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everyone (vri un) = everybody (vri bdi) - todos/as, todo el mundo no one (nuan) = nobody (nubdi) - nadie someone

(smoan) = somebody (sm-bdi) - alguien anyone (ni uan) = anybody (ni bdi) - alguien -al preguntaranyone (ni uan) = anybody (ni bdi) - cualquiera -al afirmaranyone (ni uan) = anybody (ni bdi) - nadie -al negareverything (vri zing) - todo nothing (nzing) - nada something (sm zing) - algo anything (ni zing) - algo -al preguntaranything (ni zing) - cualquier cosa -al afirmaranything (ni zing) - nada -al negarEVERYONE (VRI UN) = EVERYBODY (VRI BDI) - TODOS/AS, TODO EL MUNDO

Everyone went to the party. Todos fueron a la fiesta. Everybody was dancing and singing. Todo el mundo estaba bailando y cantando. Everyone has problems. Todo el mundo tiene problemas.

NO ONE (NU UAN) = NOBODY (NUBDI) - NADIE


The service was bad, but no one complained. El servicio era malo pero nadie se quej. Nobody understands me. Nadie me entiende. I know nobody here. No conozco a nadie aqu.

SOMEONE (SMOAN) = SOMEBODY (SM-BDI) ALGUIEN


Someone arrived when I was going out. Alguien lleg cuando yo estaba saliendo. There is somebody at the door. Hay alguien en la puerta. Somebody tripped and everyone started laughing. Alguien se tropez y todos comenzaron a rerse.

ANYONE (NI UN) = ANYBODY (NI BDI) - ALGUIEN -AL PREGUNTAR

Does anyone speak Spanish? Alguien habla espaol? Is there anybody in the building? Hay alguien en el edificio?

Has anyone passed the test? Alguien ha pasado la prueba?

ANYONE (NI UN) = ANYBODY (NI BDI) - CUALQUIERA -AL AFIRMAR

With a little effort, anybody can become rich. Con un poco de esfuerzo, cualquiera puede volverse rico. Anyone who arrives late will be fired. Cualquiera que llegue tarde ser despedido. This is a book for anyone that loves poetry. ste es un libro para cualquiera que guste de la poesa.

ANYONE (NI UN) = ANYBODY (NI BDI) - NADIE -AL NEGAR

I don't know anybody in this city. No conozco a nadie en esta ciudad. The police searched the house but didn't find anybody. Los policas revisaron la casa pero no encontraron a nadie. They haven't invited anyone to their party yet. Ellos no han invitado a nadie a su fiesta an.

EVERYTHING (VRI ZING) TODO Everything was ready for the wedding. Todo estaba listo para la boda. It is impossible to know everything. Es imposible saber todo. I heard everything they said. O todo lo que ellos dijeron.

NOTHING (NZING) - NADA


He thinks that nothing is impossible. El piensa que nada es imposible. I can do nothing about your problem. No puedo hacer nada acerca de tu problema. The explanation was clear, but they understood nothing. La explicacin fue clara, pero ellos no entendieron nada.

SOMETHING (SM ZING) - ALGO


Something was wrong with the car. Algo estaba mal con el auto. Do you have something to eat? Tienes algo para comer? I want to tell you something. Quiero decirte algo.

ANYTHING (NI ZING) - ALGO -AL PREGUNTAR-

Did you say anything? Dijiste algo? Did they find anything interesting? Encontraron ellos algo interesante? Have I done anything wrong? He hecho algo malo?

ANYTHING (NI ZING) - CUALQUIER COSA -AL AFIRMAR

You can eat anything you wish. Puedes comer cualquier cosa que desees. Anything you say can be used against you. Cualquier cosa que digas puede ser usada en tu contra. They will do anything you want. Ellos harn cualquier cosa que t quieras.

ANYTHING (NI ZING) - NADA -AL NEGAR

I don't understand anything you say. No entiendo nada de lo que dices. I don't want to eat anything now. I'm not hungry. No quiero comer nada ahora. No tengo hambre. She doesn't remember anything about the accident. Ella no se acuerda nada acerca del accidente. Pronombr Adjetivo Pronombr Pronombres es s es Reflexivos Acusativo Posesiv Posesivos s os me you him her it us you them my your his her its our your their mine yours his hers -ours yours theirs myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

