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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

LIBRARY

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


For Spanish- speaking Students
BY
F. Head of the Department

COLLEY

SPARKMAN,
of

Ph.D.

Modern Languages,

University of Wyoming; Formerly Professor of English and French, University of Cuzco, Peru

D.

C.

HEATH AND COMPANY


NEW YORK
SAN FRANCISCO
CHICAGO DALLAS

BOSTON ATLANTA

LONDON

4 iSd.a4:

Copyright, 1928, By
D. C. Heath and Company

All rights reserved

2C8
Es propiedad. Queda hecho
el
el

dep6sito y

correspondiente registro que ordena la

Gran Bretana para la protecci6n de esta obra en aquel y en todos los palses que firmaron el Tratado de Berna.
ley en la

TO

WHOSE FAITH TO PASS THROUGH DEEP WATERS

MY MOTHER IN ME HAS ENABLED ME

152459

Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive


in

2011

witii

funding from

LYRASIS

IVIembers and Sloan Foundation

http://www.archive.org/details/elementaryenglisOOspar

PREFACIO
Dos son
Reader:
los fines esenciales

de este Elementary English

(1) servir

que empiezan el de suplemento al Primer Curso de Ingles del mismo autor. Contiene el libro un capitulo preliminar sobre pronunciacion inglesa,

de texto para los alumnos de habla espanola aprendizaje de la lengua inglesa; (2) servir

una

rica

y variada

coleccion de trozos de lectura,


los

Unas caneiones bien conocidas por todos


inglesa,

ninos de habla

un apendice de

reglas gramaticales,

y un vocabulario

ingles-espafiol.

Los trozos de lectura van divididos en tres partes.

La

primera parte comprende cuentos, leyendas y tradiciones ingleses, y varios episodios de la colonizacion de los Estados

Unidos y de
los capitulos

la

vida de sus heroes principales.

Completan

de esta parte ejercicios de pronunciacion y de gramatica, destinados los primeros a ayudar a los alumla

dificultad con que segundos a servir de base de orientacion, ya para el dominio de los principios fundamentales de la gramatica inglesa, ya para su repaso. La segunda parte versa sobre los Estados Unidos: su

nos de habla espanola a veneer


tropiezan al estudiar
el

mayor
los

ingles,

historia, su gobierno, su desarrollo nacional, sus industrias,

su vida social, sus diversiones, sus escuelas, sus ideales.

La

tercera parte contiene trozos escogidos de la literatura

inglesa, clasica

y moderna,

sin distincion de origen,

pues

la

literatura inglesa es toda una,


Islas

ya haya sido producida en Britanicas, ya en Australia, ya en el Canada, ya en

las los

Estados Unidos.

VI

PREFACIO

Deseo hacer constar aqui mi reconocimiento a mi buen amigo y colega, el senor Frank M. Kercheville, por su refundicion de los cuentos de la primera parte de este libro; a mi esposa, Kathrine Wendelbo Sparkman, por la lectura y correccion de las pruebas, labor que realize concienzudamente y al
;

Padm, del cuerpo de redacci6n de la casa editorial D. C. Heath y Compaiiia, cuyo nombre deberia aparecer al lado del mio como co-autor de este libro, por no haber pagina donde el no hay a puesto su mano, y no ha puesto su mano en
senor Jose

ninguna parte del texto sino para mejorarlo.

CoLLEY
Laramie, Wyoming

F.

Sparkman

26 de octubre de 1927

INDICE DE MATERIAS
Prefacio

Indice de Materias

Indice de Grabados

......... ....... .......


.

PAGINAS
v-vi
vii-x
xi

Pronunciacion

The House that Jack Built


la

Ejerdcios de Pronunciacion:

-ed final, la s final Ejerdcios de Gramdtica:

tado,

tema

The Old Woman and the Pig


la s final, el

....... ......... .....


Las consonantes

.....*:
. .
. .
.

1-16

17-18
.19

finales,

La forma de

la pregunta, dic-

19-20

20-22
22

Ejerdcios de Pronundadon:

Vocales largas y breves,


.

sonido de d, I, n y t Ejerddos de Gramdtica: El uso del articulo indeterminado, las formas fundamentales de los verbos irregu. .
.

lares, cuestionario

.......
la b, el

23-24

The Three Bears


Ejerdcios de Pronundadon: El sonido de

24-25

de

la V, vocales largas y breves, el sonido de ed final Ejerddos de Gramdtica: La forma del verbo en la tercera persona de presente, el plural de los verbos, la forma de la
.

sonido

26

pregunta, dictado

The Blind Beggars and the Elephant

....... ....
la h, el

26-27

27-28
28-30

Ejerddos de Pronundadon: El sonido de

sonido

dewh
Ejerddos de Gramdtica: El orden de las palabras, la forma del gerundio, traducGi6n al espaiiol, el preterito y el continuativo pasado

Belling the Cat Ejerddos de Pronundadon:

division de palabras en silabas, los participios pasivos.

Ejerddos de Gramdtica: Traduccion,

el infinitivo, cuestionario

........ ......
Las consonantes
el

.......
vii

30

31-33
33-34

finales,

participio pasivo

34-35

VIU

INDICE DE MATERIAS

King Alfred and the Cakes

.....
c,

PAGINAS

35-36
37

Ejercidos de Pronunciacion: El sonido de plural de los sustantivos, el sonido de la s Ejercidos de Gramdtica:

k,

j, el

preguntas en el en el tiempo preterito

El ap6strofo, la formacion de tiempo presente, la formaci6n de preguntas

The Spanish Explorers


dos de

Ejercidos de Pronundadon: Los sonidos de la


la g, letras dobles

Ejerddos de Gramdtica:
comparacion, cuestionario
Sir

Walter Raleigh
de la a

...... ...... ...... .......


.

'

37-38

38-40
40-41

i,

los soni-

El adjetivo y sus grados de

41-42

42-44
44-45
45-46

Ejerddos de Pronundadon: Diptongos y non-diptongos,


los sonidos
.

Ejerddos de Gramdtica:
posesivos de la

El apostrofo, los adjetivos tercera persona, modismos, cuestionario

Captain John Smith and Pocahontas Ejerddos de Pronundadon: Los sonidos de


finales

inacentuadas

Ejerddos de Gramdtica: La colocacion del adverbio, pronombres personales, dictado

The Pilgrims

....... ..... ........


la
e,
gf
.

....

46-48
48

vocales

48-50
50-53

Ejerddos de Pronundadon: El sonido de la d medial y final, el sonido de 6 y de dentro de la palabra, el sonido de


de la o Ejerddos de Gramdtica: than, of en comparaciones
la
V,

los sonidos

53-54
pasiva, el uso de as, so,

Benjamin Franklin Ejerddos de Pronundadon: El acento

...... .......
La voz
el
.

54-55

55-57

tonico, la divisi6n

de palabras en silabas, maneras de escribir

sonido de

c,

f,lys
Ejerddos de Gramdtica: Traducci6n
reflexivos espanoles, verbos compuestos,

57
de ciertos
.
.

al ingles

George Washington
sonidos de
th,

Ejerddos de Pronundaddn:
nunciaci6n irregular

pronunciaci6n de ciertas particulas de pro61

....... .......
Los sonidos de
la u,

modismos

58
59-61

los

INDICE DE MATERIAS
los pronompronombre complemento usado como complemento directo o como complemento indirecto, el pronombre relativo

IX

Ejerdcios de Gramdtica:

La colocacion de

bres complementos, la forma del

Abraham Lincoln

.......
.....
.

.....

61-62 63-65

Ejerddos de Pronundadon: El sonido de t, d, k, g, p, b finales de silaba, combinaciones de consonantes, el sonido de la j y el sonido de la g seguida de una e o una i Ejerddos de Gramdtica: El uso del articulo indeterminado, el uso del articulo determinado, dictado

65

66 67-69 70-72 72-76 76-79 80-83 83-87 87-90 90-94 94-98 98-102 103-106 106-108 108-111 111-115 116-120 120-123
123

The Two Americas

Territorial Expansion of the United States The Government of the United States Development of Transportation Industries Sports and Amusements

Customs and Manners American Education American College Life Recent Economic Tendencies Liberty or Death, por Patrick Henry

The Bluebird, por John Burroughs Moses Makes a Bargain, por Oliver Goldsmith The Origin of Roast Pig, por Charles Lamb "Uncle Joe" Cannon's Death
Frozen Words, por Joseph Addison. Don't Give Up, por Phoebe Cary The Wind and the Moon, por George MacDonald The Ship of State, por Henry W. Longfellow When Icicles Hang by the Wall, por William Shakespeare Daffodils, por William Wordsworth An Anglo-Saxon's Prayer

123-125 125-126
126 127 127-128

Woman's Will, por John Godfrey Saxe


Riddle On the Vowels, por Jonathan Swift Riddle Riddle Limerick Tongue Twister
. .

..... ...... ..... ....


. .
.

128 128 129 129 129

130 130

INDICE DE MATERIAS
PAGrNAS

Tongue Twister

Apendice Selecciones Musicales NOTAS AL VOCABULARIO


VOCABXJLARIO Indice Alfabetico

...... .... ..... ....

130
.

131-142 143-154 155-156 157-224 225-228

INDICE DE GRABADOS
The The The The The
House that Jack Built Maiden all Forlorn Priest all Shaven and Shorn Old Woman and the Pig Blind Beggars and the Elephant King Alfred Allows the Cakes to Burn Ponce de Leon
.

..... .....
....

PAGINA
17

18 18 21

29

De
Sir

Soto's Discovery of the Mississippi

Walter Raleigh Queen Elizabeth of England

Captain John Smith Pocahontas Departure of the Pilgrims from Holland The First Thanksgiving Benjamin Franklin

George Washington Abraham Lincoln The White House

A Passenger Train of To-day New England Cotton Mills

....... ...... .... ...... ........ ..... ...... ...... ....... ....... ....
..... ..... .... ......
.

36 38 39 42 43 46 47
50 52

55
59
63

73

78 80
85
91

Athletic Exhibition Given by Public School Children OF Tacoma, Washington EvANSTON Township High School A Game of Football in the Yale Bowl, the Famous Athletic Field of Yale University

95
117

"Uncle Joe" Cannon

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


PRONUNCIACION
1.
a,
a,
i

Clave de los sonidos de las letras inglesas.


como ei en reina: tale,^ fate, may, pafn. (Igual a e.) mas abierto que la a en macho: fat, man, Sam. como la a en majo: calm, art, farm, harm, como ao en aojo: warm, tall, call, stall. (Igual a 6.) mds abierto que la a en capitiilo: fast, ask, a-las'. como ea en /ea; fare, bare, hazr, stazr. (Igual a e.) mds abierto que la o en soL' was, qual'ity.^ (Igual a 6.) como CM francesa en fleur: eoVlax, li'ar, beggar. (Igual a

a,
a, a, a, a,

a,
6, A.)
e,
e,

e,

I,

e,
e,

e,

como ii, en si id; be, mete, see, gede, re-fefve'. (Igual a i.) mds abierto que la e en del: met, ten, send, como ea en /ea; where, there, their, ere. (Igual a a.) como ei en reina: they, weigh, neigh. (Igual a a.) como eu francesa en fleur: her, fern, re-fer', bit'/en. (Igual a
o, u.)

a,

i,

i, i, i,
i,

como ai en baile: fine, life, wife, pipe. (Igual a y.) mds abierto que la i en 7nil: it, sin, sit, pig. (Igual a j^.) como ii en si id: po-lige, ma-rine, ma-ghine. (Igual a e.) como eu francesa en fleur: girl, sir, fir. (Igual a a, e, o, u.)
Los profesores no deberdn
exigir

un dominio completo de

los si-

guientes parrafos antes de comenzar las lecciones de lectura.


ejercicios

En

los

de pronunciacion de las lecciones se trata uno por uno cada pdrrafo, con abimdancia de ejemplos y de ejercicios que pondrd,n al alumno en condicion de pronunciar el ingles. Si se desea una discusion md,s detallada de la pronunciacion inglesa, veanse las pdginas 1-19 del Primer Curso de Ingles por Sparkman. 2 Las letras en bastardilla son mudas. ^ El signo ' indica que la silaba precedente debe acentuarse.
1

2
6,
6, 0,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


como ou en lo usa: lome, tone, moan, load. mds abierto que la o en sol: not, eop, box. (Igual a a.) como la u en tu: dp, to, two. (Igual a u, 6o.) como ao en aojo: form, for, storm, lord. (Igual a a.) mds abierto que la u en turco: wolf, bo'som. (Igual a u, como la e francesa en le: love, son, eome. (Igual a u.) como eu francesa en fleur: work, word, eol'or. (Igual

6,
p, 6,

ob.)

6,

a,

e,

u,
u,

u, u,
u,
y,
y,

como iu en viuda: tube, eube, pure, cure. (Igual a ew.) como la e francesa en le: tub, eup, nut, bun. (Igual a 6.) como la u en tu: rule, eru'el, juige, true. (Igual a o, do.) mfe abierto que la u en turco: full, bull, put. (Igual a o, ob.) como ezi francesa en fleur: urn, furl, eur'ly. (Igual a a, e, i, como at en baile: my, try, de-ny', mod'i-fy. (Igual a i.) mds abierto que la i en mil: lynch, ti'dy, mad'ly. (Igual

6.

i.

(Igual a u.) ew, como iu en viuda: few, new, re-view'. como oy en soy: boil, eoil, soil. (Igual a oy.) (Igual a p, u.) 65, como la u en tu: moo, moon, eoon, fool. (Igual a o, u.) do, md.s abierto que la u en turco: look, book.
oi,

ou,

como au en ausencia: fotmd, out, sound, notm. ow, como au en ausencia: down, town, how, elown. (Igual a oi.) oy, como oy en soy: boy, toy, eoy'ly. ua, como ue en suelo: per-suade', as-suage'.

(Igual a ow.

(Igual a ou.)

b,

mds

fuerte

que

la b

en bien, igual en todas

las posiciones: ba'bj^,

bob.

como la c en ca?na: eat, can, ae/ie, e/ia'os, to-bae'co. (Igual a k.) como la s en sino; sent, siv'il, gi-gar', ma-ghine'. (Igual a s.) (Vease arriba el sonido ch, como ch en chico: child, much, Dufch. excepcional de ch en ache y ma-ghine'.)
e,

5,

d, parecido a la d espailola, pero la lengua no toca los dientes incisivos. Tiene cierta semejanza a la r en pero: date, lad, tp-day'. (Igual a ph.) f, como la / en /amo; fate, fan, taf'/y. g, como la g en goto: gave, get, gun, leg, beg'p'ar.

como dch en id chicos: gem, gin, age, stage. (Igual a j.) como la/ enfaina: laugh, cough, toiigh. (Igual a f.) h, mds d6bil que la j en Juan: hate, ham, in-here'. (Igual a j, como dch en id chicos: jam, jump, joke, Jap, Jane. (Igual a c.) k, como qu en queso: keel, ken, king, peak, back. late, lad, let, call. 1, menos dental que la I en lino:
g,

gh,

g.)

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


m, como la m en mula: made, met, eame, gram, lamb. n, menos dental que la n en no: name, nest, tan, sin'ner. p, como la p en -poco: pale, pet, lap, dip'/>er. (Igual a f.) ph, como la. f en Jama: phase, phiz, phi-los'o-phy. qu, como cu en cuento: quake, queen, quick, quote. r, parecido a la r espanola, pero la punta de la lengua no toca ni
dientes ni
el

los

paladar: rafn, ran, rest, firm, dif'/er.

s, parecido a la s en sino, pero mas largo y mas tenso, y siempre claro y distinto: same, sad, seed, less, us, fus'^y. (Igual a g.) (Igual a z.) s, mas sonoro que la s en misnio: rose, use, goes. sh, como ch francesa en chic: she, sheep, ship, shop, shut. t, como la t espanola, pero la lengua no toca los dientes incisivos: tame, rat, mate, lat'fer. th, parecido a la d en enredo: them, that, with, fa'ther. th, como la c ceceosa de CastUla: thick, thought, truth. El labio inferior toca los incisivos superiores V, como una / sonora. mientras se pronuncia una v espaiiola: vale, van, have. w, como la u en hueste: want, will, work, west. X, como la x en exacto, o sea ks inglesa: box, ox'en, ex-tinct'. 5, como gz inglesa en begs: e?-ist', ej-on'er-ate, e-am'ple. y, como la y en ya: yes, yard, young, be-yond', Yiile. z, sonoro que la s en misjno: zest, buzz, ha'zy. (Igual a s.) wh, como ju en juez: what, when, where, while, which.

m^

Observadon: La dieresis se coloca sobre la e y la o para indicar que que precede a esta pertenece a otra sUaba. Este simbolo no se usa en el ingles moderno salvo en aqueUos casos donde la adicion de un prefijo junta dos vocales indenticas, como en reenter y cooperate. En
la vocal

estos casos la dieresis suele ser

operate ; se usa
2.

el

reemplazada por el guion: re-enter, coguion tambien para deshacer un diptongo eo-work'er.
:

Los dos sonidos de


la s espanola,

la c.

La c delante de e o

suena
la

como
c

pero en otras posiciones suena como

en cama:
cede, mige, fi-gar', gent, sell, eoat, eut, at' fie, to-bae'co,
3.

Los dos sonidos de

la g.

La g suena generalmente

como

la g en gato, pero si va delante de e o i en palabras de origen latino, tiene el sonido de la j inglesa:


gate, get, give, go, gun, beg,

gem, age, page, ge-61'o-gy.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

La s inglesa tiene dos soni4. Los dos sonidos de la s. dos distintos: la s sorda, o sea la s espanola, y la s sonora, o sea la z inglesa. Las dos s son siempre claras; nunca son absorbidas por otros sonidos. Con la excepcion de la m,
la

esta.

consonante que sigue a la s no influye en el sonido de En las reglas que siguen no se toma en cuenta el sonido de la s de los verdaderos prefijos mis- y dis-, el que
es

siempre una s espanola.


1.

La

s al principio de palabra suena

como

la s espanola:

sSt, see, sin, sold, shall, scan, spend, stun, swing, sys'tem.

Observacion:

La

sure'ly, sure'ty, in-sure', as-sure';

suena como sh en sure y en sus derivados: sure, tambien en su'gar.

2. La s junto a consonante (excepto la m) en de palabra suena como la s espanola

el

interior

rasp, first, trans'fer, mis'chfef, dis-prove', ab'so-lute, dis-pense'.

Observese:
prism, c/iasm, her'6-ism, e6'mi, lum'y, Ram'sey.

3.

La

s entre vocales suena:


la z inglesa:

(1)

Por regla general como

poi'sdn,

wise, u;hpse, rose, na'sal, daf'sy, de'serve, u'su-al, ea'i-lj^, sga's6n, mu-se'um, im-p5se', mu'sie. Observese: ease, base.

(2)
si

Hay

esta en contacto con

tendencia a pronunciarla como la s espanola una combinacion de vocales, pero

hay muchas excepciones:


loose, goose, geese,

moose, lease, mouse, grouse, $ose,

rS-sozn-fe'.

Ohsirvese:
chdoe, ase, pleae, re-ound'.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


(3)

En

los sustantivos

y en

los adjetivos

que tienen forma

igual a la del verbo, suena


tinguirlos de estos.

como la s espanola para disLa misma regla rige en los derivados:


di/-fuse' (difundido), di/-fuse'
{difundir);
{abiisar);
;

use a-buse
(grasa),

(mso),

use (usar);
a-buse'

'(ahiiso),

elose

(cer-ca),

close {cerrar); grease

(abusivo),

use'ful [util), us'ing {usando); a-bu'sive grease (engrasar) a-bused' (abusado); elose'ly {contiguamente) elos'ing (ce,

rrando).

4.

La

s final

suena:

(1)

Como
p,
t,

la s espanola si sigue a

una consonante sorda como una e muda:


^

k, f ,

no importa

si

interviene

eats, eaps, eapes, backs, puts, takes, bluffs, Jack's, Kate's,

(2)

Como
si

la z inglesa si sigue

a las otras consonantes,


^

no importa

interviene

una

muda:

cabs, beds, spades, begs, bells,


loves, Jo/m's, Dave's.

manes, Tom's, curs,

stirs,

halves,

(3)
is,

For regla general como

la z inglesa si sigue

a vocal:

has, as, was, goes, trees, bl6u;s, boys, news, ca'ges, dress'es,

Hen-ry's.
Observacion:
plus, pus, bus,

Las unicas excepciones son: us, this, yes, thus, gas, a-las' y las palabras terminadas en us inacentuada:

mi'nus, Je'sus, isf/z'mus, glo'ri-ous, fa'mous.


5.

La

ss se pronuncia

como

la s espanola:

miss, fuss, pass, kiss, pas'sage, con-fes'sion, ad-mis'sion.


'Observacion:

dissolve' {y sus derivados), pos-sess' {y sus derivados)


las unicas excepciones.

y des-sert' son

5.

Los dos sonidos de


tli)

la th.

El
la

(indicado asi:
^

suena como

la

sonido sonoro de th d en enredo. El sonido


consonante, se forma silaba

Si la s

no

se liga fdcilmente
la e

con
la s:

separada pronunciandose

con

grafe, gra'ges; maze, ma'zes;

stage, sta'ges; pledge, pled'ges.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


como
la
la z ceceosa
z

sordo de th (sin signo ortografico) suena

de Castilla, o sea una


dientes.
1.

pronunciada con

lengua entre los

La th sorda

es la

mas

corriente.

La th

al principio

de

la palabra: las

(1)

Es sonora solamente en

palabras siguientes y en

sus derivados:
the, this, tfeese, that, they,

them,

their,
:

than, then, thenge, there, thou, thy, thine, thee.

thou^/i, thus

y en

los

pronombres antiguos
los

(2)

Es sorda en

demas

casos:

thin, thick, throit;, throat, the'a-ter, thun'der, the-61'6-gy.

2.

La

th en

el interior

de la palabra:
la

(1)

Es sonora delante de

terminacion -er:

moth'er, broth'er, fa'ther, feath'er, leath'er, lath'er, oth'er, eith'er,


neith'er, fiir'ther, far'ther, rath'er, tp-geth'er.

(2)

Es sonora en
sus derivados:

las palabras

que terminan en e muda,

y en

bathe, breathe, lathe, loaSie, iweathe, tithe, urithe, soothe, scythe,


bath'ing, breathed, breath'ing, tith'ing, loath'ing.

(3)

Es sorda en

los

demas

casos:

be-troth'al, noth'ing, au'thor, eth'ies, worth'while, meth'od.

3.

La

th final de palabra es sorda:

both, tenth, health, wealth, tooth, teeth, myth, death.


