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CONFLICT OF LAWS Prof.

Anthony Amunategui Abad Ateneo de Manila University School of Law 2nd semester, SY 2009-2010 (Section 2-B) Monday: 12:00 nn 2:00 p.m.
A. Relevant Sources International - Statutes of Hague Convention Conference on Private International Law - Convention on the Jurisdiction of the Selected Forum in the Case of International Sales of Goods, April 15, 1958 - Convention on the Settlement of the Conflicts between the Law of Nationality and the Law of Domicile, June 15, 1955 - Convention on the Recognition of the Legal Personality of Foreign Companies, Associations and Institutions, June 1, 1956 - Convention on the Choice of Court Agreements, June 30, 2005 Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations, November 23, 2007 Domestic - Constitution (Art. IV and Art. V, Section 1) - Family Code (Articles 10, 21, 26, 35, 36, 37, 38, 80, 96, 184, and 187) - Civil Code (Articles 14, 15, 16, 17, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 829, 1039, 1319, and 1753) - Penal Code (Article 2) - Corporation Code (Section 133 Doing Business Without License) - Rules of Court (Rule 14 and 39, Section 48, Rule 131, Section 3 (n), 132, Section 25) Materials Philippine Conflict of Laws (Edgardo Paras, 1996) Handbook on Conflict of Laws (Alicia V. Sempio-Diy, 2004) Conflict of Laws, Cases, Materials and Comments (Jorge R. Coquia & Elizabeth Aguiling-Pangalangan, 2000) Conflict of Laws (Private International Law) (Ruben Agpalo, 2004) Bar Review Materials and Supreme Court Cases related to Conflict of Laws Online sources

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I. 1. Introduction Scope of Conflict of Laws a. Definition of Conflict of Laws b. Elements for the Application of Conflict of Laws - Conflict of Laws is part of Municipal law - Directive to Courts and/or Administrative Agencies - Foreign Elements - Application or non-application of a Foreign Law/s c. Functions of Conflict of Laws d. Significance / Importance of Conflict of Laws e. Identifying issues of Conflict of Laws History of Conflict of Laws a. Origin b. Modern Views/ Developments c. Conflict of Laws in the Philippines Conflict of Laws vs. Public International Law a. Distinguish

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b. Sources 4. Cases: II. 1. Conflict of Laws under Common Law and Private International Law under Civil Law Guerreros Transport Services, Inc vs. Blayblock Transp. Services, 71 SCRA 621 (1976) Saudi Arabian Airlines vs. CA, 297 SCRA 469 (1998) Northern P.R. Co vs. Babcock, 154 U.S 190 Laurel vs. Garcia, 187 SCRA 797 (1990) Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp vs. Sheman, 176 SCRA 331 (1989) International School Alliance of Educators vs. Quisumbing, 333 SCRA 13 (2000) Jurisdiction Category of Jurisdiction a. Definition b. Jurisdiction Over the Person c. Jurisdiction Over the Res d. Jurisdiction Over the Subject Matter Ways to Deal with Conflict of Laws Cases a. Refusal to Assume Jurisdiction i. Doctrine of Forum Non-Conveniens b. Assumption of Jurisdiction i. Lex fori ii. Lex causae c. Renvoi i. Definition ii. Application iii. Problem iv. Double Renvoi vs. Transmission

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Cases: -

Adong vs. Cheong Seng Gee, 43 Phil 43 Lim vs. Collector 36 Phil 472 Hasegawa v. Kitamura, 538 SCRA 26, (2007) Raytheon International v. Stockton W. Rouzie, Jr., G.R. No. 162894, (February 26, 2008), 546 SCRA 555 Manila Hotel Corp and Manila Hotel Intl Ltd. vs. NLRC G.R. No. 120077, (October 13, 2000), 343 SCRA 1 PhilSec. Investment v. Court of Appeals, 274 SCRA 102 (1997) Pioneer Concrete Philippines v. Todaro, 524 SCRA 153 (2007) Laureano v. CA, 324 SCRA 414 (2000) Wild Valley v. CA, 342 SCRA 213 (2000) Santos III vs. Northwest Orient Lines, 210 SCRA 256 (1992) National Rental vs. Szukhent et al., 375 U.S. 311 (1964) International Shoe Co. vs. Washington, 326 U.S. 310 (1945) Perkins vs. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co 342 U.S. 437, 72 S. Ct. 413 96 (1952) McGee vs. International Life Ins. Co.355 U.S. 220 (December 16, 1957) World-wide Volkswagen Corp. vs. Woodson 444 U.S. 286 (1980) Calder vs. Jones, 465 U.S. 783 (March 20, 1984) Keeton vs. Hustler Magazine, Inc. et al, 465 U.S. 770 (March 20, 1984) Asahi Metal Industry Co vs. Superior Court, 480, U.S 102 (February 24, 1987) Bensuan Restaurant Corporation vs. Richard B. King, Docket No. 96-9344, (September 10, 1997) Compuserve Inc. vs. Richard Patterson, No. 95-3452, (July 22, 1996) Rush vs. Sauchuk, 444 US 320 (1980) Banco Espaol Filipino vs. Palanca, 37 Phil. 921 (1918) Carballo vs. Encarnacion, 92 Phil. 974 (1952) Santos vs. Montesa, Jr., 221 SCRA 15 (1993) William Gemperle vs. Helen Schenker, 19 SCRA 45 (1967)