Pronombres Personales

I You He She It We You They

Pronombres Indefinidos everybody nobody somebod anybody y someone anyone somethin anything g

everyone everything

no one nothing

SOME, ANY + -BODY / -ONE, + -THING, + -WHERE The compounds of some and any behave in the same way as some and any, that is to say, some-, in affirmative sentences and, any-, in negatives and questions, although we use some- in the interrogative to offer something, to ask for something or when we expect a positive response, as we saw in the previous unit. Examples: I saw somebody there. I did not see anybody there. Did you see anybody there? Would you like something better? Instead of I did not see anybody there, we can say I saw nobody there, but we cannot use two negative words: *I did not see nobody there. Anybody, nobody and somebody mean the same as anyone, no-one and nobody respectively. No-one can also be written no one. Any can also mean "every" or "it does not matter which / who": You can take any pencil. Anybody can do it. It's very easy. Let's see the following examples to end with: Somebody told me you were abroad. Nobody came to the meeting. Was there anybody in the house? I want something to eat.

I don't need anything. I need nothing. Would you like something to drink? Is there anything in that drawer? I want to go somewhere else. I didn't go anywhere. I went nowhere. Have you seen my car keys anywhere? SOMETHING, ANYTHING, SOMEONE, ANYONE, SOMEWHERE, ANYWHERE

Put in something, someone, somewhere or anything, anyone, anywhere into the gaps. Example: I need _________ to drink. Answer: I need something to drink.

1) I've got 2) There is

in my eye. at the door.

3) We haven't heard 4) Do you live 5)


about Peter. Is he ill?

near Mandy?

wants to see you.

6) Has

seen my bag?

7) My teacher asked me 8) Can I have

to drink?

9) Don't worry. this town is. 10) I don't know

can tell you where the post-office in

about it.

SAY/TELL
say - decir tell - decir The verb "tell" must be used with an object (the person to whom it was told). It is not usually used with direct quotes.
Word Explanation Example

to say something (say is followed immediately by a Andrew said that he was right. noun clause) say If you want to put a personal object after say, use He said to his father that he was right. the word to. to tell someone something (tell is followed by an object noun or pronoun)

tell

Can you tell me the way to the station, please?

He told me your name. (The object in this sentence is "me.") Expressions with tell tell a secret - decir un secreto tell the truth - decir la verdad tell a lie - decir una mentira tell a story - contar una historia tell a joke - contar un chiste The verb "say" can be used with direct quotes with or without an object, but if an object is used, you must first put the word "to." I said, "Hi! My name's Janet." I said to him, "Hi! My name's Janet."
1 They said on the news that everyone survived. 2 Come on. Tell me everything. 3 You know what they say about Bankok, don't you? 4 Mummy! The teacher said a rude word in class today. 5 I hate the way she keeps telling me what to do. 6 Richie says the same thing over and over again. 7 What did you say to him? 8 What did you tell him? 9 He gave me his email address but he wouldn't say what his phone number was. 10 He wouldn't tell me his phone number. 11 I thought she was my friend until I found out she'd told all my secrets to everyone. 12 They say that John's really mean with money. 13 He told me I wasn't invited to the wedding. 14 She told me all about her holiday in Sicily. 15 I couldn't understand a word of what he was trying to say to me. 16 He told me this funny story about what happened to him on holiday. 17 He wouldn't say what the problem was.

GOOD OR WELL? Good is an adjective. It describes nouns or pronouns. It may be used with descriptive linking verbs like look, feel, sound, taste, or be to describe the subject.

Incorrect: The coffee tasted well this morning. Correct: The coffee tasted good this morning. Correct: The pitcher is looking good today. Well is normally an adverb. It describes verbs (sometimes adjectives) and is used with most other verbs. Well as an adjective means "healthy." Incorrect: He pitches good. Correct: He pitches well. Incorrect: I do not feel very good. Correct: I do not feel very well. (healthy) Good / Well - Exercise 3 For help with any item below, refer to the page on good / well. 1. The correct answer is good. How good was the concert last night? Your answer: good 2. The correct answer is well. Your answer: 3. The correct answer is well. She performed well on the test. Your answer: 4. The correct answer is good. Your answer: 5. Either good or well is correct. well). Your answer: 6. The correct answer is well. Whenever Jim wears that tie, he speaks well. Your answer: 7. The correct answer is well. The dinner at Antoine's was prepared well. Your answer: Whenever Jim wears that tie, he looks good (or Her performance on the test was good. How well did the cellist play at the concert last night?

8.

The correct answer is good. Your answer:

The dinner at Antoine's was good.

