Está en la página 1de 7

DelaCruz, John ray S.

Gonzales MID 2Y2-1

Ms. Grace

Computer 1a- Lec

1. A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is the accepting of input from human operators and the output of results formatted for human consumption. The interface between the computer and the human operator is known as the user interface. 2. Computer types Computer types can be divided into 3 categories according to electronic nature. Types of computers are classified according to how a particular Computer functions. These computer types are Analogue Computers Digital Computers Hybrid Computers

Analogue Computers Analogue types of Computer uses what is known as analogue signals that are represented by a continuous set of varying voltages and are used in scientific research centers?, hospitals and flight centers With analogue types of computer no values are represented by physical measurable quantities e.g. voltages. Analogue computer types program arithmetic and logical operations by measuring physical changes i.e. temperatures or pressure.

Digital Computer type With these types of computers operation are on electrical input that can attain two inputs, states of ON=1 and state of OFF = 0. With digital type of computers data is represented by digital of 0 and 1 or off state and on state. Digital computer type recognizes data by counting discrete signal of (0 0r 1), they are high speed programmable; they compute values and stores results. After looking at the Digital computer type and how it functions will move to the third computer type as mentioned above. Hybrid type of Computer Hybrid computer types are very unique, in the sense that they combined both analogue and digital features and operations. With Hybrid computers operate by using digital to analogue convertor and analogue to digital convertor. By linking the two types of computer above you come up with this new computer type called Hybrid. 3. Computer Advantage Here is a list of the advantages of computers With computer and internet connection, you can have easy access to information. Computers can be use for multiple purposes, word processing, gaming, movies, internet browsing, programming, reading articles, email, faxing, video chat, online chat and more. Organize large and store large amount of data and information such as images, sound, videos Computer Disadvantage Here is a list of the disadvantages of computers Less human interactions, computer may ruin your social life if you cannot maintain the balance. People who work from home on their computers are likely to feel cut off from the rest of the world. Have to constantly keep up to date with new technology and have to spend time to learn different functions in applications.

and other files.

It helps people to communicate with other computer owners, family and friends across the world through the internet. There are free calls from different countries and making the world smaller. Computers run 24 hours 7 days a week. Reduce the use of paper. Computer has more computing and calculating power than human. Computers are more accurate and consistence. Accountant work has become much easier because of the help of computers. Enable you to shop online anywhere and purchase items without commuting. Helps create automatic tasks that human do not want to do.

May caused eyestrains because of the bright screen and radiation. Computer may decrease your physical activities, making someone unhealthy, may caused chronic injury syndrome with pain in the fingers of the hand/radiating pain in the forearm and arm. May cause bad skeletal problems. posture and

Children have easy access to pornographic material with internet connection. Children are also easy target for sexual offenders who pretend to chat and pretend to be their friends. Email spam, lead to fraud, hacking, stolen identities, and viruses. People have lost jobs because computers are more efficient than human. Risk of addiction to online gaming and online gambling. Computers hold private information that can be stolen and misused.

4. Information processing cycle The sequence of events in processing information, which includes (1) input, (2) processing, (3) output and (4) storage 1. Inputentering data into the computer. 2. Processingperforming operations on the data. 3. Outputpresenting the results. 4. Storagesaving data, programs, or output for future use. 1. INPUT The collection of raw data from the outside world so it can be put into an information system. Putting the acquired data into the information system. 1. Examples: The payroll clerk collects workers' timecards so she knows how many hours each person worked that week and types the hours from the timecards into a spreadsheet 2. Conducting a survey of customer's opinions and then scanning the survey cards with a card reader. 3. Collecting jokes for a joke book and typing jokes into a word processor. 4. Using a form on a website to collect visitors' opinions Typical input devices: Keyboards, mice, flatbed scanners, bar code readers, joysticks, digital data tablets (for graphic drawing), electronic cash registers 2. PROCESSING CPU Processor - Central Processing Unit A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes simply processor, is the key component in a digital computer capable of executing a program. It interprets computer program instructions and processes data. CPUs provide the fundamental digital computer trait of programmability, and are one of the necessary components found in computers of any era, along with memory and input/output facilities. A CPU that is manufactured as a single integrated circuit is usually known as amicroprocessor. Beginning in the mid-1970s, microprocessors of everincreasing complexity and power gradually supplanted other designs, and today the term "CPU" is usually applied to some type of microprocessor.

