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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG C S THNH PH H CH MINH KHOA VIN THNG 2 ------o0o------

O TO T XA BO CO THC TP TT NGHIP NI DUNG THC TP CHNH MNG NGOI VI

Li TN SV:V TN THNH cm n H V
LP:VT207A1
Em xin chn thnh cm n S SV:207100061 Cng M Qy Thy C Hc Vin Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng dy d v cung cp cho mt tm vin thng Ha Thnh to iu kin tt cho em cho em hon thnh tt thc tp Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n thy Trn nh Thun ngi nh hng cho em nghin cu, tm ti v pht trin trong bo co , cung cp cho em nhng kinh nghim qu bu. Xin chn thnh cm n!

GIO VIN HNG DN:THY TRN NH THUN

nn tng kin thc vng chc cho tng lai.Cm n trung

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Ty Ninh, ngy 25 thng11 nm 2011

NHN XT CA TRUNG TM VIN THNG HA THNH ..

Xc nhn ca n v thc tp ngy thng nm 2011

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN

CNG THC TP

CU TRC MNG VIN THNG TY NINH CU TRC MNG CP NGOI VI TM HIU PHN MM QUN L MNG

MC LC
CHNG I CU TRC MNG VIN THNG TY NINH .I. GII THIU II.S T CHC CHNG II CU TRC MNG CP NGOI VI .I. GII THIU II. Mng ngoi vi 2.1 Khi nim mng ngoi vi 2.2 Cc vn cn lu i vi mng ngoi vi ngy nay 2.2.1 Mng cp ng 2.2.2 H thng cng, b cp 2.3 Mt s qui nh mi v mng ngoi vi 2.3.1 Cu trc mng cp ng ni ht 2.3.2 Cu trc mng truy nhp c cp quang 2.3.3 H thng cng, b cp III. Qui hoch mng ADSL 3.1 Cc bc qui hoch ADSL 3.2 D bo nhu cu ADSL 3.3 D bo k thut ADSL 3.5 Quy hoch cht lng ADSL 3.6 Qui hoch cu hnh mng ADSL 3.7 Qui hoch thit b ADSL 3.8 o th trc khi trin khai ADSL IV.Yu cu k thut cho ng dy thu bao cung cp ADSL 4.1 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s 4.2 Cc php o th nh gi cht lng ng dy thu bao s V. Gii php k thut thit k mng ADSL 5.1 Yu cu thit k k thut 5.2 Nguyn tc la chn gii php k thut 5.3 M hnh chung ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL 5.3.1 M hnh kt ni ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL 5.3.2 Chc nng ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL 5.3.3 Yu cu k thut ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL VI- MNG NGOI VI TI HUYN HO THNH 6.1- Qui tc t chc mng: 6.2-Cc thnh phn mng ngoi vi 6.3- Mng cp ng Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh 6.4- Mng cp quang Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh 6.5- H thng cng b cp: 6.6- H thng ng ct treo cp CHNG III TM HIU PHN MM QUN L MNG 3.1 CU TRC H T H NG M H NH H OT NG CA CH NG T RNH

3.2 NG NHP VO H THNG 3.3. S DNG CHNG TRNH 3.3.1. Nhp liu : 3.3.2 Tin ch: 3.3.3 Phn t cp:

CHNG I CU TRC MNG VIN THNG TY NINH

I.GII THIU Cu trc mng vin thng Ty Ninh c xy dng nhm tha mn cc yu cu sau: p ng nhu cu cung cp cc dch v vin thng hin nay v cc dch v vin thng th h mi:ATM,IP.Voice,Lan,nhu cu IP truy cp internet tc tng dn Mng c cu trc n gin: -Gim ti a s cp chuyn mch v chuyn tip truyn d. -Nng cao hiu qu s dng , cht lng mng li v gim thi chi ph khai thc v bo dng. -Tin ti mng thoi v s liu trn mng ng trc bng rng - linh hot tnh sn sng cao,m bo an ton mng li v cht lng dch v Vin thng Ty Ninh c 9 trung tm vin thng huyn trc thuc.C 8 huyn 1 th

II.

CHNG II CU TRC MNG CP NGOI VI


.I. GII THIU C s h tng mng ngoi vi ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic pht trin cc dch v vin thng, c bit l cc dch v truy nhp bng rng. C s h tng mng ngoi vi v c bn bao gm: H thng cng b cp; H thng ct treo cp; H thng cp ng, cp quang; H thng t, hp cp.

II. Mng ngoi vi


2.1 Khi nim mng ngoi vi Mng ngoi vi l mt trong ba thnh phn chnh cu thnh mng vin thng
(thit b chuyn mch, thit b truyn dn v mng ngoi vi). Cho n nay mng

ngoi vi vn c thit k v xy dng vi mc

ch cung cp dch v thoi

PSTN. Vi vic a cc dch v bng rng trn mng cp ng m in hnh l ADSL th vn nng cao cht lng mng ngoi vi, r sot li cc tiu chun

thit k v xy dng mng ngoi vi l vn cp bch.


Mng ngoi vi l phn ca mng li vin thng bn ngoi nh trm, bao gm cc phng tin ng vai tr vt dn in nh cc loi dy, cp thng tin, k

c cc phng tin thit b h tr, bo v chng. Nh vy mng ngoi vi gm cc phn chnh sau: a/ Mng cp ng ni ht bao gm:
- Cp ngm (l cp c lun trong ng hm, v h thng cng, b

cp). - Cp treo (l cp c treo trn cc ct bng b tng, ct g, ct st). - Dy thu bao. - Mng xng ni cp. - Phin u dy. - Gi MDF. b/ Mng cp quang ni ht, trung k ni ht, trung k ng di(ng trc) bao gm: - Cp quang ngm (chn trc tip hoc lun trong cng, b cp). - Cp quang treo (treo trn ct b tng, ct st). - Cp quang th sng, bin. c/ H thng h tr, bo v: H thng h tr, bo v mng cp thng tin bao gm: ng hm (Tunnel),
cng cp, ng nha, hm, h cp, t cp, ct b tng cp, thit b chng st cho

mng ngoi vi.


Tiu chun mng ngoi vi l tp hp tiu chun cc trang thit b, vt t ca

h thng dn in v h thng h tr, bo v, chng nu trn.

2.2 Cc vn cn lu i vi mng ngoi vi ngy nay 2.2.1 Mng cp ng


Mng cp ng ni ht l mng dy, cp ng cng cc thit b h tr (ct
cp, mng xng cp, phin u dy, t cp, hp cp) ng vai tr vt dn in

kt ni t cc thu bao (in thoi, fax) n thit b chuyn mch qua gi u dy MDF.
Mng bao gm: gi u dy MDF, cp gc, cp phi, cp nhnh, cp thu bao v cc t cp, hp cp. Cp gc (cp chnh) l cp t MDF ni vi t cp s cp; Cp nhnh l cp t t cp s cp n cc t cp th cp; Cp phi l cp ni t t cp th cp n cc hp cp; Cp thu bao l cp ni t hp cp ti nh thu bao. ng knh cp gc thng l 0,4mm, cp nhnh thng dng c ng knh t 0,4 0,5mm, cp phi thng dng c ng knh 0,5 0,9mm, cp thu

bao thng dng l dy dropwire 3 dy (hai dy tip v ring, 1 dy chu lc). Bn knh vng phc v ca cc tng i HOST v cc tng i v tinh ti
cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph t 1,5 5Km, cc vng ngoi bn knh phc v

c ni ln ti trn 10Km. Mng cp ng c cc vn sau: Phng tin thi cng cp cn th s, s cn b v cng nhn k thut
trc tip ch o, thi cng rt t, a s thu lc lng lao ng ph thng ngoi x hi lun cp vo cng cp v ko cp nn cp d b tn thng sau khi thi cng, nh hng ln n cc tham s in mt chiu cng nh

xoay chiu ca cp. Vic phi cp ti cc bu in tnh, thnh ph hin nay qua rt nhiu cp, cp t t s cp (nh cp) n hp cp kt cui cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph l t 1 n 5 cp ( tc l mt i dy thu bao cung cp cc dch v vin thng t nht phi qua t 02 06 ln u chuyn qua phin u dy ti cc t, hp cp mi n gi MDF; C bit c ni thc hin t 8 10 cp phi cp; Vic phi cp nhiu cp l mt trong cc nguyn nhn gy nn nn nhiu trong cp, lm cc tham s in xoay chiu ca li dn cp phn ln khng t yu cu so vi tiu chun ngnh (TCN 68-132: 1998), dn n xuyn nhiu gia cc i cp, suy hao truyn dn ln, suy hao phn x nh, nh hng rt ln n tc truyn dn d liu ca cc dch v xDSL. Khng thc hin hoc thc hin khng ng cc ch tiu v tip t chng st cho cp ti MDF cng nh ti cc t cp, hp cp; y l mt trong cc nguyn nhn gy ln nn nhiu cao trong cc i cp nh hng n tc truyn dn ca cc dch v xDSL.

