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VOIP

MC LC
CHNG I: TNG QUAN V VOIP..................................................................1 CHNG II: CCH THC HOT NG, NHN T NH HNG V CC B GIAO THC.......................................................................................................5 ...................................................................................................................... 15 CHNG III: TNH BO MT V HNG KHC PHC....................................16

CHNG I: TNG QUAN V VOIP


1.

Gii thiu chung v VoIP.

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) l mt cng ngh cho php truyn thoi s dng giao thc mng IP, trn c s h tng sn c ca mng internet. Voip l mt trong nhng cng ngh vin thng ang c quan tm nht hin nay khng ch i vi nh khai thc, cc nh sn xut m cn c vi ngi s dng dch v. Voip c th va thc hin mi loi cuc gi nh trn mng in thoi knh truyn thng (PSTN) ng thi truyn d liu trn c s mng truyn d liu. Do cc u im v gi thnh dch v v s tch hp nhiu loi hnh dch v nn voip hin nay c trin khai mt cc rng ri. Dch v in thoi voip l dch v ng dng giao thc IP, nguyn tc ca voip bao gm vic s ho tn hiu ting ni, thc hin vic nn tn hiu s, chia nh cc gi nu cn v truyn gi tin ny qua mng, ti ni nhn cc gi tin ny c rp li theo ng th t ca bn tin, gii m tn hiu tng t phc hi li ting ni ban u. Cc cuc gi trong voip da trn c s s dng kt hp c chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi. Trong mi loi chuyn mch trn u c u, nhc im ring ca n. Trong k thut chuyn mch knh ginh ring cho hai thit b u cui thng qua cc node chuyn mch trung gian. Trong chuyn mch knh tc truyn dn lun lun c nh(ngha l bng thng khng i) , vi mng in thoi PSTN tc ny l 64kbps, truyn dn trong chuyn mch knh c tr nh. Trong chuyn mch gi cc bn tin c chia thnh cc gi nh gi l cc gi, nguyn tc hot ng ca n l s dng h thng lu tr v chuyn tip cc gi tin trong nt mng. i vi chuyn mch gi khng tn ti khi nim knh ring, bng thng khng c nh c ngha l c th thay i tc truyn, k thut chuyn mch gi phi chu tr ln v trong chuyn mch gi khng quy nh
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VOIP
thi gian cho mi gi d liu ti ch, mi gi c th i bng nhiu con ng khc nhau ti ch, chuyn mch gi thch hp cho vic truyn d liu v trong mng truyn d liu khng i hi v thi gian thc nh thoi, s dng u im ca mi loi chuyn mch trn th trong voip kt hp s dng c hai loi chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi.

2.

Li ch ca VoIP.

Mt trong nhng tin ch ng k nht l gi thp. V in thoi IP truyn qua ti nguyn internet nn gi thnh rt r so vi in thoi PSTN. i vi cc cng ty, vic chuyn sang dng VoIP l mt gii php gip gim thiu cc ph in thoi, nht l in thoi quc t, in thoi ng di. Hin ti trong cc cng ty u tn ti 2 mng, mng in thoi v mng my tnh (intranet+internet). Vic qun l 2 mng ny c lp cng dn n nhiu tn km. Nu chuyn sang dng gii php VoIP th cng ty s gim ch ph cho vic qun l bo tr h thng mng thoi v data. D nhin cc cng ty phi chp nhn mt chi ph ban u mua cc telephoneIP, nhng chi ph v lu di s mang n li ch ng k. VoIP s dng k thut chuyn mch gi (packet-switching - PS) ca Internet truyn ti dch v thoi thay v k thut chuyn mch (circuit-switching - CS)

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VOIP
nh trong mng in thoi truyn thng (PSTN -Public switched telephone network). V VoIP s dng PS nn n c nhiu tin ch m PS mang li so vi CS. C th, PS cho php mt vi cuc thoi s dng mt ti nguyn tng ng ti nguyn dnh cho 1 cuc thoi CS. V d mt cuc thoi 10 pht trn PSTN s dng ht lin tc 10 pht truyn thng tin (transmission) vi bng thng 128Kbps. Nu dng VoIP thc hin cng 1 cuc thoi trn, thc t bn ch cn 3.5 pht truyn thng tin vi bng thng 64Kbps. Nh vy bn gii phng 64Kbps trong 3.5 pht y cho ngi khc v c 128Kbps cho 6.5 pht cn li. Hnh di y minh ha s khc nhau gia PS v CS. thc hin c s hi t trn chng ta cn cc thit b mi hoc c th thch ng cc thit b hin c (thng qua cc adapter), v chng ta c mt mng nh sau:

3.

