu khin lnh cc Gw thoong qua cc thnh phn iu khin nm bn ngoi mng. MGCP s dng m hnh kt ni tng t nh SGCP da trn cc kt ni c bn gia thit h u cui v GW. Cc kt ni c th l kt ni imim hoc kt ni a im. Ngoi chc nng iu khin nh SGCP, MGCP cn cung cp thm cc chc nng sau: Endpoint Configuration: Call Agent dng lnh ny yu cu GW xc nh kiu Auditendpoint v Auditconnection: Call Agent dng lnh ny kim tra trng Restartin-progress: GW dng lnh ny thng bo vi Call Agent khi no cc m ha pha ng dy kt ni n thit b u cui. thi v s kt ni thit b u cui. thit b u cui ngng s dng dch v v khi no quay li s dng dch v.

CHNG 4 TNG QUAN A CH IPv6 4.1 S ra i ca IPv6: 4.1.1 S cn kit ca a ch IPv4: Nhng thp k va qua, do tc pht trin mnh m ca Internet, khng gian a ch IPv4 c s dng trn 60%. Nhng t chc qun l a ch quc t t mc tiu s dng hiu qu ln hng u. Nhng cng ngh gp phn gim nhu cu a ch IP nh NAT (cng ngh bin dch c th s dng a ch IP private), DHCP (cp a ch tm thi) c s dng rng ri. Tuy nhin, hin nay nhu cu tng a ch rt ln: Nhng dng dch v mi i hi khng gian a ch IP c nh (t l a ch/khch hng l 1:1) v kt ni dng u cui u cui: dch v DSL, cung cp dch v Internet qua ng cp truyn hnh, vic pht trin cc mng gio dc, game trc

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


tuyn, thit b di ng tham gia vo mng Internet, truyn ti thoi, audio, video trn mng. 4.1.2 Hn ch v cng ngh v nhc im ca IPv4: IPv4 h tr trng a ch 32 bit, IPv4 ngy nay hu nh khng cn p ng c nhu cu s dng ca mng Internet. Hai vn ln m IPv4 ang phi i mt l vic thiu ht cc a ch, c bit l cc khng gian a ch tm trung (lp B) v vic pht trin v kch thc rt nguy him ca cc bng nh tuyn trong Internet. gim nhu cu tiu dng a ch, hot ng mng IPv4 s dng ph bin cng ngh bin dch NAT. M hnh s dng NAT ca a ch IPv4 c mt vi nhc im nh: Khng c kt ni im - im v gy tr ; Vic gi tin khng c gi nguyn tnh trng t ngun ti ch, c nhng im trn ng truyn ti ti gi tin b can thip, nh vy tn ti nhng l hng v bo mt. Bn cnh nhng gii hn nu trn, m hnh ny cn c mt hn ch na chnh l s tht thoat a ch nu s dng cc lp a ch khng hiu qu. Mc d lng a ch IPv4 hin nay c th p ng nhu cu s dng trn th gii, nhng cch thc phn b a ch IPv4 khng thc hin c chuyn . Nguy c thiu ht a ch IPv4 cng nhng hn ch ca n a ra yu cu cp thit phi nghin cu a ra mt giao thc Internet mi, khc phc nhng hn ch ca giao thc IPv4 v em li nhng c tnh mi cn thit cho dch v v cho hot ng mng th h tip theo. IETF a ra quyt nh thc y thay th cho IPv4 l IPv6 giao thc a ch Internet phin bn 6 cn c gi l giao thc IP th h mi. a ch Internet phin bn 6 c chiu di gp 4 ln so vi phin bn 4: 128 bit a ch. 4.2 S lc mt s c im ca IPv6: Khi pht trin phin bn mi, IPv6 hon ton da trn nn tng IPv4. Ngha l tt c nhng chc nng ca IPv4 u c tch hp vo IPv6. Tuy nhin, IPv6 cng c mt vi im khc bit:

Tng kch thc ca tm a ch: IPv6 s dng 128 bit a ch trong khi IPv4 ch
s dng 32 bit; ngha l IPv6 c ti 2128 a ch khc nhau; 3 bit u lun l 001 c dnh cho cc a ch kh nh tuyn ton cu (Globally Routable Unicast GRU).