Cng tc bo v, bo dng ti cc t cp, hp cp khng thng xuyn,


bi bn ti cc phin ni dy l nguyn nhn gy ln xuyn nhiu gia cc

i cp.
Xuyn m u gn i vi cc i cp nm trong cng mt quad rt ln, suy hao truyn dn tn s 1kHz, 150kHz, 300kHz, 772kHz phn ln

khng t yu cu.

2.2.2 H thng cng, b cp


H thng ng hm, cng, b, h cp l cu trc ngm di mt t lp t cc cp c dung lng ln nh cp gc, cp nhnh, cp trung k ni
ht, cp trung k ng di. H thng ny hu ht c lp t di ng giao thng cng cng, v mt phn di h ng; a s h thng cng b cp trn mng u c thit k v thi cng theo TCN 68- 153: 1995 ca Tng cc bu in, tuy nhin khng t cc h thng cng b cp cc bu in tnh, thnh ph thi cng khng ng so vi thit k, hoc thit k

khng st vi thc t, nn khng tun theo TCN c ban hnh.


Vn thit k cng b cha st vi thc t pht trin ca mng vin thng, gy nn vic thng xuyn o bi lng ng v va h tng

dung lng cng cp lm mt m quan th, nh hng n giao thng.


Cng tc gim st thi cng cn bung lng dn n cht lng cng trnh

khng cao, nhiu lp b cp bng b tng b dn, v hoc bo dng rt kh khn do thi cng khng ng theo thit k.
St ch T np an b tng v chn rc rt nhiu ni khng c, nn trong b cp c rt nhiu rc v t. Khong cch gia cc khong b c nhiu ni ch 50m 70m, trong khi TCN 68 - 153:1995 a ra ch tiu ny l

100m 270m. Ct cp trn mng s dng nhiu chng loi (ct b tng, ct st..), cc
loi ct ny sn xut theo tiu chun ngnh TCN 18-73; TCN 86-78 (ct b tng cho dy trn thng tin v cp treo ni th) c v lc hu, khng ph

hp vi s pht trin ca mng ngoi vi, vi s pht trin ca cc th hin i.

2.3 Mt s qui nh mi v mng ngoi vi 2.3.1 Cu trc mng cp ng ni ht


Cu trc ca mng cp ng ni ht nh hnh v ,1. Cc im u ni bao

gm: mng xng, t cp v hp cp.


- Cc n v cn thit k vng phc v ca cc tng i ti cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph sao cho bn knh vng phc v 3Km i vi cp c ng knh

0,4mm; 4Km i vi cp c ng knh 0,5mm; Ch tiu ny m bo cht lng thoi cho cc thu bao thng thng (suy hao truyn dn tn s 800Hz t thu bao n tng i l 7dB)

Hnh .1 Cu trc mng cp ng ni ht - Thc hin vic phi cp mt cp (i dy thu bao ch qua mt t cp v mt hp cp) ti cc trung tm tnh, thnh ph, huyn, th x; Cha p dng ch tiu ny i vi cc vng su, vng xa. - Nhng ni s dng cp gc 0,4mm th cp nhnh c th s dng c dy: 0,5 0,9mm ty theo bn knh phc v p ng yu cu v tc dch v bng rng, cn lu trn mt i dy thu bao khng c qu 2 ln thay i c dy. - T cp phi t v tr hp l, tin cho vic s dng v khng nh hng ti m quan th; T cp phi t trn gi bng st v c c nh vo ct, nhng ni khng c ct th phi xy b chc chn, dng b loong c nh t cp vo b. - Ti cc t, hp cp phi thc hin vic tip t chng st cho cp v tip t cho cc mn che tnh in ca cc cp, vic tip t chng st cho cp phi trnh xa im tip t ca cc trm bin th in v cc nh cao tng t 20m tr nn. Phin u dy trang b ti cc gi MDF, cc t cp phi r ngun gc, c y thuyt minh cc ch tiu k thut, trnh hng gi nh hng n cht lng truyn dn ca cc dch v vin thng. - i vi nhng ni c c tim nng pht trin dch xDSL m cp ng khng p ng c cc ch tiu v suy hao th c th dng cp quang + thit b truy nhp + cp ng.

2.3.2 Cu trc mng truy nhp c cp quang

Hnh 2 Cu trc mng truy nhp c cp quang Cc im kt ni bao gm: - OLT: B kt cui ng dy quang. - ONU: n v mng quang. - SDP: im phn phi thu bao (hp cp).

2.3.3 H thng cng, b cp


- Cc BT,TP ln k hoch sa cha, nng cp cc b cp di lng ng, thay dn np b cp b tng bng lp b cp gang cu.
- Tng cng cng tc kim tra, pht hin v sa cha kp thi cc b cp b st n, lp b b dn, v m bo an ton cho cp, ngi v phng tin giao

thng qua li.

III. Qui hoch mng ADSL


3.1 Cc bc qui hoch ADSL Cc bc qui hoch mng ADSL bao gm: - D bo nhu cu ADSL. - D bo k thut ADSL. - Kho st hin trng mng thu bao in thoi v gii php. - Con ng tin trin ca DSL. - D bo lu lng ADSL. - Qui hoch cht lng ADSL. - Qui hoch cu hnh mng ADSL. - Qui hoch thit b ADSL. - o th, lp t v trin khai ADSL. 3.2 D bo nhu cu ADSL D bo nhu cu ADSL bao gm cc bc: - Xc nh mc tiu d bo. - Sp xp cc iu kin ban u.

- Nghin cu d liu. - Phn tch khuynh hng nhu cu. - Xc nh k thut d bo. 3.3 D bo k thut ADSL D bo s tin trin ca k thut ADSL: ADSL, RADSL, Reach DSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+ v d bo s tin trin ca cng ngh, thit b ADSL cng nh gi thnh. 3.4 Con ng tin trin ca DSL

Hnh . 3 Con ng tin trin ca DSL - T modem analog sang ADSL: mc ch ca ngi s dng l tng tc
truy xut Internet, trong khi mc ch ca cc nh iu hnh v khai thc mng l

chuyn lu lng truy xut Internet ra khi mng chuyn mch PSTN. Vi ADSL cng ty khai thc in thoi khng phi u t nng cp tng i, to iu kin cho vic cnh tranh vi cable modem ca mng in thoi v cng hnh thnh mt mi trng cnh tranh lnh mnh gia ILEC v cc CLEC. - T cc DLC chuyn sang ADSL: theo thng k th 15% s thu bao in thoi c kt ni vi tng i in thoi ni ht qua cc b DLC. Cc b DLC khng truyn ti tn hiu di tn 1,104 MHz ca ADSL. Gii php tt nht cho cc b DLC l trin khai cc remote DSLAM ti cc RT ca DLC. - T ISDN sang ADSL: ISDN nm trong di tn upstream ca ADSL nn phi tht ch ti cc xuyn knh ISDN v ADSL. - T ADSL ti DLC th h mi (NGDLC): phn b ha vic chuyn mch, p dng cc ng truyn Ethernet 10Base-T, 100Base-T hay cp quang. Cc DLC p ng nhu cu ca dn chng cc nc pht trin sng ngy cng xa trung tm thnh ph, cc vng ngoi . DLC th h mi h tr dch v thoi gi cc dch v thng tin s qua ATM. - T ADSL ti VDSL: Trong vi nm na cp quang s tr nn ph bin. Bn cnh nhu cu v cc dch v i hi tc cao cng tng vt. Trong khi

th VDSL trin khai nhanh hn Ethernet v VDSL cng c tc gn bng cp quang. 3.5 Quy hoch cht lng ADSL Quy hoch cht lng ADSL da trn 3 tiu chun: - Tc nghn kt ni (overbooking). - cch ly gia cc thu bao. - Thc hin cht lng c bo m. T l tc nghn kt ni ph thuc vo 4 yu t. l: s thu bao tng cng
khi quy hoch, s thu bao ca tng dch v cng tc d liu ti a, dung lng tng cng vo gi cao im khi tt c u on-line v h s ghp thng k

da vo quan im cho php ca khch hng.