Cc kiu kt ni s dng VoIP.


3.1

Computer to Computer:

Vi 1 knh truyn Internet c sn, L 1 dch v min ph c s dng rng ri khp ni trn th gii. Ch cn ngi gi (caller) v ngi nhn ( receiver) s dng chung 1 VoIP service (Skype,MSN,Yahoo Messenger,), 2 headphone + microphone, sound card . Cuc hi thoi l khng gii hn.
3.2

Computer to phone:

L 1 dch v c ph. Bn phi tr tin c 1 account + software (VDC,Evoiz,Netnam,). Vi dch v ny 1 my PC c kt ni ti 1 my in thoi thng thng bt c u ( tu thuc phm vi cho php trong danh sch cc
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quc gia m nh cung cp cho php). Ngi gi s b tnh ph trn lu lng cuc gi v khu tr vo ti khon hin c. u im : i vi cc cuc hi thoi quc t, ngi s dng s tn t ph hn 1 cuc hi thoi thng qua 2 my in thoi thng thng. Chi ph r, d lp t Nhc im: cht lng cuc gi ph thuc vo kt ni internet + service nh cung cp
3.3

Phone to Phone:

L 1 dch v c ph. Bn khng cn 1 kt ni Internet m ch cn 1 VoIP adapter kt ni vi my in thoi. Lc ny my in thoi tr thnh 1 IP phone.
4.

Cc thnh phn trong mng VoIP:


Cc thnh phn ct li ca 1 mng VoIP bao gm: Gateway, VoIP Server, IP network, End User Equipments Gateway: l thnh phn gip chuyn i tn hiu analog sang tn hiu s (v ngc li).

VoIP gateway : l cc gateway c chc nng lm cu ni gia mng in thoi thng ( PSTN ) v mng VoIP. VoIP GSM Gateway: l cc gateway c chc nng lm cu ni cho cc mng IP, GSM v c mng analog. VoIP server : l cc my ch trung tm c chc nng nh tuyn v bo mt cho cc cuc gi VoIP .Trong mng H.323 chng c gi l gatekeeper. Trong mng SIP cc server c gi l SIP server. Thit b u cui (End user equipments ) :Softphone v my tnh c nhn (PC) : bao gm 1 headphone, 1 phn mm v 1 kt ni Internet. Cc phn mm min ph ph bin nh Skype, Ekiga, GnomeMeeting, Microsoft Netmeeting, SIPSet, .. in thoi truyn thng vi IP adapter: s dng dch v VoIP th my in thoi thng dng phi gn vi 1 IP adapter c th kt ni vi VoIP server. Adapter l 1 thit b c t nht 1 cng RJ11 ( gn vi in thoi) , RJ45 ( gn vi ng truyn Internet hay PSTN) v 1 cng cm ngun.

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VOIP

IP phone : l cc in thoi dng ring cho mng VoIP. Cc IP phone khng cn VoIP Adapter bi chng c tch hp sn bn trong c th kt ni trc tipvi cc VoIP server

CHNG II: CCH THC HOT NG, NHN T NH HNG V CC B GIAO THC
1.

VoIP hot ng nh th no?


Khi ni vo ng nghe hay microphone, ging ni s to ra tn hiu in t, l nhng tn hiu analog. Tn hiu analog c chuyn sang tn hiu s dng thut ton c bit chuyn i. Nhng thit b khc nhau c cch chuyn i khc nhau nh VoIP phone hay softphone, nu dng in thoi analog thng thng th cn mt Telephony Adapter (TA). Sau ging ni c s ha s c ng vo gi tin v gi trn mng IP. Trong sut tin trnh mt giao thc nh SIP hay H323 s c dng iu khin (control) cuc gi nh l thit lp, quay s, ngt kt ni v RTP th c dng cho tnh nng m bo tin cy v duy tr cht lng dch v trong qu trinh truyn.
1.1 S ha tn hiu Analog.