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Tng s phn cp a ch: IPv6 chia a ch thnh mt tp hp cc tm xc nh


hay boundary: 3 bit u cho php bit c a ch c thuc a ch kh nh tuyn ton cu (GRU) hay khng, gip cc thit b nh tuyn c th x l nhanh hn. Top Level Aggregator (TLA) ID c s dng v 2 mc ch: th nht, n c s dng ch nh mt khi a ch ln m t cc khi a ch nh hn c to ra cung cp s kt ni cho nhng a ch no mun truy cp vo Internet; th hai, n c s dng phn bit mt ng (Route) n t u. Th hai, chng ta cng mun cho php cc khch hng nhn c y bng nh tuyn nu h mun, to vic nh tuyn theo chnh sch, cn bng ti...

n gin ha vic t a ch Host: IPv6 s dng 64 bit sau cho a ch Host,


trong 64 bit c c 48 bit l a ch MAC ca my, do , phi m vo mt s bit c nh ngha trc m cc thit b nh tuyn s bit c nhng bit ny trn subnet. Ngy nay, ta s dng chui 0xFF v 0xFE (:FF:FE: trong IPv6) m vo a ch MAC.

a ch Anycast: IPv6 nh ngha mt loi a ch mi: a ch Anycast. Mt a


ch Anycast l mt a ch IPv6 c gn cho mt nhm cc my c chung chc nng, mc ch. Khi packet c gi cho mt a ch Anycast, vic nh tuyn s xc nh thnh vin no ca nhm s nhn c packet qua vic xc nh my gn ngun nht.

Vic t cu hnh a ch n gin hn: Mt a ch Multicast c th c gn cho


nhiu my, a ch Anycast l cc gi Anycast s gi cho ch gn nht (mt trong nhng my c cng a ch) trong khi Multicast packet c gi cho tt c my c chung a ch (trong mt nhm Multicast).

Header hp l: Header ca IPv6 n gin v hp l hn IPv4. IPv6 ch c 6


trng v 2 a ch, trong khi IPv4 cha 10 trng v 2 a ch. IPv6 Header c dng:

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

Hnh 4.1 nh dng IPv6 header

Bo mt: IPv6 tch hp tnh bo mt vo trong kin trc ca mnh bng cch gii
thiu 2 Header m rng ty chn: Authentication Header (AH) v Encrypted Security Payload (ESP) Header. Hai Header ny c th c s dng chung hay ring h tr nhiu chc nng bo mt.

Tnh di ng: IPv6 h tr tt cc my di ng nh laptop. IPv6 gii thiu 4 khi


nim gip h tr tnh ton di ng gm: Home address; Care-of address; Binding; Home agent. Trong IPv6 th cc my di ng c xc nh bi mt a ch Home address m khng cn bit hin ti n c gn vo u. Khi mt my di ng thay i t mt subnet ny sang subnet khc; n phi c mt Care-of address qua mt qu trnh t cu hnh. S kt hp gia Home address v Care-of address c gi l mt Binding. Khi mt my di ng nhn c mt Care-of address, n s bo cho Home agent ca n bng gi tin c gi l Binding update Home agent c th cp nht li Binding cch ca Home agent v Care-of address ca my di ng va gi. Home agent s duy tr mt nh x gia cc Home address v Care-of address v b n vo Binding cche. Mt my di ng c th c truy cp bng cch gi mt packet n cc Home address ca n.

Hiu sut: IPv6 cung cp cc li ch sau:


Gim c thi gian x l Header, gim Overhead v chuyn dch a ch. Gim c thi gian x l nh tuyn:
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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Tng n nh cho cc ng: Gim Broadcast: Multicast c gii hn Khng c checksum. 4.3.1 Cch vit a ch IPv6: a ch IPv6 128 bit c chia thnh 8 khi mi khi 16 bit, mi khi ny c chuyn sang dng s hexa 4 bit v c phn bit vi nhau bng du hai chm. V d : cho 1 a ch IPv6 di dng nh phn nh sau: 0010000111011010000000001101001100000000000000000010111100111011000000 1010101010000000001111111111111110001010001001110001011010 a ch ny c chia ra thnh cc khi 16bit nh sau: 0010000111011010 0000000011010011 0000000000000000 0010111100111011 0000001010101010 0000000011111111 1111111000101000 1001110001011010 Mi khi ny c chuyn sang ch s hexa v chia cch nhau bng du hai chm, kt qu l: 21DA:00D3:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A Vic vit a ch IPv6 c th n gin ha bng cch xa b 0 ng u trong mi khi 16 bit. Tuy nhin mi khi phi c t nht mt s n. Trong v d trn, a ch trn c n gin ha thnh: 21DA:D3:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A 4.3.2 Prefix ca IPv6: Prefix l mt phn ca a ch IPv6, n ch ra cc bit c gi tr c nh hoc l cc bit ng vai tr l ID ca mng. Cc prefix cho nh danh mng con ca IPv6, cc tuyn, cc vng a ch c biu din nh trong k hiu CIDR (classless Inter-Domain Routing) cho IPv4. V d 21DA::/48 cho mt a ch Prefix tuyn v 21DA:D3:0:2F3B::/64 cho 1 prefix mng con. Trong IPv6 ch dng prefix ch khng dng mt n mng con nh IPv4. 4.3.3 Cc dng a ch IPv6:

4.3 a ch IPv6:

a ch unicast: Mt a ch unicast xc nh mt giao din n trong phm vi ca


loi a ch unicast.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6

a ch multicast: Mt a ch multicast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topo nh


tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch multicast s c chuyn ti tt c cc giao din m c xc nh bi a ch ny. Mt a ch multicast c dng trong truyn thng mt-nhiu, c chuyn n nhiu giao din.

a ch anycast: Mt a ch Anycast xc nh nhiu giao din. Vi topology nh


tuyn thch hp th cc gi c nh a ch anycast c chuyn n mt giao din n gn nht c xc nh bi a ch anycast ny. Khi nim giao din gn nht c xc nh gn nht trong gii hn khong cch nh tuyn. a ch anycast c dng trong truyn thng 1-1 trong nhiu. 4.4 Hot ng ca a ch Ipv6: 4.4.1 Phn gii a ch: Trong a ch Ipv4, quy trnh ny c m nhim bi th tc ARP. Node cn phn gii a ch s gi gi tin truy vn ti a ch ch l a ch broad cast, tc ng n mi node khc trn ng link. Trong a ch ca Ipv6, y l mt trong s nhng quy trnh th tc Neighbor Discovery m nhim. phc v cho vic phn gii tng ng a ch lp mng v a ch vt l, cc node IPv6 u duy tr mt bng cache thng tin v cc node ln cn gi l neighbor cache. Trong h iu hnh window, chng ta c th xem thng tin trong bng ny vi lnh nesth>interface ipv6>show neighbors. Khi mt IPv6 node cn tm a ch lp link layer (v d a ch MAC trn ng link Ethernet) tng ng vi mt a ch unicast IPv6 no , thay v gi gi tin truy vn ti a ch multicast mi node phm vi link (FF02::1) tc ng ti mi node trn ng link tng ng a ch broadcast trong IPv4, node ch gi ti a ch Multicast Solicited Node tng ng a ch unicast cn phn gii. Nh chng ta cng bit, mt node IPv6, khi c gn mt a ch unicast, ngoi vic lng nghe lu lng ti a ch unicast , node IPv6 s lp tc nghe v nhn lu lng ca mt dng a ch multicast tng ng l Multicast Solicited Node tng ng a ch unicast ny.

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Nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6


Nh vy, trong qu trnh phn gii a ch ca IPv6, ch nhng node ang nghe lu lng ti a ch MSN ph hp mi nhn v x l gi tin. iu ny gim thiu vic tc ng n mi node trn ng link, tng hiu qu hot ng. thc hin quy trnh phn gii a ch, hai node IPv6 trong mt ng link trao i thng ip Neighbor Solicitation v Neighbor Advertisement. Khi mt node cn phn gii a ch, n gi i trn ng link thng ip Neighbor Solicitation: - a ch ngun: a ch IPv6 ca giao din gi gi tin. - a ch ch: a ch IPv6 MSN tng ng a ch unicast cn phn gii a ch. - Thng tin cha trong phn d liu c cha a ch lp link- layer ca ni gi (trong Option Source Link-layer Address) Trn ng link, node ang nghe lu lng ti a ch MSN trng vi a ch ch ca gi tin s nhn c thng tin. N thc hin nhng hnh ng sau: - cp nht a ch lp link-layer ( a ch MAC trong trng hp kt ni Ethernet) ca ni gi vo bng neighbor cache. - gi thng ip Neighbor Advertisement p tr ti a ch ch l a ch ngun gi gi tin, thng tin trong phn d liu c lp a ch lp link-layer ca n (cha trong Option Target Link-Layer Address). Khi nhn c thng ip Neighbor Advertisement, node cn phn gii a ch s s dng thng tin trong thc hin lin lc ng thi cp nht thng tin vo bng neighbor cache ca mnh. 4.4.2 Kim tra trng lp a ch: T ng cu hnh a ch l mt trong nhng c tnh ni bt ca th h a ch IPv6. c tnh ny c c nh vic node IPv6 c kh nng t cu hnh 64 bit nh danh giao din (Interface ID) t a ch ca card mng, hoc nhn ID l mt con s ngu nhin. Do 64 bit nh danh giao din c th l con s ngu nhin, hon ton c kh nng trn ng kt ni, a ch IPv6 node d nh s dng c mt node khc s dng ri. Do vy chng cn mt quy trnh kim tra s trng lp a ch trong ng link. l quy trnh DAD.