Khi kch thc ca b m d liu trn cc b DSLAM, tp trung DSLAM tng th kh nng mt cell cng gim, cht lng dch v cng cao. C th gim

tc cn thit ca cc dch v ti a tng hiu qu ca b m d liu. Gii


quyt xp hng cc VC theo tng loi dch v. C ch CAC (Connection Admission Control) c th thng bo tc nghn kt ni cho thu bao. Khi qun l lu lng cng tt th s thu bao t c cng cao. Khi b tp trung

DSLAM l gii php qun l lu lng tin tin gip tng mt thu bao.
Cch ly thu bao: cc loi d liu bao gm: UBR, GFR, CBR, VBR. Cng

nhiu thu bao vo mng th cht lng ca UBR (thng l dn dng) cng gim. C ch qun l ca ATM khng phn bit cc loi VC trong mt VP. cch ly thu bao c tt th phi hnh thnh cc virtual tunnel trong cc VP. Hnh thnh mc u tin cho cc virtual tunnel s gip mng ATM khng b i cc cell mt cch lng ph. Thc hin c bo m cht lng: bo m cho cc thu bao nhn c lu lng cao nht, khng b chim dng ti nguyn, khng ln chim cc thu bao khc. Trong chuyn mch VC ngi ta s dng c ch EPD/PPD: v cc gi IP b hng phi c truyn li lm tr d liu ca khch hng. Cc b tp trung DSLAM dng VP switching phi c c ch bo v lu lng IP ring VP access layer. GFR l dng cho cc thu bao cn tc thp nht v cn chnh xc nht bng c ch EPD/PPD. Hnh thnh mc u tin cho tng virtual tunnel s bo m tc . 3.6 Qui hoch cu hnh mng ADSL Da vo cc s liu kho st v d bo cc bc trc xy dng nn cu hnh mt mng ADSL vi v tr chnh xc ni t thc t ca cc thit b v s kt ni gia cc thit b, dung lng ca tng tuyn kt ni.

3.7 Qui hoch thit b ADSL Kho st c tnh, chc nng v gi c ca cc thit b hin c trn th trng, sau so snh v i chiu vi cu hnh mng chn ra thit b ph hp nht, m bo cho cc d bo cc bc trc. Mt s thit b thng dng trn th trng hin nay nh:
- DSLAM IP4800 ca hng Paradyne: da trn giao tip IP, mi tng modem IP4800 c ti a 48 port ADSL. IP4800 c kh nng xp chng 8 tng to to thnh ti a 384 port ADSL. Vi mi port ADSL chiu upstream ti a

1024Kb/s, chiu downstream t ti a 8Mb/s.


- B tp trung DSLAM XP 144 ca hng Siemens: cung cp cc giao tip

E3/T3/STM-1...ti cc DSLAM.
- CO-Splitter ca hng Paradyne: mt khung CO-Splitter ny thng c

nhiu b khe cm card CO-Splitter, mt b c 6 khe cm. - Mt s IAD thng dng nh: Carrier Access Corp. ABII, GVN D'Lite 440, Premisys IMACS, Premisys StreamLine, VINA Multiservice Xchange.

3.8 o th trc khi trin khai ADSL


S pht trin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s ph thuc vo cht lng v thit k mng cp ni ht. Vic nh gi ban u vng thu bao cn thit
xc nh xem vng thu bao c kh nng p ng tc truyn dn thu bao s hay khng. Trong nhiu trng hp mng cp c thit k t hng chc nm trc cho dch v in thoi n thun. Mi trng truyn dn ny to ra mt s bt li c th cn tr hay thm ch khng thc hin c DSL. Chng hn, cng

ngh DSL s khng thc hin c vi ng dy thu bao c cun ti hay b nh


hng bi cc nhnh r v di ng dy. Trc khi c gng cung cp dch v DSL cn phi o th xc nh ng dy c th dung np cng ngh DSL c khng. Kh nng nh gi ng dy thu bao m khng cn phi cc k thut vin n tng i ni ht cng nh tn ni thu bao s tit kim chi ph ng

k cho nh cung cp dch v.

IV.Yu cu k thut cho ng dy thu bao cung cp ADSL


Mc ny s a ra cc yu cu kim tra v o kim ng dy thu bao

cung cp cc dch v bng rng xDSL. a. Cc yu cu kim tra ng dy thu bao cung cp xDSL: - Khng c cun cm. - Khng c dy h mch. - Khng c cc dy ngn mch.

- Khng c cc i dy b ch. Mt i dy c gi l b ch nu ti im
ni mt dy ca i dy b ni vi mt dy ca i dy khc. Khi nhiu xuyn m gia hai i dy s tng ng k v cht lng truyn dn ca dch v xDSL

s suy gim mnh.


- S lng cc nhnh cu r phi c gim i.Khi c cc nhnh cu, ng

dy thu bao s c thm suy hao tn hiu. S suy hao ny xy ra v nng lng tn
hiu ca b phn pht b phn x ti kt cui h mch ca nhnh cu, gy ra suy hao phn x. Suy hao tn hiu ny ph thuc vo tn s tn hiu, tc truyn lan tn hiu v di ca cc nhnh cu. Nu cht lng truyn dn b suy gim nghim trng th phi tho b cc nhnh cu. Khi c nhiu nhnh cu, s lng

nhnh cu cn ph thuc vo di ca cc nhnh cu. b.Cc yu cu o kim ng dy thu bao cung cp xDSL - Suy hao truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao:
Cc gi tr suy hao truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao khng c ln hn

cc gi tr c qui nh trong bng .4.1 Loi DSL Tn s o, KHz Gi tr suy hao truyn dn cc i, dB HDSL 150 30 SHDSL 200 25 ADSL G.Lite 1,5Mb/s 300 60 ADSL Fullrate 6Mb/s 300 40 Hnh 4 .1Cc gi tr suy hao truyn dn cc i ca ng dy thu bao s - H s suy hao truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao: Cc h s suy hao truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao khng c ln hn cc gi tr c qui nh trong bng 4.2. H s suy hao truyn dn, dB Tn s o, KHz 40 300 150 200 0,4 9,0 12,0 13,0 14,6 0,5 6,2 8,5 9,5 11,0 Hnh 4.2 Cc h s suy hao truyn dn ca ng dy thu bao - in tr mch vng mt chiu cc i ca ng dy thu bao: Cc gi tr in tr mch vng mt chiu ca ng dy thu bao khng c ln hn cc gi tr c qui nh trong bng 4.3 ng knh dy dn, mm Loi xDSL HDSL SHDSL ADSL G.Lite 1,5Mb/s in tr mch vng mt chiu cc i ca ng dy thu bao, ng knh 0,4mm ng knh 0,5mm 620 700 460 532 956 1148

ADSL Fullrate 6Mb/s 637 756 Hnh 4.3 Cc gi tr in tr mch vng mt chiu cc i - H s in tr mch vng mt chiu cc i ca ng dy thu bao: H s in tr mch vng mt chiu cc i ca ng dy thu bao i vi dy dn ng knh 0,4mm l 280 /Km, i vi dy dn ng knh 0,5mm l 177 /Km. - Xuyn m: Xuyn m xut hin do suy hao ghp gia cc i trong cun cp c gi tr
hu hn, c bit l cc i gn k nhau. Xuyn m bao gm xuyn m u gn (NEXT) v xuyn m u xa (FEXT). Cc gi tr tng suy hao xuyn m (PSL) cc tiu ca ng dy thu bao phi tha mn cc gi tr c qui nh trong

bng 4.4. Tng suy hao xuyn m xa Tng suy hao xuyn m u (NEXT PSL) gn cc tiu, dB (FEXT PSL) gn cc tiu, dB 150 56 54 300 52 48 1000 44 38 Hnh 4.4 Cc gi tr tng suy hao xuyn m cc tiu ca ng dy thu bao - Mt cn bng so vi t: Mt cn bng so vi t ca ng dy thu bao c nh gi qua thng s suy hao bin i dc. Tn s o, kHz
Suy hao bin i dc ca ng dy thu bao chn trin khai ADSL phi

tha mn cc gi tr sau: + Tn s o: 251104 KHz. + Suy hao bin i dc cc tiu: 40 dB. + Tr khng: 40 . - Nhiu xung t cc h thng khc:
Nhiu xung t cc h thng khc cng hot ng trn mt cun cp phi