Biu din tn hiu tng t(analog) thnh dng s (digital) l cng vic kh khn. V bn thn dng m thanh nh ging ni con ngi dng analog do cn mt s lng ln cc gi tr digital biu din bin (amplitude), tn s(frequency) v pha (phase), chuyn i nhng gi tr thnh dng s nh phn(zero v one) l rt kh khn. Cn thit cn c c ch dng thc hin s chuyn i ny v kt qu ca s pht trin ny l s ra i ca nhng thit b c gi l codec (coder-decoder) hay l thit b m v gii m. Tn hiu n thoi analog (ging ni con ngi) c t vo u vo ca thit b codec v c chuyn i thnh chui s nh phn u ra. Sau qu trnh ny thc hin tr li bng cch chuyn chui s thnh dng analog u cui, vi cng qui trnh codec. C 4 bc lin quan n qu trnh s ha(digitizing) mt tn hiu tng t(analog): Ly mu (Sampling)

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VOIP
Lng t ha (Quantization) M ha (Encoding) Nn ging ni (Voice Compression)
1.2

Ly mu (Sampling).

Tn hiu m thanh trn mng in thoi c ph nng lng t n 10Khz. Tuy nhin, hu ht nng lng u tp trung phn thp hn trong di ny. Do tit kim bng thng trong cc h thng truyn c ghp knh theo FDM v c TDM. Cc knh in thoi thng gii hn bng tn trong khong t 300 n 3400Hz. Tuy nhin trong thc t s c mt t nng lng nhiu c chuyn qua di dng cc tn s cao hn tn s hiu dng 3400Hz. Do ph tn s c th c m rng n 4Khz, theo l thuyt Nyquist: khi mt tn hiu th c ly mu ng thi mi khong nh k v c tc t nht bng hai ln ph tn s cao nht, sau nhng mu ny s mang thng tin cho php vic ti to li chnh xc tn hiu thit b nhn. Vi ph tn s cao nht cho thoi l 4000Hz hay 8000 mu c ly trong mt giy, khong cch gia mi mu l 125 micro giy.
1.3

Lng t ho (Quantization).

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Tin trnh k tip ca s ha tn hiu tun t l biu din gi tr chnh xc cho mi mu c ly. Mi mu c th c gn cho mt gi tr s, tng ng vi bin (theo chiu cao) ca mu. Sau khi thc hin gii hn u tin i vi bin tng ng vi di mu, n lt mi mu s c so snh vi mt tp hp cc mc lng t v gn vo mt mc xp x vi n. Qui nh rng tt c cc mu trong cng khong gia hai mc lng t c xem c cng gi tr. Sau gi tr gn c dng trong h thng truyn. S phc hi hnh dng tn hiu ban u i hi thc hin theo hng ngc li.

1.4

M ha (Encoding).
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Mi mc lng t c ch nh mt gi tr s 8 bit, kt hp 8 bit c 256 mc hay gi tr. Qui c bit u tin dng nh du gi tr m hoc dng cho mu. By bt cn li biu din cho ln; bit u tin ch na trn hay na di ca dy, bit th hai ch phn t trn hay di, bit th 3 ch phn tm trn hay di v c th tip tc. Ba bc tin trnh ny s lp li 8000 ln mi giy cho dch v knh in thoi. Dng bc th t l ty chn nn hay tit kim bng thng. Vi ty chn ny th mt knh c th mang nhiu cuc gi dng thi.
1.5

Nn ging ni(Voice Compression).

Mc d k thut m ha PCM 64 Kps hin hnh l phng php c chun ha, nhng c vi phng php m ha khc c s dng trong nhng ng dng c bit. Cc phng php ny thc hin m ha ting ni vi tc nh hn tc ca PCM, nh tn dng c kh nng ca h thng truyn dn s. Chc hn, cc m ha tc thp ny s b hn ch v cht lng, t bit l nhiu v mo tn s. Mt s v d h thng m ha ting ni tc thp: CVSD( Continuously variable slope delta modulaton) K thut ny l mt dn xut ca iu ch delta, trong mt bit n dng m ha mi mu PAM hoc ln hn hoc nh hn mu trc . V khng hn ch bi 8 bit, m ha c th hat ng tc khc nhau vo khang 20 Kps. ADPCM( Adaptive differential PCM): K thut ny l mt dn xut ca PCM chun, s khc bit gia cc mu lin tip nhau c m ha, thay v tt c cc mu iu c m ha, c truyn trn ng dy. CCITT c ngh mt chun ADPCM 32 Kps, 24 Kps, 16Kbs cho m ha ting ni. Chun PCM th cng c bit nh chun ITU G.711 Tc G.711: 64 Kps=(2*4 kHz)*8 bit/m Tc G.726: 32 Kps=(2*4 kHz)*4 bit/m Tc G.726: 24 Kps=(2*4 kHz)*3 bit/m Tc G.726: 16 Kps=(2*4 kHz)*2 bit/mu
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VOIP
Packetizing voice