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DAD cng s dng hai thng ip ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation v Neighbor Advertisement. Tuy nhin mt s thng tin ca gi tin ny khc vi gi tin s dng trong qu trnh phn gii a ch. Khi mt node cn kim tra trng lp a ch, n gi gi tin Neighbor Solicitation: - a ch IPv6 ngun: l a ch unspeccified ::. iu ny s hiu, a ch d nh c gn cho giao din s cha th c s dng chng no cha kim tra l khng c s trng lp. - Gi tin Neighbor Solicitation s cha a ch IPv6 ang c kim tra trng lp. Sau khi gi NS, node s i, nu khng c phn hi th c ngha l a ch ny cha c s dng, cn nu a ch ny c mt node no s dng ri , node ny s gi thng ip Neighbor Advertisement p tr: - a ch ngun: a ch IPv6 node giao din gi gi tin - a ch ch: a ch IPv6 multicast mi node phm vi link (FF02::1) - Gi tin s cha i ch b trng lp Nu node ang kim tra a ch trng lp nhn c thng ip RA phn hi li RS mnh gi, n s hy b vic s dng a ch ny. 4.4.3 Kim tra tnh c th t ti ca node ln cn: Thng ip Neighbor Solicitation v Neighbor Advertisement c s dng trong qu trnh phn gii a ch, kim tra trng lp a ch cng c s dng cho nhng mc ch khc nh: qu trnh kim tra tnh c th t ti ca mt node ln cn. Cc IPv6 node duy tr bng thng tin v cc neighbor ca mnh gi l neighbor cache, v s cp nht bng ny khi c s thay i tnh trng mng. Bnagr ny lu thng tin i vi c router v host. Bit c node ln cn c th t ti hay khng rt quan trng i vi mt node v n s iu chnh cch thc c x ca mnh theo kt qu nhn c, V d nu bit mt node ln cn khng t ti c, host s ngng gi gi tin, bit mt router ang khng th t ti c, host c th thc hin quy trnh tm kim mt router khc. Nu mt host mun kim tra tnh trng c th nhn gi tin ca node ln cn, n gi thng ip Neighbor Solicitation. Nu nhn c Neighbor Advertisement phc p,

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n bit tnh trng ca node ln cn l t ti c v cp nht bng neighbor cache tng ng. Tt nhin tnh trng ny ch c coi l tm thi v c mt khong thi gian dnh cho n, trc khi node cn thc hin kim tra li trng thi neighbor. Khong thi gian quy nh ny cng nh mt s cc tham s hot ng khc host s nhn c t thng tin qung b Router Adertisement ca router trn ng kt ni. 4.4.4 Tm kim router: i vi hot ng ca a hcir IPv6, s trao i gia cc host vi nhau, gia host vi router l rt quan trng. Trong mng router l thit b m nhim vic chuyn tip lu lng c cc host t mng ny sang mng khc. Mt host phi nh vo router c th gi thng tin ti nhng node nm ngoi ng kt ni ca mnh. Do vy, trc khi mt host c th thc hin cc hot ng giao tip vi cc mng bn ngoi, n cn tm mt router v hc c nhng thng tin quan trng v router, cng nh v mng. Trong th h a ch IPv6, c th cu hnh a ch, cng nh c nhng thng s cho hot ng, IPv6 host cn tm thy router v nhn c nhng thng tin t router trn ng kt ni. Router IPv6 ngoi vic m trch chuyn tip gi tin cho host, n cn m nhim mt hot ng khng th thiu l qung b s hn din ca mnh v cung cp cc tham s tr gip host trn ng kt ni cu hnh a ch v cc tham s hot ng. Thc hin nhng hot ng trao i thng tin gia host v router l mt nhim v rt quan trng ca th tc Neighbor Discovery. Qu trnh tm kim, trao i gia host v router thc hin da trn hai dng thng ip sau: - Router Solicitation c gi bi host ti cc router trn ng link. Do vy, gi tin c gi ti da ch ch multicast mi router phm vi link (FF02::2). Host gi thng ip ny yu cu router qung b ngay cc thng tin n cn cho hot ng. - Router Advertisement ch c gi bi cc router qung b s hin din ca router v cc tham s cn thit khc cho hot ng ca cc host. Router gi nh k thng ip ny trn ng kt ni v gi thng ip ny bt c khi no nhn c router solicitation t cc host trong ng kt ni.