9. Either good or well is correct. good (or well) now. Your answer: 10.

Even though Joan was sick for a while, she seems

The correct answer is well. Joan is certainly taking care of herself well.

between is from an Old English word related to the word two. It denotes a position between two things: The guard stood between the door and the street. Just between you and me, Im surprised that a graduate of Yale wouldnt speak better English. The preposition among derives from an Old English word meaning to mix or to mingle. Use among when speaking about more than two things: We wandered among the poppies, looking for the road to Oz. Lets keep this information among ourselves. A common error is to use between where among is more appropriate: I was one of eight brothers. Our parents never made any difference between us. Better: Our parents never made any difference among us. 1. If my black shoes are not among those that are being repaired, I will wear them to the party. 2. The two sisters divided the proceeds between themselves. 3. I sat between my father and my mother 4. The girl quickly disappeared among the crowd. 5. among the four of us, I don't think there is one who can keep a secret! 6. If he has to choose between cake or pie, then he will choose pie every time 7. Children must attend school between the ages of 5 and 16. 8. Tom could hear voices coming from somewhere among the bushes. 9. We spent a lot of time travelling between London and Cambridge. 10. Terry relaxed, knowing he was among friends.

EL APSTROFO

(') despus del sustantivo y agregamos una "s". (Antes esta forma se empleaba slo para personas o animales, pero ahora es extensiva a cualquier sustantivo).

John's car. El auto de John. Claudia's house. La casa de Claudia. The dog's food. La comida del perro. The cat's toys. Los juguetes del gato. The company's president. El presidente de la compaa. Someone's property. La propiedad de alguien.

Today's world. El mundo de hoy.

Cuando el sustantivo plural termina en s, agregamos solamente el apstrofo.


The dogs' food. La comida de los perros. The cats' toys. Los juguetes de los gatos. The actresses' dressing rooms. Los camarines de las actrices. My parents' house. La casa de mis padres.

- Pero, si el sustantivo que termina en s es singular, agregamos 's.


Doris's job. El trabajo de Doris. Carlos's house. La casa de Carlos.

Muchas veces se omiten los sustantivos despus del posesivo cuando stos significan edificios o moradas.

I was at my grandparents'. Estuve en (casa) de mis abuelos. We went to John's. Fuimos a la (casa) de John. We visited St. Peter's in Rome. Visitamos (la catedral) de San Pedro en Roma.

Con sustantivos mltiples: - Si poseen algo conjuntamente, generalmente se agrega 's al final de ellos.

John, Sandra and Claudia's nationality. La nacionalidad de Juan, Sandra y Claudia. Bill and Sally's apartment. El departamento de Bill y Sally.

- Si estos poseen algo en forma separada, se agrega 's a cada uno de ellos.

John's, Sandra's and Claudia's nationalities. Las nacionalidades de Juan, Sandra y Claudia. Bill's and Sally's apartments. Los departamentos de Bill y Sally. ADJECTIVE SOUNDS

Sound - Sonido

loud (lud) - alto; fuerte soft (soft) - suave quiet (kuiet) - suave faint (fint) - dbil, bajo audible (dibl) - audible mute (mit) - mudo hoarse (hrs) - ronco inaudible (indibl) - inaudible silent (silent) - silencioso deafening (dfning) - ensordecedor noisy (nisi) - ruidoso deaf (def) - sordo shrill (shril) - agudo, chilln melodic (mildic) meldico FRUITS almonds (monds) - almendras apple (pl) - manzana apricot (pricot) - damasco, albaricoque avocado (avocdou) - palta, aguacate Banana (banna) - banana blackberry (blk brri) - zarzamora cherry (chrri) - cereza chestnuts (chstnats) - castaas coconuts (kukonats) - cocos date (dit) - dtil fig (fig) - higo grapefruit (gripfrut) - pomelo, toronja grapes (grips) - uvas hazelnuts (hizelnats) - avellanas lemon (lmon) - limn lime (lim) lima mango (mngou) - mango medlar (mdlar) - nspero melon (mlon) - meln mulberry (mlberri) - mora orange (rendch) - naranja peach (pich) - durazno, melocotn peanuts (pnats) - manes pear (par) - pera pineapple (pinpl) - anan, pia plum (plam) - ciruela

pomegranate (pmigranit) - granada quince (kuns) - membrillo raspberry (rsp-brri) - frambuesa seed (sid) - semilla strawberry (strberri) - frutilla, fresa tangerine (tndcherin) - mandarina walnuts (wlnats) - nueces watermelon (wtermlon) - sanda