Ohservacidn:

Las

linicas excepciones son:

with, smooth.

4.

Los plurales de
si

las

palabras terminadas en th retienen

el

sonido sordo

la vocal

precedente es breve;

pero

si

la

vocal precedente no es breve, cambian la th en th:


myth, myths; death, deaths; breath, breaths;
bdths; mouth, mouths; truth, truths; oath, oaths.
fifth,

fifths;

bath,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Observacidn:
otro sonido que se halla en palabra distinta.

Los sonidos ingleses no son modificados nunca por Ya se ha visto que la s en la misma se sonoriza si se halla entre vocales o en contacto con una palabra; pero esta infiuencia no rige entre palabras, como seria el caso en espanol, en es mio. La palabra, y no el grupo de palabras, es la unidad de pronunciacion en ingles.

6.

La pronunciacion de las consonantes


la

finales.

Casi
todas,

todas las palabras inglesas terminan en consonante

con

excepcion de la

final,

que es muda,

se

pronuncian

bien clara y distintamente


pafe, lafe,
if,

leaf,

huge, age,

ecfge, goal, peel,

eame, loam, dam,

lamp, ean, eone, loan, nor, bare, ear, her, sir, us, this, gas, yes, hive, eove, live, box, ox, haze, graze, to'paz, is, has, was.
2.

De

la

misma manera

se

pronuncian

las

muchas

silabas

que terminan en consonante:


peafe'ful, after, page'ing, oil'y, eom'pa-ny, hon'oT, mas'ter, lov'ing,

buz'zing, a-bus'er.
3. Las consonantes finales t, d, k, g, p, b, no se pronuncian Se pueden pronunciar cocon una explosion vocalica. rrectamente manteniendo la posicion de la lengua y conservando los labios bien cerrados hasta completar el sonido. Si se despegan los labios al pronunciar la p o la b, o si se

baja la lengua

al

pronunciar la

t,

la d, la k, o la g, se

produce

un sonido

incorrecto:

tap, cab, nag, lad, late, eake, lobe, back, vogue, eat'bird, mad'eap, ae'me, tab'let, ug'ly, up-town', back'ward, Oe-to'ber.

Observacidn: Si
silaba
oiria

t,

d, k, g,

hay que dar la explosion la segunda consonante:

p o b sigue a otra consonante en la misma vocdlica, porque de otro modo no se

told, bolt,

mask, rasp, begg'ed, berg, bulb, asked

(askt).

La terminacion ed, La pronunciacion de -ed. especial mente en los preteritos y en los participios, suena como sigue:
7.

8
1.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Como
t,

si

sigue a las consonantes sordas, ch,

f,

gh,

p, sh, ss:
la/ched, chaf/ed, lapped, hushed, lacked, missed, laughed
2.
r, V,
(laft).

Como
w, z:

d,

si

sigue a las consonantes sonoras, b, g,

m,

n,

stabbed, begp'ed, felZed, sunned, purred, loved, shouted, buzzed.


3.

Como

la silaba -ed,

solamente

si

sigue a la

o la d:

fit'fed,

ad'ded, whet'/ed, need'ed, ad-mit'^ed, point'ed.

los monosiconsonante final cuando esta va precedida de una sola vocal, pero las dos consonantes se pronuncian como si fueran una sola letra:
8.
1.

Consonantes dobles.
f,

Casi

todos
la

labos terminados en

s, 1,

c,

doblan

euff, puff,

miss, kiss,

all, ball, tall, tell, sell,

back, luck, brick, stick,

rock, block, deck.

Nota: was, has,

Hay

algunas excepciones; las


if.

mds

notables son:

us, as,

is,

this, yes, his, of (6v),

Observacion: Las consonantes finales no un diptongo o una combinaci6n de vocales:

se doblan

si

las

precede

hoof, leaf, sheaf, chief, beef, coal, goal, leak, speak, boys.
2.

En

los derivados,

y en toda palabra de mds de una


si

silaba estas consonantes se doblan

la silaba lleva el

acento

tonico;

pero

si

no, se escriben con


; ;

una

sola letra:
;

a-eross', Je'sus a-back', eom'ie fore-tell', bev'el back'ward, 6c-t6'ber; mor'al, in-stall'. Una excepci6n notable es un-til', y hay otras que tcrminan en el.
ful-fiir, skill'ful
dis-till', dev'il;

todas las palabras derivadas y en otras en que se dobla una consonante cualquiera para indicar que la vocal
3.

En

precedente es breve, no se pronuncia


de la silaba acentuada:
run'mng,
hot'^est,
tel'Zer,

mds que

la

consonante
eab'&age,

kit'/y,

mad'den,

aMack',

&s-sist', dif'/er-ent, bob'bin, pro-fes'sor, to-bae'co, Mis-5is-sip'/>i.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


4.

Si la

indicar
el

una vocal breve,

consonante doble se debe a otra causa que la de se pronuncian las dos prolongando

sonido de la primera:
soul'less, foul'ly, keen'ness, mis-state', out-trav'el.

9.

La pronunciacion de
tener
la

&, d,

Hay que
como
lo

mucho cuidado con

g dentro de la palabra. la pronunciacion de estas

consonantes dentro de

palabra.

Nunca son

fricativas

importa cual sea su posicion en la palabra, cada una conserva su sonido invariable en ingles. El aparato vocal se cierra por completo al pronunciarlas, pero no hay explosion vocalica cuando preceden a otra consonante:
son en espanol en estos casos.
ba'by, la'dy, lug'g'age, dad'c?y, eab'man, dog'wood, ug'ly, bob'bin,

No

bod'y, dog'^ed-ly, eode'book, lob'ster, lob'by, ta'ble.

10.

Division de las palabras en silabas.

Las

palabras

inglesas se dividen en silabas segiin las reglas siguientes:


1.

Los monosilabos, o sea

las palabras

que contienen una

sola vocal o diptongo

(excluyendo las mudas), nunca se

dividen
thoug-Zi,

stabbed, purred, boiled, late, passed, dip/>ed.


la

2.

Dos consonantes dentro de

palabra se

dividen

excepto cuando las dos forman un solo sonido:


pie'nie, chil'dren, pro-phet'ie, church'es, tab'let.

3. Una consonante entre vocales cierra primera vocal es breve y acentuada:

la

silaba

si

la

nev'er, eab'i-net, pres'ent, in-ev'it-able,


4.

be-nef i-gent.
el

Las vocales

largas,

las

breves que no llevan

acento

tonico, generalmente cierran la silaba:

me'di-um, A-mer'i-ea,

mi-nor'i-tj^, in-de-pend'ent, in-di-vid'u-al.

10
11.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


El acento tonico.
el

El acento tonico
radical:

(indicado en

el

vocabulario por
tuarse) cae

signo ' que sigue a la silaba que debe acensigue:

como

1.

Generalmente en

el

love'l^, use'less, un-kind', fish'er,

aMend',

ill'ness, a-eross'.

2.

En

las

palabras que terminan en ion,

al,

el,

ul, ity,

ify, ious,

nous, raphy, ogy, en la silaba que precede a estas

terminaciones
p6-si'tion, eon-fu'sion, 6-pm''ion, char'i-ty, pos-si-bil'i-ty, typ'i-fy,
elas'si-fy, pho-tog'ra-phy, ge-og'ra-phy, ge-ol'o-gy.

3.

En

la

sustantivo
ae-gent'
(objeto);

si

ultima silaba del verbo y en la penultima del los dos tienen la misma forma:
ae'fent
{acento);

{acentuar),

6b-ject'

(objetar),

ob'ject

ex-tract'

(extraer),

ex'tract

{extrato);

pro-dufe' [producir),

prod'ufe (producto); per-fume' (perfumar), per'fume {perjiune).


4.

Por regla general, en

la

primera silaba de

las palabras

de dos o mas silabas; es siempre asi en las de origen anglosajon:


ho'ly, ki^ch'en,

king'dom, follow,

lev'el, dif'/i-eult.

12.

La pronunciacion de
los

las vocales finales.


la silaba es

La
muy

pro-

nunciacion de una vocal que termina

dificil

para

de habla espaiiola.

1. Si la vocal final se halla en silaba acentuada, result a siempre un sonido variable, puro al principio, pero modifica-

ble con tendencia a convertirse en diptongo mientras el aparato vocal sufre un cambio gradual de posicion. Po'ny suena como ponni; li'my como laimi; Bu'lah como bhda;

be como

bit;

ba'ker como heiquer.

: :

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


2.

11

Si la vocal final

no

se halla

en silaba acentuada, se prorealidad, las vocales finales

nuncia

muy

relajadamente.

En

inacentuadas son tan imprecisas y vagas que dificilmente


se distinguen entre
si.

Todas suenan como uh

inglesa

muy

relajada e indistinta:
so'fa, so'da, a-dopt',

A-mer'i-ea, his'to-ry, per-se-vere', av'g-nue,

in-di-vid'u-al, in'-ju-ry, t5-bae'-c6, to-day', p6-lif e'.

13.

Reglas para

la

pronunciacion de las vocales largas y

las breves:

1.

El sonido largo de las vocales [a,

e,

(y), 6,

u] ocurre:
vocal

(1)

Cuando en una palabra no hay mas que una


sea, see, die, tie,

sonora
may, say, me, she,
(2)
ate,

my, dye,

foe, low, due.

Cuando

la silaba

termina en e muda:
fume, de-fide'.

eame, fede,

bite, lyrite, note, u;r6te,

Observacion:

Exceptuanse algunas palabras terminadas en ve:


dove, have, a-bove', Se'tive. las

live, give, love,

(3)

Generalmente en

combinaciones de vocales una


bean, door, peo'ple,

de las cuales es muda:


sail,
tail,

eat, seen, piece,

board, eoal,

yoii,

feil'ing, niefe, piefe, feud, beau'ti-ful,

u'-r6pe.
la

Nota: Observese que la segunda vocal es combinaciones ie, eu y ou.


(4)

muda

excepto en las

Cuando

se halla al fin

de una silaba acentuada:

e'ven, di'et, pi'rate, no'ble, pro'bate, eii'bie, dy'ing.


2. El sonido breve de las vocales [a, e, i (f), 6, u] ocurre: en las silabas que terminan en consonante excepto la r

sencilla
eab'i-net, Ted'c?y, bit, ill'ness, typ'i-fy, eot, nod, cbt'tage.

12
14.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Las consonantes y las vocales mudas Letras mudas. emplean o para modificar otras de la misma sflaba o para

se

indicar el origen de la palabra.

1.

La

muda

al final

de silaba indica que

la vocal prece-

dente es larga; una consonante

muda

tiene el

mismo

efecto:

late, sede, mite, dote, lute, sigh, high,

though, low, key.

2.

En

los

verdaderos diptongos ew,

oi, do, do,

ou, ow, oy,

ua, las dos vocales se

unen en un
la

solo sonido;

pero en

las

otras combinaciones una, generalmente la segunda, es


lo

muda,

que da sonido largo a

primera:

see, sea, read, eoal, bean, tram, feud, niege, Eu'rope.

Observacion:

En

algunas combinaciones de ea la e es breve: head,

health, read, dead, lead, death, wealth.

3.
el

En

algunas palabras se anade una vocal para conservar

sonido de la c o de la g precedentes:
peage'able, singe'ing, guide, guess, guer-ril'Za.

4.

En muchas
mas
fin

palabras hay consonante


el

muda que no

tiene

que de indicar

origen de la palabra:

u;rite, i^ho,

knee, knight, ihough, thought, lamb, plumb, SQl'enge.

15.
1.

Dos consonantes
sonido,

Pronunciacion de combinaciones de consonantes. al principio de silaba se funden en un


la segunda pronunciandose sin interrupcion Debese tener cuidado de evitar la explosion ligera

solo

alguna.

que

se

oye en tales casos en espanol, como por ejemplo

bl

de bianco:
blame, bran, eMn, er6ss, drove, dwell,
three.
fly,

glad, green, prime, twife,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

13

2. Las combinaciones de s mas otra consonante son altamente dificiles para los de habla espanola. Hay que evitai' el sonido de e ante la s
slip, skin,

seum, smack, sneak, spark, squire,

shall, se/iool,

swim.

3.

Si la

combinacion se compone de mas de dos con-

sonantes, todas se ligan en


sprig, streok,

un

solo sonido:

seream, struck, spleen, scribe, screen, spring.

son

Las combinaciones de consonantes al final de palabra For regla general, cada consonante se corrientes. pronuncia claramente; pero todas se ligan en un solo sonido
4.

muy

sin interrupcion entre si:


carp, carps, bond, bonds, first, scarf, piilp,

mumps,

milks, lamp,
orbs,

tenths, links,

dumped, worked, glanged, desks, bathed, banged,

inch, swerved, basked, lisps.

16.

Particulas

de

pronunciacion

irregular.

Hay

en

ingles varias silabas

particulas que se escriben de

una

manera y

pronuncian de otra. Es preciso aprenderlas bien porque no hay signos ortograficos para indicar su
se

pronunciacion.
1.

Son como

sigue:

wh:
Delante de
o,

(1)

equivale a h, pronunciandose

como una

espafiola

muy

relajada.

u'hp, zi;h61e, u^hose, uihoop.

(2)

En

los

escribe, o sea

demas casos, se pronuncia como ju en juez:

al reves

de como se

whale, wheat, wheeze, when, while, why, which, wheel.


2.

le:
el

Se pronuncia como
lit'fle,

(muy breve)

a'ble, wig's-le, daz'zle, ket'^le, era'dle.

::

14
3.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


tion:

(1)

Precedida de

s,

equivale a chun:

quSs'tion, di-ges'tion, sug-ges'tion, eom-bus'tion, e?-/iaus'tion.

(2)

En

los

demas

casos, equivale a

shun:

o-ra'tion, eon-ven'tion, re-sep'tion, de-ser'tion, eon-nee'tion.

4.

sion:

(1)

Precedida de vocal, equivale a zhun:

eon-clu'sion, oc-ea'sion, in-va'sion, pro-vi'sion, de-fi'sion.

(2)

En

los

demas

casos, equivale a

shun:

sus-pen'sion, sub-mer'sion, eon-fes'sion, di-ver'sion.

5.

ture

Equivale a chure
eap'tvire, fu'ture, na'ture, pie'ture, mix'txire, eul'txirc.

6.

sure
Inicial

(1)

de palabra o precedida de consonante, equivale

a shure:
sure, sure'ty, sure'ly, in-sure', as-sure', fis'sure.

(2)

Precedida de vocal, equivale a zhurc

meas'ure, treas'ure, leisure, elo'sure, u'su-rer, pleos'ure.

7.

ci, ti:

Delante de vocal, equivalen a sh:


Gre'cian, eau'tious, eom-mer'cial, es-sen'tial, pa'tient, mu-si'cian,
an'cient, spe'cial, eon'sciense, suf-fi'dent.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


8.

15

ng:
Si la

(1)

n termina

la

a la segunda, se pronuncia

primera silaba y la g da comienzo como 7ig en tengo:

an'ger, Ban'gor, fin'ger, lon'ger,^ lon'gest,^ youn'ger,i youn'gest.^

(2)

Si

ng termina

la silaba,

no

se

oye

la g,

pero la combina-

cion suena
tengo,

como

la

n en

teiigo.

Si se procura pronunciar

cortandola en medio, se consigue este sonido:


hang, thing, long, young.
si

sing, ring, sang, rang, bring,

(3)

Este ultimo sonido resulta

se agrega

un

sufijo

a la

palabra primitiva, excepto en los comparativos y en los superlativos que terminan en -er y en -est respectivamente
singling, sing'er, hang'ing, bring'ing, ring'er, ring'ing.
9. nk: Se pronuncia como la nc en manco; termina siempre silaba, sea al final de palabra o en el interior:

la

bdnk, bank'er, bank'ing, think, think'er, think'ing, ink, ink'stand,


eon'quer [conk'er].
17.

mucho

Las consonantes sordas y el dominio de los sonidos

las

sonoras.

Facilita

ingleses el saber cuales

son las consonantes sordas y cuales las sonoras. Las consonantes sonoras van acompanadas de vibracion de las
cuerdas vocales, que puede sentirse tocando la garganta o

tapando
al

el

oido.

Las consonantes sordas no muestran esta


Teoricamente, a cada consonante Cada par tiene
la

vibracion laringea, sino se producen por friccion del aire

escaparse de la boca.

sorda corresponde una consonante sonora.


la

misma formacion, siendo


la

unica diferencia la sonoridad

ausencia de

ella.

Faltan en ingles algunas de una o de

otra clase, pero la correspondencia es


es

mas completa que lo El cuadro siguiente contiene una relacion completa de las consonantes sordas y las sonoras en ingles:
en espanol.
^

En

los

comparativos y los superlativos,

los sufijos -er

y -est forman

silaba separada en las divisiones al fin del renglon, pero se pronuncian

como

se indica aqul.

16

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


SORDA

SONORA
Sonido

Sonido

Modo
ch,
s),
ti

de representarse

Modo

de representarse

ch

(en tion precedida de


:

j,

g (delante de e o
jet, jug,

i):

tu (en ture)

child, such,

jam,
age.

gem,

gin'ger,

ques'tion, eap'ture.
f f,

ph,

gh

(final

de silaba)

v:

vale, vest, vile, live,

fan,

fit, if,

phase, phi-16s'6-

giv'en, e'ven.

phy, laugh.

h
k
o

hat, hen, his, hot, hub.


(si no precede a e Kate, keg, cake, king,

{No hay
g
g:

sonido sonoro

correspondiente .)
k, ck, c
i)
:

gave, get, give, eog.

ug'ly, vogue, guess.

back.
P
s

pay, pet, pin, pun, up.


c (delante de e o

b
z

b: bad, bed, bod'y, tub,


bob'tafl.

s, ss,

i)

z,

s:

zone, haze, nose.

send, f ent, miss, us, fi-gar'.

la'zy.

sh

sh, s (en sure

y en sus de(delante de

zh
si

z (delante de ture), s (en

rivados), ci

ti

-sure precedida de vocal),


(en sion precedida

vocal), si (en sion precedida

de

de consonante), no precedida de
tioiis,

ti

(en tion
shall.

vocal), zi (delante de er):

s):

a'zure, meos'uxe, in-elo'sure,


vis'ion,
gla'zier.

she, sure'ty, so'cial, cau'-

mis'sion, 6-va'ti6n.

bra'zier.

t:

tan, tell, tin, not, dii'ty.

d:

dale,

bod'y,

dim,

made.
th
th:
thin, bath, noth'ing.
th th:
this, with,

moth'er.

wh

wh: wheat, when, which. {En realidad es una h mas una w sorda.) X, (en silaba acentuada o
en silaba seguida de consonante): ax, ax'is, exfel'.
(

w:
won.

west,

want, wish.

?, (en silaba

inacentuada

seguida de vocal acentuada): e?-ist', e?-fim'ple.


1,

No hay

sonidos sordos

r,

m,
y

correspandientes.)

n, ng,

PART ONE
THE HOUSE THAT JACK BUILT
This
is

the house that Jack built.

The House that Jack Built


This
This This This
is

the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built.


the rat that ate the cheese that lay in the house the cat that caught the rat that ate the cheese

is

that Jack built.


is

that lay in the house that Jack built.


is

the dog that chased the cat that caught the rat the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the
17

that ate the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built.

This

is

18

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

dog that chased the cat that caught the rat that ate the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that chased the cat that caught the rat that ate the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that

The Maiden all


Forlorn

The Priest all Shaven


AND Shorn

tossed the dog that chased the cat that caught the rat that
ate the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built.

This

is

the priest

all

shaven and shorn that married the

man

all

tattered and torn to the

maiden

all

forlorn that

milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that chased the cat that caught the rat that ate the cheese that lay in the house that Jack built.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

19

Pronunciense Pronunciense y

las

palabras

siguientes

prestando

especial

atencioyi al sonido de las consonaiites finales {vease el pdrrafo Q^):


rat, that, built,

Jack, and, priest, dog, caught, ate, kissed (kist),

tossed (tost), chased (chast), milked (milkt)

B.
de
t

expliquese por que la

ed final

tiene el sonido

en las palabras del primer grupo, y de d en las del segundo grupo

(vease el pdrrafo 7):

(1) chased, tossed, kissed, (2) crumpled, tattered,

milked

married

C Pronunciense
conio la z inglesa
eii

panola en

las del

y expliquese por que la s final se pronuncia primer grupo, y como la s essegundo grupo {vease el pdrrafo 4);
las palabras del

(1) cows, maidens, dogs, houses, horns


(2) cats, rats, priests

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Estudiese

bien la

forma de
el

la

pregunta y contestese afirmaeste libro)


:

tivamente {vease Regla I en


1.

Apendice de

Did the cheese

lie

in the

house? {Respuesta: Yes, the cheese

lay in the house.)

Did Jack build the house? 3. Did the rat eat the cheese? 4. Did the cat catch the rat? 5. Did the dog chase the cat ? 6. Did the cow toss the dog? 7. Did the maiden milk the cow? 8. Did the man kiss the maiden ? 9. Did the man marry the maiden ?
2.
^

Esta, lo

la seccion

mismo que las demas referencias de parrafo, remiten a Pronunciacion, paginas 1 a 16 de este libro de lectura.

^ Estos principios gramaticales se tratan mds extensamente en el Primer Curse de Ingles de Sparkman. En adelante se indicard al pie de cada lecci6n el pdrrafo y pagina del Primer Curso de Ingles en que se tratan los principios gramaticales repasados en Elementary English

Reader.

20
B.
1.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Escribase
This
4.
is

al

didado:

the cheese.
is

2.

This
is

is

the house.

3.

This

is

the
?

rat.
7.

This

the cat.

5.

This
8.

the cow.

6. Is this
9.

the maiden
Yes, this
is

Yes, this

is

the maiden.

Is this the priest?


11.

is

the priest.

10. Is the
lo

man shaven?
lo

Yes, the

man

shaven?

C.

Lease ha como D. Escribase un pequeno tema que induya


dictado
1.

leido el profesor.
las frases siguientes:

This

is

the rat that ...


. .

2.

This

is

the
. .

cow that
.
. . .

tossed the

caught the that the cheese Jack ... 3. This is the priest that in house that with the crumpled that milked the the man to the
. .
.

that
. . .

chased the
.
.

that

THE OLD WOMAN AND THE PIG


Once upon a time an old woman went to market and bought a pig. On the way home she had to go over a stile. When they reached the stile, the pig would not go over. The old woman called her dog and said: "Dog, bite the pig; it will not go over the stile, and I cannot get home to-night." But the dog would not.

The
will

old

woman

raised her stick

and said
not bite the pig;
the pig

"Stick, beat

my

dog;
stile,

he

will
I

not go over the


stick

and

cannot get home to-night."