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4.4.5 Cu hnh t ng a ch cho IPv6 node: a ch IPv6 c ci tin c th gim thiu nhng cu hnh nhn cng, 64 bit cui cng ca a ch IPv6 lun dnh nh danh giao din, 64 bit nh danh ny c th t ng cu hnh t a ch card mng hoc gn mt cch t ng. Nh quy trnh giao tip trn ng link ca th tc Neighbor Discovery, IPv6 host c th lin lc vi router trn ng kt ni nhn cc thng tin v prefix trn link v nhng tham s hot ng khc. Do vy, cc node trong IPv6 c hai cch thc cu hnh a ch: cu hnh a ch bng tay, hoc cu hnh a ch t ng. IPv6 node c hai cch thc cu hnh t ng a ch cho giao din: - T ng cu hnh c trng thi (stateful): y l cch thc cu hnh a ch cho host da vo s tr gip ca DHCPv6 server. Cch thc cu hnh ny tng t nh vic s dng DHCP ca IPv4. Hin nay, cc RFC dnh cho DHCPv6 c IETF hon thin y . My ch DHCPv6 s cung cp cho host a ch v cc thng tin host cu hnh, nn c gi l cu hnh c trng thi (stateful). - T ng cu hnh khng trng thi (stateless): y l cch thc t ng trong , mt host s t thc hin cu hnh a ch cho giao din khng cn s h tr ca bt k mt my ch DHCP no. Host thc hin cu hnh a ch t khi cha c mt thng tin no h tr cu hnh (stateless) v qua trao i vi router IPv6 trn ng kt ni. 4.4.6 nh s li thit b IPv6: nh s li mng IPv4 l iu m nhng nh qu tr rt ngi. N nh hng ti hot ng mng li v tiu tn nhn lc cu hnh li thng tin cho host, node trn mng. i vi a ch IPv6, da trn nguyn tc cu hnh t ng , cc host trn mng c th c nh s li nh thng bo ca router t thi gian ht thi hn c th s dng cho mt network prefix. Sau , router thng bao prefix mi cc host to l a ch IP. Trn thc t, cc host c th duy tr s dng a ch c trong mt khong thi gian nht nh trc khi xa b hon ton. 4.4.7 Phn mnh gi tin IPv6:

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Mng quy m ln hay nh, bao gm cc ng kt ni vt l khc nhau. Mi ng kt ni c mt gi tr gii hn v kch thc thng tin truyn ti trn , c gi l MTU. Trong hot ng ca th h a ch IPv4, trong qu trnh forward gi tin, nu IPv4 router nhn c gi tin ln hn gi tr MTU ca ng kt ni, router s thc hin phn mnh gi tin. Sau qu trnh truyn ti, gi tin c xy dng li nh nhng thng tin trong header. a ch IPv6 p dng mt m hnh khc phn mnh gi tin, vic phn mnh gi tin c thc hin ti host ngun, ni gi gi tin. Mi IPv6 router khng tin hnh phn mnh gi tin, nh tng hiu qu, gim thi gian x l gi tin. Trong header c bn IPv6, cc trng h tr cho vic phn mnh va kt cu li gi tin ca IPv4 header c b i. Nhng thng tin tr gip cho vic phn mnh v ti to gi tin IPv6 c trong header m rng ca gi tin IPv6. Gi tr MTU ti thiu mc nh trn ng link IPv6 l 1280 byte. Router s gi cho cc IPv6 host trn ng link gi tr MTU mc nh ca ng link . Tuy nhin , n c c ch, gi tin s i qua nhiu ng kt ni c gi tr MTU khc nhau, vic phn mnh gi tin c thc hin tai host ngun, khng thc hin bi cc router trn ng truyn ti. truyn c ti ch, gi tin cn phi c kch thc ph hp vi gi tr MTU nh nht trn ton b ng truyn t ngun ti ch. Nhm phc v cho host ngun phn mnh gi tin, phi c mt cch thc no host ngun quyt nh gi tr MTU s dng khi gi gi tin. Trong a ch IPv6 tn ti hai khai nim: LinkMTU: gi tr MTU trn ng kt ni trc tip ca host PathMTU: gi tr MTU nh nht trn ton b ng truyn Host ngun c thut ton tm Path MTU trn ton b ng truyn gi l Path MTU Discovery, v s lu gi gi tr ny s dng trong giao tip.