Mi mt khi ging ni c s ho v c nn li, n phi c chia thnh nhng phn nh, t vo gi IP, VoIP th khng hiu qua cho nhng gi tin nh, trong khi nhng gi tin ln th to ra nhiu tr, do nh hng ca vi loi header m kch thc cu d liu thoi(voice data ) cng s nh hng. V d header cu IP, UDP, RTP l 40 byte, nu gi tin voice cng ch khong 40 byte th hon ton khng hiu qu, kch thc gi tin ln nht c th trong mi trng Ethernet l 1500 byte, dng 40 byte cho header cn li 1460 byte c th s dng cho phn d liu thoi, tng ng vi 1460 mu(samples) khng c nn hay thi gian t phn d liu vo gi tin. Nu gi b mt nhiu hay n ch khng ng th t s lm cho cuc thoi b ngt qung. Thng thng, cn khong 10us n 30 us (trung bnh l 20us) t d liu thoi vo bn trong gi tin, v d phn d liu thoi(voice data) v kch thc 160 byte khng nn cn khong 20us t phn d liu thoi vo bn trong gi tin. S lng d liu thoi bn trong gi tin cn cn bng gia s hiu qu trong s dng bng thng v cht lng ca cuc thoi.

2.

Cc nhn t nh hng n cht lng thoi Trn VoIP.


Cht lng ca m thanh c khi phc qua mng in thoi l mc tiu c bn ca dch v, mc d cc ch tiu chun c ITU pht trin. C 3 nhn t c th nh hng su sc ti cht lng ca dch v thoi:
2.1

Tr:

Hai vn gy ra bi s tr u cui trong mt mng thoi l ting vang v chng ting. Ting vang tr thnh vn khi tr vt qu 50 ms. y l mt vn cht lng ng k, nn cc h thng VoIP phi kim sot v cung cp cc phng tin loi b ting vang. Hin tng chng ting (ging ngi ny gi ln

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VOIP
ging ngi kia) tr nn ng k nu tr mt chiu (one-way delay) ln hn 250 ms.
2.2

S bin thin tr (Jitter ):

Jitter l s bin thin thi gian tr gy nn bi s tr ng truyn khc nhau trn mng. Loi b jitter i hi thu thp cc gi v gi chng lu cho php cc gi chm nht n c pht li (play) ng th t, lm cho s tr tng ln.
2.3

Mt gi:

Mng IP khng th cung cp mt s bo m rng cc gi tin s c chuyn ti ch ht. Cc gi s b loi b khi qu ti v trong thi gian tc nghn. Truyn thoi rt nhy cm vi vic mt gi, tuy nhin, vic truyn li gi ca TCP thng khng ph hp. Cc cch tip cn c s dng b li cc gi mt l thm vo cuc ni chuyn bng cch pht (play) li gi cui cng, v gi i thng tin d. Tuy th, s tn tht gi trn 10% ni chung l khng chp nhn c. S duy tr cht lng thoi chp nhn c bt chp s thay i trong hot ng ca mng (nh tc nghn hay mt kt ni) t c nh nhng k thut nh nn ting, trit im lng . Mt s s pht trin trong nhng nm 90, nht l trong x l tn hiu s, cc chuyn mch mng cht lng cao c phi hp h tr v khuyn khch cng ngh thoi trn mng d liu. Qu trnh tin x l bng phn mm ca cuc in m cng c th c s dng ti u ho cht lng m thanh. Mt k thut, c goi l trit im lng, s xc nh mi khi c mt khong trng trong li thoi v loi b s truyn cc khong ngh, hi th, v cc khong im lng khc. iu c th ln ti 50-60% thi gian ca mt cuc gi, gip tit kim bng tn ng k. Bi l s thiu cc gi c hiu l s im lng hon ton u ra, mt chc nng khc c yu cu u nhn b sung cc ting ng u ra
3.