But the
fire

would not.

Then the
and

old

woman
stick;

gathered some wood and kindled a


it will

said:

"Fire, burn
will
I

my

not beat the dog; the dog


stile,

not bite the pig; the pig will not go over the

and

cannot get
^

home

to-night."

DIctese la oraci6n entera,

como un

todo,

y no palabra per

palabra.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

21

But the fire would not. The old woman brought some water and said: "Water, put out the fire; it will not burn the stick; the stick will not beat the dog; the dog will not bite the pig; the pig will not go over the stile, and I cannot get home tonight."

But the water would

not.

The Old Woman and the Pig


old woman saw an ox and said: "Ox, drink the water; it will not put out the fire; the fire will not burn the stick the stick will not beat the dog the dog will not bite the pig; the pig will not go over the stile, and I cannot get home to-night." ,v,a^'^^ But the ox would not. The old woman called the butcher and said: "Butcher, kill the ox; he will not drink the water; the

The

22
water
stick;
will

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


not put out the
fire;

the

fire will

not burn the

the stick will not beat the dog;


to-night."

the dog will not

bite the pig; the pig will not go over the stile,

and

cannot

get

home

But the butcher would not. At last the old woman called the hangman and said "Hangman, hang the butcher; he will not kill the ox;
the ox will not drink the water; the water will not put out
the
fire;

the

fire will

not burn the stick; the stick will not

beat the dog; the dog will not bite the pig; the pig will

not go over the

stile,

and

cannot get
to

home

to-night."

hang the butcher; the butcher began to kill the ox the ox began to drink the water the water began to put out the fire; the fire began to bum the stick; the stick began to beat the dog; the dog began to bite the pig; the pig began to go over the stile, and the
;

Then the hangman began

old

woman

got

home

that night.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCL/^CION
A.

Pronunciense y
13)."

expliquese por que las vocales son largas en


las del

las palabras del


el

primer grupo y breves en

segundo grupo {vease

pdrrafo

(1) go, he, she, lay, say, day, eat, beat,

maid,

priest, raise, sees,

goes, stile, ate,

home, my, way,


is,

lie,

bite, fire,

time

(2) cat, rat, dog,

kiss,

that. Jack, get, got, stick, will, pig,

not, can, ox, drink, toss,

when
4).'

B.

Pronunciense

(vease el pdrrafo

(1) cats, rats, priests, markets, stick (2) maids, dogs, horns, houses, butchers, fires,

homes, pigs
prestondo
especial

C. Pronunciense
atencion al sonido de d,

las
I,

siguientes

palabras

dog, lay, torn, not,


will, stile,

n y t (vease el pdrrafo 1); cat, man, maid, put, had, beat,

can, bite, old.

drink

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.
i

23

Digase por que Aprendanse


Modo
beat
begin
bite

se

ha usado a

an en cada uno de

los

ejemplos

siguientes (vease Regla II):

a cat, a dog, a home, a priest, an ox, a hangman, a


old

woman, an

woman, a man, an
las

old

man
los verbos siguientes:

B.

jonnas fundamentales de
Preterito

3rd. pers. sing.

Participio

Infinitivo

Pres. de Ind.

Indicativo

Pasivo

beats
begins
bites

beat

beaten

began
bit

begun
bitten

bring
build

brings

brought
built

brought
built

buUds
burns buys
catches
chases

bum
buy
catch chase drink
eat

burned bought caught


chased

burned bought caught


chased

drinks
eats

drank
ate

drunk
eaten

gather
get

gathers
gets

gathered
got

gathered
got

go

goes

have
kindle
kiss
lie

has
kindles
kisses
lies

went had
kindled
kissed
lay

gone

had
kindled
kissed
lain

marry
milk
put
raise

marries

married

married

milks
puts
raises

milked

milked
put
raised

put
raised
said (sed)

say
see
toss
1

says (sez)
sees

said (sed)

saw
tossed

seen
tossed

tosses

Repdsense los pdrrafos siguientes del Primer Curso de Ingles: El articulo indeterminado, pagina 23; 22. La interrogacion, pd^gina Cambios ortograficos en el presente de indicativo, pdgina 40. 31; 30.
14.

24
C.
I.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Contestense segun
Does the
old
2.

el

sentido (vease Regla III):

woman

go to market?

{Respuesta:

Yes, she-

Does she buy a pig? 3. Does the pig go over the stile ? {Respuesta: No, the pig does not go over the stile.) 4. Does she call the dog? 5. Does the dog bite the pig? 6. Does she raise her stick ? 7. Does the stick beat the dog ? 8. Does .she gather some wood? 9. Does she kindle a fire? 10. Does the fire burn the stick? 11. Does she brmg some water? 12. Does the water put out the fire? 13. Does she call the butcher? 14. Does the butcher kill the ox? 15. Does she see a hangman? 16. Does he hang the butcher ?
goes to market.)

THE THREE BEAHS


Once upon a time three bears, a big bear, a middle-sized bear, and a little bear lived in a little house in the woods. One day while the three bears were out walking, a Uttle girl named Golden Locks found the pretty httle house and went inside. She saw three chairs: a big chair for the big bear, a middle-sized chair for the middle-sized bear, and a She sat do^\^l in the big chair, little chair for the little bear. She sat down in the middle-sized chair, it was too hard. but but it was too soft. She sat down in the httle chaii', and it was just right; but it was very small and she broke it all to
pieces.

Golden Locks saw three plates


dle-sized bear,

of

soup on the table:

big plate for the big bear, a middle-sized plate for the mid-

and a

little

plate for the httle bear.


it

the soup in the big plate, but


tasted the soup in the

was too
it it

hot.

soup in the middle-sized plate, but


little plate,

and

She tasted She tasted the was too cold. She was just right; and

she drank

it all

up.

After eating the soup, Golden Locks went upstau-s.


she saw three beds:

Here

a big bed for the big bear, a middle-

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


sized

25

bed for the middle-sized bear, and a little bed for the She lay down on the big bed, but it was too long. little bear. She lay down on the middle-sized bed, but it was too wide. She lay down on the little bed, and it was just right; and
she
fell

asleep.
little

In a

while the three bears returned to the house to

eat their dinner.

The
said,

big bear

saw that the

chairs

had

been moved and


chair."

''Some one has been sitting in


said,

my

The middle-sized bear


in

''Some one has been sitting


sitting in

my
The The

chair too."
little

bear said,

"Some one has been


it all

my

chair too

and has broken


soup."

to pieces."

big bear looked at the table

and

said,

"Some one has

tasted

my

The middle-sized bear


too."

said,

''Some one has tasted


tasted

my soup
soup too

The

little

bear said,
it all

"Some one has

my

and has eaten

up."

After dinner the three bears went upstairs to take a nap.

Seeing that the beds were disarranged, the big bear said,

"Some one has been lying on my bed." The middle-sized bear said, "Some one has been

lying on

my

bed too."
little

The

bear said,
is

"Some one has been

lying on

my

bed

too and here she

fast asleep."

Golden Locks was frightened when she woke up and saw by the bed. She jumped up and ran out of the house as fast as she could go. As she ran through the dark woods, the little girl thought she saw big bears' eyes looking at her and long arms reaching out to grab her. If she has not stopped, she is still running away from the little house where the three bears lived in the big woods.
the three bears

26

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION

A.

Prominciense
bed,
big,

las

palabras
el

siguientes

prestando

especial

atencion al sonido de la b {vease


bear,

pdrrafo 1);
bite,

broke, built,

began,

bought,

bit,

burn,

butcher
B.

Pronunciense y tengase

especial ciddado con

el

sonido de

la

(vease el pdrrafo 1):

hve, have, shaven, over

C.

Pronunciense
plate,
size, sleep

y digase por que son largas las vocales en


el

el

primer grupo, y breves en


(1) here,

segundo (vease
taste,

el

pdrrafo 13);
piece,

woke,

wide, three, broke, time,

name,

(2) bed, big, hot, ran, left, just, sat, went, live,

Golden Locks

D.
el

Pronunciense
t

primer grupo, como


pdrrafo 7):

en

y digase por que siiena la ed como d en el el segundo, y como ed en el tercero (vease

(1) lived, returned,

hanged, raised, gathered, burned, frightened

(2) walked, reached, (3) tasted

jumped, tossed, milked

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Observese la forma del verba

en

las

oraciones

siguientes

(vease Regla

IV)

Singular

Plural
bears.

The little girl sees three The bear goes upstairs.


1

The The

little girls see

three bears.

bears go upstairs.

Rppdsense los pdrrafos siguientes del Primer Curso de Ingles Presente de indicativo de los verbos regulares, pdgina 31 29. Reglas para la formacion del plural de los sustantivos, pdgina 39 89. Observacion, pdgiua 111.
20.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


B.
1.

27

Ponganse en plural
The dog
bites the pig.
4.
6.

{vease
2.

Regla V):
cat catches the rat.
5.

The

3.

The
little

man
girl

builds the house.

breaks the chair.

The maid milks the cow. The old woman buys a pig.

The

C.

Estudiese
Who
3.

la

forma de cada pregunta y

contestese

segun

el

sentido (vease Regla VI):

woods? 2. Did Golden Locks go into the saw the three chairs? 4. Did the little girl see 5. Who sat down in the big chair? 6. Did the three chairs? 8. Who she sit in the little chair first? 7. Who tasted the soup? 10. Who lay9. Did she eat the big bear's soup too? ate it? down on the big bear's bed? IL Did she lie down on the little 12. Who went upstairs? 13. Did the three bear's bed too? 14. Did Golden Locks run away ? bears go upstairs too ?
1.

lived in the

house?

Who

D.
1.

Escribanse
The
3.

al dictado las oraciones siguientes:


2.

big bear lives in the woods.

The

three bears live in

the woods.
see
6.

Golden Locks sees three chairs. 4. The three bears Golden Locks in bed. 5. Golden Locks runs out of the house.
big bear eats his soup.
8.

The

7.

The

middle-sized bear eats his

soup too.

The

httle bear does not eat his

soup

THE BLIND BEGGARS AND THE ELEPHANT


In an ancient city in a far-away country, poor old blind

men used

to sit near the

who passed
were sitting

main gate and beg from the travelers One day when six of these blind beggars by the gate, a man passed by leading old Jumbo,
by.

a giant circus elephant.

When

the

came

near, the earth trembled

man and his big elephant and the blind men were

see the elephant. Of course, they asked the owner to let them touch the elephant in order to know what kind of an animal he really was.

scared; but they all

wanted to

they could not

see, so

28

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


first

The

blind

elephant's side.
like a wall."

man reached out his hand and touched the He felt around and said, "Why, he is just

The second
wall.

blind

man

the long sharp tusks, and exclaimed,

reached out and took hold of one of "No, he is not like a


of the elephant's wriggling tiTink

He

is

just like a spear."

The next one took hold


and shouted, "He
actly like a snake."
is

not like a wall or a spear.

He

is

ex-

Then the next them around one


he is not like a can see that he
is

blind

man

reached out both arms and put

of the elephant's big legs,

and

said,

"Why,

wall, or a spear, or a snake.

Any

blind

man

just like a tree."

The

fifth

man

reached

way

up, took hold of the big flopis

ping ear, and shouted,


neither hard nor soft."

"This animal

just

like a fan,

The
tail.

last blind

man, who happened to be standing behind

the elephant, reached out and grabbed the elephant by the

Then he said, "Oh, you blind and foolish men! Even a fool can see that the elephant is not like a wall, or a spear, or a snake, or a tree, or a fan. Wh}^, this elephant is exacth*
like a rope."

The owner laughed, and who knows, maybe old Jumbo The circus man hooked his all to himself. spike into the elephant's trunk and led him away. The poor
laughed too,
old blind

men began
and
all

to quarrel, each one insisting that he

was

right

the rest were wrong.


till

They quarreled and

quarreled long and loud,

the sun went down.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCLA.CI6N
A. Pronunciense
cion al sonido de la
las siguieiites

palabras prestando especial aten-

{vease

el

pdrrafo 1):

house, horn, home, hang, hard, hot, here, hand, heard, happen,
he, she, his, her, hold

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH P!EADER

29

The Blind Beggars and the Elephant

30
B.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Pronunciese con

especial atencion el sonido de

wh

(vease

el

pdrrafo 16);

when, while, why, what, where

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Arreglense
4.

las palabras sigidentes

en orden ingles, poniendo

los adjetivos delante del suhstantivo {vease


1.

Regla VII):

beggars these bhncl.


old

2.

second the
5.

man

old.

3.

next blind

the man.

Jumbo

big.

poor circus old elephant.


Regla VIII):
to live,

B.

Justifiquese la

forma

del gerundio {vease

to catch, catching;

to hear, hearing;

to pass, passing;

living; to sit, sitting; to tremble, trembling; to

happen, happening

C.

Formese

el

gerundio de

los infinitivos siguientes:

to go, to eat, to chase, to gather, to grab, to break, to stand,


to reach, to laugh, to quarrel

D.
1.

Traduzcase
the gate.

al

espanol {vease Regla IX):


I.

An

elephant passed through

An
The The

elephant

was

passing

through the gate.


2.

2. 3.

The earth trembled. The blind men touched


elephant.

earth was trembling.


blind

the

3.

men were

touching

the elephant.
4.

4.

The owner laughed.


E.

The owner was


la

laughing.

Substituyase
first

la

palabra inglesa por


1.

espanola:

1.

Golden Locks comio the soup.

Golden Locks comia the soup.

2.

The

blind

man

exayninb

2.

The first blind man e.Tam??!o6(7


the elephant.

the elephant.
3.

4.
5.

The maiden ordeiio the cow. The fire quemo the stick. The blind men se rineron.
1

3.

4.
5.

The maiden ordeiiaba the cow. The fire qucmaba the stick. The blind men se refiian.

28.

Repdsense los pdrrafos siguientes del Primer Curso de Ingles: El Adjetivo, pdgina 39; 41. El genindio, pdgina 56; 51. El continuativo pasado, pAgina 60; 54. Usos del continuativo pasado, pd-

gina

6L

158. Observacion, pdgina 236.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


F.
1.

31

Empleese cada uno de


to pass by.
5. 2.

los

modismos sigidentes en una oracion:


(to).
3.

to

come near
6.

to feel of.
7.

4.

to feel

around.

to reach out.

to take hold of.

to lead away.

BELLING THE CAT


(Sotano de una casa vieja; unos ratones, sentados formando
Hrculo, discuteii
el

prohlema de librarse

del terrible gato.

Es

medianoche.)

The Cast
Uncle Hoary Locks

Persona jes
El Tio Canas El senor Rabilargo

Mr. Long Tail


Mrs. Speckles

La senora Manchitas
El Tio Barbon

Uncle Shaggy Whiskers Miss Merry Eyes Young Small Teeth

La

seiiorita Ojos pillos El joven Dientes chicos

Dear friends, Long Tail has Uncle Hoary Locks. something of great importance to tell us to-night. Please be very attentive to what he has to say.

Long
has come

Tail.

Mr. Chairman and friends, the moment when we must make up our minds to do something.

The

cat,

children,

now
.
.

our ancient enemy, not satisfied with killing our threatens to destroy our entire community.
.

We

shall

Mrs. Speckles
daughter
last night.

{interrumpiendole)
I

lost

my
.

only

hope that

Uncle
morning,
I

Shaggy
sent

Whiskers

{interrumpiendole)

This
my
.
. .

my

only son to get a piece of cheese for

sick mother.

The poor boy did not come back. The cat Merry Eyes (llorando) My father was brutally mur.

dered yesterday.
shall I

have no one to love

me now! What

do?

32

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Tail.

Long
has
lost

It is horrible!

Practically everj' one of us

some dear

one.

Something must be done!

WTiat

shall

since I can remember, danger has been hanging over us. Formerly, when we were fewer in number and when food was more abundant, we did not run such a risk; but now we have to expose ourselves in order to secure food. We have talked enough about Can anj- one sugthis matter. The time to act has come. gest something to help us in this time of need? I have thought and thought and thought Long Tail. head and my back ache from thinking, but I do until my not know what to do. There are present among us to-night some of the younger set, who have never before attended our meetings. Perhaps one of them could suggest something.
this

we do? Uncle Hoary Locks.

Ever

Small Teeth
the world!
will tinkle,

{riendose).

Why,

it is

the easiest thing in

Bell the cat!

When

he goes hunting, the bell

and we shall have a chance to run away. Mrs. Speckles {llorando amargamente) Why did we not think of that before my daughter was taken away from me? Merry Eyes {mirando al hennoso Dientes chicos). "WTiat a splendid idea! (Aparte) Isn't he handsome?
.

plan.

All {aplaudiendo y bailando). Hurrah!


We
can
bell

Long Tail. Small Teeth, your idea is wonderful! Uncle Shaggy Whiskers. Really, it is a marvelous
the cat, and our troubles will be over.

Uncle Hoary Locks. solve our problem, but who


neck?
{Cesa
la algarabia;

Indeed,
will

Hurrah!
the
cat
will
cat's

belling
bell

put the

around the

Long Tail.

silencio sepulcral)
it, but I have a large do not know what would

should like to do
I

family dependent upon me, and

become of them if I Mrs. Speckles.


but since

I'd

lost

my

life.

my

last illness I

do it if I could run can scarceh' walk.

fast

enough,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Merry

33

Eyes. I would certainly do it if it were proper young and unattached lady to undertake what justly belongs to you gallant gentlemen.
for a

Uncle Hoary Locks.


ladies nor the older
this plan.
it,

Rightly considered,

neither the

since

it

men should be called upon to carry out It seems to me that Small Teeth is the one to do was he who suggested the plan. Where is Small
The young
rascal

(Buscdndole por todas partes) Teeth? has sneaked out!

Just as I expected. Young men are always Long Tail. ready to give advice, but they are never willing to do things themselves. My son often tells me

Merry

Eyes.

The

cat!

The

cat!

{Todos

huyen

despavoridos)

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Pronunciense

las pcdabras siguientes presta7ulo especial atenel

cion al sonido de las consonantes finales {vease

pdrrafo 6);
fire,

cheese, house, horn, will, her, then, over, stile,

burn, ox,

home, ran,

beai-s, girl, chair,

beggars, shall, come, poor, done

went, pig, old, would, not, bite, said, to-night, beat, drink, lived,
just, right, but, tasted,

looked, soup, blind,


se dividen las

like, risk, lost

B.

Observese como
su-preme',

palabras siguientes en silabas,


el

y p^'onmiciense teniendo en cue^ita las divisiones {vease


10).

pdrrafo

pres'ent,

a-mong', en'-e-my, bru'tal-ly, ad'e-quate,

so-lu'tion, fath'er, mar'vel-ous, sat'is-fied, hunt'ing, threat'ens

C.
el

Dividanse

estas palabras en silabas,

y pronunciense {vease

pdrrafo 10);
fewer, hanging, believe, ready, afraid, society, secure, looking,

neither, elephant, return, shaven, butcher,

unattached

34
D.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Pronunciense
attended,

los

participios

pasivos

sigidentes

(vease

el

pdrrafo 7);
talked,

sneaked,

examined,

quarreled,

belled,

presented

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Traduzcanse
The time
3.

al

espcmol las sigidentes oraciones cuyo verbo

estd en preterito perfecto {vease


1.

Regla X):

2. Every one of us has lost some have talked enough about the matter. 4. I have thought and thought and thought. 5. They have never before attended our meetings. 6. The young rascal has sneaked out. 7. I have heard the story of the three bears.

to act has come.

dear one.

We

B.

Hdgase

U7ia

lista

de los participios pasivos usados en


el

el

ejercicio

el

A, y despties de considtar el vocabulario dense preterito de cada uno {vease Regla XI):

infinitivo

C.

Cdmbiese
I
to

el

injlnitivo

en tiempo preterito perfecto

{vease

Regla XI):
1.

3.

The
to

men
6. 8.

many blind men. 2. We to examine the elephant. man to tonch the elephant's side. 4. The blind quarrel. 5. He to send his only son to get a piece of cheese.
see
first

blind

The poor boy

not to

Who

to

bell

the cat?

come back. 7. We to run a gTeat risk. 9. Small Teeth to present a good plan.

10.

My

son

to tell

me.
el

D.
1.

Contestese segun

sentido {vease Regla

X):

stroy the entire


4.

has come? 2. Has the cat threatened to decommunity? 3. Who has lost her only daughter? Has every one lost some dear one? 5. Has the danger been
Repiisense los pdrrafos siguientes del

What moment

24.

El preterito perfecto, pdgina 35;


27.

pasivos, pilgina 25;


perfecto, pagina 36.

Primer Curso Jc Ingles: Formacion de los participios La interrogacion y la negacion en el preterito


26.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

35

hanging over them for a long tmie? 6. Have they talked about 7. Who has thought about this matter until this matter before? 8. Has Small Teeth ever attended the meetings his head aches? 9. Has any one ever thought of belling the cat ? before ?
E.

Substituyanse

las palabras inglesas

por las espanolas (vease

Regla XII):
1.

Belling the cat resolverd our problems.

2.

What haremosf

M.y ?,on 710 me ayudara f 4. The blind men no ve?'dn the elephant. 6. I pondre el 5. Se sentard Golden Locks in the big chair? 7. I quisiera to do it. cascabel the cat.
3.

KING ALFRED AND THE CAKES


A long time ago there lived in England a brave king called
Alfred the Great.
so

He was

called great because he

had done

much

for his country.

Once in a fierce battle with the Danes, the English armywas defeated and put to flight. Every man had to look out for himself. The soldiers scattered and ran in all directions, and King Alfred himself had to flee to save his life. He was going through the thick woods, blowing his horn to
gather his
house.
together, when he came to a woodcutter's hungry, and disappointed, he decided to knock and ask for something to eat.

men

Tu'ed,

Inside the little hut, the woodcutter's wife was baking some cakes on the hearth in front of a bright fire. She had no idea that her guest was Alfred, her king, but she felt sorry for the poor man and promised to give him some supper if he would watch the cakes while she milked the

cow.

King Alfred promised to watch the cakes to prevent


burning; but

their

when the woman

left

the house, he soon forgot

about the cakes baking on the hearth. his defeat and just sat bent over the

He was worried over warm fire, his head

36

ELEMENTARY
men

EN'GLISH

READER
how he
and save

buried in his hands.

He was

trying to figure out

could get his

together, drive out the Danes,

his beloved country.

cakes, until the

He sat there, unmindful of woman returned.


full of

the burning

On

returning with her pail

milk, the woodcutter's

wife found her cakes burned to a crisp

parently asleep.
'

'

You

lazy

man

and her guest apangry was she, look what you have done You want someShe
fairly yelled at him, so
!