CHNG 5 THIT K H THNG VoIPv6

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Bc sang nhng nm u ca th k XXI, ng dng ca Internet pht trin nhm cung cp dch v cho ngi dng notebook, cellualar modem v thm ch n cn thm nhp vo nhiu ng dng dn dng khc nh TV, my pha c ph c th a nhng khi nim mi da trn c s TCP/IP ny thnh hin thc, TCP/IP phi m rng. Nhng mt thc t m khng ch gii chuyn mn, m ngay c cc ISP cng nhn thc c l ti nguyn mng ngy cng hn hp. Vic pht trin v thit b, c s h tng, nhn lc khng phi l mt kh khn ln. Vn y l a ch IP, khng gian a ch IP ngy cng cn kit, cng v sau a ch IP (IPv4) khng th p ng nhu cu m rng mng . Bc tin quan trng mang tnh chin lc i vi k hoch m rng ny l vic nghin cu cho ra i mt th h sau ca giao thc IP, chnh l IP version 6. IPv6 ra i khng c ngha l ph nhn hon ton IPv4 (cng ngh m h tng mng chng ta ang dng ngy nay). V l mt phin bn hon ton mi ca cng ngh IP, vic nghin cu, ng dng vo thc tin lun l mt thch thc rt ln. Mt trong nhng thch thc lin quan n kh nng tng thch gia IPv6 v IPv4, lin quan n vic chuyn i t IPv4 ln IPv6, lm th no m ngi dng c th khai thc nhng th mnh ca IPv6 nhng khng nht thit phi nng cp ng lot ton b mng (LAN, WAN, Internet) ln IPv6. 5.1 M t h thng: H thng VoIPv6 gm c 3 tng i Asteriskv6, 3 tng i ny c th l cng mt di mng chia s qun l cc ti khon in thoi. Cng c th l 3 khu vc a l khc nhau c th cng mt cng ty hoc cc cng ty khc nhau. Mi tng i qun l s lng ti khon nht nh. Ba tng i ni chuyn vi nhau bng giao thc IAX, cc softphone ni chuyn vi tng i bng giao thc SIP. Yu cu t ra ca h thng l cc ti khon ng k cng 1 tng i c th gi c cho nhau:

IPv6 (c hai chiu) IPv4 IPv4 (c hai chiu)


IPv4

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IPv6

IPv6 (c hai chiu)

Cc ti khon ng k cc tng i khc nhau cng c th gi c cho nhau:

IPv6 (c hai chiu) IPv4 IPv4 (c hai chiu) IPv6 IPv6 (c hai chiu)
IPv4 IPv4

V t ti khon c a ch ipv4, IPv6 gi ra c mng PSTN v ngc li:

PSTN (c hai chiu) IPv6 PSTN (c hai chiu)