Cc giao thc ca VoIP (VoIP protocols).


VoIP cn 2 loi giao thc : Signaling protocol v Media Protocol. Signaling Protocol iu khin vic ci t cuc gi. Cc loi signaling protocols bao gm: H.323, SIP, MGCP, Megaco/H.248 v cc loi giao thc dng ring nh UNISTIM, SCCP, Skype, CorNet-IP,

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Media Protocols: iu khin vic truyn ti voice data qua mi trng mng IP. Cc loi Media Protocols nh: RTP ( Real-Time Protocol) ,RTCP (RTP control Protocol) , SRTP (Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol), v SRTCP (Secure RTCP). Signaling Protocol nm tng TCP v cn tin cy cao, trong khi Media Protocol nm trong tng UDP. Cc nh cung cp c th s dng cc giao thc ring hay cc giao thc m rng da trn nn ca 1 trong 2 giao thc tiu chun quc t l H.323 v SIP. V d Nortel s dng giao thc UNISTIM (Unified Network Stimulus) Cisco s dng giao thc SCCP ( Signaling Connection Control Part) Nhng giao thc ring ny gy kh khn trong vic kt ni gia cc sn phm ca cc hng khc nhau.
3.1

B giao thc H.323 :

H.323: l giao thc c pht trin bi ITU-T ( International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector). H.323 phin bn 1 ra i vo khong nm 1996 v 1998 phin bn th h 2 ra i. H.323 ban u c s dng cho mc ch truyn cc cuc hi thoi a phng tin trn cc mng LAN, nhng sau H.323 tin ti tr thnh 1 giao thc truyn ti VoIP trn th gii. Giao thc ny chuyn i cc cuc hi thoi voice, video, hay cc tp tin v cc ng dng a phng tin cn tng tc vi PSTN. L giao thc chun, bao trm cc giao thc trc nh H.225,H.245, H.235,
Cc thnh phn hot ng trong giao thc H.323: c 4 thnh phn : Terminal: l 1 PC hay 1 IP phone ang s dng giao thc H.323 Gateway: L cu ni gia mng H.323 vi cc mng khc nh SIP, PSTN,Gateway ng vai tr chuyn i cc giao thc trong vic thit lp v chm dt cc cuc gi, chuyn i cc media format gia cc mng khc nhau. GateKeeper: ng vai tr l nhng im trung tm ( focal points) trong m hnh mng H.323. Cc dch v nn s quyt nh vic cung cp a ch (addressing),phn pht bng thng (bandwidth),cung cp ti khon, thm nh quyn ( authentication) cho cc terminal v gateway Mutipoint control unit (MCU): h tr vic hi thoi a im (conference)cho cc my terminal ( 3 my tr ln )trong mng H.323

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Phng thc hot ng ca H.323 network: Khi 1 phin kt ni c thc hin, vic dch a ch (address translation) s c 1 gateway m nhn. Khi a ch IP ca my ch c xc nhn, 1 kt ni TCP s c thit lp t a ch ngun ti ngi nhn thng qua giao thc Q.931 ( l 1 phn ca b giao thc H.323). bc ny, c 2 ni u tin hnh vic trau i cc tham s bao gm cc tham s m ho ( encoding parameters) v cc thnh phn tham s lin quan khc. Cc cng kt ni v phn pht a ch cng c cu hnh. 4 knh RTCP v RTP c kt ni, mi knh c 1 hng duy nht. RTP l knh truyn d liu m thanh (voice data) t 1 thc th sang 1 thc th khc. Khi cc knh c kt ni th d liu m thanh s c pht thng qua cc knh truyn ny thng qua cc RTCP instructions.

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VOIP

3.2

B giao thc SIP.