nm di ng bao nh hnh 4.5

Hnh 4.5Nhiu xung

4.1 Cc giai on o th ng dy thu bao s


ti u ho dch v v li ch ca nh cung cp dch v, vic nh gi
cht lng ng dy thu bao phi c tin hnh nhiu giai on ca vic cung cp dch v DSL. Vic nh gi cht lng ng dy thu bao cho vic cung cp dch v DSL phi qua nhiu giai on gm giai on trc khi hp ng cung cp dch v, giai on trc khi lp t, giai on lp t v giai on xc nhn lp t, cn thit phi b sung thm vic o th nhn cng ngoi vic o th

t ng. a. o th trc hp ng:


o th trc hp ng (pre-sales testing) c th c cc tng i nh nc

thc hin trc khi a dch v DSL n khch hng. tng ti a thu nhp ca mnh, i ng tip th dch v c th nh hng khch hng qua cht lng ng dy thu bao c o kim trc. Vic o th trc hp ng thng bao gm: nghin cu v tr a l, nghin cu h s cp v kim tra cp kim loi. - Nghin cu v tr a l: Nghin cu v tr a l bao gm mt bn v mt cy thc. Cng vic ny bao gm vic tm kim cc khch hng nm trong tm 5,5Km k t tng i. Ch ring vic nghin cu v tr a l khng em li hiu qu nhiu, v thng 70 n 80 phn trm s trng hp cn phi c o th thm. - Nghin cu h s cp: Nghin cu h s cp bao gm vic xem xt h s cp vi cc vng thu bao c di di 5,5Km m khng c cun ti hay cc nhn t bt li khc cho truyn dn tn hiu DSL. Nu h s cp cho thy ng dy thu bao l tt th t l 80 n 90 phn trm cc trng hp cung cp dch v DSL thnh cng. Nhng tht khng may l cc tng i t nhn th khng qun l h s cp trong khi cc tng i nh nc do lch s ln n hn trm nm nn tht lc h s cp rt nhiu. - o th cp kim loi: Vic o th cp kim loi trc hp ng bao gm vic s dng cc thit b o xc nh cc c tnh ca vng thu bao c th. C hai phng php thc hin l o mt u ti tng i v o hai u ti tng i v ti v tr thu bao. o th cp kim loi ch nhm mc ch xem th vng thu bao c th truyn dn c tn hiu DSL hay khng ch khng thc hin bt c mt sa cha no trn vng thu bao. Vic o th ng dy bao gm vic s dng cc thit b o th nh gi cht lng ng dy. b. o th trc lp t: Sau khi khch hng c qung co dch v cc CLEC cn phi thc hin o th trc lp t (pre-installation testing). Cc CLEC thng khng c

ng dy thu bao ti khch hng cho ti khi c cc ILEC cung cp. Vic o th trc lp t c th c thc hin sau khi ILEC chuyn ng dy thu bao cho CLEC. Nu vng thu bao khng p ng yu cu ti thiu cho tn hiu DSL th CLEC phi loi b ng dy bng cch xin thm mt ng dy khc hay thng bo cho khch hng l khng th thc hin cung cp dch v c. Vic o th trc lp t cng c th thc hin mt u hay hai u. c. o th khi lp t: Mt vi kiu dch v DSL cho php khch hng t lp t modem v cc b lc tn hiu trn ng dy. Khi khch hng mun t lp cc thit b nh vy th c th thnh cng hay tht bi. Khi khng t lp t c th khch hng gi c khc phc v nh vy ng dy thu bao phi c o th khi lp t (installation testing). d. o th xc nhn sau khi lp t: Sau khi khch hng c c dch v DSL nh mong mun th c nhiu yu t nh hng ti dch v v s chp nhn ca khch hng, v d nh: - Thi tit ma lm gim tc s liu hay thm ch ngn cn dch v. - S c trn ng dy cp kim loi nh hng ti dch v. - Trong mi trng tn ti c ILEC v CLEC th c kh nng ILEC i ng dy thu bao m khng thng bo trc. - Nhiu cm ng lm cho tc truyn s liu trn ng dy thu bao gim xung. - Ngi hng xm ca thu bao c c dch v vi tc tn hiu nhanh hn lm khch hng c ngh ng dy ca mnh ang ngy cng chm i. H s ca ng dy thu bao ang o th rt cn thit cung cp cc php o ng n cho ng dy thu bao. Vic ghi li h s lc tin hnh lp t l cn thit sau ny ngi thc hin o kim c th so snh. Do vy ngay sau khi lp t thnh cng phi thc hin bc o th xc nhn sau khi lp t (postinstallation support testing). Vic o th c th thc hin bng ba phng php: o th hai u, o th mt u v o th qua thit b cung cp dch v nh DSLAM chng hn. 4.2 Cc php o th nh gi cht lng ng dy thu bao s C hai phng php o th ng dy thu bao s l o th mt u v o th hai u. o th mt u l o t tng i v cung cp cc thng tin v bt li trn ng dy nh cun ti, ngn mch, ni t o th mt u cho kt qu tin cy v kh nng dung np dch v DSL ca ng dy thu bao. Phng php o th hai u cn phi c nhn vin k thut ti tn nh thu bao s dng cc dng c o th cm tay lin lc vi cc thit b o th tng i. o th hai

u c th o c tc kh nng truyn d liu theo tng chiu upstream v


downstream cng nh nh gi c mc nhiu t pha khch hng v nng lng tn hiu. Tuy nhin v phi gi nhn vin k thut n tn nh thu bao vn

rt tn km so vi phng php o th mt u. a. in tr (Php o OHM):


Gi tr in tr gia cc dy tip - ring; tip - t v ring - t phi ln hn 5M. Nu in tr gia cc dy tip - ring nh hn 5M th i dy b ngn mch. xc nh v tr ngn mch, c th thc hin php o in tr mch vng

ca i dy hoc thc hin php o phn x min thi gian TDR. b. in dung (Php o CAP): Php o tip theo cn thc hin l php o in dung i dy. Php o ny m bo rng i dy b h mch hay ngn mch. Nu gi tr in dung i dy ln hn 2 mF th i dy b ngn mch. S dng php o in tr (OHM) kim tra li. Sau , thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr ngn mch ca i dy. Php o in dung (CAP) c th cung cp di ca i dy (tnh t u o n u h mch) khi chng ta s dng cng thc qui i l 51 nF =1 km. Nu gi tr di thu c l ngn hoc di hn di danh nh th i dy b t dy. Khi di ca i dy ch 3 km v c mt nhnh cu di 1 km th gi tr in dung s tng ng in dung ca i dy 4 km v gi tr in dung o c bng tng in dung ca i dy v nhnh cu. Do , php o in dung cho php pht hin cc nhnh cu. c. in p mt chiu (Php o DCV): Php o tip theo l o in p mt chiu. Khi o in p mt chiu ti mt u ca mt i dy v h mch u kia ca i dy m thu c cc gi tr in p gia cc dy tip-ring l -48 VDC, ring-t l +48 VDC v tip-t l 0 VDC th c th kt lun l dy ring b tip xc vi mt dy no . Tip theo thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr tip xc ny. d. in p xoay chiu (Php o ACV): Php o tip theo l o in p xoay chiu. Php o ny kim tra xem i dy c chu nh hng ca ngun in p no khng. Cc gi tr in p xoay chiu phi nh hn 5VAC. e. in tr mch vng (Loop Resistance): Php o in tr mch vng kim tra in tr mch vng ca i dy ( ni dy tip v ring ti u xa). in tr mch vng cung cp dch v ADSL khng c ln hn 1300 . Php o in tr mch vng cng c s dng xc nh di i dy (v d xem hnh 4.1).