5.2

Thc hin: Tng i Asteriskv6 PBX 1 ci Fedora Core 10, hai tng i cn li ci trn CentOS

5. Cc my trm cu cc ti khon ci Ubuntu 8.10 hoc Windows XP2, cc trm c th dng softphone l Linphone s dng c a ch IPv6 v IPv4 hoc X-lite ch s dng a ch IPv4. Dng GW SPA3102 giao tip vi mng PSTN. S dng phn mm Wireshark bt gi tin trn mng Internet. Asteriskv6 PBX 1: C 4 ti khon: 101, 102, 103, 104. Mi ti khon c th nhn 1 trong 4 a ch sau: a ch IPv6 l 2001:dc9::110/64 a ch IPv4 l 192.168.1.111/24 a ch IPv4 l 192.168.1.112/24 a ch IPv6 l 2001:dc9::113/64 Asteriskv6 PBX 2: C 2 ti khon 202, 203. Mi ti khon c th nhn mt trong hai a ch sau: a ch IPv6 l 2001:dc9::114/64 a ch IPv4 l 192.168.1.115/24 Asteriskv6 PBX 3: C hai ti khon l 304, 305. Mi ti khon c th nhn c mt trong hai a ch sau: a ch IPv6 l 2001:dc9::116/64 a ch IPv4 l 192.168.1.117/24
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Gateway c a ch 192.168.1.4 ni vi Asteriskv6 PBX 1 5.3 Kt qu t c: Cuc gi IPv4 ti IPv4, IPv6 trong cng mt tng i v khc tng i thnh cng tt p c hai chiu do cng trn mt h tng mng IPv4 hoc IPv6. Nhng cuc gi gia IPv4 v IPv6 din ra phc tp hn v c s chuyn i a ch trn server. Qua kt qu kho st cho thy: + Asteriskv6 PBX 1 kt ni c vi 2 tng i cn li bng giao thc IAX2 trn port 4569. + Cc ti khon do Asteriskv6 PBX 1 qun l ng k thnh cng vi tng i. + Ti khon 104 c a ch 192.168.1.111 gi cho ti khon 102 c a ch 2001:dc9::110 trong cng 1 tng i Asteriskv6 PBX 1 c a ch 192.168.1.100 hoc 2001:dc9::110. Qu trnh c th nh sau: Khi ti khon 104 bm phm gi cho ti khon 102 trong cng tng i, bn tin INVITE c gi t a ch 192.168.1.111 ti tng i. Tng i trao i vi ti khon 104 bng a ch 192.168.1.100 v trao i thng tin vi ti khon 102 bng a ch IPv6 2001:dc9::100 bng cch m port cho IPv6 hot ng lng nghe cc kt ni ca c 2 nh dng giao thc a ch. Ti khon 104 c a ch 192.168.1.111 gi bn tin INVITE ti tng i Asteriskv6 PBX 1 yu cu thit lp phin kt ni ti ti khon 102 cng thuc tng i vi 104. Tng i gi tr bn tin 100 Trying bo nhn c bn tin INVITE do 104 gi ti v ang thit lp kt ni. Tng i gi bn tin INVITE yu cu thit lp phin cuc gi ti 102 c a ch Ti khon 102 gi li tng i tn hiu chung ch v tng i li chuyn tip Khi 102 nhc my, bn tin 200 OK xc lp cuc gi thnh cng c gi ti 2001:dc9::110 v gi tra 104 bn tin 180 Ringing l tn hiu chung ch. n ti khaonr 104. tng i. Tng i gi tn hiu tr li ACK tr li cho ti khon 102 v gi bn tin 200 OK thit lp phin kt ni thnh cng ti ti khon 104. Lc ny phin kt ni c xc lp gia hai ti khon.

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-

Khi c mt ti khon dp my trc thi bn tin BYE c gi ti tng i, tng

i chp nhn ngt kt ni bng bn tin 200 OK v gi bn tin BYE tip tc ti ti khon 104 ti khon 104 gi tr bn tin 200 OK chnh thc kt thc phin kt ni gia hai ti khon. + Ti khon 305 c a ch 192.168.117 Asteriskv6 PBX 3 gi sang ti khon 103 c a ch 2001:dc9::110, qu trnh nh sau: Khi ti khon 305 c a ch 192.168.117 do Asteriskv6 PBX 3 qun l gi sang ti khon 103 c a ch 2001:dc9::110 do Asteriskv6 PBX 1 qun l, th tng i Asteriskv6 PBX 3 trao i thng tin vi ti khon 305 v Asteriskv6 PBX 1 bng a ch IPv4, khng s dng port cho IPv6. Giao tip t ti khon 305 ti Asteriskv6 PBX 3 hon ton l IPv4, nhng Asteriskv6 PBX 2 trao i vi ti khon 103 bng a ch IPv6. Hai tng i trao i thng tin bng giao thc IAX 2. -

Ti khon 305 gi bn tin INVITE ti server Asteriskv6 PBX 3 yu cu thit lp Asteriskv6 PBX 3 gi bn tin 100 Trying v ti khon 103 bo rng n nhn Server Asteriskv6 PBX 3 bit ti khon 103 do Asteriskv6 PBX 1 qun l nn

phin vi ti khon 103 . Ti khon 305 s dng softphone X-lite. c bn tin INVITE v ang thit lp kt ni, gi tn hiu chung ch. trao i thng tin vi Asteriskv6 PBX 1 Asteriskv6 PBX 1 gi bn tin INVITE ti ti khon 103 yu cu thit lp phin kt ni. Cc server vn tip tc trao i thng tin bng ng Trunk s dng giao thc IAX 2. Ti khon 103 c a ch 2001:dc9::110 gi tn hiu chung ch cho Asteriskv6 PBX 1 n khi nhc my gi bn tin 200 OK v chp nhn kt ni. Cc server li trao i thng tin v Asteriskv6 PBX 3 gi thng tin 200 OK thnh cng ti ti khon 305 v thit lp lung RTP hai chiu ti Server ri c chuyn tip ti cc ti khon. V d khi 305 dp my trc, bn tin BYE c gi ti Asteriskv6 PBX 3, server gi li bn tin OK chp nhn yu cu kt thc cuc gi. V tip tc chuyn yu cu kt thc cuc gi ti Asteriskv6 PBX 1, Asteriskv6 PBX 1 gi bn tin BYE ti ti khon 103.