Asian Merchant Bankers (M) Berhad, vs. Court of Appeals et al., G.R. No. 110263, (July 20, 2001) Regner vs. Logarta 537 SCRA 277 European Resources and Technologies, Inc vs. Ingenieuburo Birkhahn + Nolte, Ingeniurgesellschaft mbh 435 SCRA 246 Piper Aircraft Co. vs. Reyno, 454 U.S. 235 (December 8, 1981) Gulf Oil vs. Gilbert, 330 US 501 (1947) Lueck vs. Sundstrand , No. 99-15961, D.C. No. CV-97-2223, RGS (January 8, 2001) Monegro vs. Rosa, US 9th Circuit, 9816846, (May 3, 2000) Erie Railroad Co. vs. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64, 58 S. Ct. 817, 82 L.Ed. 1188 (1938) K.K. Shell Sekiyu Osaka Hatsubaisho and Fu Hing Oil Co., Ltd. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 90306-07, 30 July 1990 Communications Materials and Design vs. Court of Appeals G.R. No. 102223, (August 22,1996) Islamic Republic of Iran v. Pahlavi, 62 NY 2d. 474 (1984) MacShannon v. Rockware Glass Ltd [1987] A.C. 795 at 819 Sumitomo Bank Ltd v. Kartika Ratna Thahir & Ors and another matter, High Court, Originating Summons No. 308 of 1976, Singapore Kartika Ratna Thahir v. PT Pertambangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi Negara, Court of Appeal, Civil Appeal No. 204 of 1992, 25 August 1994, Singapore The Rainbow Joy, 2005 SGCA 36, Court of Appeal Civil Appeal No 116 of 2004, Singapore In re: Union Carbide Corporation Gas Plant Disaster in Bhopal, India in December 1984, U.S. Court of Appeals, 14 January 1986 First Philippine International Bank vs. CA, 252 SCRA 259 (1996) Wing On Company vs. Syyap 64 O.G. 8311 (1967) Heine vs. New York Insurance Company 45 F2d 426 (1940) Goodwine vs. Superior Court 63 Cal. 2d 481, 407 P. 2d 47 Cal. Rptr. 201 (1965) Fleumer vs. Hix, 54 Phil. 610 (1930) Philippine Trust Co. vs. Bohanan, 106 Phil. 997 (1960) Proscilla C. Mijares et al., vs. Hom. Santiago Javier Ranada, et al., G.R. No. 139325, (April 12, 2005) Pioneer Concrete Philippines, Inc., et al., vs. Antonio D. Todaro G.R. No. 154830, (June 8, 2007), 524 SCRA 153 Bank of America NT & SA, et al vs. Court of Appeals G.R. No. 120135, (March 31, 2003) Gulf Oil Corporation vs. Gilbert, 330, U.S. 501 (March 10, 1947) Travelers Health Assn. vs. Virginia, 339 U.S. 643 (June 5, 1950) World-Wide Volkswagen Corp vs. Woodson, 444 U.S. 286, Decided: January 21, 1980 Schmidt vs. Driscol, 249 Minn 376 82, NW 2d 365 (1957) Pennoyer vs. Neff, 95 U.S. 714 (1878) International Shoe Co. vs. Washington, 326 U.S. 310 (1945) Mullane vs. Central Hanover Bank & Trust Co., Trustee, et al., 399 U.S. 306 (1950) Shaffer vs. Heitner, 433 U.S. 186 (1977) Lazaro b. RayRay vs. Chae Kyung Lee G.R. No. L-18176, (October 26, 1966) French vs. Banco National de Cuba, 295 NY 2d, 422-423 (1968) (Saba Hino) Hassan El-Fadl vs. Central Bank of Jordan, et. al. (February 6, 1996, No. 94-7212) Republic of the Philippines, et al v Pimentel et al Supreme Court of the United States No. 06-1204 Islamic Republic of Iran v. Pahlavi, 62 NY 2d. 474 (1984) Credit Suisse v. U.S.D.C., 130 F.3d at 1342 (9th Cir. 1997) Kirkpatrick Inc. v. Environmental Tectonics Corp., Intl., 493 U.S. 400, 107 L.Ed. 2d 816 (1990) In Re: Philippine National Bank v. United States District Court for the District of Hawaii, No. 04-71843, D.C. No. MDL-00840-MLR Pennhurst State School and Hosp. v. Halderman, 465, U.S. 89 (1984) Lord Day & Lord v. Socialist Republic of Vietnam 134 F. Supp.2d 549 (S.D.N.Y. 2001) Saratoga Country Chamber of Commerce, In. v. Pataki 798 N.E. 2d 1047 (N.Y. 2003) Helen Liu v The Republic of China, No. 87-2976, United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, 892 F.2d 1419 (1989) Idonah Perkins vs. Roxas, 72 Phil. 514 (1941) Caluag vs. Pecson, 82 Phil. 8 (1948)