Hnh 4.1 Php o in tr mch vng f. Pht hin cun cm (COIL DETECTION): Bc tip theo l pht hin cc cun cm mc trn i dy. Bn cht cc cun cm l cc b lc thng thp. Chng lm tng phm vi phc v dch v thoi
nhng li hn ch nghim trng dch v DSL. Do , phi pht hin v loi b cc cun cm trc khi thc hin trin khai dch v DSL hay cc dch v s dng tn

s cao.
Cng c pht hin cun cm (COIL DETECTION) cho php pht hin c cun cm c mc trn i dy hay khng v nu c th s lng cc cun cm l bao nhiu. Khi pht hin c cun cm c mc trn i dy th thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr cun cm. Khi c nhiu cun cm c mc trn i dy th thc hin php o TDR xc nh v tr v tho b cun cm u tin. Tip theo, thc hin li php o TDR xc nh v tr v tho b cun cm tip theo c mc trn i dy. Tip tc thc hin th tc ny cho ti khi tt c

cc cun cm u c tho b khi i dy. g. Pht hin nhnh cu r (Bridge Tap):


Nhnh cu r l mt on cp bt k khng nm trn tuyn kt ni trc tip gia tng i v thu bao. Cc nhnh cu thng c lp t cung cp dch v thoi tng t cho cc thu bao b sung thm nhng chng li gy ra phn x tn hiu v lm gim cht lng dch v DSL. Nhnh cu cng gn modem DSL bao nhiu th n gy tc hi cng nhiu. Php o TDR l cng c tt nht pht

hin nhnh cu.


h. Php o phn x min thi gian (Php o TDR - Time Domain

Reflectometer):
Php o TDR hot ng theo phng php pht mt xung ln trn i dy v sau o cc tn hiu phn x tr li. Cc tn hiu phn x xut hin do nhng thay i tr khng ca i dy m tr khng ca i dy b thay i li do i dy c nhnh cu, cun cm, b h mch,ngn mch hay b ch i. u im chnh ca php o TDR l kh nng pht hin v tr li chnh xc. Trong khi cng c

pht hin cun cm (COIL DETECTION) ch pht hin c cun cm mc trn i dy th php o TDR li cho php xc nh v tr cun cm mt cch chnh xc.

Hnh 4. 2 Php o TDR Li Nhnh cu Cun cm H mch


Ngn mch

Tn hiu xut hin nh hng ln dch v trn mn hnh DSL php o TDR Hnh 4.2a Hnh 4.2b Hnh 4.2c Hnh 4.2d Hnh 4.2e Suy gim cht lng

Cc cng c khc Suy hao xen, in dung

Ngn cn hon ton vic Pht hin cun cm cung cp dch v DSL Ngn cn hon ton vic o in tr mt chiu hay cung cp dch v DSL in dung Ngn cn hon ton vic o in tr mt chiu hay cung cp dch v DSL in tr mch vng Suy gim cht lng in p mt chiu

Ch i dy

Hnh 4.3 Cc li ng dy v cng c pht hin

V. Gii php k thut thit k mng ADSL


5.1 Yu cu thit k k thut - Mng ADSL phi c thit k bo m k hoch, chin lc pht trin v qun l mng thch hp. - Vic truy nhp t xa phi bo m kh nng xc thc (nhn dng) v an ninh mng. - Bo m cung cp cc dch v qun l mng i vi nh cung cp, khch hng v nhng ngi truy nhp t xa.

5.2 Nguyn tc la chn gii php k thut Vic la chn gii php k thut da trn c s cc yu t chnh sau : - Ph hp vi cu trc mng hin c v vi iu kin thc t ca c s h
tng k thut v: Kin trc nh trm, mt bng phng my, v tr lp t ca cc

thit b hin c, ngun in, tip t, mi trng, bo an, bo chyv.v.


- Tn dng trit c s h tng k thut sn c ca mng vin thng hin

ti; nhm bo m an ton k thut, tit kim nht v chi ph u t, bao gm: c
s h tng kin trc nh trm, mng truyn dn, mng ngoi vi, h thng chng

st, iu ha khng kh v.v.


- Khng lm ph v hoc thay i cu trc, cu hnh ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL c cp c thm quyn ph duyt ng thi phi c kh nng

nng cp, m rng, tng thch vi mng th h sau.


- p ng c cc yu cu v dch v theo nhu cu th trng, tc truy nhp ph hp vi nhu cu, yu cu s dng ca khch hng v phi c d phng (d tr) lu lng thch hp p ng vi nhng t bin gia tng nhu cu,

pht trin thm v.v.


- Thi gian trin khai dch v nhanh, trnh phc tp v ph thuc qu nhiu vo cc iu kin khch quan hoc ch quan; Chi ph u t ban u, chi ph khai thc, vn hnh, bo dng thp; Ph hp vi yu cu v kh nng qun l, vn

hnh, bo dng h thng thit b ca cc n v.


- Phng n k thut cng ngh c la chn ng thi vi phng n kinh t, sao cho cng tc u t c hiu qu nht, khng lng ph vn, m bo gi thnh dch v cung cp ph hp vi sc thanh ton ca i a s tng lp dn

c c thu nhp trn trung bnh tr xung.


- Cc gii php k thut c thit k bo m yu cu k thut ca thit b,

an ton v bo mt thng tin d liu, n gin v hiu qu.


- Bo m tnh tng th, tnh thng nht, tnh m rng, tnh kinh t v k

hoch pht trin hp l:


+ Tnh tng th ca h thng: Cu hnh linh hot, y cho cc tnh nng k thut cn thit; m bo tnh hin i ca ton h thng (khng b lc hu); Ph hp vi quy m u t ca d n; m bo an ton thng tin; m bo v

tc x l, truy nhp ...v.v.


+ Tnh thng nht ca h thng bao gm: Thng nht v c s h tng

mng; Thng nht v d liu gc, ngun ti nguyn; Thng nht vn hnh, khai thc v qun l; Thng nht v cc chng trnh phn mm, x l, iu khin.
+ Tnh m rng ca h thng: H thng c th tip tc pht trin, nng cp v mt cu trc cng nh k thut khi c nhu cu tng cao; C kh nng m rng

v quy m, thch ng khi kt ni vi cc mng khc trong nc v quc t.

+ Tnh kinh t ca h thng: m bo cc yu cu v k thut, hin i, nhng khng lng ph khi s dng cc thit b trong khi nhu cu, trnh cha
cho php s dng ht cc tnh nng; m bo lng vn u t khng ln, nhng

vn xy dng c mt mng hon chnh p ng y cc yu cu, nhu cu. + K hoch pht trin hp l: hon thin ton b mng l mt qu trnh
pht trin dn dn, khng th trin khai u t t, m cn phi tp trung hon

thin nhng khu trng im, nhng ni thc s c nhu cu ,phi u t cc k thut, cng ngh tin tin, hin i; C k hoch nng cp, m rng h
thng ph hp vi cc giai on pht trin trong tng khu vc; C k hoch o to ngun nhn lc c nng lc, trnh qun l, khai thc, bo dng h

thng.

5.3 M hnh chung ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL


5.3.1 M hnh kt ni ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL

Hnh 5.1 M hnh kt ni h thng cung cp dch v ADSL Kt ni gia B-RAS vi h thng qun l v cung cp dch v (Data Center)
theo dng hnh sao. Giao din kt ni l Fast Ethernet/Giga Ethernet (quang) theo cu hnh 2+0. Cc FE/GE c phn b trn hai tuyn si khc nhau (phn tp)

m bo an ton mng.
Kt ni gia B-RAS vi mng Internet: S dng giao din FE/GE v cng

c phng n kt ni d phng m bo an ton mng. Kt ni gia cc DSLAM-Hub ln MSS, ln B-RAS v ln mng trc: Cc
DSLAM- Hub c kt ni ln MSS thc hin phng thc kt ni theo kiu hnh sao. Giao din kt ni c s dng l n x E1 hoc n x STM-1 (in hoc

quang) ty thuc vo mt thu bao ADSL, dung lng truyn dn SDH v si quang hin c ca mi khu vc; kt ni gia MSS v BRAS l STM -1. Kt ni gia cc DSLAM : Ty thuc vo dung lng DSLAM v h tng mng truyn dn hin c, c th s dng phng php kt ni sau:
- Kt ni DSLAM dng chui : S dng cho nhng vng c truyn dn cp

quang dng sao/Ring.

Hnh 5.2 Kt ni DSLAM theo dng chui


- Kt ni tp trung cc DSLAM cng a im hay cng khu vc: S dng cc DSLAM-Hub tch hp cc tnh nng tp trung trong trng hp khu vc c

lu lng s dng ln, ng thi tit kim ng truyn dn.

Hnh 5.3 Kt ni DSLAM dng tp trung


- Ty thuc vo tng khu vc c th m c phng thc kt ni ph hp, hoc s dng kt hp c 2 phng php. Kt ni gia cc DSLAM/DSLAM-Hub s dng giao din E1 hoc STM-1. Ngoi ra c th s dng trc tip si quang mt s khu vc c th. i vi vi cc khu vc c nhu cu thu bao ADSL nh hoc phc v cho cc nhu cu pht trin thu bao t xut, cn c cc b Mini-

DSLAM, kt ni s dng giao din n x E1. 5.3.2 Chc nng ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL
Mng ADSL c thit k thuc lp truy nhp dch v, c chc nng tp trung lu lung kt ni truy nhp ca khch hng truyn ti ln mng ng

trc, ng thi c kh nng cung cp cc dch v c th ca cng ngh ADSL.