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cng. + Ti khon 101 c a ch 2001:dc9::110 gi ra ti khon 1111 PSTN, qu trnh din ra nh sau: Ti khon 101 co a ch 2001:dc9::110 gi bn tin INVITE yu cu thit lp phin kt ni vi ti khon 1111 ti Asteriskv6 PBX 1 c a ch 2001:dc9::100. Asteriskv6 PBX 1 tr li bn tin 100 Trying bo rng n nhn c bn tin INVITE v ang thit lp cuc gi. Server nhn thy y l cuc gi PSTN nn n chuyn tip bn tin INVITE n gateway SPA3102 c a ch IP l 192.168.1.4, nhng n trao i thng tin vi gateway bng a ch 192.168.1.100 ca mnh v gateway c a ch IPv4.
-

103 gi bn tin OK ti Asteriskv6 PBX 1 chp nhn ngt phin kt ni thnh

Gateway gi bn tin 100 Trying v server bo rng n nhn bn tin INVITE

do server gi ti v ang thit lp cuc gi. Sau gateway gi tn hiu chung v cho server server chuyn tip tn hiu chung v cho my c ti khon 101.
-

Gateway nhn c thng tin tr v t mng in thoi tng t, n s gi bn

tin 200 OK v thit lp lung RTP hai chiu ti server v c chuyn tip ti thu bao 101. Sau khi nhn c bn tin ny th lung RTP c thit lp trc c chuyn thnh hai chiu v gi bn tin ACK xc nhn i cuc gi c thit lp. V d khi thu bao PSTN dp my trc, bn tin BYE c gi i t 1111 ti server Asteriskv6 PBX 1. Sau server gi li bn tin 200 OK chp nhn ngt kt ni vi ti khon 1111. Qu trnh gi bn tin BYE tng t t server ti 101 v sau phin kt ni kt thc. Kt qu thu c trn cho thy hot ng c th ca VoIPv6, VoIPv6 hon ton c kh nng trin khai song song v thch ng vi h tng mng IPv4 hin ti. Vi nhng tnh nng vt tri ca IPv6 so vi IPv4 th vic trin khai IPv6 l hon ton cn thit c chc chn s phi din ra trong tng lai khng xa. Trn y l mt h thng c bn c th pht trin trong mng ni b ca mt cng ty hoc gia cc chi nhnh cc khu vc a k khc nhau.

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KT LUN Trn y l bi lm ca em v ti nghin cu v thit k h thng VoIPv6. Bi lm tp trung nghin cu v giao thc truyn thoi qua mng Internet VoIPv6, trnh by v c im ca h thng VoIP, VoIPv6 nhng u im ni bt ca IPv6 so vi IPv4. V vic ng dng VoIPv6 trong tng lai l mt xu th tt yu trong vi nm ti. Vn l vi s ph bin rng khp ca cng ngh hin nay, IPv6 s tn ti song song vi h tng mng IPv4.

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Tuy nhin do iu kin kin thc cn hn hp v ti liu hn ch v thi hian nghin cu khng c nhiu nn bi lm ca em cn s si v c thiu st. Mong c ch dy thm em c hiu bit su hn v h thng VoIP. Hn ch ca bi lm l cha kho st c hot ng thc t ca qu trnh kt ni cc cuc gi t IPv4 sang IPv4/Ipv6 v t IPv6 sang mng thoi tng t PSTN.

TI LIU THAM KHO http://forum.saobacdau-acad.vn/showthread.php?p=943#post943 http://forum.saobacdau-acad.vn/showthread.php?t=785 http://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_play

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Gio trnh-Bi ging : c s thoi Internet Signaling in Telecommunication Networks (2ND). Tc gi: John G. van Bosse, Fabrizio U. Devetak http://www.ebook.edu.vn/?page=1.6&view=4330 Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh in thoi trn Internet (Internet Telephony). Tc gi: Phm Vit Dng Network Protocols Handbook - Javvin Technologies Nghin cu cng ngh truyn thoi qua internet s dng giao thc TCP/IP (VoIP) - Bi xun Hnh Voice over IP Fundamentals Cisco http://www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn/News/PrintView.aspx?ID=17296 http://www.ptithcm.org/forum/showthread.php?t=4296

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