Memory or RAM Next most critical element of a processing hardware is RAM, often referred to as "primary storage" or "main memory". Random Access Memory (RAM) receives and temporarily stores data and program instructions from the CPU This data bank communicates with the CPU, constantly exchanging information and constantly changing as long as RAM is an active, electronic state. When the power is on, RAM retains data. When the computer is turned off, all data in RAM is erased unless you have saved it to some mass storage device. Each time the computer boots, the computer goes through it's startup routine and lastly loads operating system instructions into RAM Types of RAM DRAM (Dynamic RAM) This is the most common type of computer memory. DRAM needs refreshing and is refreshed hundreds of times each second in order to retain data. During recharging it cannot be accessed by the CPS SRAM (Static RAM) SRAM is approximately 5 times faster (and twice as expensive, as DRAM). It does not have to be constantly refreshed. Because of its lower cost and smaller size, DRAM is preferred for the main memory, while SRAM is used primarily for cache memory. SDRAM (synchronous dynamic RAM) is the standard memory offering in the PC industry and is faster than DRAM because it's synchronized to the system clock. . It is designed for mainstream home and business applications, email, and basic audio and video streaming. It provides single-channel memory and is available on our mainstream and value desktop system. DDR SDRAM (double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM) takes all the features of ordinary SDRAM and increases the frequency bandwidth to improve system performance and speed. RDRAM (Rambus dynamic RAM) is able to load a new stream of data before the previous stream has completed, resulting in faster access speeds. The RDRAM memory features dual-channel processing which doubles data throughput to further enhance performance. This type of memory is optimized for high-end multimedia tasks involving video and audio. Dual Channel RDRAM is shipped on our performance desktop systems powered by Pentium 4 processors

VRAM: Memory designed for storing the image to be displayed. CACHE RAM is a small block of high-speed memory located between the Processor and main memory and is used to store frequently requested data and instructions. When the processor requests data, it will check in the cache first

3. Output In information processing, output is the process of transmitting the processing information Essentially, output is the presentation of any data exiting a computer system. This could be in the form of printed paper, audio, video. In the medical industry this might include CT scans or x-rays. Typically in computing, data is entered through various forms (input) into a computer, the data is often manipulated, and then information is presented to a human (output). Typical output devices: Monitors Pixels: Images are created with dots of lights called picture elements, or pixels. More pixels = higher resolution. Resolution is the maximum number of pixels the monitor can display Basic VGA is a pixel grid 640 X 480 Super VGA is 1,024 X 768 A video card, (also referred to as a graphics accelerator card, display adapter, graphics card, and numerous other terms), is an item of personal computer hardware whose function is to generate and output images to a display. Printers Laser - laser beams bond toner to paper Ink jet - fine stream of ink Dot Matrix - pins & ribbon 4. Storage Storage, or mass storage refers to various techniques and devices for storing large amounts of data. The earliest storage devices were punched paper cards, which were used as early as 1804 to control silkweaving looms. Modern mass storage devices include all types of disk drives and tape drives. Mass storage is distinct from memory, which refers to temporary storage areas within the computer. Unlike RAM memory, mass storage devices retain data even when the computer is turned off. The smallest unit of storage is a file that contains such data as a resume, letter, budget, images or any one of the thousands of items that you may have saved for future reference. Additionally, files can be

executable program files, or system files reserved for the operating system. Mass storage is measured in kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,024 kilobytes), gigabytes (1,024 megabytes) and terabytes (1,024 gigabytes).

Examples of some mass storage devices Disk storage hundreds of thousands of cycles latency, but very large o Hard disks : Very fast and with more capacity than floppy disks, but also more expensive. Some hard disk systems are portable (removable cartridges), but most are not. o Solid State Drives have no moving parts and utilize nonvolatile memory chips. o Floppy Disks: (almost obsolete!) Tertiary storage o Optical storage: Unlike floppy and hard disks, which use electromagnetism to encode data, optical disk systems use a laser to read and write data. Optical disks have very large storage capacity, but they are not as fast as hard disks. Examples: CD, CD-R, CD-RW, DVD or DVD-R o Tapes: Relatively inexpensive and can have very large storage capacities, but they do not permit random access of data. Flash Memory faster than disk storage, with up to 4GB or more of data, transferring (usually) over universal serial bus (USB)