SIP: (Session Initiation Protocol) c pht trin bi IETF ( Internet Engineering Task Force) MMUSIC ( Multiparty Multimedia Session Control) Working Group (theo RFC 3261). y l 1 giao thc kiu din k t ( text-based protocol_ khi client gi yu cu n Server th Server s gi thng tin ngc v cho Client), n gin hn giao thc H.323. N ging vi HTTP, hay SMTP. Gi tin (messages) bao gm cc header v phn thn ( message body). SIP l 1 giao thc ng dng ( application protocol) v chy trn cc giao thc UDP, TCP v STCP. Cc thnh phn trong SIP network : Cu trc mng ca SIP cng khc so vi giao thc H.232. 1 mng SIP bao gm cc End Points, Proxy, Redirect Server, Location Server v Registrar. Ngi s dng phi ng k vi Registrar v a ch ca h. Nhng thng tin ny s c lu tr vo 1 External Location Server. Cc gi tin SIP s c gi thng qua cc Proxy Server hay cc Redirect Server. Proxy Server da vo tiu to trn gi tin lin lc vi server cn lin lc ri gi cc pacckets cho my ngi nhn. Cc redirect server ng thi gi thng tin li cho ngi gi ban u.

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VOIP

Phng thc hot ng ca SIP network : SIP l m hnh mng s dng kiu kt ni 3 hng ( 3 way handshake method) trn nn TCP. V d trn, ta thy 1 m hnh SIP gm 1 Proxy v 2 end points. SDP ( Session Description Protocol) c s dng mang gi tin v thng tin c nhn ( v d nh tn ngi gi) . Khi Bob gi 1 INVITE cho proxy server vi 1 thng tin SDP. Proxy Server s a yu cu ny n my ca Alice. Nu Alice ng , tn hiu OK s c gi thng qua nh dng SDP n Bob. Bob phn ng li bng 1 ACK _ tin bo nhn. Sau khi ACK c nhn, cuc gi s bt u vi giao thc RTP/RTCP. Khi cuc in m kt thc, Bob s gi tn hiu Bye v Alice s phn hi bng tn hiu OK. Khc vi H.232, SIP khng c c ch bo mt ring. SIP s dng c ch thm nh quyn ca HTTP ( HTTP digest authentication), TLS, IPSec v S/MIME ( Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) cho vic bo mt d liu.
3.3

MGCP v Megaco/H.248.
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VOIP
MGCP ( Media Gateway Control Protocol) c s dng lin lc gia cc thnh phn ring l ca 1 VoIP gateway tch ri. y l 1 protocol c b sung cho 2 giao thc SIP v H.323. Vi MGCP, MGC server c kh nng qun l cc cuc gi v cc cuc m thoi di s h tr ca cc dch v ( services). MGCP l 1 giao thc master/slave vic cc rng buc cht ch gia MG ( end point) v MGC ( server ). MEGACO/H.248 : (cn c gi l Gate way Control Protocol) C ngun gc t MGCP v c s dng rng ri trong ngnh cng nghip. S pht trin MEGACO/H.248 bao gm vic h tr a phng tin v cc dch v hi thoi nng cao a im ( multipoint conferencing enhanced services ) , cc c phplp trnh c nng cao nhm tng hiu qu cho cc tin trnh m thoi, h tr c vic m ho text v binary v thm vo vic m rng cc nh ngha cho cc packets. Megaco a ra nhng c cu bo mt ( security mechanisms) trong cc c cu truyn ti c bn nh IPSec. H.248 i hi s thc thi y ca giao thc H.248 kt hp s b sung ca IPSec khi h iu hnh (OS) v mng truyn vn ( transport network) c h tr IPSec.

My gi gi mt tn hiu mi My c gi gi tr mt thng tin hi p 100 Th. Khi my c gi bt u chung, mt tn hiu hi p 180 chung c gi tr Khi bn gi nhc my, my c gi gi mt tn hiu hi p 200 - OK My gi hi p vi ACK tip nhn = Xc nhn yu cu INVITE Lc ny cuc gi ch thc c truyn di dng d liu thng qua RTP Khi ngi gi dp my, mt yu cu BYE c gi n cho my gi My gi phn hi vi tn hiu 200 - OK.

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VOIP CHNG III: TNH BO MT V HNG KHC PHC


1.

Tnh bo mt ca VoIP.