KiNG Alfred Allows the Cakes to Burn


thing to eat, but you are not willing even to watch a few
get
fire! They are completely ruined, and j^ou will !" no supper The king was very sorry for what he had done. He realized that he was to blame and he took the scolding from the woman. He did not want to hurt her feelings by telling her that she had scolded her king. The good woman was very kind-hearted, and when she saw how sorry the poor man was, she gave him a big glass of fresh milk from her pail.

cakes on the

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A. Pronunciense
sonido de
c, k, g,

37

estas palabras prestando especial atencion al

(veanse los pdrrafos 2 y 3):

cake, come, cat, catch, cold, scarcely, pieces, since, king, advice, milk, gallant, gentleman, guest, go, just, Jack

B.
Regla

Formese y pronunciese
V
y
el

el

plural de estos suhstantivos {veanse

pdrrafo 4);
illness,

cat, bed, soup, wood, leg, arm, tree, fan, cake, king, community, enemy, lady, army, family, boy, day, wife

C.

Pronunciense
Jack's house.
4.

las siguientes frases prestando especicd atencion

al sonido de la s {vease el pdrrafo 4):


1.

2.

The

old
is

woman's
upstairs.
7.

pigs.
5.

3.

Golden Locks'
beggars' hands.

soup.
6.

The

little

bear's bed

The

The

circus owner's elephants.

Mrs. Speckles' daughters.


i

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.
1.

Traduzcase

al espanol {vease

Regla XIII):

The woodcutter's wife. 2. The king's men. 3. The poor man's supper. 4. The elephant's tail. 5. The beggars' gate. 6. Golden Locks' mother. 7. The big bear's bed. 8. The bears' house. 9. The bears' beds. 10. The ox's horns. 11. The oxen's horns.
B.
1.

Traduzcase
4.

cd ingles {vease

Regla XIII):

osos.
6.

2. La casa de la vieja. 3. La casa de los La sopa de Golden Locks. 5. La hija del hombre. Los hijos de los hombres. 7. La cena del rey. 8. Las esposas

El gato de Juan.

de los lenadores.
C.
tes

Hdganse preguntas que puedan


el

ser contestadas por las siguien-

oraciones en
1.

tienipo presente {vease


live

Regla III):
2.

The bears
little

in
3.

the woods.

pretty
1

house.

The

first

blind

man

Golden Locks finds the puts his hand on the

Repdsense los parrafos siguientes del Primer Curso de Ingles: El caso genitivo, pagina 50; 38. El caso genitive cuando no se trata de seres vivientes, pagina 50; 39. Usos especiales del apostrofo, pdgina 51.
37.

38

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


4. The last blind man grabs the elephant by the King Alfred watches the cakes. 6. The cakes burn. The good woman gives Alfred some milk. 5.

elephant's side.
tail.

7.

D.

Hdganse

preguntas
el

que

puedan

ser

contestadas

par

las

siguientes oraciones en
1.

tiempo preterito {vease Regla I):

woodcutter's house.

King Alfred went through the woods. 2. He came upon a 3. The king watched the cakes? 4. The good woman milked the cow. 5. The king sat bent over the fire. 7. The cakes burned up. 6. The woman returned. 8. He took
the scolding.

THE SPANISH EXPLORERS


The brave Spanish explorers were the first to see and make known to the world the glorious land of the two Americas.
Ponce de Leon and Hernando de Soto, two restless sons of Spain, paved the way for the colonization and settlement of the territory which is now the United States of America.

An

interesting story

is

told of

Ponce de Leon and his search for the fabled Fountain of Youth. Ponce de Leon was governor of Porto Rico, an island lying
to the southeast of the present
state of Florida, which

Ponce de Leon

was then The an unexplored wilderness.

sway

grizzled old veteran felt the approaching age, but he did not want to die when there were so many new lands to be conquered for The Indians of Porto Rico had his king and for his God.
of

told

him

of a wonderful spring lying

somewhere to the north,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


in

39

which an old man might bathe and become young and This story of the marvelous spring had fired the imagination of Ponce de Leon. Early in the year 1512 he set out to search for it, sailing northwest with three ships and a band of faithful soldiers. After a weaiy journey, he sighted, on Easter Sunday, a land of sunshine and flowers,
strong again.

De

Soto's Discovery of the Mississippi

which he named Florida. The trees were filled with brightplumed birds that sang enchanting songs to cheer the hearts Ponce de Leon found of the old man and his followers. many springs, in all of which he eagerly bathed; but his youth was not restored to him. The other celebrated explorer, Hernando de Soto, wished to see the wonderful country that Ponce de Leon had discovered. De Soto knew the hardships of exploration, but he was a brave and courageous man. He set out from San-

40
lucar with

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


many
ships
left his

Cuba, where he

and a thousand men, landing first in beautiful young wife, whom he was

never to see again. When he finally reached Florida, he and his followers were met by hostile Indians deteimined to repel the white strangers. These Indians used poisoned
arrows with which they killed
the brave leader conquered

many

of

De

Soto's men, but


his

At

last, after

traveling

them and continued more than a thousand

march.

miles, the

Spaniards came upon the shores of the great Mississippi


river

by the Indians the "Father of Waters." The was very wide at this point, and boats had to be built before it could be crossed. After the explorers had crossed the
River, called

river,

new misfortunes overtook the band.

De

Soto

fell

sick

days of lingering illness. What were the poor soldiers to do? The Indians would surely kill them if they found out that the great white
chief

with a dreadful fever and died after

many

was dead.

The Spaniards decided

secretly in the great river he


night, they tenderly took
leader, put
it

to buiy their chief had discovered. One dark

into a boat,

up the corpse of their beloved and at midnight carried it out in

the river.

There, in the darkness, they sorrowfully di'opped

the body of

De

Soto into the deep waters.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Indiquese
el

por medio de signos ortogrdficos

el

sonido dc

(vease
fire,

pdrrafo 13);
time, his, since, lived, king, visit, fountain,

stile, will, big,


lies,

wife, midnight,

died, America, Indian, Florida, "Mississippi


el

B.

Indiquese
el

par medio de signos ortogrdficos

sonido de g

(vease

pdrrafo 3):

great, king, age, hungry, gave, large, suggest, big, ago, long, dog,
leg, go, give,

danger, region, beg, begging, suggest, courageous, get,

Golden Locks

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


C.

41
las
letras

En

las

palabras

siguientes,

mdiquese cudl de

dobles,
el

aim estando en silabas

distintas, es enteramente

muda

(vease

pdrrafo 8);
dinner,
killing,

running,

beggar,

sitting,

flopping,

suggest,

attend, really, hurrah, happen, belling, gallant, supper, quarrel,

worried, merry, brutally, disarranged, disappointed, woodcutter,

immediately

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Identifiquese la forma del adjetivo,

como

positivo, comparativo

superlativo {vease Regla

braver,

XIV): most glorious, more


los espacios

beautiful, youngest, whiter, bigger,

big, biggest,

wonderful, beloved, darker, greatest


con la forma correspondiente del adje-

B.

Llenense
'

tivo del

margen (vease Regla XV):


1.

Colorado
Virginia

is

as ... as

New

Mexico, but not so ... as

California.
2.
is
.

than Tennessee,
girl of all.
. .

but not

so ... as

Large:

3.

4.

Washington. Golden Locks is the Jack's house was very


. .

.;

it

was

than that

of

the three bears.


'

5.

Was Merry Eyes


she was
... of
.

Beautiful:

all;

as ... as Mrs. Speckles ? Yes, than Mrs. Speckles; she was the but she was not so ... as Golden

Locks.

Good
[
]

6.
\ \

Better: Best
C.
1.

7.
8.

Small Teeth's plan was the ... of No one had a plan than his.
. . .

all.

One plan was

as ... as another.

Coniesiese:

explorers were the first to see the land of the two Americas? 2. Which two paved the way for colonization? 3. Of what island was Ponce de Leon governor? 4. Why did the
1

What

Rep^sese

el

parrafo

siguiente

del

Primer

Curso

de

Ingles:

78.

Adjetivos, positives, comparatives y superlativos, pagina 91.

42
Indians
5.
tell

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


him
;

of the wonderful spring in the lands to the north ? he set out in search of the Fountain of Youth ? 7. What did he find there? 6. When did he sight land ? 8. Were 9. Did he bathe in them. 10. Did he find there any springs?

Why

did

the Fountain of

land?

12. 14.

Youth? Where did he

11.
first

Why
land
?

did

De

Soto explore this new


his wife

13.

Did
15. 16.

accompany

him?

and his do when their leader died? at midnight ?

What river did he discover? men cross the IVIississippi River?


17.

How
What

did

De

Soto

did his

men

Wliy did they bury him

secretly

SIR

WALTER RALEIGH

long time ago,

there lived in

when North America was being settled, London a young man by the name of Walter Raleigh. Walter was not rich, but
he was good-looking

and well-bred.

The
a

pride of his scanty

wardrobe was
cloak.

beautiful red velvet

In those days
did

men

not

wear

overcoats as they do

now, but short cloaks


like

those worn by
so

soldiers. Raleigh

was

proud

of his

beautiful cloak that

he used to walk the


streets

of

London

Sir

Walter Raleigh

with it draped around

He his shoulders. made a fine show as he walked proudly along the Strand. One day the young and beautiful queen Elizabeth was

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


also out for a walk.

43

As the

streets

were very

muddy from

the recent rains, the queen was stepping carefully along, trying to pick out the dry spots. Suddenly she came to a

puddle of water right in her path. She was puzzled, not knowing how she could get across. The gallant Walter Raleigh, seeing the queen's predicament, rushed to her Nothing should annoy a beautiful queen, so he rescue.

bowed low, took off place; then he


stepped

his cloak,

and spread

it

over the

muddy

back
low,

re-

spectfully,

again

bowed

and

waited for the


queen to walk over. The queen gathered her skirts in one hand, and smiling
gratefully
gallant
at

the

young man,

tripped across the

puddle over the red


velvet cloak.

Elizabeth was so
pleased

with

the
that
to

young

man

she invited

him

come

to see her at

Queen Elizabeth of England

the palace on the


following day.

Of course, young Raleigh went. He became who rewarded his gallant act by making him a knight. Thereafter he was known as Sir Waiter Raleigh. It was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth that the English people began to settle in America. Sir Walter Raleigh
a great friend of the queen,

44

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

was sent by Her Majesty to Virginia to establish a permanent


colony there, but the gallant young knight did not like the hardships of the New World. He missed the gay court life
of

London and the wonderful shows

of that city.

He

soon

returned to England, carrying with him

many

of the strange

New World, such as the potato and tobacco. At that time, tobacco was unknown in England. There was lots of smoking in England, but the smoke came from the great fireplaces piled high with wood. No one thought Sir Waltei of making a chimney of his mouth and nose. Raleigh had learned from the Indians to smoke a pipe, and on the long winter evenings, he used to sit in a comfortable He liked to watch chair after supper and smoke his pipe. the smoke go curling up toward the high ceiling. One cold winter evening, he was sitting in front of the fire enjoying his pipe; his head and shoulders were completely enveloped in a dense cloud of tobacco smoke; the maid came into the room to put some wood on the fire. She had never seen him smoking; and on seeing the smoke about her master's head, she thought he was on fire and became very frightened. She rushed out of the room, grabbed a large pail of water, and returning, dashed the contents over Sir Walter's head, putting out his pipe and wetting him from head to foot.
products of the

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Pronunciense
las vocales

las

palabras siguientes que contienen combi-

naciones de vocales y digase cudles son

verdadcramentc diptongos:

ray67186

niudas (vease

el

pdrrafo 14);

cheese, house, built, caught, cow, reached, wouki, beat, maid,


priest, chair, soup, eating, bear, day, hoary, piece,

enough, young,

around, should, sneaked, out, great, through, woodcutter, proud,


beautiful, cloak, took, reign, Raleigh

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


B.

45
sonido de la a

Lndiquese por
el

medio de signos ortogrdficos

el

(vease

pdrrafo 13);
rat,

ate,

came, man, way, tobacco, maid, made, habit, had, Danes, Alfred, Strand, Jack

cat,

that,

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Escribanse
cloak.

estas frases de' nuevo,

agregando apostrofo y s

apostrofo solo a las palabras en bastardilla {vease Regla

XIII):

4.

7.

men wives. 2. 3. The 1. Alfred The king cakes. 5. America products. 6. The Indians home. Golden Locks chair. 8. This house is Jack and that one is his
The
7na77

wife.

father.

B.

Llenense
milked
.

los espacios

con his, her,

its o their,

segun convenga

{vease Regla
1.

XVI):
to flee to save
3.
.

The king had


. .
.

life.
. .

2.
.

wife

cow.
.

The Danes and

The woodcutter's army were driven


.
.

father killed the bears. 4. Jack and 5. Jack and out. mother went to market. 6. The poor man and wife gave the king supper. 7. The cat hunts food. 8. All cats hunt food. 9. The maid thought master was on fire. 10. Sir Walter Raleigh loved queen and country. 11. The queen gathered skirts in one hand and stepped on cloak.
. .
. .

C.

Empleese
all in

cada

uno de

los

siguientes

modismos

en

una
lots

oracion:
1.

vain.

2.

at night.
6.

3.

on the following day.


a great risk.
7.

4.

of.

5.

a long
8.

time ago.
fall

to run
9.

to

make
10. to

known.
set

to

pave the way.


sick.
15.

to fire the imagination.

out.

11. to

12. to

drop.

13. to

grow

old.

14. to

become young.

to

walk up and down.

16. to

be

(o

to go) out for a walk.

17. to get in the 19.

way

of.

18. to

have just

{mas
1

el

participio pasivo).
los

used to {mas

el infinitivo).

Repasense

pdrrafos siguientes del

Primer Curso de Ingles:

Genero y numero de los adjetivos, pdgina 27; 37. El caso genitivo, pdgina 50; 39. Usos especiales del apostrofo, pdgina 51.
19.

46
D.
1.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Contestese:

Who

lived in
3.

special pride?

Whom

London a long time ago? 2. What was his did he meet one day? 4. Why was
? 5.

the queen stepping so carefully did young Walter do?


7.

Why

did she stop ?


8.

6.

What
did

What

did the queen do?


9.

How

she reward the young

man

for his gallant act?


10.

Where
12.

did the
?

queen send

Sir

Walter Raleigh ?

Why

did he not stay there

IL What
14.

did he carry back to England with


did the

him?

When

smoke his pipe? 13. Why did he like it? maid come into the room ? 15. Why did she 16. What did she do? think her master was on fire?
did Sir Walter like to

Why

CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH AND POCAHONTAS


One
of the

colonists

most widely-known English explorers and was Captain John Smith. In the early days in Virginia, where the English colonists had
first

settled in America,

there was
to be done. to be cut

much work
Trees had
log

down and

cabins built;

the land
in

had to be cleared and


the
crops

planted

order to raise corn and

potatoes for food. John

Smith,

brave

enterprising

and man, was


of

made
Captain John Smith
gentle birth,

captain

the
of

colony.
colonists

Many
were

of the

men

manual labor. In those days gentlemen could not do manual work without serious loss of rank. Captain John Smith told these "gentle-

who had never

before done any

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


men"
that they did not have to work; but he

47

made

a rule

that every
to starve.

man who

did not work should not eat.


it

even the "gentlemen" decided

was better to

Very soon work than

The colony was completely surrounded by hostile Indians, who feared that the white settlers would take all their lands.
Captain John Smith often risked
while
his life to

go and trade with

the Indians, bringing back corn for his people.

One day,

on one

of

these trading
large

expeditions, he
of

met a

band

unfriendly Indians,
before
their

who imThe

mediately captured him and took

him

chief.

warriors sat in a circle around a

camp

fire

while their captive lay


foot

on the argued that the prisoner should be put to death, and their chief was Smith's head finally convinced. was placed upon a large stone, and a big Indian warrior stood
ground.

bound hand and

The

Indians

POCAHOXTAS
!

over him with raised

tomahawk

him. Suddenly an unheard-of thing happened young Indian maiden burst into the midst of the circle, threw her arms around Captain Smith, and begged that he be spared. The girl was Pocahontas, the chief's daughter. Moved by her pleadings, the old man decided to spare the white man's life. He was unbound and treated as a distinguished guest. The next morning he was escorted to the colony with presents of corn and game. Captain John Smith and this tribe of Indians became close friends. He was adopted by the tribe, and became the

ready to

kill

A beautiful

foster-father of Pocahontas.

On

the Captain's return to

48

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

England, he took the young Indian girl with him as his guest. She was well received in London on account of her beauty and charm. Many young Englishmen sought her

hand

in marriage,

and a young man by the name

of

John

Rolfe was the fortunate one to win her love.

After their

marriage, the young couple lived in England.

loved her husband dearly, the young Indian


able to forget the beautiful hills
Virginia.

girl

Although she was never

and

forests of her beloved

and died of a broken heart. After her death, her husband and his infant son went to Virginia to live amid the scenes of Pocahontas' childhood.
tired of city life

She grew

Many
of

Virginians of to-day love to boast that the royal blood

Pocahontas flows in their veins.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A. Indlquese por medio
{pease el pdrrafo 13).-

de signos ortogrdficos

el

sonido de

la

he, she,

me, cheese,

priest, eat, beat, chief, ear,

went,

leg,

bell,

them, the, ever, lead,


B.

get, scenes, forget, forest,


las

queen
prestando
especial
{vease
el

Pronunciense
al

palabras

siguientes

atencion

sonido

de

las

vocales finales

inacentuadas

parr ajo 11):


to-night',

mo'ment, el'e-phant, an'i-mal, a-way',

i-de'a,

may'be,
Ric'o,

be-hind', a-go', he'ro, to-bac'co, coro-ny. Jum'bo, Por'to,


Flor'i-da, A-mer'i-ca, Vir-gin'i-a, Pris-cil'la, Col-o-ra'do

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Justifiquese

la

colocacidn

del

adverbio

en

las

siguientes

oraciones (vease Regla


1

XVII):
siguientes
el

Repdsense

los

pd,rrafos

del

Primer Curso de Ingles:


60.

45.

Posicion del adverbio en

continuativo, pdgina 51;

Pronom-

bres personales, pdgina 67; 61. El genero de los pronombres, pagina 6S; 83. La posicion del adverbio, pd,gina 100; 84. El adverbio never,

pdgina 100.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


1.

49

Ponce de Leon went eagerly from spring to spring. 2. He found the Fountain of Youth. 3. De Soto left his wife, whom he was Jiever to see again. 4. They finally landed in Florida. 6. They decided to bury 5. The Indians would surely kill them.
7iever

They tenderly took up the corpse of their Walter Raleigh made a fine show walking 9. Suddenly, the queen came to a proudly along the Strand. 10. He bowed loiv; then he stepped respectfully puddle of water. back. 11. Thereafter, he was known as Sir Walter Raleigh.
their chief secretly.
7.

beloved leader.

8.

Sir

B.

Coloquese
1.

el

adverbio

del

margen en su lugar adecuado

{vease Regla

XVII):
I

Not
Always Ever Never Widely
Soon
Immediately

am

tired;

have been

tired;

and

I shall

be

tired.
2.

3. 4.
5.

Walter was smoking his pipe. Have you seen an Indian ? No, I have seen an Indian. John Smith was one of the most known English
explorers.

6. 7. 8.

The gentlemen decided to work. The Indians captured John Smith.

To-morrow Only Very


D.

We

9.

shall finish this work. Pocahontas had one foster-father.

10.

The woodcutter's
el

wife was angry.

Substituyase
This
2.
is

pro7iombre personal que convenga por las

palabras en bastardilla (vease Regla


1.

XVIII):

the house that Jack built; Jack built the house in the
old

woods.
over the

The

woman bought
woman then
4.

a pig;

the pig

would not go
3.

stile;

the old

raised her stick.

The

three

bears lived in the woods; the three bears had a pretty


the
little

little

house;
ele-

house was white.

The
see.

blind
5.

men examined

the

phant; the blind


a spear;
i/ze

men could not


was
7.

eZep/ian^

just like

The elephant was not like a wall. 6. Where is my father ?

Do you
8.

The dog is old; I am afraid of the dog. Captain John Smith was Pocahontas' friend; Captain John
see

my father?

50

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Pocahontas married John
I

Smith took Pocahontas to England;


Rolfe; Pocahontas and

John Rolfe

lived in England;

never knew

Pocahontas and John Rolfe.


E.

Escribase

a I dictado

el ejercicio

A.

THE PILGRIMS
Captain John Smith wrote an account of the New World which was eagerly read by a sect of English people called the Puritans. These people did not accept the official reli-

Departure of the Pilgrims from Holland


gion of England;

they had their

own views on how God


had emigrated
tolerant in religious

should be worshiped.
matters, but

Many

of the Puritans

to Holland because the

Dutch were

they were not satisfied to stay in Holland where their children were in danger of losing their national

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

51

language and their English manners and customs. After reading Smith's account of America, the Puritans decided to
emigrate and establish a colony in the
could remain English and worship

New World where they


as they chose.

God

from Holland, going first to England, where they purchased a little ship called the Mayflower. Others, who had remained in England, joined the band; and late in the summer of 1620, they sailed out of the harbor of Plymouth, bound for the New World. There were husbands and wives, boys and girls, and even little babies in the expedition. The sturdy Puritans had become Pilgrims, journeying to a remote land in search of religious freedom. They had no thought of ever returning to England. Whatever might be their lot in far-away America, there they expected to remain and make their homes. After a voyage of many weeks, the little band of pioneers landed upon the bleak shores of Cape Cod, not far from the As they stepped from the little present site of Boston. ship on what is now known as Plymouth Rock, they knelt and solemnly gave thanks to God for their safe arrival. The following day being Monday, the men and the women went
of Puritans set out

The whole band

ashore: the former to find suitable places for building their


log cabins;

the latter, to wash the clothes.

Monday

has

been ever since the national wash-day Crude houses were soon built, and food and fuel stored for the winter. The men who had families were happy and
of America.

but among the bachelors there was a certain Captain Miles Standish, who was lonesome and unhappy because he had no wife. The Captain had fallen in love with Priscilla Mullens, a beautiful maiden. Cannons, bullets, or Indian arrows could not intimidate the brave old warrior; but he dared not face the sparkling eyes of a pretty woman. In despair, he thought of his devoted friend, young John Alden, who might intercede for him with Priscilla.
contented;

52

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


of the old Captain's love for the
tell Priscilla

Upon hearing

young

girl,

John agreed to go and

how

dear she had become

and to ask her to be Mrs. Miles Standish. Poor simple-minded Captain Standish John Alden was a young and handsome bachelor. He spoke to Priscilla so
to the heart of his friend, the Captain,
!

