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Tng quan v mng GSM : Ch GSM c vit tt t (Global System for Mobile Communications) tuy nhin nguyn thu ca n l : Groupe Spcial Mobile. y l mt trong nhng cng ngh v mng in thoi di ng ph bin nht trn th gii. Cho n nay cng ngh ny c gn 2 t thu bao s dng trn phm vi 212 quc gia v vng lnh th. Do n hu nh c mt khp mi ni trn th gii nn khi cc nh cung cp dch v thc hin vic k kt roaming vi nhau nh m thu bao GSM c th d dng s dng my in thoi GSM ca mnh bt c ni u. Mt thun li to ln ca cng ngh GSM l ngoi vic truyn m thanh vi cht lng cao cn cho php thu bao s dng cc cch giao tip khc r tin hn l tin nhn SMS. Ngoi ra to thun li cho cc nh cung cp dch v th cng ngh GSM c xy dng trn c s h thng m nn n d dng kt ni cc thit b khc nhau t cc nh cung cp thit b khc nhau. N cho php nh cung cp dch v a ra tnh nng roaming cho thu bao ca mnh vi cc mng khc trn ton th gii. V cng ngh GSM cng pht trin thm cc tnh nng truyn d liu nh GPRS v sau ny truyn vi tc cao hn h s dng EGDE.

Logo ca cng ngh GSM. II. Lch s mng GSM Vo u nhng nm 1980 ti chu u ngi ta pht trin mt mng in thoi di ng ch s dng trong mt vi khu vc. Sau vo nm 1982 n c chun ho bi (CEPT : European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations) v to ra Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) vi mc ch s dng chung cho ton Chu u. Mng in thoi di ng s dng cng ngh GSM c xy dng v a vo s dng u tin bi nh khai thc Radiolinja Finland. Vo nm 1989 cng vic qun l tiu chun v pht trin mng GSM c chuyn cho vin vin thong chu u (European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)), cc tiu chun, c tnh phase 1 ca cng ngh GSM c cng b vo nm 1990. n cui nm 1993 c hn 1 triu thu bao s dng mng GSM ca 70 nh cung cp dch v trn 48 quc gia. III. Giao tip Radio GSM l mng in thoi di ng do cc my in thoi di ng kt ni vi mng bng cch tm kim, kt ni vi cc cell gn n nht. Cc mng di ng GSM hot ng trn 4 bng tn. Hu ht th hot ng bng 900Mhz v 1800Mhz. Vi nc Chu M th s dng bng 850Mhz v 1900Mhz do bng 900Mhz v 1800Mhz ni ny b s dng trc. V cc k him c mng no s dng tn s 400Mhz hay 450Mhz ch c Scandinavia s dng do cc bng tn khc b cp pht cho vic khc. Cc mng s dng bng tn 900Mhz th ng uplink s dng tn s trong di 890915 MHz v ng downlink s dng tn s trong di 935-960 MHz. H chia cc bng tn ny thnh 124 knh vi rng bng thng 25Mhz, mi knh cch nhau 1 khong 200Khz. S dng cng ngh phn chia theo thi gian TDM (Time division multiplexing ) chia ra 8 knh full rate hay 16 knh haft rate . C 8 khe thi gian gp li gi thnh mt khung TDMA. Tc truyn d liu ca mt knh l 270.833 kbit/s v khong thi gian ca mt khung l 4.615 m. Cng sut pht ca my in thoi c gii hn ti a l 2 watts i vi bng GSM

850/900Mhz v ti a l 1 watts i vi bng GSM 1800/1900Mhz. Mng GSM s dng 2 kiu m ho m thanh nn tn hiu m thanh 3,1khz l m ho 6 v 13kbps gi l Full rate (13kbps) v haft rate (6kbps). nn h s dng h thng c tn l linear predictive coding (LPC). Vo nm 1997 th h ci tin thm cho mng GSM l b m GSM-EFR s dng full rate 12,2kbps. C tt c bn kch thc cell site trong mng GSM l macro, micro, pico v umbrella. Vng ph sng ca mi cell ph thuc nhiu vo mi trng. Macro cell c lp trn ct cao hoc trn cc to nh cao tng, micro cell li c lp cc khu thnh th, khu dn c, pico cell th tm ph sng ch khong vi chc mt tr li n thng c lp tip sng trong nh. Umbrella lp b sung vo cc vng b che khut hay cc vng trng gia cc cell. Bn knh ph sng ca mt cell tu thuc vo cao ca anten, li anten thng th n c th t vi trm mt ti vi chc km. Trong thc t th kh nng ph sng xa nht ca mt trm GSM l 32km ( 22 dm). Mt s khu vc trong nh m cc anten ngoi tri khng th ph sng ti nh nh ga, sn bay, siu thth ngi ta s dng cc trm Pico chuyn tip sng t cc anten ngoi tri vo. IV. Cu trc mng Cu trc chung mt mng GSM. Mt mng GSM cung cp y cc dch v cho khch hang cho nn n kh phc tp v vy sau y s chia ra thnh cc phn nh sau : - Trm gc v cc phn iu khin n Base Station Subsystem (BSS). - Mng v h thng chuyn mch Network and Switching Subsystem (phn ny gn ging vi mng in thoi c nh). i khi ngi ta cn gi n l mng li (core network). - Phn mng GPRS (GPRS core network) Phn ny l mt phn lp thm cung cp dch v truy cp internet. - V mt s phn khc phc v vic cung cp cc dch v cho mng GSM nh gi, hay nhn tin SMS - My in thoi - Mobile Equipment . - Th SIM - Subscriber identity module