VoIP c a vo s dng rng ri khi cng ngh tch hp ging ni v d liu pht trin. Do s dng chung cc thnh phn thit b chung vi mi trng truyn d liu mng ( data network), VoIP cng chu chung vi cc vn v bo mt vn c ca mng data. Nhng b giao thc mi dnh ring ca VoIP ra i cng mang theo nhiu vn khc v tnh bo mt. Nghe ln cuc gi ( EavesDropping of phone conversation): Nghe ln qua cng ngh VoIP cng c nguy c cao do c nhiu node trung gian trn ng truyn gia 2 ngi nghe v ngi nhn. K tn cng c th nghe ln c cuc gi bng cch tm ly cc gi tin IP ang lu thng qua cc node trung gian. C kh nhiu cng c min ph v c ph kt hp vi cc card mng h tr ch pha tp ( promiscuous mode) gip thc hin c iu ny nh Cain&Abel, Ethreal, VoMIT Truy cp tri php ( Unauthorized access attack) : K tn cng c th xm phm cc ti nguyn trn mng do nguyn nhn ch quan ca cc admin. Nu cc mt khu mc nh ca cc gateway v switch khng c i th k tn cng c th li dng xm nhp. Cc switch c vn cn dng Telnet truy cp t xa, v clear-text protocol c th b khai thc 1 khi k tn cng c th sniff c cc gi tin. Vi cc Gateway hay switch s dng giao din web server (web server interface) cho vic iu khin t xa ( remote control) th k tn cng c th tm cc gi tin HTTP trong mng ni b ly cc thng tin nhy cm ny th k tn cng cn c th s dng k thut ARP cache poisoning tm ly cc gi tin ang lu chuyn trong 1 mng ni b Caller ID spoofing :Caller ID l 1 dch v cho php user c th bit c s ca ngi gi n. Caller ID spoofing l k thut mo danh cho php thay i s ID ca ngi gi bng nhng con s do user t ra. So vi mng in thoi truyn thng, th vic gi mo s n thoi VoIP d hn nhiu, bi c kh nhiu cng c v website cho php thc hin iu ny, v d nh www.spooftel.com,www.telespoof.com, www.callnotes.net,www.spoofcard.com.

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VOIP
2.

Hng khc phc v bin php gii quyt.

Vic m ho cc gi tin theo cng ngh IPSec s gip trnh c cc cuc nghe ln. Cng ngh SRTP ang dn thay th cho RTP bo v cc tn hiu m thanh v hnh nh lu thng trn mng i vi Gateway v switch, cng ngh SSH nn c thay th cho clear-text protocol, v HTTPs nn c dng thay cho HTTP, v tt nht l cc mt khu mc nh nn c thay i mt khi h thng c trin khai. Vic nng cp h thng nh k cng nn c xem xt mt cch chnh ng. M hnh mng trong cng ty c s dng VoIP cn phi c xem xt. Vn tt nht c th lm l phn chia cc my s dng VoIP v data ra lm 2 mng khc nhau. i vi cc voice gateway ( ni c s ni ghp gia PSTN v IP ) cn phi chn cc gi SIP, H.323 hoc bt c gi d liu no c gi n t mng data. Vic m ho cc gi tin ti Router v Gateway s dng IPSec l 1 la chn tt cho vic bo mt. Khng nn s dng Softphone khi m vn v virus v worm ang mt ngy mt ng quan tm. Lin tc nng cp phn mm Nu hng phn mm cung cp cc bn v cho h iu hnh th bn nn ci t chng ngay lp tc. Vic s ngn chn c cc tn cng ang li dng yu im trong l hng phn mm. . S dng v cp nht phn mm chng virus Phn mm chng virus c th nhn ra v bo v my tnh chng li cc virus c nh ngha. Mc d vy k tn cng lun tm mi cch vit ra cc virus mi, chnh v vy bn phi thng xuyn cp nht phn mm virus . Tn dng trit cc ty chn bo mt Nhiu nh cung cp c th cung cp dch v cho php m ha. Nu cng vic ca bn lin quan n nhiu vn ring t v bo mt th cng nn cn nhc n cc ty chn c sn ny. Ci t v kch hot tng la Tng la c th ngn chn nhiu kiu xm nhp bng vic kha lu lng nguy him trc khi chng xm nhp vo my tnh ca bn. nh gi cc thit lp bo mt C my tnh ca bn v cc thit b/phn mm VoIP cung cp nhiu tnh nng khc nhau c th trang b cho yu cu ca bn. Mc d vy, vic cho php cc tnh nng c th c th li cho bn nhiu l hng d b tn cng. V vy v hiu ha mt s tnh nng nu bn cm thy khng
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VOIP
cn thit. Kim tra cc thit lp ca bn, thit lp bo mt ring v chn cc ty chn m bn cn trnh mang li nhng ri ro khng ng c.

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