The First TnANKSorviNG


eloquently of love, in behalf of his friend, that the young
girl
self,

coyly but bravely said,

"Why

don't you speak for your-

John?"

What

could a gallant bachelor do?

John did

speak for himself, Priscilla was persuaded, they married, and lived happily ever afterwards. Following a winter of many hardships for the poor Pilgrims,
spring brought

new hope and


cleared,

life

to the discouraged band.

More land was

and crops were planted.

Everybody

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


worked hard

53

all summer; and when harvest time came, there were potatoes, pumpkins, and Indian corn in abundance. The Pilgrims were so thankful for these blessings that they decided to have a big feast day, which they called "ThanksEvery man, woman, and child stopped his giving Day." usual work and prepared for the feast. The women baked pies, and the men hunted game in the forest. The friendly Indians brought in wild turkey and venison. The food was cooked on big fires in the open, and the great feast was spread with much joy and merriment. This first thanksgiving feast took place on the last Thursday in November, and this day is still celebrated in the United States as one of the most important holidays of the year.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Pronunciense

las

-palabras

siguientes

prestando

especial

atencion al sonido de la

(vease el pdrrafo 9):

standing, murdered, yesterday, attended, ended, splendid, idea,


decided, ladies, wonderful, body, widely, order, trade, midnight,

everybody, adopted, children, reading, holiday, middle, muddy,


puddle, Thursday, Alden, London, Indian, Standish

B.

Pronunciense
labor,

las

palabras

siguientes
el

prestando
9).-

especial

atencion al sonido de la b y la g (vease

pdrrafo

tremble,

problem,

husband,

celebrate,

tribe,

grabbed,

everybody, unbound. Jumbo, Cuba, Elizabeth


ago, began, forgot, eagerly, emigrate, beggars, shaggy, wi'iggling.

Thanksgiving, Pilgrims
C.

Pronunciense

las

palabras
el

siguientes

prestando

especial

atencion al sonido de la v (vease

pdrrafo 1);

traveler, love, have, never, marvelous, brave, give, drive, ever,

having, paved, governor, very, vain, river, lived, beloved, rever-

54

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

ently, velvet, invited, captive, convinced, wives, voyage, arrival,

harvest, Virginia, Thanksgiving

D.

Indiquese por medio de signos

ortograficos el sonido de la o

{vease el pdrrafo 13);

gold, not, on, code, rock, spoke,

home, boast, holiday,

colonist,

whole, short, God, John, Rolfe, Florida,

November

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Ohservese la

forma de

la voz

pasiva

y traduzcase

{vease

Regla

XIX):

2. He was 1. Smith's head was placed upon a large stone. bound hand and foot. 3. He was adopted by the tribe. 4. Pocahontas was well received in England. 5. The Mayflower was purchased in England. 6. The clothes were washed on iMonday. 7. They were hung out to dry. 8. Monday has always been considered the wash-day in America.

B.

Substituyanse
XIX):

palabras inglesas por

las

espaiiolas

{vease

la Regla

I. The cow fiie ordenada by the maid. 2. The chair fue rota by Golden Locks. 3. The elephant no sera visto bj;" the blind men. 4. A plan se formo. 5. The plan fue formado by Small Teeth. 6. The Fountain of Youth nunca se encontrard. 7. De Soto se

enterro
9.

in

the Mississippi
se
llevo

River.

8.

Cloaks no
10.

Pocahontas

to

England.

se u.san now. Captain John Smith's


bj^

life se

perdono and he fue acompanado to the colony


se extendio

the Indians.
12.

11.

The cloak

over the puddle of water.

Thanks-

giving se ha celebrado for


1

many

years in the United States.

Repdsense

los

pdrrafos siguientes del


78.

Primer Curso de Ingles:


el

73.

La voz

pasiva, pdgina 81;

Adjetivos positives, comparatives


Substitutes para
reflexivo

y superlatives, pdginas 91-92; espanel, pagina 144.

110.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


C.

55
margen

Llmense
1.

los

espacios con las palabras respectivas del

(vease Regla

XV):
John was not
. . .

good
. .

King
.
.

Alfred.

As, So

2.

The Pilgrim women


Captain Miles John Alden.

well

the

men
.

worked.
brave
. . .

3.

Standish

was

not

Than, Of

4. 5.

John Alden was braver Captain Miles Standish. Priscilla Mullens was the bravest ... all three.
. . .

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
Benjamin Franklin, the great American patriot, probably more toward making the American nation than any other man. He was a great thinker and a tiredid
less

worker.

Since

he

was both an idealist and a practical man, he did much to mold the ideals and opinions of his time. Franklin taught the homely virtues of temperance,
dustry,
frugality,
cleanliness,
in-

and
great
life

tranquillity.

His

object was to

make

worth living and to induce people to be happy and Although he contented.

Bexjamin Franklin

was

chiefly interested in political

and moral questions,

his

scientific

turn of mind caused him to experiment with the

forces of nature.

He

invented

many

useful household con-

trivances,

and

his discoveries in the field of electricity are

56
well

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


known.
His writings are not only remembered on style, but also for their sound and

account of his wonderful


practical teachings.

Franklin will long be remembered for his contribution to American independence. He was sent to France and was able to convince the French people of the justness of the American cause, thus securing both financial and moral support. He wrote the Treaty of Peace between America and England, and his sane advice often steered the 3'oung
republic clear of disasters.

to Philadelphia.
fine spring

very interesting incident is told of Franklin's first ^^sit He was then an ignorant village boy,
of the city.
felt

unaccustomed to the ways


a

morning, he

Upon his arrival on hungry and bought a large


down
the streets, en-

loaf of bread.

As he walked
of the long loaf.

leisurely

joying the sights of the city, he took a bite once in awhile

from one end

He made

that people stopped to look at him.


certain house, a

such a funny picture As he was passing a

the quaintly dressed

young girl came out on the porch. On seeing boy eating bread as he walked along,
Strange to say, this j^oung

she could not help laughing.

lady later became the wife of that same boy.

The

following

is

in Franklin's

own

the well-known story of the whistle, told simple and charming style:
child seven years old,

"When

was a

my
I

holiday, filled

my

pockets with coppers.

friends, on a went at once to

a shop where they sold toys for children. Being charmed with the sound of a whistle that
the

met by

way

in the

hands

of another boy, I

gave
all

all

my money

for one.
I

then came

home and went

whistling

over the house,

much

pleased with

my
it

whistle.

My

brothers and sisters told

me

that

had given four

times as

much

for

as

it

was worth.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

57

They put me in mind of what good things I might have bought with the rest of the money. They laughed at me so much for my folly that I cried with vexation. To think of all this gave me more pain than the whistle gave me pleasure. This, however, was of use to me later. Often when I was tempted to buy something I did not need, I said to myself, 'Don't give too much for the whistle.' Thus I saved my money. As I grew up, came into the world, and observed the actions of men, I thought I met with many, very many, who gave too much for their whistles."

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Justifique.se la silaba

acentuada en las palabras siguientes

(vease el pdrrafo II).-

shav'en, mar'ried, wa'ter, mar'ket, hang'man, butch'er, walk'ing,


fright'ened, gold'en, wood'cut-ter, cel'e-brat-ed, Flor'i-da, beau'tiful, a-cross',

dis-hon'or-able, fru-gal'i-ty, tireless, ques'tion

B.

Dividanse en

silabas
los

palabras siguientes (veanse

y subrdyese la pdrrajos 10 y

silaba acentuada en las


II)."

darker, danger, midnight, Indian, governor, handsome, shoulder,


reverently,
sacrificed,

invited,

gallantry,

unknown,

again,

per-

manent,
quillity,

faithful,

completely, preeminently, ashore, until, tran-

opinion
el

C.
el

Expliquese
sail, girl,

modo

de escribir

el

sonido de

c, f,

I,

s (vease

pdrrafo 8);

calm, back, tobacco, public, looked, chief, well, Potomac, ideal,


bell, all,

rock, kiss, cloak, will, trembles, passes,

if,

off,

stick,

chases

58

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
i

A.

Observese la

manera de expresar en

ingles ciertos reflexivos

espanoles; traduzcase al espanol (vease Regla

XX):
sat

To

SIT

DOWN

(sentarse)

1.

Golden Locks
little

down

in

the

bear's chair.
it all

To EAT UP {comer se) To LIE DOWN (acostarse) To FALL ASLEEP (dormirse) To WAKE UP (despertarse)

2.

3.

4.
5.

She She She She

ate lay

up.
in the big bear's bed.

down
fell

soon

asleep.

woke up when she saw the


of the

three bears.

To JUMP UP
B.
la

(levantarse)

6.

She jumped up and ran out room.

Substituyanse

las palabras espanolas

por inglesas, empleando

forma debida

del verbo del

margen {vease Regla XA^);


blind

To COME NEAR TO To SET TO WORK To BECOME To


SET OUT

L The
2. 3.

men

se

acercaron al elephant.

Everybody se puso a trabajar. John Smith se hizo the leader


colonists.

of

the

4.

The

Pilgrims se pusieron en camino for


se destaca as

America.

To STAND OUT To GO AAV AY To REMAIN To TAKE OFF


C.

5.
6.

De

Soto

a brave explorer.

The Indians
se fueron.

ate with the Pilgrims

and

7. 8.

The

Pilgrims se quedaron in America.


se quito his

Raleigh

cloak and spread

it

on the ground.

EmpUese
to

cada uno de

los

siguientes

modismos en una

oracion:
1.

have

to.

2. 5.

in order to.
in the open.

3. 6.

to be put to death.

4.

to

ask her to marry.


8.

to go and.

7.

to laugh at.
10.

to think of.
11.

9.

to give too

much

for a whistle.

once in

awhile.
1

to think of.
el

Repasese

pdrrafo

siguiente

del

Primer

Curso de

Ingles:

110.

Substitutes para

el reflexive

espanol, pdgina 144.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

59

GEORGE WASHINGTON
George Washington! How the heart of the American boy or girl thrills when that name is mentioned! George
Washington, the great general, the wise statesman, the
father of his country, the hero,
It is

and the man!

easy to imagine his childhood home on a large VirThose old southern plantations were ginia plantation.
really small villages.

The
negro

manor house,
house"
slaves

or the "big

as
called

the
it,

had a

broad veranda supported by massive columns. A fine driveway, bordered by stately trees and from the flowers, led public road to the house. Farther back stood the rows of log cabins, the homes of the negro slaves. Large barns and stables occupied the space in
the rear.
Fertile fields
of tobacco, cotton,

George Washington
all

and grain stretched out on

sides as

far as the eye could reach.

was peaceful and attractive on a plantation. The happy and contented people, looked on their master as an indulgent father. Melodious songs and the twang of the banjo enlivened the long summer evenings, as the negroes danced with childlike abandon. George must have spent a happy childhood in that peaceful environment where guests were made welcome and where
Life
slaves, naturally a

60

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

good cheer abounded. The young man early in Hfe learned to be polite and courteous, hospitable and generous. His father impressed upon him the fact that a gentleman never
lies.

The

following story

is

told of his early

life:

George's father had given him a


lad
his

was using

it

in

grand style

new hatchet, and the cutting down everj-thing in

way. His father had a beautiful cherry tree which he prized very much. George saw it, and wishing to trs' his hatchet on a tree, he cut it down. The father was veiy angry when he saw it, and wanted to know who had cut it

down. ''I cut it down with my new hatchet, father" said young George. "I cannot tell a lie." The schools in the time of Washington were not so good Young George had no or so numerous as they are now. opportunity to become a scholar; but he learned to survey, and afterwards did some of this kind of work for the government. He was a strong, healthy youth, and was veiy fond He was an expert horseman and a of outdoor sports. wonderful swimmer. Washington could hardly fail to be a leader. He had been
accustomed to taking the lead since early childhood. His made him self-reliant and confident of his own ability. When the Revolutionaiy War broke out, he soon became commander-in-chief. Although he had had no military training, his unusual qualities of leadership and his keen desire to see his countiy free, permitted him to lead his small army to victoiy and thus shake off the English
training

yoke. After the war was over, Washington was unanimously


first president of the United States: and well was he able to maintain the dignity essential to that office. At his death in 1799, he was declared by Congress as, "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countiymen."

proclaimed the

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The
old plantation, his beloved

61
lies

on Thousands of loyal Americans visit this shrine yearly to pay tribute to the Father of His Country. But Americans are not the only ones who visit the home of Washington. It has become customary for distinguished foreign visitors to place a wreath of flowers on his tomb.
the southern shore of the beautiful Potomac River.

Mount Vernon,

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Indiquese por medio


el

de sigtios ortogrdficos

el

sonido de la u

(vease

pdirafo 13);

but, such, revolution, republic, crumpled, upon, use, column,

much, thus, youth,

just,

muddy, you,

sun, suggest, introduce, Cuba,

Plymouth
B.

Pronunciense
thousand,

las

siguientes
el

palabras

prestando

especial

atencion al sonido de th (vease


there,
teeth,

pdrrafo 5);
gather,
clothes,

with,

north,

south,

southern, death, everything, path, bathe, neither. Smith, Elizabeth,

Plymouth
C.

Pronunciense

las palabras siguientes que contienen particulas


el

de pronunciacion irregular (vease

pdrrafo 16);
little,

revolution, permission, colonization, exploration,

middle,

Speckles, uncle, whistle, horrible, bring, king, wrong, think, standing, running, killing, lingering, language,

England, Franklin, while,

whatever, why, where, whiskers, whistle, Washington, thankful,

danger

EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
A.

Justifiquese la colocacion de

los

pronomhres complementos
Regla

y traduzcanse
1

las oraciones al espanol (vease


los

XXI):
relatives,

Repdsense

pdrrafos siguientes del


68;

Primer Curso de Ingles:

60.

Pronombres personales, pagina

123.

Pronombres

pagina 160,

62

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

L De Soto brought his wife to Cuba and left her there. 2. The maid saw the smoke above her master's head and dashed water over him. 3. George's father bought a hatchet for his son and gave it to him. 4. George saw the cherry tree and cut it down. 6. The 5. Franklin taught himself temperance and industry. 7. The Indians became blind men quarreled among themselves. friends of the colonists and often gave the7n corn and game.
B.
1.

Traduzcase
{'persona)
4.

al ingles (vease

Regla

XXI):

Le manana.
capa.
9.

lo trajeron.

Le hablo a el. 3. Lo escribi esta Le hablo a ella. 5. Los puse en la cama. 6. ]Me 8. El joven se compro una 7. Los ciegos no se ven.
veo.
2.

La mujer
derribo
el

del lehador le dio el hacha.


cerezo.
12.

10.

Ella se la dio.

n. Jorge
C.

Jorge

lo derribo.

Justifiquese la

forma

del 'pronombre relativo,

y traduzcanse

las oraciones al espanol {vease


1.

Regla

XXII):
2.

This

is

the house that Jack built.


3.

This

is

the maid that

milked the cow.


4.

This

is

the old

woman who

raised her stick.


5.

The

bears,

who were out taking a walk, soon returned.


6.

girl

whom

her mother loved best was Golden Locks.

The know

what the

little

bear said.

7.

The

story of the whistle, ichich you


8.

have read, was written by Franklin. was told was Franklin himself.

The boy

of ichom^ the story

D.

Llenense

los

espacios con

el

pronombre

relativo

adecuado

(vease Regla
1.

XXII):
. . .

could not tell a lie. 2. The Washington was the boy I speak came from England. cloak 3. Raleigh, was draped around his shoulders, met the queen on the Strand. felt of the elephant said he was just like a 4. The first beggar the second beggar said ? 6. De Soto wall. 5. Do you know and his men came upon a river was very wide. 7. They built John Smith a boat in ... to cross the river. 8. Pocahontas,
Puritans of ...
. . . . . . . . .

took to England, married there.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

63

ABRAHAM LINCOLN
hved

Abraham Lincoln's parents were Kentucky pioneers who far away from the civihzed world. As a boy he had to
of the comforts of

help his father clear the land, and plant and tend the crops.

His father's cabin was primitive, with few modern life. Lincoln's mother taught him to
read;

but since there

was no school within miles, he had to study at home, borrowing all the books owned by his neighbors. There was not even a lamp
in the cabin.

Sticks of
piled high
fireplace,

wood were
in the

open

and he read by the


If he fire. wished to take notes on what he was reading, he had to write on bark. His pen was a wild turkey feather,

light of the

Abraham Lincoln

and

his ink the juice of

wild berries.
to read

Young

Lincoln's desire for an education

was

not understood by his father, but the young

man

continued

and study when not

at work.

After the family had

moved

manner and finally became a lawyer. Due to his ability as a pubHc speaker, he soon became known throughout the state of Illinois.
to Illinois, he studied law in this

Lincoln lived at the time

when

the question of slavery

64

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

issue between the North and the South. His sympathetic insight, coupled with his superior abihty, caused him to take sides against slavery. His views were

was the supreme

magnetic that he became People knew they could trust this rugged man from the wilderness. When Lincoln was elected President, the South seceded from the Union and set up a separate government. He did not make war upon the South until he was forced to do so. His big heart recoiled from bloodshed. Lincoln knew that the South was acting in good faith, admitting that the only reason slavery was not practiced in the North was because it had not been found profitable there. All through the war period (1861-1865), Lincoln's calm judgment directed affairs. Lesser men were jealous of hini. Never was a man more sorely tried. The whole burden of the nation rested upon his shoulders. His heart was wTung with anguish on account of the sufferings he was forced to inflict upon his brothers of the South in order to insure future peace and prosperity to his country. At last he was forced to abohsh slavery in order to conquer the rebelhous
so sound,

and

his personality so

the national leader of the Republican Party.

states.

After the South was conquered, Lincoln tried to

amends

for the suffering of the people.

man
to

to take advantage of his victory.

make He was too great a He granted amnesty


all

all,

and

tried to pass a

law providing that

slave-

holders should be paid for the loss of their slaves.


Lincoln's clear emphatic English style, as well as his kindly sympathetic heart, may be seen in the following quotation of a part of his second inaugural address: "With malice toward none; with charity to all; with

firmness in the right, as


nation's wounds;

God

gives us to see the right,


to bind

let

us strive on to finish the work we are in;


to care for

up the

him who

shall

have borne the

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


battle,

65
all

and

for his

widow and
all

his

orphan

to do

which

may

achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace

among

ourselves,

and with

nations."

What

a pity that our great hero could not live to carry


Just

out his noble plans!

when

his efforts

were crowned

with success, he was assassinated by a cowardly demon, as he sat in a theater in Washington. The whole nation,

North and South, mourned

his loss.

The South

suffered

the consequences of his untimely death, for no one else

was either able or inclined to do what he surely would have done during those terrible days of reconstruction.

EJERCICIOS DE PRONUNCIACION
A.

Prommciense

las
t,

palabras
k, g, p,

siguientes
b, finales

prestando

especial
el

atencion al sonido de

d,

de silaba (vease

pdrrafo 6);
lived, cake, get, milk, beg,

make,

first,

band, died, back, spread,


settle,

pipe,

smoke, ready, handsome, puddle,

tobacco,

captain,

capture, hardship, woodcutter. Speckles

B.

Pronunciense

las palabras siguientes prestando especial atenel

cion al sonido de las comhinaciones de consonantes (vease


rrafo 19);

pd-

grab, blind, flopping, tree, cloak, free, clothes, brought, bread,

brother, thrills, proclaim, declare, treated, whistle, flower, blessings,


pleadings, Pilgrims, Alfred, Franklin
she, shaven, stile,
still,

state, story, spare, space,

smoke, sneaked,

ship,

hardships, ashore, spring, spread, stressed, school, shrine,

Speckles, Strand, Smith, Spanish, Standish

C.

Pronunciense
jumped,

las palabras siguientes

prestando especial ateni

cion al sonido de la

j y de

la

g seguida de una e o una

(vease

el

pdrrafo 3);
just,

juice, justly,

judgment,

large, huge, legend, imagine,

village,

voyage, gentlemen, danger, Benjamin, George, Virginia

66

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


EJERCICIOS DE GRAMATICA
i

A.

Empleese

el

articulo

indeterminado

cuando sea necesario

(vease Regla
1.

XXIII):
.
. .

John's father was

lawyer;
day.

he was
. . .

good lawyer
3.

too.

2.

Lincoln's father

was

pioneer and
.

very poor man.

The

lad often
.
. .

worked ten hours


5.
.

4.

Indians.

Lincoln
. .

could
in
is

not
fact
. . .

Pocahontas' parents were read book day.


.

6.

De
.

Soto was
7.

explorer;

both Spaniards were


spear.
8.

explorers.
is
.
.

The elephant
he
is

like
9.

The elephant
. .

animal;

not

man.

Walter Raleigh was not


.

knight B.

when he met Queen Elizabeth but she made him


el

knight.

Empleese
2.

articulo

determinado

cuando

sea

necesario

(vease Regla
1.

XXIV):
.
. .

Franklin's and Lincoln's mastery of

English was wonder.

ful.

Franklin taught
3.

the

virtues

of
. .

tranquillity
4.
.

and
.

industry.

The Pilgrims worked on


like
6.

Monday.
. .

girls

and

play. 5. Sir Walter Raleigh was an Captain Miles Standish lost IMiss Priscilla Mr. John Alden married her. 7. flowers are Mullens; winter and in summer. S. Spanish language beautiful in and English language are two most important languages

boys Englishman.
.

to
.

in

world.
.
.

or to

Did the Pilgrims emigrate to South America ? 10. Did they emigrate
9.
.

North America
.
.

last

century

C.
1

Escrihase
los

ol dictado el pdrrafo de esta leccion citado de Lincoln.

Repdsense

pdrrafos siguientes del

indeterminado, pagina del articulo determinado, pdgina 1S6.


133.
articulo

Usos del

Primer Curso de Ingles: ISO; 135. Omision

PART TWO
THE TWO AMERICAS
is

The western hemisphere, the land of the two Americas, the home of two different racial stocks: the English and

the Hispanic.

In all this vast territory, reaching from the Arctic Ocean on the north to the Antarctic on the south, two principal
languages are spoken.
English
is

the language of the people

who

live

north of the Rio Grande, and Spanish that of the


of this river, except the Brazilians,

people

who live south who speak Portuguese.

As might be expected, different customs and ideals have developed on opposite sides of the Rio Grande. The racial English-speaking heritage of each group was different. America got its ideals and its philosophy chiefly from the
Anglo-Saxon
race, while Spanish-speaking

America inherited

Hispanic standards and values.

In ancient times these two racial stocks lived far apart and had little opportunity of coming in contact with each
other, but for the last three centuries they

have lived side

by

side.