Cu trc tng th h thng cung cp dch v ADSL gm hai lp: Lp truy nhp v truyn ti dch v ADSL; lp qun l v cung cp dch v ADSL. a. Lp qun l v cung cp dch v ADSL: Lp ny bao gm cc chc nng sau:
- H thng my ch cung cp ni dung nh web server, game server, video server, VoD servery l h thng cc my ch cu hnh mnh c kh nng

p ng y cc dch v mng.
- H thng qun l DSLAM (EMS): h thng ny c t chc nhm m bo tnh thng nht v tp trung trn ton mng, cung cp cc ng dng thc

hin tt vic cung cp dch v end-to-end. Cc chc nng c bn bao gm:


+ Qun l cc phn t mng: kim k cc phn t mng, cu trc mng v

cc th mc, hin th phn t mng v tng thit b.


+ Qun l li: qun l cc cnh bo li hin ti, cc li xut hin v a

ra c cc thng tin chi tit cnh bo.


+ Qun l bo mt: qun l cc thng tin truy nhp, iu khin giao tip

ngi s dng.
- My ch qun l mng NMS: l mt dng clustering server; c kh nng

phn cp qun l mng theo nhiu cp an ninh khc nhau; c phn mm qun l
li, ci t cu hnh, h tr tnh cc, kim sot cht lng v anh ninh mng; c kh nng thc hin cc thao tc qun tr qua giao din web, h tr qun l t xa

qua dial-up.
- My ch bc tng la Firewall Server: h tr VPN, NAT, an ton phi c chng thc bi cc t chc an ninh quc t, c kh nng lc bo v theo a

ch, theo dch v, theo ngi dngv.v. b. Lp truyn ti v truy nhp dch v ADSL: Lp ny bao gm cc chc nng sau:
- Thit b chuyn mch a dch v MSS: b sung kh nng chuyn mch

gia cc thu bao trong cng DSLAM HUB; thit lp mng DDN h tr nhu cu kt ni knh ring; tp trung lu lng t cc DSLAM trc khi a ln BRAS. - Thit b truy nhp t xa bng rng BRAS: Thit b tp trung ny c kh nng h tr a dng cc giao tip kt ni, c kh nng x l rt cao nhm gim thiu cc kt ni logic (PVC), tp trung cc PVC n t DSLAM Hub vo mt hoc vi PVC, do cho php kt cui c hng ngn kt ni PPP cng lc t pha khch hng. - Thit b tp trung lu lng truy nhp DSLAM Hub: L mt thit b c chc nng tp trung lng truy nhp t cc thit b ghp knh DSLAM truyn ti ln lp trn (B-RAS) v ngc li. Ngoi ra, DSLAM-Hub cn c chc nng

ghp knh truy nhp (ging nh DSLAM) v trc tip cung cp cng kt ni ti cc khch hng trong khu vc phc v. - Thit b ghp knh truy nhp (DSLAM) : L mt thit b ghp knh c
chc nng trc tip cung cp cng kt ni ti khch hng. y l thit b tp trung cc ng thu bao ring l truyn ti ln lp trn (DSLAMHub/MSS/B-

RAS) v ngc li. Do k thut ADSL s dng kt ni trc tip n vng lp v v khong cch
gii hn ca cc vng lp trong cng ngh DSL, nn cc DSLAM thng c t ti cc CO (cc nt chuyn mch). Dung lng ca DSLAM ph thuc vo

nhu cu thc t. 5.3.3 Yu cu k thut ca h thng cung cp dch v ADSL


- Cc thit b phi c cu trc module nhiu khe cm cho php m rng thm nhiu cng, card mt cch thun tin, ng thi ty thuc vo tim nng nhu

cu s dng dch v m la chn nng lc cc i ca thit b tng ng.


- B-RAS phi c kh nng kt ni vi nhiu DSLAM/DSLAM-Hub ( thng

qua giao din STM-1/ STM-4 quang hoc in ), ng thi phi c kh nng kt ni mng din rng c th trin khai cc dch v kt ni mng (VPN, v.v). - Cc thit b DSLAM/DSLAM-Hub v B-RAS phi c kh nng kt ni
c vi cc MSS, s dng th tc truyn thng MPLS trn mng Backbone,

ng thi phi c kh nng h tr cc cng ngh DSL khc ( VDSL, RADSL,

G.SHDSL, v.v) chun b cho kh nng cung cp cc dch v ny.


- MSS c kh nng chuyn mch do vy nu lu lng c truyn gia hai

thu bao trong cng mt vng ca MSS th lu lng ny s c chuyn ngay ti MSS m khng cn phi ln B-RAS x l nhm gim ti cho B-RAS.

VI- MNG NGOI VI TI HUYN HO THNH 1- Qui tc t chc mng:


Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh t chc v qun l mng theo Quy phm xy dng mng ngoi vi (68QP-01-VNPT) ca Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam ban hnh km theo quyt nh s 499/Q-KHCN/HQT ngy 24/11/2004 nay l Tp on Bu Chnh Vin thng Vit Nam. Ti cc trm mng cp c phi v u ni 1 cp, 2 cp theo qui nh

1MS

T1A1

H1A1A1

M DF

2MS TCCC Cp chnh

T1B1

T1B2

H1B2A1 H1B2B1

Cp phi cp 1

Cp phi cp 2

Tuyn 1 phi cp 1 cp Tuyn 2 phi cp 2 cp

Hnh 6.1 S phi cp tng th

Ghi ch: TCCC: T cp chng chy MS: Mng sng MDF: Gi phi tuyn chnh : T cp : Hp cp

2-Cc thnh phn mng ngoi vi:


Mng cp ng thu bao gm h thng cp ng kt ni t trm n nh thu bao gm cc thnh phn MDF, Mng sng cp, phin ni dy, t cp, hp cp, cp vo nh thu bao, h thng cng b v h thng ct treo cp.

MDF: Gi phi tuyn chnh ti mi trm lp t cc bloc inside v bloc outside u cp v i dy nhy. TCCC: T cp chng chy ti mi trm u cp nhp i v cp ngoi mng. MS: Mng song cp u ni cp r v ni thng T cp: Dung lng t 100x2-800x2 dng u cp phi. Hp cp: Dung lng 20x2-50x2 u dy cp thu bao. Ct beton: Dng treo cp v dy sub thu bao. Cng b cp: thi cng cp ngm cho cc tuyn cp chnh v khu vc ng dn c.
Dy nhy

BLOC IN 128x2

MDF

BLOC OUT 200x2

MS TCCC TCCC

Cp ni i

Cp nhp i chng chy

Cp chnh ngm/ treo

Hnh6..2 S u ni ti MDF Trung tm VT Ha Thnh

3- Mng cp ng Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh.


Cn c theo tnh hnh thc t ti a phng mng ngoi vi t chc theo tng khu vc cc trm thng t ti khu vc ng dn c, t cp ng c ko rng khp pht trin thu bao c nh v ADSL. Mng ngoi vi t chc theo qui phm ca ngnh: S dng 3 nguyn tc phi cp: Phi cp trc tip, phi cp mt cp v phi cp 2 cp; mng cp chnh l cp t trm n t cp u tin, mng cp phi l cp u t t cp cp 1.
Tn trm / lai cp x i Trm th trn Trng ng Giang 120 0 (m) Cp chng chy

STT

600 (m)

400 (m)
38438

300 (m)
19285 2822 7573

200 (m)
35495 7587 12062

100 (m)
32613 14397 13779

50 (m)
72342 22973 31671

30 (m)
57451 23019 18145

20 (m)
10274 1013 2835

10 (m)
730 3200 680

1 2 3

2822 250 4401

1630 3710

4 5

Tn Long Hi Bi Th Xun Tng cng

1495 350 250 8718 44432

840

11592 916

9946 2016 75573

14610 2272 144418

13739 2568 115372

4708 230 19310

3137 150 7897

30520

69902

Bng6..1 c im cp ng ang s dng ti Trung tm VT Ha Thnh - Cp ngm s dng loi cp ng knh 0,4mm, 0,5mm - Cp treo s dng cp ng knh 0,5mm. - S lng cp chnh ti TT VT Ha Thnh l 18,550m v cp phi l 248,078m cp cc loi. - Cc loi cp ang s dng u l cp c du chng thm.

4- Mng cp quang Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh.