Far East International Import and Export Corporation vs. Nankai Kogyo Co., LTD., et al., G.R. No. L-13525, (November 30, 1962)

III. 1.

Choice of Law Theories on the Application of Foreign Law a. Theory of Comity b. Theory of Vested Right c. Theory of Local Law d. Theory of Harmony of Laws e. Theory of Justice Determination of Applicable Law a. Center of Gravity Doctrine / Grouping of Contracts b. Cavers Principle c. The State-Interest Analysis d. German Rule of Elective Concurrence Characterization of Conflicts Rules / Connecting Factors a. Definition b. Theories of Characterization c. Sources of Problem of Characterization d. Steps in Characterization Exception to the Application of Foreign Laws

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4. Cases: -

Tayag Renato vs. Benguet Consolidated, Inc. G.R. No. 23145, (November 29, 1968) United Airlines Inc. vs. Court of Appeals G.R. No. 124110, (April 20, 2001) Cadalin vs. POEA Administrator, 238 SCRA 721, 774-775 (1994) Pakistan International Airlines vs. Ople, G.R. No. 61594,(September 28, 1990) 190 SCRA 1990 Huntinghon vs. Attrill, 146 U.S. 657 (1892) Testate Estate of Amos G. Bellis et al. vs. Edward Belli, L-23678, June 6, 1967 Sps. Zalamea vs. Court of Appeals and Transworld Airlines, Inc., G.R. No. 104235, November 18, 1993 Garcia vs. Recio, G.R. No. 138322, October 2, 2001 Asiavest Merchant Bankers vs. Court of G.R. No. 110263, July 20, 2001 Intercontinental Hotels vs. Golden, 254 NYS 2d 527, NY 1964 Cadalin vs POEA Administrator, 238 SCRA 721 (1994)

IV. 1.

Substantive Legal Areas General Theories in Status and Capacity a. Definition of Status and Capacity b. Kinds of Capacity c. Characteristics of Status Personal Law a. Definition b. Theories on Personal Law i. Nationality Theory - Definition of Nationality and Citizenship - Determination (Who are citizens of the Philippines?) - Classification of Citizens in the Philippines - Theory of effective nationality - Procedure for Naturalization - Lost of Philippine Citizenship - Reacquisition of Citizenship

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Problem in the Application of Nationality Theory Nationality of Juridical Person Domiciliary Theory Definition of Domicile Kinds Rules on Domicile Domicile distinguished from Residence Domicile of Juridical Person

Family Relations a. Marriage - Philippine Policy on Marriage Intrinsic Validity (Between Foreigners, Filipinos or Mixed when Celebrated abroad and/or in the Philippines) Extrinsic Validity Property Relations b. Divorce Divorce distinguished from Annulment and Legal Separation Effect of Divorce Obtained by Filipinos Divorce Between Foreigners Divorce Between a Foreigner and a Filipina

c. Adoption - Definition and Purpose of Adoption - Conflict rules on Adoption (Effect of Adoption, Foreign Adoption and Philippine Law on Adoption with foreign element) d. Paternity and Filiation - Definition of Paternity and Filiation - Conflict rules on Paternity and Filiation Status of Children Rights of Children Doctrine of Immutability of Status of Child 4. Property a. Lex loci or Lex loci rei sitae b. Conflict of rules on Property - Immovables - Movables c. Exceptions Wills, Succession and Administration of Estates a. Definition of Wills and Administration of Estate b. Conflict Rules on the execution of a will - Intrinsic Validity (National Law) - Extrinsic Validity (Made by Filipinos or Foreigners abroad and/or in the Philippines) c. Conflict Rules on the Administration of Estate Obligations and Contacts a. Definition of Contract b. Essential Element of a Contract c. Conflict rules on Contracts - Capacity of the parties - Intrinsic Validity (Lex loci contractus, lex loci voluntatis, lex loci intentionis) - Extrinsic Validity d. Issues on Conflicts Contracts Cases - Choice of Forum Clause - Contracts with Arbitration Clause - Adhesion Contracts