Strange as

it

may

seem, the two Americas, living

on the opposite shores of a shallow river, only recently have begun to get acquainted with each other. Each America has had more contact with Europe than with its nearest
neighbor.

understandings

Ignorant of each other^s language, serious misconcerning mutual problems have often

resulted between the

two Americas.
67

This barrier of lan-

guage has made

it

impossible for either group to

know what

68

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


in the territory of the other.

was going on

Knowing

practi-

each other's historical background and it has been an easy matter for each to be unsjniipatraditions, thetic and even hostile to the other's aims and purposes.
cally nothing

of

Due

to

some grave mistakes

in the past

on the part

of

the United States, Spanish-America has become suspicious


of the attitude of its northern neighbor.

Misled by exag-

gerated reports of a few unfortunate revolutions in the southern republics, some people in the United States doubt the

capacity of their southern neighbors to govern themselves.

In spite of mutual misunderstandings and lack of cooperation,

each America has

in the world's history

made great progress. At no time have there been such a development of

natural resources, such astonishing increase in population,

such rapid strides of progress as have been witnessed in the western hemisphere during the last one hundred and
years.
fifty

Judging from this unprecedented progress, as well as from the unrivaled opportunities for further growth and expansion, the western hemisphere bids fair to exert an even greater influence in the twentieth century than it has in the It is quite probable that the historian of the future past. wiU be concerned largely with the affairs of this western
half of the world.

The

history of the past has

shown

clearly that jealousies,

rivalries,

and wars are

fatal to progress.

In order to insure

a glorious future, the twt) Americas must work hand in hand.

Each has now reached a point of development that makes cooperation imperative. The interest of one is the interest
of the other.
their expansion

Neither can longer disregard the other.

In

and growth the two have met, and must now

deal with each other, either as brothers or as enemies. The time has come for the youth of both groups to shake off this

attitude of suspicion and mistiiist, and

Some

of the traditions, legends,

work together. and history of the Eng-

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


lish-speaking half of this territory have been presented.

69

The

only purpose of the following chapters is to acquaint the young men and women of Spanish-speaking America with
the present state of progress of the United States, with the

hope that knowledge

this

knowledge, coupled with their increased

of English,

may make them

effective factors in

helping to break

down

this barrier of racial prejudices

and

bring about an era of mutual cooperation.

CUESTIONARIO
1.

Which hemisphere
4.

is

the land of the two Americas


3.

2.

What
is

languages are spoken in this hemisphere?


English spoken?

In what part

In what part is Spanish spoken? 5. WTiy have different customs developed on opposite sides of the Rio

Grande?
ferences?
8.

6.

Was

there a valid reason in the past for these dif-

7.

Why

have

serious

misunderstandings

resulted?

Why

has Spanish-America become suspicious of the United

States? 9. Why has the United States come to believe that the Spanish-American republics cannot govern themselves? 10. In what way has each progressed? 11. Why do you think that the historians of the future will be concerned largely with the affairs 12. What will insure a glorious future ? of the western hemisphere ?

should the two groups now shake off this attitude of susand mistrust? 14. What is the purpose of the following chapters of this book? 15. Do you think that a knowledge of the traditions, legends, and the history of English-speaking America
13.

Why

picion

will

differences?

be effective in helping to break down this barrier of racial 16. Will a knowledge of the progress of the United
?

States also help

REPASO
Tell the story of the folloiving:
Sir Walter Raleigh. Captain John Smith and Pocahontas.

The

Pilgrims.

70

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

TERRITORIAL EXPANSION OF THE UNITED STATES


A
bird's-eye view of the United States shows the great

Rocky Mountain system composed of parallel ranges stretching along the western coast from Canada to Mexico. Along
the eastern part, several miles back from the sea, extends

a lower range known as the Appalachian Mountains. Between these two mountain systems lies the great central For basin, which is drained by the Mississippi River. hundreds of miles on each side of this river, from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico, lie vast rolling prairies and rich grassy plains. This favored region, once the domain of savage Indians and wild animals, is now the home of a happy, pros-

perous people.

When the American colonies secured their independence from the mother country in 1783, they occupied only a narrow strip of land extending along the Atlantic Ocean from the northern boundary of Maine to the southern boundary
to the Mississippi River on the west, but that part lying north of the Ohio River was in dispute. Soon thereafter this disputed northof

Georgia.

This territory reached

central region

was

settled

by American

colonists

and became

a part of the young republic.

The Louisiana

territory, including that part of the great

central basin lying west of the Mississippi River, w^as pur-

chased from France in 1803.


the existing territory and
colonists

This new acquisition doubled made room for thousands of new who came flocking to this new land from various
countries.

European

In 1819 Spain sold Florida to the United States. In 1845 Texas, which had been an independent republic for about ten years, was admitted into the union on the

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

71

ground that it was now the home of Enghsh-speaking people who had settled there from the American colonies. War was declared by Mexico, at the close of which Mexico was forced to sell to the United States, for fifteen millions of dollars, all her territory west of Texas to the Pacific Ocean. The territory north of California was claimed both by Great Britain and by the United States. In 1846 a treaty was made, which fixed the forty-ninth parallel of latitude as the boundary between the two countries. Alaska was purchased from Russia in 1867, and the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico were ceded by Spain in 1898. The Hawaiian Republic was annexed in 1898. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia and ceded to the United States a strip of land ten miles wide on which to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. The Virgin Islands were bought from Denmark in 1917. A few small islands in the Pacific Ocean complete the territory of the United States. It is believed by the more substantial American people that further territorial expansion would be unwise. As a matter of fact, the wisdom of the more recent territorial acquisitions has been gravely questioned by many. Eventually the jurisdiction of the United States over the Philippine Islands will be relinquished.

CUESTIONARIO
1.

Where

are the

Rocky Mountains?

2.

What
3.

is

the range extending along the eastern coast?


higher of the two mountain systems?
central basin?
is

the name of Which is the


is

4.

Where
6.

the great

5.

What

river

drains it?

the United States bounded on the

By what north? On the


the
original

country

south?

7.

When

did the colonies secure their independence from Great


8.

Britain?
9.

What was

the

extent

of

territory?

Did that part

of the great central basin lying north of the

Ohio

72

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


11.
it ? 10. What was the extent of From whom was Florida obtained?

River form a part of


territory?

the Louisiana
12.

How

did

the United States acquire Texas?

was the boundary between the United States and Canada decided? 14. When and from whom was Alaska purchased? 15. How were the Philippine 16. Where are the Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico acquired? 17. How was the title to the Canal Zone obIslands located ?
13.

How

tained

18.
19.

States?

What What

is is

the latest territorial acquisition to the United the belief of the more substantial American
?

people regarding further territorial expansion

20.

What
?

is

the

attitude toward the liberation of the Philippine Islands

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES


type, which

The government means

of the

United States

is

of the federal

that the various states composing the

Union have surrendered

their rights of sovereignty and have covenanted with one another to form a strong central government. The Constitution of the United States specifies the powers and the duties of the Federal Government. The three branches of the Federal Government are the executive,

Each branch is wholly independent of the other two. Before setting forth the functions of each of the three branches of the Federal Government, it might be well to say something about the two political parties that compete with each other for supremacy. These parties are known as the Democratic party and the Republican party, each of which tries to elect its candidates for the various offices from the presidency down to the most insignificant local office. It is hard to say just what each party stands for, because their detailed policies change from year to year. The Republican party has always favored a high protective tariff. and the Democratic party has just as conisistentty opposed
the legislative, and the judicial.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

73

such a tariff. In the days of Lincoln, the Repubhcan party opposed the extension of slavery into the new states then being admitted into the Union. The Civil War strengthened party lines between the North and the South, the latter being prevailingly democratic and the former largely republican.

Each political party nominates a candidate for president and one for vice-president. After a few months of intensive

The White House


campaigning, the election
directly for the president
is

held.

The people do not vote

who

in turn elect

and vice-president, but for electors the two candidates of their respective
is

parties.

Each

state

allowed a certain
its

number
If

of electoral
tries

votes depending upon


to elect its

population;

and each party

own

electoral candidates.

the Republicans

win in any one state, the votes cast for the nominees will be only those of the Republican electors that state so voting The party that polls the is said to have gone Republican.
;

74

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

majority of electoral votes wins the national election. Once the election is over, party lines are forgotten and the President
is

supported by the adherents of both parties.


resides in

The President
set aside for the

home

of the

Washington in a beautiful palace head of the nation. As chief


His views on national

executive of a great nation, the President has to decide

many
of the

questions of vital importance.

affairs are

broadcast over the country;

and

as

spokesman

United States, he also exerts a great influence in foreign

The President is assisted in the discharge of his by a cabinet of ten members chosen by him and reEach of these cabinet members, sponsible to him only. called Secretaries, is in charge of an executive department. The legislative department is vested in the National Congress, which is composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators elected by direct vote for a term of six years, and in the House of Representatives by a proportionate number of representatives, elected for a term of two years, allotted
countries.

duties

to the various states on the basis of their population.


gress

Con-

makes the laws that concern the United States as a nation. Every proposed law, known as a bill, must pass both houses and then be signed by the President before it actually becomes a law. The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, which This court is composed of nine judges appointed for life.
is

the final court of appeals in


is

all

cases in which the United

States

a party concerned.

Congress

may

pass a law which

may be
Each

declared unconstitutional

by the Supreme Court.


maintains
is

of the forty-eight states

its

own

local

government modeled

after the Federal

Government.

chief executive officer of the state

the governor.

maintains a state congress and a supreme court.

The Each The

school systems are wholly under the jurisdiction of the states.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

75

No

state

is

allowed to

make

a treaty with any other state


states are not sover-

or with

any foreign power, because the

eign powers.

For many years after the treaty of peace in 1783 acknowledging the United States free and independent, the central

government was based on a loosely-knit agreement known as Each state granted such powers as it saw fit to the central government. Such an organization was soon found to be ineffective because the central government had no power to enforce its decisions. A constitution was drawn up and ratified by the various states and has since been the final authority in all governmental matters. At the time of its adoption, it was undecided whether the Federal
the Articles of Confederation.
or the states should be supreme. The secession Southern States in 1861 and their forced re-entry into the Union in 1865 decided once for all that the Federal Government is supreme. No state has the right to secede because the Union is an inseparable one.

Government
of the

CUESTIONARIO
1.

What

is

a federal type of government?


3.

2.

What

does the

Constitution specify?

Federal Government
for?
5.

4.

What are What does

the three branches of the

the Democratic party stand


6. 7.

What

does the Republican party stand for?

What

strengthened party lines just before the Civil

many electoral votes is mean to say that a certain


does the President live?

each state allowed


11.

War? 8. What
10. 12.

How
it

does

state has gone democratic ?

Where
do
are the

What

are his duties?


13.

Why
is

the President's views exert great influence?

What

members of the Cabinet called ? 14. What department sented by the National Congress ? 15. How are the
elected
?

repre-

senators

16. 17.

How many
is

representatives are elected from each


18.

state?

What

the Supreme Court?


?

What

is

the chief

executive officer of each state called

19.

Why may

a state not

76
make a

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


treaty with another state or nation?
21. 20.

What were

the

Articles of Confederation?

Why
is

did they not succeed so well

as the Constitution ?

22.

Which

supreme, the Federal Govern-

ment

or the states ?

DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
The
fertile

colonists

who pushed on westward

into the

more

lands west of the Appalachian Mountains had to

on horseback, for there was not even a wagon road. Pack horses carried the few articles absolutely necessary Later, roads were for their new homes in the wilderness. built across the mountains, but the East was still a long distance from these new settlements. Life west of the mountains was on a very primitive scale. All the clothes for the family had to be manufactured in the home. Food for the winter had to be put up during the summer. There was little time for leisure and culture. a railroad was built In 1830 a great event took place and found practicable as a means of transportation. By the year 1840, other lines had been constracted and the mileage had increased to 2816. More than one line connected the Mississippi Valley with the older states on the Atlantic coast. The effect of the railroads as a factor in the development of the country was quickly realized. Fanners no longer had to send their products down to New Orleans and thence by sea to New York City. Carloads of w^heat, corn, and livestock were easily shipped east, and manufactured products were brought back. The home, relieved of the drudgery of preparing clothes and storing food, became a place of more culture and education. Travel and schooling in the East made it possible for the sons and daughters of the Middle west to be as cultured and refined as their eastern
travel

neighbors.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

77

By the year 1850, all the best land east of the Mississippi River had been settled, and all these territories had been admitted into the Union as states. New immigrants from the older countries and restless colonists from the older
states

now had

to seek

homes

in the territory west of this

great river.
in a

In 1848 gold was discovered in California, and


gold seekers had crossed the endless prairies,

few years California had enough people to become a

state.

The

desert

wastes,
It

and high

mountains

in

the

old

prairie

schooners.

took months to reach California by such

means.

The first mail service to the west coast was kno^vn as the Pony Express. A rider with a small pouch of mail would travel as fast as his pony could cany hmi to the end of a
where another horse was ready and awaiting him. up this procedure for a whole day, at the end of which another rider would take the mail pouch and proceed in the same manner on the following day. News of the wonderful riches to be reaped in California stimulated so much immigration there that the building of a railroad was agitated. On account of the great distance and natural barriers, it was thought that the plan would However, in 1864 work was begun at not be practicable. both ends of the line. Small settlements sprang up at the construction camps along the route, and these have become In 1869 the final connecting link of this large cities now. great railroad was finished at Ogden, Utah, and the fu'st through train from the East to the West passed over. This was a great day in American history. Distance had been eliminated, and the West was no longer isolated from the East. Rapid growth of the territories into states took place
fixed run,

The

rider kept

along this connecting link.

Other trunk
the

lines

were

built,

West too became

centers of activity

and soon the better parts of and life. Railroads

78

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

have multiplied from that time on, until the whole United States is now a vast network of connecting lines. At the more than one-third present time, the mileage is 250,222

of the total mileage of the world.

American trains are famous for their speed and comfort. sleepers, diners, and everything that is conducive to comfort. The trip from the Atlantic Ocean to the

They carry

Courtesy of Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad

A
Pacific can
eler is

Passenger Train of To-day


in less

now be made
modern

than

five days,

and the trav-

not subjected to any more discomfort than he would


city hotel.

suffer in a

While commercial transportation by airplane is still in its infancy, it is only a question of tune when this more rapid means of transportation will be highly developed.

daily transcontinental mail service

is

now

maintained.

which would have taken a Pony Express rider weeks to deliver, can be mailed in New York Citj' in the morning and be delivered in San Francisco the following day.
letter,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Hand
in

79

the truck,
are

hand with the perfection has gone the improvement

of the

of the

automobile and highways. The

routes that were once dotted with the old prairie schooner

now lined with countless automobiles. Huge trucks wend their way from city to city, carrying what is needed
in

one locality from

its

place of production to the other, and


first

bringing back what the

lacks

and needs.
life

Some

one has said that one of the greatest riddles of

Everything seems is the universal need of transportation. it is not needed. Since civihzation began, to be found where man has been busily engaged in moving the products of nature and those of his own activity from places where they abounded to other localities where they were scarce.

CUESTIONARIO
How did the first colonists cross the Appalachian Mountains ? Why was life west of the mountains so primitive in the early days? 3. Why were the railroads such a great factor in the
1
.

2.

railroads

development of the country? have on home life?


6.

4.
5.

of the California territory?

What effect did the building of What caused the rapid growth What were the earlier means of
W^hat was the Pony Express?
9.

transportation to California?
8.

7.

Why was a transcontinental railroad not built sooner ?

What

was the origin of many of the large cities of the West ? 10. Why was the completion of the first transcontinental raihoad such a great event? IL What is the present mileage of American railroads ? 12. What can be said of American trains ? 13. Why is it
probable that the airplane will play a great part in future transportation
?

14.

Why have
?

travel

and transportation by means

of

the automobile and the truck increased so materially during the

present century
16.

15.

What

is

one

of the greatest riddles of life ?


17.
?

Where do

the products of nature seem to be found?


civilization

In

what has man been busily engaged since

began

80

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

INDUSTRIES
have already seen how the first industries developed home. Even before adequate means of transportation were perfected, the various industries were becoming speciahzed. A farmer, who could make better plows than his neighbors, would make more plows than he needed for his own use, which he would exchange for some such article as furniture, because the latter was perhaps better made by
in the

We

New England Cotton


a neighbor.

Mills

In large families, clothing could be made to Gradually these home industries grew into small local factories. Wlien the railroads made it possible to buy everything needed from the place where it could be most economically produced, the factories in such localities grew very rapidly. The workers soon had to devote all their time to making the one thing that suited them best. New England, on account of its water power, early became the favored location of most manufacturing plants. The
advantage.
soil of

New

England was too poor to be farmed with

profit.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


On

81

the contrary, the soil of the Mississippi Valley was rich, and farming proved most profitable. There is still a tendency to locate factories near water power; but with the development of electric power, which can be cheaply transmitted and used where living conditions are more satisfactory, a great deal of manufacturing is now

done in

all

the

cities.

Some

industries

are

instance, the meat-packing business

almost necessarily localized. For is centered in Chicago,


City.

with branches in

Omaha and Kansas

Philadelphia

has specialized in the manufacture of railroad and electric Iron and coal are both found in cars, engines, and motors.
close proximity to Philadelphia,

and the

first

steel plants

were located there. The same conditions prevail around the Great Lakes, where nearly all the automobiles are made. On the Pacific coast, lumber and fishing are important industries.

Many

cotton factories are

now

being built in the

South where cotton is raised, the water power being as adequate as in New England. In the Middlewest many agricultural implements are manufactured to be used on the nearby farms. Mining occupies the attention of a highly trained group of workers. Coal is plentiful in the greater part of the whole Iron is found in paying of the Appalachian Mountains. quantities in the region around the Great Lakes. Copper mining is a rather important industry in a few scattered regions, and lead is worked to advantage in others. In the Rocky Mountains, rich deposits of gold and silver are found. It is more expensive to mine gold and silver than it is to mine any other mineral, because they are found at greater
depth.
Oil
is

one of the newest and

mineral product.

The

increase in the

now the most important number of automobiles,

and

of other

machinery using gasoline engines, has caused

82

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


rich oil fields to be developed within the last

few found in Texas, Wyoming, and California. Wells are bored, sometimes to the depth of five thousand feet, and the oil usually gushes forth under Pipe lines conduct the crude oil for hunits own pressure.
years.

many

The best-paying

fields are

dreds of miles to the refineries.


Agriculture leads
all

other industries in the United States.

from the farms of the East and South. the soil is poor. Here a variety of small crops pays better than one single crop. The Government has helped the small farmers to learn better methods of seed selection, crop rotation, proper fertilization, selection and care of adequate farm machinery, and riddance of insect pests. Each state also maintains its own agricultural college where young
half of the entire population gets its hving
of the small
soil.

About

On some

men

are trained to

become
it

scientific farmers.

raise only

In some one crop. the Northwest, wheat crop. In


sections,

has been found more profitable to In the Middlewest, corn is the principal
is

more productive.

In the In such

South, cotton has always been the leading crop.


sections,

farming

is

on a larger

scale.

Specialists for this

particular crop are engaged to plan the work, select the seed,

and to market the product. All the most unproved types of machinery for the particular crop are used, and approved business methods are followed. The whole United States is a land of work. Eveiybody works, and most everybody seems to enjo}^ it. The honest laborer does his work contentedly during the day, and at night goes home to his family to enjoy the good things of life. Regulated conditions of labor insure him sufficient wages and ample time to partake of what an honest man is
entitled to.

The ambition

of such a

man

is

to

fit

his children

than was his humble lot. The second generation of such a family practically always counts
to
in a higher circle

move

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


among
sional
its

83
and
profes-

members

lawyers, doctors, business

men who owe their education and training to the efforts


and industrious parents
of the

of conscientious

working

class.

CUESTIONARIO
1.

How

did the various industries become specialized

2.

Why
?

did factories grow


3.

4.

Why was New Why were factories


5.
6.

up in certain localities and not England the favored location of


not
located
at
first

in

others

factories ?

in

the

Middleall

west?
cities ?
7.

What

has recently permitted manufacturing in

the

Why is the meat-packing industry centered in Chicago ?

Why has Philadelphia devoted itself to the manufacture of cars and engines? 8. Why has the region around the Great Lakes become an automobile manufacturing center ? 9. Why have many cotton factories been moved from New England to the South? 10. Why are agricultural implements manufactured in the Middlewest? 11. Why is mining done by trained workers? 12. Give the principal regions where each mineral is found in quantities
sufficient to

warrant
14.
15.

its

exploitation?

13.

Why

is

gold mining
oil

expensive?
industry
?

What has caused the What percentage of the


is

recent increase in the

people of the United States

earn their living from the soU?

where the
farmers
19.
?

How

16. Hov\^ is farming carried on poor? 17. How has the Government aided 18. How is farming carried on where one crop is grown ? does the honest laborer do his work? 20. What is his
soil

ambition

SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS


Even though
busy, they
after the
still

the people of the United States are very-

have time to play.

They play
play
is

just as

hard

as they work.

It is their belief that

only enjoyed

play

is

just as

accomplishment of some worthy work, but that important as work. One hears less said about
it is

play because

less

necessary to urge

its

pursuit.

84

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

university,

In the schools, from the elementary school through the there are departments of organized athletics.

is the national game. Little boys play it from the day they are in school. The best players are selected for the team that will compete with a rival school team. The high-school team of one town plays against all the other teams of its section, and the winning teams of the various sections compete with each other for the state championship.

Baseball
first

In the universities, the organization


the high schools.
of their

is

similar to that of

Competing

universities select the players

teams with a great deal of care, and train them championship may be theirs. Football, basketball, and track meets are other forms of organized athletics both in the high school and in the
diligently so that the coveted

university.

Group

athletics is not confined to schools.

Towns

vie

with each other for championships.


rival industry.

group of workers in

any industry often form a team and challenge the team of a American institutions are very proud of their
organized athletics, because each player
is

taught to forget

himself as an individual and use his utmost efforts for the

good of the team. Other sports of a social nature are skating, dancing, and picnicking, in most of which the young and the old of both sexes take part when they feel inclined. The various clubs and fraternities are social in nature. Nearly every man, woman, and child belongs to some club that offers him social
recreation suitable to his needs.

The cities and towns maintain public parks and playgrounds for the amusement and edification of the people. These include gymnastic equipment for all ages, athletic
fields,

The
their

and swimming pools. sports and games of grown-up people depend upon taste as well as upon their profession. For a man who

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


works
all

85

day in a factory, a game of golf would not be pracbut it is very suitable for a business or a professional man who spends the entire day at his desk. The daily recreation of most business men, when the day's work is over, is
tical;

an automobile

ride into the country with their families.