Hin nay ti cc trm Vin thng Ha Thnh u s dng cp quang, do a bn huyn Ha Thnh c din tch nh hn cc huyn khc nhng mt dn c cao, ng giao thng rt nhiu ( trung bnh khong 100m c mt ng t), rt thun tin cho vic lp t cc trm vin Thng, trung bnh cc trm Vin thng cch nhau khong 6 n 7 km. Chnh v vy mng cp quang Ha Thnh c vng ring nh sau: + Host Ty Ninh trm VT Ha Thnh- cc trm VT Giang Tn- Cm Giang Thnh c Hip Thnh Host G Du Trm VT Bn Cu Host Ty Ninh. + Host Ty Ninh trm VT Ha Thnh- Giang Tn - Cm Giang Trng ng Long Hi Trm VT Ha Thnh. Chnh v cc trm s dng mng vng ring nn m bo an ton khi xy ra t cp quang. Mng cp quang i qua a phn Ha Thnh do Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh qun l v phn cng cho cng nhn dy my thc hin tun tra hng ngy 02 ln vo lc 8h00 v 13h30. - Trm VT Ha Thnh ko cp quang trong cng b n ng 3 Long Hi l 5km, t ng 3 Long Hi cp quang chn trc tip n trm VT Long Hi 1km. S dng loi cp 12FO tng chiu di tuyn l 06km. - Cn li cc trm VT Giang Tn, Trng ng ko cp quang trong cng b v cp quang treo s dng lai cp quang 24FO.

Hnh 6.3 S tng th mng cp trm Th trn VT Ha Thnh Mng cp ng ti Trung tm Vin thng Ha Thnh hin nay c qun l bng phn mm Qun l mng cp chy trn my tnh ni mng.

Hnh 6.4 Tng th 1 tuyn cp trm Giang Tn trn CT QLMC

5- H thng cng b cp:


Ti khu vc th trn v khu ng dn c cc tuyn cp chnh c ngm ho: Th trn, Trng ng, Giang Tn, Long Hi v cc im cng b ngm vt ng. Tng s b/Chiu di tuyn cng b cp: 346 b/27.680m
STT 1 2 3 4 Tn Trm Trm Th Trn Trng ng Giang Tn Long Hi Tng cng Tuyn ng/m 16.080 5.120 4.400 2.080 27.680 B cp 201 64 55 26 346

Bng 6.2 Cng b ti cc trm Trung tm VT Ha Thnh

H thng tuyn cng b hin nay ti trung tm qun l bng th cng.

S B C N G B C P T R M V I N T H N G T H T- R N H A T H N H T H U C T R U N G T M V I N T H N G H A T H N H

N gu yn H u

B2A9A3
H m Y a m a h a n g P h n g

H m T o le N g c T h m

C n g V i n H a Thnh
H m H n g D u y V V n T n

B2A9A2

B 2A 8 A 1

B2A9

B2A1A1 B2A8 B2A7 B2A6 B2A5 B2A4 B2A3 H n g V n g B2A5A1 B2A2A1 B2A2 B2A1

B2A9A1 C h u V n L i m

B2A1 0

P h m V n ng

H m X u n H i

H m B o Ch u

T r m T h T r n

H m

B2A11 N g u y n T ri P h n g
1

Th T n g

T r n g L T h n g K i t
H m

B6A1 6 L T h n g K i t

GH I CH
B c 3 a n h i n c p B c 2 h in c p B c 1 h i n c p

Hnh 6.5 S tuyn cng b trm th trn Ha Thnh

6- H thng ng ct treo cp

Ton b h thng cp vin thng c u t ct treo cp ring bit m bo an ton v thun li ko dy pht trin thu bao. Cc loi ct s dng ct b tng theo tiu chun ngnh: 2 loi ct ang c s dng ct trn v ct vung (lai ct 6,5m; 7,3m; ct 7m v 8m dng vt ng). TC 05-04-2008-KT Tng s ct b tng/ di tuyn ct: 6859 ct/ 274.280m H thng tuyn ct b tng hin nay ti trung tm qun l bng th cng.
S T N G T H H I N T R N G C T7 N M T H T R N H A 97 T R G T H N H T H U C T R U N G T M V I N T H N G H A T H N H -

H m Y a m ah a n g

H m T o le N g c T h m

H m X u n H i

C h u V n L i m

H n g V n g

P h m V n n g

H m B o C h u

P h n g

l S a H La n

H m H n g Du y

V V n T n

C ng V i n Ha Th n h

C a1

H m2

T h T n g

T r m T h T r n

N g u y n T ri P h n g
H m1

Trng L T h n g K i t

C h i c h
C t tr , n i h i n c C t vu n g h i n c

i th x T y N in h

Hnh 6.6 S tng th cc tuyn ct trm Th trn TTVT Ha Thnh

CHNG III TM HIU PHN MM QUN L MNG


Nguyn tc t chc qun l mng ngoi vi ti Trung tm Vin thng Ho Thnh nh sau: Ti Trung tm vin thng Ho Thnh t chc qun l m ng ngoi vi theo quy phm ca ngnh v ca Vin thng Ty N inh ban hnh. Hin ti m ng ngoi vi TTV T H o Thnh s dng 3 nguyn tc phi cp: Phi cp trc tip, phi cp m t cp v phi cp 2mng cp chnh cp t trm n t cp u tin, cp; l mng cp phi t t cp ca m ng cp chnh n cc hp cp kt cui thu bao v c qun l l bng chng trnh vi phn mm (V isualbasic) trn m y tnh, qun l theo s v m ca ng dy cp. Vi vic qun l m ng ngoi vi bng chng trnh phn m m trn m y tnh gip cho vic qun l m ng ngoi vi ti n v rt thun tin v d dng trong vic iu chnh v truy xut, nhp thng tin, thng k d liu cp. 3.1 C U TR C H TH N G M H NH H O T N G C A CH N G TRN H Chng trnh Qun l mng cp c vit bng ngn ng Visual Basic qun l cc i tng: tng i, si cp, kt cui: t cp, hp cp, mng song cp, cc i tng ny c qun l trn c s d liu SQL. Mng cp ng ti Trung tm Vin thng Ho Thnh hin nay c qun l bng phn mm Qun l mng cp chy trn my tnh ni mng. ch qun l c Cp, t hp cp, cp; t hp cp c m ho theo qui nh ngnh gip cho cng nhn xc nh chnh xc gia thc t v trn chng trnh Chng trnh c xy sao cho m i ngi bit s m y tnh u c th khai thc, s dng dng. MY CH M hnh hot ng : CHA D
LIU WIN NT, SQL

Cp mng
My trm cha chng trnh ci win 9x, 2000, Xp,

64 MB,
My ch trung gian (Proxy DataBase)

in thoi
My trm cha chng trnh ci win 9x, 2000, Xp,

MNG LAN
My trm cha chng trnh ci win 9x, 2000, Xp,

My trm cha chng trnh ci win 9x, 2000, Xp,

Ci t m y ch : M S_SQ L 6.5 Ci t m y trm : ODBC, chng trnh khong 5M B. M y ch trm : Ci proxy server . Chng trnh c thit k dng phn cp ngi s dng, tu theo chc nng ngi dng m cp cho quyn ring. 3.2 NG NHP VO H THNG: s dng chng trnh, ngi s dng phi c quyn truy cp vo h thng. Sau khi khi ng chng trnh ta nhp vo nt chc nng m t khu trn thanh toolbar, chng hin ra hp thoi:

H nh 3.1. Ca s ng nhp

Ngi s dng nhp tn truy cp (ID ), m t khu v nhp chut tri vo nt c biu tng cha kha hoc nhn phm Enter, chng trnh s kim tra nu ng tn truy cp v m t khu ca s ng nhp s t ng m t i v hin th m n hnh chnh ca chng trnh. Trong trng hp tn truy cp v m t khu khng chch xc, chng trnh s hin ra thng bo :

Ngi s dng ng nhp li. 3.3. S DNG CHNG TRNH: 3.3.1. Nhp liu :

H nh 3.2 . cc chc nng ca m enu Nhp m t kt cui m i: Cch chnN hp liu | nhp t-hp :

Hnh 3.3. Thm t -hp cp Chc nng: Gip nhp thng tin c tnh kt cui cp, lu nhng thay i thng tin v kt cui c hoc xo mt kt cui. - Nhp m i m t kt cui: ta chn m t trong nm loi hnh nhp (t, hp, M DF, M .s ), nhp cc thng tin (tn t-hp cp, v tr t t-hp u, nm s dng t-hp, loi v t-hp, cht lng, dung lng, phin ). Sau khi nhp cc thng tin hp l ta nhp vo nt Lu d liu, chng trnh s lu kt cui m i. - Sa i thng tin kt cui c: y c hai cch chn m t kt cu c l nhp vo nt tm hoc nt lit k. - Nu chn nt ta phi nhp tn t-hp vo tn t-hp sau nhp nt tm . tm - Nu chn nt lit k - chng trnh s lit k nhng t -hp cp c v lc ny ta nhp vo cc nt trc sau hoc u cui chn t-hp m m nh m un sa i. - Sau khi sa i cc thng tin ta nhp vo nt lu sa i lu li nhng sa i ca kt cui tng ng. - Xa m t kt cui :cc bc chn m t kt cui cn xa ging cc bc phn sa i thng tin kt cui v sau ta nhp vo nt xa. - Cui cng Nhp vo m enu kt thc ng form ang lm vic.