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Special Contracts Limitation on the Application of Conflict Rules on Contracts

Intellectual Property Rights a. Trademarks / Trade Name - Definition of Trademark - How ownership is acquired? - Rights of Foreign Nationals under Philippine Law - Infringement of Trademark b. Patent - Definition of Patent - Rights of Foreigners with Respect to Patents - Compulsory Licensing c. Copyright - Definition of Copyright - Terms of Protection - Reciprocity and International Conventions

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Corporations and Other Juridical Entities a. Definition of Corporation b. Personal Law of Corporation - Nationality of Corporation Grandfather Test Control Test Classification made under the Philippine Investment Law - Domicile of Corporation c. Definition of Foreign Corporations d. Kinds of Foreign Corporations e. Applicable Law in Intra-Corporate disputes of a Foreign Corporation f. Scope of Transacting or Doing Business (License Requirements) g. Doing Business without a License h. Rights of a Foreign Corporations

Cases: V. 1. Nazareno vs. Court of Appeals, 343 SCRA 637, (2000) (property) Bellis vs. Bellis, 20 SCRA 358, (1967) (successions) Foreign Judgment Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgment a. Distinction b. Bases Conditions and Requisites Before Foreign Judgment maybe Recognized Effect of Foreign Judgment Grounds for Non Recognition

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Oil and Natural Gas v. CA, 293 SCRA 96 (1998) Asiavest v. CA, 361 SCRA 489 (2001) Mijares v. Ranada, 455 SCRA 397 (2005) Korea Technologies v. Lerma, 542 SCRA 1 (2008) Loucks vs. Standard Oil Company of New York, 224 NY 99, 111 (July 12, 1918) Godard vs. Gray, L.R. 6 Q.B. 139 (1870) Hilton vs. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113, 16 S.Ct. 139, 40 L. Ed. 95 (1895) Philippine Aluminum Wheels Inc. vs. FASGI Enterprises G.R. No. 137378, (October 12, 2000) Klaxon Co. vs. Stentor Electric Manufacturing Co. 313 U.S. 487, 61 S. Ct. 1020, 85 L.Ed. 1477 (1941).

Borthwick vs. Castro Bartolome, 152 SCRA 229, (1987) Koster vs. Automark Industries, Inc. 640 F.2d 77, 81 n. 3 (7th Cir. 1981) Querubin vs. Querubin, G.R. No. L-3693, (July 29, 1950) Philippine International Shipping vs. CA, 172 SCRA 810 Scherk vs. Alberto-Culver Co.417 U.S. 506, 94 S. Ct. 2449 41 L. Ed.2d 270 (1974) Asiavest Merchant Bankers vs. Court of Appeals G.R. No. 110263, (July 20, 2001) Northwest Orient Airlines, Inc. vs. Court of Appeals, 241 SCRA 192, 1995 Priscilla C. Mijares et al., v. Hon. Santiago Javier Ranada et al.,G.R. No. 139325, (April 12, 2005) Bachchan v. India Abroad Publications Inc., 585 N.Y.S. 2d 661 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1992) Bridgeway Corp. V. Citibank, 201 F. 3d 134 (2d Cir. 2000) Siedler v. Jacobson, 383 N.Y. S.2d 833 (NY Sup.Ct.App.1976) Boudard vs. Tait, 67 Phil. 179 (1939) Ramirez vs. Gmur, 42 Phil. 855 (1918) Nouvion vs. Freeman, 59 L.J. Ch. 337 (1889) Cowans, et al. vs. Teconderoga Pulp & Paper Co.219 N.Y.S. 284 (1927) Ingenohl vs. Olsen & Co.273 U.S. 541 Republic vs. Gingoyon, 481 SCRA 457 Velez vs. De Vera, 496 SCRA 345 Gonzales vs. Climax Mining Ltd., 512 SCRA 148 EDI-Staffbuilders International, Inc vs. National Labor Commission 537 SCRA 409 Valenzuela vs. People , 525 SCRA 306 Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corporation vs. V.P Eusebio Construction Inc., 434 SCRA 202