'After dinner, the tired business

man may

perhaps go to the

Brown

Brothers

Athletic Exhibition Given by Public School Children of Tacoma, Washington club for a chat and a
evening, the family
late supper.

smoke with

his friends.

Later in the

may

attend the theater or the movies.

After the show, they will probably go to a restaurant for a

ments.

most sports and amuseindependent and self-reliant. She is usually rather versatile in her accomplishments. She can drive a car, build a camp fire, attend to her father's business, cook a good meal, dance and entertain like the
Girls as well as boys take part in

The American

girl is

86
lady she

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

is. Her view point of life is sane and wholesome. She has been trained to consider herself man's equal; and she expects later to be some good man's life partner, sharing equally in his responsibilities and in his joys. Outdoor life and athletic sports have not destroyed that tender femininity Having been that makes her charming and attractive. given her rights, she is no longer forced to fight surreptitiously for them. It is harder to generalize about the recreation usually indulged in by wives and mothers. For them the home, with its many duties and the upbringing of children, occupies a greater part of their attention, but most of them find time to take part in chm'ch and social activities too. There are various activities instituted and managed by the young

matrons, that not only bring recreation to the participants but also influence pubhc opinion and communitj^ welfare.

Although there

is still

a strong tendency for the younger

members

and amusement home and away from paternal care, there is a movement to make the home itself the center of social intercourse. To this end the home is fitted up with the proper
of the family to seek recreation

outside the

facilities for parties

and dances, practically alwaj's including

a radio

set.

In addition to daily amusements, ahnost everj^body looks forward to a few weeks during the course of the year when all business is laid aside and the whole time is spent in
recreation.

This vacation period

is

usually spent at the sea-

Long trips are made in autoHiking, fishing, mobiles, the whole family camping out. and hunting are indulged in. If the family goes to the seashore, the vacation will take on a more formal aspect. Bathing, saihng, horseback riding, playing golf and tennis will be the order of the day, but dances, lectures, concerts and
shore or in the mountains.

shows

will

fill

the evenings.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


CUESTIONARIO
1.

87

"\^Tien

do the Americans play?


3.

2.

Why
game?

does one hear


4.

less

about play?
players of a

What
? 6.

is

the national
?

How

are the

team

selected

5.

How

are state high-school

cham-

pionships decided
7.

What are other types

of organized athletics ?

is America proud of its organized atldetics? 8. What some other sports of a social nature? 9. What functions do 10. What determines the sports of grownthe public parks have ? up people? 11. What is the usual recreation of a business man? 12. What can the average American girl do ? 13. What is the 14. Wliat has been done usual recreation of a wife or a mother ?

Why

are

to cause the
in the

home ?

younger members of the family to seek their recreation 15. Where and how are summer vacations spent ?

CUSTOMS AND MANNERS


The different customs and manners of the people of the two Americas have been one of the chief causes of their lack of mutual sympathetic understanding. It is not a question of deciding whose standards are better. The people of Spanish-America seem to be satisfied with their standards and values, and it is not for the North Americans to try to urge the Spanish-Americans to abandon what they have found suited to their own particular needs. The origin of customs and manners goes back to very remote times. Most of the conventions daily observed by the white races are the heritage of European ancestry. Handshaking, hfting the hat on meeting, the laws of hospitality, deference to ladies, modes of dress, and a host of other similar observances hark back to the days of chivalry. The reason
for the observance of

many

of these cannot

even be learned

now.

The Spanish conquerors

carried with

them overseas the

accepted modes of social intercourse that had prevailed for

88

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The English

explorers and colonizers and established English standards in the American colonies. These standards, different even at that time, have for the past three hundred years been growing more and more divergent. The more rigorous chmate has made the North American more brusque in his manner. The less strenuous life of the Spanish-American has given him more time to devote to the formal side of social observ^ances. Many Spanish-Americans have been inclined to call the North American impolite and rude because of his brusque
centuries in Spain.
likewise brought over

manner.

To one who

has been trained in doing things in

it does seem a breach of etiquette on the street without lifting one's hat, shaking hands, and engaging in a friendly chat. Perhaps the North American does overemphasize the pressure of time. Maybe he would get along just as well if he did not take hunself so seriously. But North Americans do not grate on one another's nerves by their disregard of what

a more leisurely manner,


to hurry past friends

they consider useless forms. In refusing to observe them they have turned their attention to the observance of other things which they consider of more importance. If an American is on his way to an appointment, he will not keep
his friend or business associate waiting while

he chats wath

acquaintances he meets on the street.

most discourteous thing he can do to him. If some one asks him a favor he says ''no" when he has no intention of granting the request, with the result that a person may know that he can rely on it when he does
say "yes."
In business deals the American goes straight to the point without formalities, believing that each party considers such
formalities
senseless
real courtesy in business is best

He considers it the make any one wait for

representation of

and burdensome. He believes that shown by a clear and fair the matter at issue, and a conscientious

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


effort to please his

89

customer by providing him most economiwhat corresponds to his particular need at the time. The North American has been accused of being too materialistic, of forgetting culture and the finer things of hfe in his
cally with
It is true that the

quest of material comforts.

people of the

United States do love the comforts of life; they want to own their own homes fitted up with all modem conveniences. They like to earn enough money to enable their families to enjoy all the luxuries that only money can buy. They like to accumulate enough to insure their children the best possible advantages. They have come to believe that real culture in the twentieth century is impossible without this materiBut it is unfair to say that their alistic basis of support. philosophy of life is based on material things alone. To them material blessings are only a necessary foundation for higher
values.

The North American


to

prides himself on being deferential

women and

cites as a

convincing proof of

it

that he has

accepted them as his co-workers and equals.


gentlemen, accords to
the extreme that would

He,

like all

woman
make
it

special privileges

and

pref-

erences due to her sex, but he refrains from carrying this to

fulsome and insincere.

The

average American woman does not like to be considered a fragile toy. She expects a gentleman to rise when she enters
the room, to take off his hat

when meeting her on the street and this the North American is glad to do on account of woman's more delicate refinement and inherent feminine
charm.

He

gives his seat to a lady in a public conveyance,


is

not because she

young and pretty, but because she is a an actual mother, whom nature has denied physical strength on a par with man. In short, the North American lives up to his accepted code of manners and follows the customs that have proved most effective to his needs.

woman,

either a potential or

90

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


CUESTIONARIO

1.

What

has been one of the chief causes of the lack of under2. What is the origin of From where did Spanish-America obWhat has made the North American more

standing between the two Americas?

customs and manners?


tain its

3.

customs? 4. brusque in his manner ? 5. Why have Spanish- Americans devoted more time to the formal side of social observances? 6. Why have some Spanish-Americans been inclined to call the North Americans
rude
8.

7.

What

is

the American's justification of this brusqueness


9.

What

does he consider very discourteous?

Why

does the

American go straight to the point in business deals? 10. What comforts of life do North Americans love very clearly? 11. What 12. How is the North American is their belief regarding culture? 13. What does the American woman expect deferential to ladies? of a gentleman? 14. Why is the American willing to conform to 15. Why does an American give his seat to these requirements? a lady in a public conveyance ?

AMERICAN EDUCATION
There
cabinet.
is

The Bureau

no department of education in the President's of Education is only a sort of statistical

agency that furnishes advice and information upon request. Except for the Indian schools and the schools in the territories not yet admitted to statehood, the Federal Government exercises no jurisdiction over education.

Each
of

state maintains its own separate school system, all which are patterned along the same general lines. Cois

education
free

practiced in

all

the states.

Each

state supports

and compulsory elementary schools, county high schools, normal schools, and a state university. The state controls the certification of teachers, but some of the larger cities
require in addition that teachers pass a special examination

given by their

own board

of examiners.

Counties, towns,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


and municipalities may vote additional taxes
purposes.

91
for school

In the elementary schools, the course of study covers a


period of eight years.
writing,

The usual

subjects, such as reading,

facts of history and geography are stressed. Spelling as a separate subject of study must be repeated year after year owing to the inlierent

arithmetic,

and elementary

difficulties of

English spelling.
school
It
is

The American high


American education.

the most original feature of

has been called the people's uni-

EVANSTON TOAVXSHIP IIiGH ScHOOL


versity.
Its object is to provide, in a four year's

program,

the great mass of students, rich and poor, with an education that will function in their
lives.

The curriculum provides a

minimum

at the same time fits stuIn the country, there are consolidated high schools for the graduates of the surrounding rural schools. School busses convey the boys and girls to and from the school daily. County high schools usually
of general culture,

and

dents for some useful calling.

give two courses of study: always an academic course that


leads to college,

and a practical course that

trains the stu-

dents in the work that they will follow for a livehhood.

In

92

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


is

agricultural regions, this practical course

struction in farming

and stock

raising.

devoted to inIn high schools,

partly supported

by the town, the


is

practical course includes

instruction in the trades followed in that locality.


cities,

In the In the very large cities, certain high schools specialize in only one course of study, drawing students who are chiefly interested in this phase of a commercial course
given.

the work.

The American college has no counterpart in SpanishAmerican school systems. Its original aim was to provide facilities for a Uberal education, with no thought of professional training. The terms "college" and "university" are synonymous in rank, and are used indiscriminately to
designate the four years of

more

intensive training following

graduation from high school.


is

Strictly speaking, a university

a collection of colleges, such as the college of arts and

sciences, the coUege of law, the college of medicine, the college


of engineering, the agricultural college,

and others pertaining

to

the various

professions.

"College" originally meant

only the coUege of arts and sciences, and


still

many

small colleges
scientific

devote their whole attention to cultural and


state university includes the college of arts
colleges (not

subjects.

and sciences

always located at the same place) destined for professional training. The outstanding

and the various

college in the state univerisities is


sciences.
is

still

the college of arts and

Within each

college, presided

over by a dean

who

responsible to the president of the university, a restricted


of studies is allowed.

and regulated choice

In

all

the colleges,

the satisfactory completion of the four year's work leads


to the bachelor's degree.

In the college of arts and sciences,


in

the students

may major

the special colleges, in

some one some branch

cultural subject,

and

in

of that particular

field.

Graduate study leads

to the higher degrees.

In pm-ely

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

93

academic lines, open only to graduates of the colleges of arts and sciences, one year's graduate study in any particular branch, such as English, chemistry, or modern languages, leads to the degree of Master of Arts. Two more years in the same subject leads to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. A thesis and a comprehensive examination in the student's
particular field are also required for the higher degrees.
all

Not

the state universities have

facilities for

conferring the
title (repre-

degree of Doctor of Philosophy, and this coveted


senting fifteen years of actual study)
is

prized

when granted by one

of

more highly older and more highly the


still

developed private institutions, such as Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, Johns Hopkins, or Chicago. Private schools are still rather prevalent in the East, but

they have tended to disappear in the more democratic West. A few military academies, ranking with high schools, and a still smaller number of select girl schools are found in many
but the average American boy or girl prefers to attend the schools maintained by the state. Judging from the rapid strides being made by the state universities, the private and endowed college bids fair to disappear in the
states;

course of time as a factor in higher education, and thus


leave the whole field of education to the state.
cities are

The

larger

beginning to develop a city university, but few of

these have attained sufficient prestige to enable one to predict the future of

such a type of institution

CUESTIONARIO
1.

What

jurisdiction
2.

does

the

Federal

Government

exercise

What kind of schools are supported by the various states ? 3. What part may counties, towns, and municipalities play in education? 4. What is the length of the period of study covered in the elementary schools ? 5. What is the American high school called? 6. What is its purpose? 7. What are conover education?

94

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


S.

What two types of courses are given in 9. What practical courses are given in the towns and cities? 10. What is the distinction between 11. What is the principal difference "college" and "university" ? between a private college and a state university? 12. What is meant by graduate study ? 13. How may the degree of Doctor
solidated high schools ?

the county high schools?

of Philosophy be attained ?

14.

Why
6.

have private schools tended


be
its

to disappear ?

15.

Do you

think a city university will increase in

importance as the years go by ? as a factor in higher education ?

What would

advantages

AMERICAN COLLEGE LIFE


American
In
college life
is

a very complex thing, and

it

is

often very bewildering to foreigners.

many of the more populous states, the annual enrollment


is

in the state univeristy

more than

five

thousand.

How

to

handle such a number of students in a manner conducive to their best interests, and at the same time to permit them
to enjoy fully those halcyon

days,

has been a

difficult

problem

for the administrative authorities.

College students are just at the age


offer most.

when

life

seems to
the}^

They

are full of enthusiasm


alive,

and energy;

are venturesome

and keenly

ever ready to experiment

and probe into


First-year

life's

untried delights.
those of the third year, juniors;

students are called freshmen; those of the

second year, sophomores;

and those of the fourth year, seniors. These four groups form a sort of ascending hierarchy of importance in college life. Each has its class organization and holds meetings at
stated intervals.

The most

trying year of

all is

very hard for a young

man

or

the freshman year.

woman

It is

of eighteen to

adjust himself to this widened sphere of liberties.

Heretofore

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

95

he has always been under the paternal wing, but now he alone must decide issues for himself. A business-like dean Exacting professors demand insists that he attend classes.
that he learn their subjects.

The various organizations claim

a share of his time.

And

varied social activities beckon him

away from

stern duties.

Sophomores, remembering the petty hardships that they

Broivn Brothers

A Game

of Football in the Yale Bowl, the Famous Athletic Field of Yale University

had to undergo the previous year, insist on inflicting the same on the new freshmen. They prescribe a ridiculous green cap as his sole headgear. A freshman must step off the sidewalk when he meets an upper-classman. The purpose
of this

good-natured fun
his ability,

is

to lead the youthful freshman to

see that only merit counts.

to

show

being.

Since he has had no opportunity he must take a back seat for the timfe The upper-classmen are really eager to help the fresh-

96

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


over the hard places, but
bit at first.
it is

men

necessary to discipHne

them a
be some

In such a great number of new students, there are sure to


abilities to

who will not survive. Some have insufficient mental make passing grades. Others are anti-social,
fit

finding themselves unable to

into the group.

The former

are asked by the dean to withdraw, and the latter become so disgusted with college life that they do not care to return

the second year.

The American

college Greek-letter fraternities


life.

exert a

great deal of influence on student social

The more im-

portant fraternities (sororities for


the principal universities.

girls)

It is the

have chapters in all hope of every freshman


In

to be invited to join the fraternity of his choice, because

memberehip

carries with

it

certain social distinctions.

reality, the fraternities are

commodious clubs where a group

of like-minded

young

college

men

or

women

live together.

In theory, such ah organization tends to promote scholarship, since

taining high average grades.

each fraternity vies with eveiy other in mainIn practice, this purpose is

often frustrated by the increased social obligations


necessary.

made

Usually only students

who

are likely to be an
it.

asset to the fraternity are asked to join


prestige,

Wealth, social

and very often mere chance influence the extending of this invitation. The pledges, or the freshmen who have been invited to join, are helped to keep up a passing grade Since the combined until the period of probation is over. membership in all the fraternities never includes half of the whole student body, many of the most worthy young men and women find themselves, through no fault of their own, in the non-fraternity groups. There is a sort of snobbishness on the part of fraternity members that looks with disfavor on those unfortunate enough to be left out. There are many activities open to all students regardless

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


of class or fraternity affiliations.

97

interest in

Those who have a special any subject meet together, under the supervision of the instructor, and organize a club whose purpose is both academic and social. The most outstanding member of
either sex
is

elected president.

Many

other opportunities
of the

for leadership are possible.

The various pubUcations

university need managers and editors.

student council

that participates in student government, and a student


president of
to
all

student

affairs, offer

the greatest opportunities

In short, American college life is real life in miniature, where influence and pull count, but where there is an opportunity to show real ability and to be

budding

politicians.

rewarded for
Athletics
offset the

it.

is

the great sociaHzing agency that helps to


spirit of fraternities.
if

If a student he excels in track, he becomes a member of the team. If he brings honor to the university, he is the pride and joy of all. In athletic bouts,

undemocratic

can play football or baseball, or

the loyalty

is

solely to the institution.

Intra-group distinc-

tions are temporarily forgotten,


siders himself a supporter of

and each individual conthe university. Fraternity and


sophomores,
juniors,

non-fraternity
seniors are

brothers,

freshmen,

now on

the same plane, each with only a single


It is a glorious specta-

thought: to beat the opposing team.


cle to see

the whole student body, alumni, faculty members,


at one of the big games.

and loyal sympathizers


of

For days

previous, rousing "pep-meetings" have been held.

sort

has coalesced each individual desire into a single group desire to win over the opponents. On the day
spirit

mob

of the big

into the stadium

game, thousands of supporters of each team pour and range themselves on their respective sides. Pennants and university colors are very much in evidence. Concerted cheers and yells encourage each team to put forth its best efforts. If a brilliant play is staged, pande-

98

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


If

monium breaks loose in the ranks of the supporters. error is made by one team, its supporters stifle their
team.
Final victory of either side
is

an

disap-

pointment and shout encouraging words to their striving


the occasion for letting

Rousing cheers and hearty hurrahs are followed by a triumphal procession through the town. Outstanding heroes of the winning team are often carried on the shoulders of loyal supporters. Years after graduation, when one witnesses such a victory on the part of his alma mater, he becomes young again for the time being; he lives over again that glorious and never-to-beforgotten past, when he too was a carefree college student.
loose unrestrained emotions.

CUESTIONARIO
complex thing? 2. Wh}^ 3. Why do not all freshmen return to college ? 4. Describe the workings of Greek-letter fraternities? 5. How is their possibly undemocratic influence counteracted? 6. In what way is American coUege life real life in miniature? an intercollegiate football game? 7. Describe 8. What influence does the American college have on American characteristics ? 9. What features of American college life do you, as a Spanish-American, disapprove of ? 10. What features of it do you consider commendable ?
1. is

Why

American

college life such a

is

the freshman year such a vital one?

RECENT ECONOMIC TENDENCIES


As competition in the business and industrial world has grown keener, there has been a notable tendency to merge Production in mass lots is smaller units into large ones. generally cheaper. Better goods can be produced and more
efficient service

rendered, as a rule, in a large unit highly

organized.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


power

99

Big business, such as railroads, traction companies, mines, plants, and similar units that require even more capital than that possessed by the few rich, have always been organized as corporate companies. The success of the great corporations has induced many other small business interests to be consolidated and organized on the same basis.

some of owned sional and business men, workers, and their savings in pajdng stocks; and
Contrary to general
belief,

the most powerful of

these corporations are seldom

by

rich

men.

Profes-

farmers have invested


often the controlling

hands of small investors. Merging small companies into one big concern is not usually the work of a captain of finance. Some man with a
interest
is

in the

vision sees a

means

of enlarging his sphere of activity

by

expansion.

He

organizes a corporation and raises

money

by the
the

sale of stock.

The workers

in his factory are given

Each owner to one vote in the management of the corporation's affairs. Under the wise leadership of this man of vision, the enlarged firm prospers. Competing firms gradually sell out to this more wide-awake organization, accepting stock in payment of their interests. The same employees continue. The old manager is retained. The
first

opportunity to purchase the new stock.


its

share entitles

only noticeable difference in procedure

is

that the absorbed

concern
scale

is

now permitted

to share in

all

the advantages of

the corporation, being able to share in the buying on a large


facilities.

of the more complete marketing workers are encouraged to buy stock in the corporation with their savings. Higher wages are paid. The product is improved and standardized. The

and to take advantage

The

factory

latest

type of machinery

is

installed in all branches.


it

The
its

firm continues to expand until


tory.

covers a

still

greater terri-

The firm name becomes a great asset, because goods are known and appreciated by satisfied customers.

100

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

There are natural checks to abuse of power of large corProbably the greatest of these is the natural limit of mergers. If the corporation becomes too great, the machinery becomes too complicated to function properly, and the corporation dies a natural death. If the raw materials of the industry could be monopolized, no other competitor could enter the field, and huge profits could be made; but it has been found practically impossible to control the sources of raw materials because they are so
porations.

widely distributed and controlled by so


owners.
If profits
field.

many

individual

are excessive, small competitors will enter the

The
is

price of the article will be lowered until the

com-

petitor

forced out of business, but hundreds of others will

have to be handled in the same way as long as this condition exists, and the public will profit by the lowering of prices. In time some of the small competitors will merge their business units, and the big corporation will find it harder to
freeze

them

out.

Some
its

of the

mergers
it

will surely sur\^ve

and grow.

Experience has shown

to be wiser for a cor-

poration to devote

attention to increased efficiency and

decreasing costs of production rather than to attempt to

maintain absolute control in any field. Usually there are two or more big companies who work as friendl}^ rivals. Often one corporation is fairly supreme in a certain territory; but if prices are unduly raised, a competing corporation will invade its field and capture its trade.

Almost all commodities of daily use are now largely produced and distributed by big-business interests. There are chain grocery stores operating over wide regions, with no hopes of controlling the market. Each chain is constantly striving to reduce overhead expenses to the point of enabling it to offer cheaper and better products than can possibly be offered by a rival chain. Each general manager, of course,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


wishes to
that

101

no other motive for being in business but each has found

make

a good show of earnings

there

would be

it pays best to give value received. There are chain clothing stores, tobacco stores, drug stores, bakeries, jewelry stores, department stores. One of the most highly organized fields is the five-and-ten cent

store.

Two

or three big syndicates operate competitively

in almost every

town

or city in the United States, specializing

exclusively in those miscellaneous small articles of daily

need that can be sold in such a store. Not only in manufactured products, but in almost every phase of life the same methods of mass production and centralized control are evidenced. Amusements are no longer controlled by private companies. There are chains of theaters. The motion picture industry and management are in the hands of a few big syndicates. One or two companies make all the news reels daily exhibited over the whole
country.

Education, while not lending itself to a complete merger, shows the effect of the same tendency. States have united in forming standard entrance requirements, athletic rules, certification of teachers, and ranking of educational institutions.

Probably the most highly organized single agency is the American press. There have been not only consolidations of
great dailies in single
dailies
cities,

but there are also chains of

reach into the millions.

whose aggregate readers one daily newspaper in every four is now a link in some newspaper chain. The same editorial policy is maintained in all the various links. The
operated in various
cities,

It is said

now maintains a staff about one hundred thousand correspondents, in every quarter of the globe, distributing news to every newspaper of importance in the country. Various syndicates prepare
Associated Press, organized in 1900,
of

102

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


and
special col-

feature articles, market reports, cartoons,

umns which

are poured into the pages of thousands of news-

papers buying this wholesale service. What will be the result of all this centralization of the
various lines of industry and endeavor into the hands of a

few big dominating units

of

power? Will

it

work, as did

feudalism in the Middle Ages, against good government?

purge a democratic form of government of its The future alone can answer. Will om' complicated but well-oiled system of industrj^ destroy our individuality, making us mere cogs that revolve in a great machine with less friction and greater ease because they run in stereotyped grooves? Or will this smooth-nm-

Or

will it

inherent His ?

ning efficiency and well-organized

life

give really superior


still

individuals the opportunity of doing

greater things?