Thm si cp : Cch chn Nhp liu | thm si cp :

Hnh 3.4 . Thm si cp - Chc nng: gip nhp m i m t si cp, lu nhng thay i thng tin v si cp c hoc xa m t si cp. - Nhp m i m t si cp: Nhp cc thng tin (tn si cp, chiu di, ngun vn, ni sn xut, dung lng, loi cp(chn loi cp treo, ngm ), nm s dng ). Sau khi nhp cc thng . tin hp l ta nhp vo nt Lu d liu chng trnh s lu si cp m i - Sa i thng tin si cp c: y c hai cch chn m t si cp c l nhp vo nt tm hoc nt lit k. - Nu chn nt tm ta phi nhp tn si cp vo tn si cp (v d:T1A 3 H 1A3A1) sau nhp nt tm .

Hnh 3.5 . Tm si cp - Nu chn nt lit k - s lit k nhng si cp c v lc ny ta cc nt trc vo nhp sau hoc u cui chn si cp m m nh m un sa i. Sau khi sa i cc thng tin ta nhp vo nt lu sa i lu li nhng sa i.

- Xa m t si cp: cc bc chn m t si cp tn ti ging cc bc phn sa i thng tin v si cp v sau ta nhp vo nt xa. - Cui cng N hp vo kt thc ng form ang lm vic.
Thm u ni cp :

Cch chn Nhp liu | u ni cp :

H nh3.6. u ni cp - Chc nng: khi ta chn tng i, chn tuyn lc m chc nng ny kt cui s hin th danh sch cc kt . cui - Chn si cp vo: s lit k tt c cc si cp vo kt cui. - Si cp ras lit k tt c si cp ra kt cui. : - i cp volit k tt c i cp cha u ni cn tt ca si cp vo tng ng. : - i cp ra: lit k tt c i cp cha u ni cn tt cha u ni ca si cp ra tng ng. - u ni chn m t hoc nhiu i cp vo, chn m t hoc nhiu i cp ra - nhn nt : u cp. - Xa cp: nhp ch s u cp vo 'i cp t ' v 'n' (nu ch xa m t cp u ni th ch s 2 l nh nhau) - i cp vo h: lit k tt c cp h ca cp vo tng ng. - i cp ra h: lit k tt c cp h ca cp ra tng ng.

- Chuyn i i cp tt v chn m t hoc nhiu i cp tt - click chut phi - di : h chuyn chut n ca s hin i cp h v click chut tri. Thc hin thao tc tng t khi chuyn t h sang tt - Nt lit k: chn nt lit k lc s lit k danh sch thu bao ko ra t kt cui hin ti. Cn nu ta chn nt lit k < -- > s lit k li gm si cp vo, si cp ra v th t u ni hin c. - Trong hp thoi ta chn tin ch | xem -sa thay i hp cp chung trnh s hin ra hp thoi.

H nh 37 . Sa i thng tin kt cui . - Chc nng: gip m thay i cc thng tin v kt cui bng cch nhp vo cc v nh xe li d liu m i. - Sau khi thay i thng tin chn nt lu sa i cp nht m i kt cui ny. Thm tuyn cp: Cch chnN hp liu | tuyn cp :

Hnh 3.8. Thm tuyn cp. - Chc nng: gip nhp m i m t tuyn cp, lu nhng thay i thng tin v tuyn cp c hoc xa m t tuyn cp. - N hp m i m t tuyn :cp Chn tng i, lc ny m tuyn s hin m tuyn t ng trong m i ln to tuyn cp m i, nhp tn tuyn cp vo tn tuyn (v d tuyn th x). Sau khi chn v nhp cc thng tin hp l ta nhp vo nt Lu d liu chng trnh s lu tuyn cp m i. - Sa i thng tin tuyn cp c: y ta nhp vo nt trc sau u cui chn tuyn cp cn s i. - Sau khi sa i cc thng tin ta nhp vo nt lu sa i lu li nhng sa i. - Xa m t tuyn cp cng nhp vo cc nt trc,sau, u, cui chn m t tuyn cp : Ta ta m un xa v sau ta nhp vo nt xa. Cui cng Nhp vo kt thc ng form ang lm vic. Chn im un : - Cch chnNhp liu | chn im un : - Chc nngsau khi chn chc nng ny biu tng chut tr thnh du cng. Lc trn : s ta chn hai im un k nhau v click chut tri vo ni ta m un chn im un . Di chuyn im un : - Cch chn: Nhp liu | di chuyn im un - Chc nngcho php dch chuyn im un trn s bng cch click chut tri vo : im un v r chut n ni ta mun di chuyn n trn s . Xa im un : - Cch chnNhp liu | xa im un : - Chc nngcho php xa im un trn s bng cch click chut tri vo im un ta : cn xa trn s . Di chuyn kt cui hnh sao : - Cch ch N hp liu | di chuyn kt cui sao n: hnh - Chc nngCho php di chuyn kt cui bng cch click chut tri vo kt cui v r : chut n ni ta m un di chuyn kt cui n. Di chuyn si cp : - Cch chnNhp liu | di chuyn si cp. : - Chc nng: Cho php di chuyn si cp bng cch click chut tri vo si cp v r chut n ni ta m un di chuyn si cp. 3.3.2 Tin ch: Chn ng thng: - Cch chntin ch | chn ng thng : - Chc nngtrong trng hp ng thng, ng trn, k t nm gn nhau. Chc nng : ny cho php ch chn ng thng. Chn ng trn:

- Cch chntin ch | chn ng thng : - Chc nng: trong trng hp thng, ng trn, k t nm gn nhau. Chc nng ng ny cho php ch chn ng trn. Chn k t: - Cch chntin ch | chn ng thng : - Chc nng: trong trng hp thng, ng trn, k t nm gn nhau. Chc nng ng ny cho php ch chn nh k t. Bt hin th thc v: - Cch chntin ch | bt hin th thc v. : - Chc nng: cho hin thc v v ta da vo kch thc ca thc v canh v v s nhanh, chnh xc hn. Tt hin th thc v: - Cch chntin ch | tt hin th thc v. : - Chc nngcho php tt hin th thc v khi ta khng cn dng thc v. : Bt ch m ouse t ng: - Cch chn: tin ch | bt ch m ouse t ng. - Chc nng: cho php t ng di chuyn s khi di chuyn chut hoc r chut n thanh ngang hay thanh dc. Tt ch m ouse t ng: - Cch chn: tin ch | tt ch m ouse t ng . - Chc nng: cho php tt ch m ouse t ng khi ta khng m un s dch chuyn khi di chuyn chut hoc re chut n thanh ngang hay thanh dc. 3.3.3 Phn t cp: Chn t-hp cp: . Cch chn: phn t cp | chn t-hp cp - Chc nng: trong trng hp cc t cp, si cp v im un gn st nhau chc nng ny cho php chn t cp khi nhp vo.

H nh 3.9. Chn t hp cp

Chn si cp theo t-hp cp: - Cch chn: phn t cp | chn si cp theo t-hp cp. - Chc nng: Tng t nh trong trng hp trn chc ny cho php chn si cp theo t hp cp. Chn si cp: - Cch chn: phn t cp | chn si cp. - Chc nng: Tng t nh trong trng hp trn chc ny cho php chn si cp. H in th s si cp: - Cch chn: phn t cp | Hin th s si cp. - Chc nng: Trong 4.8. thy ch s 1,2.. l ch s hin th s si cp i qua. Chc hnh Ta nng ny cho php hin th hoc khng hin th ch s ny. Bt hin th si cp: - Cch chn: phn t cp | bt hin th si cp. - Chc nng: khi chn chc nng ny s hin th si cp chn. Tt hin th si cp: - Cch chn: phn t cp | tt hin th si cp. - Chc nng: tt hin th si cp chn.