Who knows?
CUESTIONARIO
1.

Why

has big business always been run under the corporate


2.

system?

owns the stock of corporations? 3. Why have merge? 4. What are the checks 5. \Miat does each chain to the abuse of power of corporations? 6. Are there mergers of interests outside of busmess strive to do ? the field of industry? 7. Explain the organization of the American

Who

smaller business units tended to

press?

8.

How

will

this

centralization

of

interests

probably

affect the

vidual?

government? 9. 10. Do you think

How
this

wih

it

probably affect the indi-

tendency should be curbed by

legislation ?

PART THREE
LIBERTY OR DEATH
Mr. President:
illusions of hope.
It is natural for

man

to indulge in the

We

are apt to shut our eyes against a


till

painful truth, and listen to the song of the siren

she

transforms us into beasts.

men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for hberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation ? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth to know the worst, and I have but one lamp by which my feet to provide for it. are guided, and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past; and, judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conIs this the part of wise

duct of the British ministry for the last ten years to justify
those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to
solace themselves
Is
it

and the House.


Trust
it

that insidious smile with which our petition has been


not, sir;
it will

lately received?

prove a snare to

your

feet.

Suffer not yourself to be betrayed with a kiss.

Ask

yourself how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary

to a

work

of love

and

reconciliation ?

Have we shown
must be

our-

selves so unwilling to be reconciled that force

called

in to

win back our love ?


103

104

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implethe last arguments to ments of war and subjugation which kings resort. I ask, sir, what means this martial array,

purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentleassign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world to call for
if its

men

all this

No, meant

sir,

accumulation of navies and armies? she has none they are meant for us they can be They are sent over to bind and rivet for no other.
;
:

up those chains which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose them? Shall we try argument ? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every
light of

which

it is

capable, but

it

has been

all

in vain.

Shall

we

resort to

entreaty and humble

supplication?

What

terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm that is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry

and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned with In vain, after these contempt from the foot of the throne things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free; if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending; if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which
!

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


we have pledged
repeat the
it,

105

ourselves never to

abandon

until the glorious


fight
!

object of our contest shall be obtained,


sir:

we must

we must
is all

fight

An
weak

appeal to anus and to

God

of

Hosts

that

is left

They
Will
it

tell us, sir,

that

we

are

unable to cope with

shall we be strong? be the next week, or the next year ? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength by Ir-

so formidable

an adversary; but when

resolution
effectual

resistance

and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of by lying supinely on our backs and

hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot ? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the God of Nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people, armed in the holy cause of hberty, and in such a countiy as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battle alone: there is
a just

God who
is

presides over the destinies of Nations,


friends to fight our battles for us.
it is

and

who

will raise

up

The
If

battle

not to the strong alone:


Besides,
sir,

to the vigilant, the

active, the brave.

were base enough to desire it, retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission or
slavery
sir
:

we have no election. it is now too late to


let it

we

let it

The war is come


!

inevitable,

and

come

repeat

it,

It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry "Peace! peace !" but there is no peace. The war is ac-

tually
will

begun!

The next

gale that sweeps

from the north


!

bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms


field
!

Our

brethren are already in the

Why

stand we here idle ?

What
have ?

is it

that the gentlemen wish?

Is life so dear, or

What would they peace so sweet, as to be purchased

106

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


and slavery
!
!

at the price of chains


I

Forbid

it,

Ahnighty God

know not what

course others

may take;

but, as for me, give

me hberty or give me death

Patkick
of his

Hexry

CUESTIONARIO
1.

Does Patrick Henry gain the sympathy


it is

audience by
?

admitting that
2.

natural to indulge in the illusions of hope

Does he actually accuse them of being disinterested in their problem ? 3. Having gained their good wiU, how does he suggest that they may judge of the future ? 4. Does he appeal to their pride by suggesting that they have been imposed upon in the past ?
5.

What

is

his

purpose in calling their attention to Great Britain's


6.

preparation for war?

Does he

tell

counting
7.

how argument,

petition,

them anytlaing new m reand humility have failed?


8.

How

does he appeal to their sense of love of Uberty?


?

How

does he appeal to their pride


antagonist does he answer?
religious sense?

9.

What

possible arguments of an
to their

10.

Where does he appeal


skill

IL Are

his hearers sufficiently aroused

presentation of well-known facts, and his


facts a personal issue of

in

by his making these

each individual, to be in a

mood

to act

when he demands war


to

as the only

remedy?

12.

Do you happen
the Continental
of

know whether

this

speech, delivered before

Congress in 1775, had anything to do with the Declaration Independence ?

THE BLUEBIRD
When Nature made the bluebird, she wished to make the sky and earth friends. So she gave him the color of one on his back, and the hues of the other on his breast. She ordered
tell that the strife and war between earth and sky was at an end. He is the peace bringer; in him the earth and sky shake hands and are fast friends. He means the furrow and the

that his appearance in spring should

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


warmth; he means
winter on the other.
the sap starts up in
bird arrives,
all

107

the soft, wooing influences of the

spring on the one hand,

and the retreating footsteps of in New England the sugar-maple the very day the blueIn

New York and

and sugar-making begins forthwith.


is

The

bluebird

the

first bit

of color that cheers our north-

ern landscape.

same time

the

The other

birds

that arrive about the

sparrow, the robin, the phoebe bird, are

clad in neutral tints: gray, brown, or russet; but the blue-

and the divinest of them all. The bluebird usually builds its nest in a hole in a stump or stub, or in an old cavity dug out by a woodpecker, when
bird brings one of the primary hues,

such can be had; but


in the world in

its first

impulse seems to be to start

much more

style,

and the happy pair make


will

a great show of house-hunting about the farm buildings.

Now

they think they will take a dovecote, then they


hear them announce with

discuss a last j^ear's swallow's nest.

We
when
settle

much

flourish

and

flutter

that they have taken the wren's house, or the tenement of


the purple martin.
all this

Finally Nature becomes too urgent,

pretty make-believe ceases.

Most

of

them

back upon the old family stumps and knotholes in remote fields and go to work in earnest. It is very pretty to watch them build a nest. The male is very active in hunting out a place and exploring the boxes and cavities. He seems to have no choice in the matter, and is anxious only to please and encourage his mate who knows what will do and what will not. After she has suited herself, away the two go in search of material for the nest. The male acts as guard, flying ahead and above the female. She brings all the material and does all the work of building. He looks on and encourages her with gesture and song. She enters the nest with her bit of

108

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

dry grass or straw, and having placed it to her notion, withdraws and waits near by while he goes and looks it over. On coming out he exclaims very plainly, "Excellent ex!

cellent !"

and away the two go again

for

more

material.

John
CUESTIONARIO
1.

Boieoughs

Why

did Nature give the bluebird two colors?


3.

2.

What

does the bluebird's appearance in spring tell?


interesting?

Is the poetic

conception of the friendship of the earth and the sky personally


4.

Does humanity
5.

instinctively

desire

that

strife
? ?

and war end ? 6. Do any or


7,

What

is

coincident with the bluebird's arrival

all of

these tilings appeal to you as an individual

a personal touch in the third paragraph? 8. "^Miere does the bluebird build its nest? 9. Why should building a nest 10. How does the male assist interest readers in a personal way ?
Is there
in building the nest ? in
11.

Does the
does
it

last

paragraph depict a parallel


13. "^Iiat

human

life?

12.

Why

cause us to smile?

do you suppose was the naturalist's object in writing this selection ? 14. Would it appeal to an ornithologist who had never seen a bluebird? 15. Do you think that a bluebird wlU be a bit more
real to

you

after reading this description of

liis

place in nature

MOSES MAKES A BARGAIN


up our heads a little higher in the would be proper to sell the colt which was now grown old, at a neighboring fair, and buy us a horse that would carry single or double upon an occasion, and make a pretty appearance at church, or upon a ^dsit. As the annual fair happened on the following day, I had
to hold

As we were now

world,

my

family thought

it

intentions of going myself;


I

but

my

wife persuaded

me

that

and nothing could prevail upon her to pennit me to go from home. ''No, my dear," said she. "our son

had a

cold,

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

109

Moses is a discreet boy, and can buy and sell to very good advantage; you know all our great bargains are of his purHe always stands out and demands a low price, chasing. and actually tires them out till he gets a bargain." As I had some opinion of my son's prudence, I was willing
enough to intrust him with
this errand;

and the next morn-

ing I noticed that his sisters were very busy in fitting out

trimming his hair, brushing his buckles, Moses for the fair and arranging his hat. The business of the toilet being over, we had at last the pleasure of seeing him mounted upon the colt, with a box before him, in which to bring home
groceries.

made of that cloth they call thunder and though grown too short, was much too good to be thrown away. His waistcoat was green, and his sisters had tied his hair with a broad black ribbon. We all followed him several paces from the door, calling after him, "Good luck!" "Good luck!" till we could see him no
a coat
lightning, which,

He had on

longer

As it was almost nightfall, and Moses had not yet returned from the fair, I was wondering what could keep him so long. "Never mind our son," cried my wife; "depend upon it he knows what he is about. I'll warrant we'll never see him sell his hen on a rainy day. But, as I live, yonder comes Moses, without a horse, and the box at his back." As she spoke, Moses came slowly on foot, and sweating under the heavy box, which he had strapped around his
. .

shoulder like a peddler.

"Welcome, welcome, Moses! Well, my boy, what have you brought us from the fair?" "I have brought you myself," cried Moses, with a sly look, and resting the box on the dresser. "Oh yes, Moses," cried my wife, "that we know, but
where
is

the horse?"

no
shillings

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

"I have sold him," cried Moses, "for three pounds five and twopence." "Well done, my good boy," returned she; "I knew you would do well. Between ourselves, three pounds five shillings and twopence is no bad day's work. Come, let us have
it,

then."

"I have brought back no money," cried Moses again. "I have laid it all out in a bargain, and here it is," pulhng out a bundle from his breast; "here they are: a gross of green spectacles, with silver rims and shagreen cases."

"A
faint

gross of green spectacles!" repeated


voice.
!"

my

wife in a
colt,

"And you have

parted with the

and

brought us back nothing but a gross of worthless green


spectacles

reason ?

"Dear mother," cried the boy, "why won't you listen to I had them at a great bargain, or I should not have bought them. The silver rims alone will sell for double the

money."
rims!" cried my wife. "I dare say they above half the money at the rate of broken silver, five shillings an ounce." "You need not be uneasy," cried I, "about selhng the rims: they are not worth sixpence, for I perceive they are

"A

fig for silver


sell for

won't

only copper varnished over."

"What," cried my wife, "not silver! the rims not silver!" "No," cried I, "no more silver than your saucepan."

"And so," returned she, "w^e have parted with the colt, and have got only a gross of green spectacles, with copper rims, and shagreen cases Away with such trumpeiy. The blockhead has been imposed upon, and should have known
!

his

company
this

'

better."

By

time the unfortunate Moses was undeceived.

He
an

now saw

that he had indeed been imposed upon by a cheating

sharper, who, observing his j^outh,

had marked him

for

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


easy prey.

111

He

sold the horse,

it

seems, and walked the fair

in search of another.

reverend-looking

man
sell.

brought him

to a tent, under pretence of having one to

"Here," continued Moses, "we met another man, verywho desired to borrow twenty pounds upon the spectacles, saying that he wanted money, and would sell them for one-third of their value. The first gentleman, who pretended to be my friend, whispered me to buy them, and cautioned me not to let so good an offer pass. I sent for Mr. Flamborough, and they talked him up as finely as they did me; and so at last we were persuaded to buy the two gross between us." Oliver Goldsmith
well dressed,

CUESTIONARIO
1.

Why

was

it

decided to

sell

the colt?
3.

2.

Why

did the father


fit

not go to the fair to seU the colt?

How
6.

did Moses' sisters


5.

him out
for
8. 9.

for the fair?

4.

How

was Moses dressed?


fair ?

At what

time did Moses return from the


the colt?
7.

How much
for

did he receive

How many

spectacles are there in a gross?

Why

did the cheating sharper

mark Moses

Was Mr. Flamborough deceived too ?


11.

10. Is there

an easy prey? any descrip-

tion in this selection?

Are aU necessary
is

details included in

the narrative part?


tion ?
14.

12.

What

the central thought in this narrathe central thought step by step


?

13.

Do the facts lead up to


notice

any peculiarities in the language due written by an Englishman of the eighteenth century ?

Do you

to its being

THE ORIGIN OF ROAST PIG


The swineherd,
Hoti, having gone out into the

woods one

morning, as his manner was, to collect mast for his hogs, left his cottage in the care of his eldest son, Bobo, a great
lubberly boy, who, being fond of playing with
fire,

as young-

112
sters of his

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

age commonly are, let some sparks escape into a bundle of straw, which, kindling quickly, spread the conflagration over every part of their poor mansion, till it was

reduced to ashes. Together with a cottage, what was of more importance, a fine litter of pigs, no less than nine in number, perished. China pigs have been esteemed a luxuiy all over the East from the remotest periods we read of. Bobo was in the ut-

most confusion, as you may think, not so much for the sake which his father and he could easily of the tenement, build up again with a few dry branches, and the labour of as for the loss of the pigs. an hour or two, at any time, While he was thinking what he should say to his father, and wringing his hands over those untimely sufferers, an odor assailed his nostrils, unlike any he had before experinot from the burnt enced. What could it proceed from? he had smelt that smell before indeed this was by cottage no means the first accident of the kind which had occurred through the negligence of this unlucky young firebrand. Much less did it resemble that of any known herb, weed, or

flower.

He knew
feel

not what to think.


if

He

next stooped
life

down

to

the pig,

there were any signs of

in

it.

He burned

and to cool them he applied them in his booby Some of the crumbs of the scorched skin had come away with his fingers, and for the fii'st time in his life (in the world's life, indeed, for before him no man had known it) he tasted crackling! Again he felt and fumbled at the pig. It did not burn him so much now; still he licked his fingers from a sort of habit.
his fingers,

fashion to his mouth.

that

The truth at length broke into his slow understanding it was the pig that smelled so, and the pig that tasted
fell

so delicious.

he

to tearing

Surrendering himself to the new-born pleasure, up whole handfuls of the scorched skin with

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


the flesh next to
ing raftere,
it,

113
his throat

and was cramming

it

down

in his beastly fashion,

when

his sire entered

amid the smok-

armed with a cudgel. Finding how affairs stood, he began to rain blows upon the young rogue's shoulders, as thick as hailstones, which Bobo heeded not any more than
if

they had been flies. His father lay on, but he could not beat him from his pig, till he had fairly made an end of it,

when something
Is it not

like the following dialogue ensued.

"You graceless whelp, what have you

got there devouring?

enough that you have burned down three houses with your dog's tricks, and be hanged to you but you must what have you got be eating fire, and I know not what there, I say?" "0 father, the pig, the pig! do come and taste how nice

the burnt pig eats."

The ears of Hoti tingled with horror. He cursed his son, and he cursed himself that ever he should have a son that
should eat a burnt pig.
ing,

Bobo, whose scent was wonderfully sharpened since mornraked out another pig, and fairly rendering it asunder,

thrust the lesser half


still

by main

force into the fists of Hoti,

shouting out, "Eat, eat, eat, the burnt pig, father, only

taste!"
while as

with
if

such barbarous

cries,

cramming

all

the

he would choke. Hoti trembled in every joint while he grasped the abominable thing, wavering whether he should not put his son to
death for an unnatural young monster. But the crackling scorched his fingers, as it had done his son's; and applying
the same remedy to them, he in his turn tasted some of
flavour, which,
its

make what

sour mouths he would for pre-

tence,

proved not altogether displeasing to him. In conand son fairly sat down to the mess, and never left off till they had despatched all that remained of
clusion both father

the

litter.

114

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

strictly enjoined not to let the secret escape, neighbours would certainly have stoned them for a couple of abominable wretches, who could think of impro\dng Nevertheless, the good meat which God had sent them.

Bobo was

for the

was observed that Hoti's Nothcottage was burned down ing but fires from this time onward. Some would break out in broad day, others in the nighttime. Hoti, which was the more remarkable, instead of chastising his son, seemed to grow more indulgent to him than ever. At length they were watched, the terrible mystery^ discovered, and the father and son summoned to take their trial at Pekin. Evidence was given, the obnoxious food itself produced in court, and the verdict about to be pronounced, when the foreman of the jury begged that some of the burnt pig, of which the culprit stood accused, might be handed into the box. He handled it, and the jury all handled it. They all burned their fingers as Bobo and his father had done before them, and nature prompted to each of them the same
strange stories got about.
It

more frequently than ever.

remed3^ Against the face of all the charge which judge had ever given,

to the surprise

facts, afnd the clearest

of the

whole court, townsfolk, strangers, reporters, and all present, without leaving the box, or any manner of consultation whatever, they brought in a verdict of Not Guilty. The judge, who was a shrewd fellow, winked at the unprivily,

and when the court was dismissed and bought up all the pigs that could be had for love or money. In a few days his lordship's town house was observed to be on fire. The thing took wing, and now there was nothing to be seen but fire in every direction. Fuel and pigs grew enormously dear all over the district. The insurance offices one and all shut up shop. People built slighter and slighter every day, until it was feared that the very science of architecture would in no
fairness of the decision;

went

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


long time be lost to the world.

115
of firing

Thus
the

this

custom

houses continued,
script,

till

in process of time, says

my

manu-

a sage arose,

who made
it)

discovery, that the

flesh of swine, or

indeed any other animal might be cooked

(burned as they called

without the necessity of congridiron.

suming a whole house to dress it. Then fh'st began the rude form of
the string or spit

Roasting by two later. By such slow degrees, concludes the manuscript, do the most useful and seemingly the most obvious arts make their way among mankind. Charles Lamb

came

in a century or

CUESTIONARIO
I.

Give the summary


all

of this

story.

2.

What

is

the central
3.

thought that binds

these narrative events together?


4. Is

Point

out any sentences that are purely descriptive.

the move5.

ment

of the story interrupted


this

by any casual explanations ?


?

Why
Are

would

be called a short story instead of a novel

6. ?

Does the
7.

author interpose himself into the narration of the events


the separate events well arranged to lead
8.

up
9.

to

the climax?
Ls

Are any unnecessary

details introduced?
10. Is the 11.

Who

the prin-

cipal character of the story?

character delineation of
is

both father and son well done?


story?
12.

W^hat

the climax of the


it

Does it reveal everything that the ending a happy one ?

should?

13.

Is

116

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

"UNCLE JOE" CANNON'S DEATH


Former Speaker Dies Peacefully In 90th Year

^
Former Czar of House Had of Representatives so many years was summoned by him in a fight Been Sinking Slowly for against old age. He continued his
Last 12 Months
IN
daily walk
sicians ordered

down town him to

until phj--

replace

it

TOOK COLD
First Indication

JULY

with an automobile ride, and in recent weeks his fading mind and body had not permitted him to
leave home.

That Condition

Was Grave Given When Daughter Was Called Home


Danville, 111., Nov. 12 (AP) "Uncle Joe" Cannon died here

to-day at the age of 90.


In the rambling brick mansion he had built for his bride many
life slowly ebbed away from the old statesman whose ironhanded tactics in Congress won

years ago,

him the
back
in

title

of Czar of the

House
fall

Last May, however, he attended by Danville Kiwanians honoring his 90th anniversary and portioned the big cake among Boy Scouts while photographers clicked their cameras. In June, he broke the ground for St. James Methodist church which he joined after his retirement from Congress and where he sat in the pew his late wife occupied so many j'-ears. He was unable to appear when the cornerstone was laid in August.
a birthday partj- given

Contracted Cold in July cold contracted in July gave him much worry and it was then Mr. Cannon was 90 years old that he took to motoring instead of last May. His strength has been walking. The first indication that slowly ebbing during the last twelve his condition was grave was given months. when his daughter, Helen, was Failed to Vote summoned home from Europe He failed to vote at the election hurriedly in September. Nov. 2 for the first time since he He dechned several invitations voted for Lincoln in 1860. He was to appear publicly in the weeks too weak to get to the polls. preceding his death, but his greatest The same dominant spirit with regret was occasioned by his inwhich "Uncle Joe " ruled the House ability to speak at a school house
in 1910.

the days before his

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

117

near Annapolis, Ind., where he made In the musty files of the Conhis first speech as a school boy. gressional Record there stands written a moving tale of this man's Christened "Uncle Joe" great service. It begins back in Time scarcely had touched with 1873 when first he came out of silver the thin locks of Joseph Illinois to take his seat in the Gurney Cannon years ago^ ere House, even then a picturesque,
fire-eating

whom

political gladiator to the uproar of debate and the

tense moments in committee were the breath of life. The yellowed pages show day by day how the

hot blood of youth drove him into every affray, his tongue lashing out at his opponents, his quick mind formulating at call the instant expedients that are the weapons of political combat. Month by month he climbed toward
leadership, growing

more knowing

as each session
conflicts;

brought its new hardening with time into

Harris

&

Ewing

"Uncle Joe" Cannon


the nation had rechristened him And under that "Uncle Joe." title, confirmed by milUons who never saw him, yet knew every line of his worn face and every whimisical trait of his intense personaHty, "Uncle Joe" came at
last

the forceful, relentless champion of his party, until that day when the gavel was placed in his hands and he mounted the Speaker's rostrum as master of the House to rule alone for four years as few men before him had ruled that body. "Uncle Joe " was then a veteran and in the heyday of his power. Around him had gathered a lore
of tales,
all

some

true,

some

false,

but

picturesque, and through the news columns and cartoons his personality had been stamped indelibly on the minds of men all over the land.

to

end

his

career

as

eldest

statesman of the nation; the man of longest service in the Congress; the object of honors among his colleagues that took no thought of party or political differences.

An Abrupt Fall Yet great as his place and power had grown, great too was his fall when the House in 1910 revolted against his Czar-like rule and stripped him of his power through

118

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

a combination of insurgents in his ward toward his hat brim, and own party with the democratic mi- cartoonists never failed to draw nority. Even then, however, when him that way. When he first went to W'ashthe battle in the House reached a pitch of excitement, that swept ington Mr. Cannon was induced to every other happening in the world put .SI, 000 into a scheme for the into the background for all Amer- transfusion of metal, and he never Later, icans, "Uncle Joe" fighting with saw the money after that. grim courage to the last, was to Alexander Graham Bell, then exknow something of the feeling men perimenting with the telephone, The invited Cannon into the company would have for him later. triumphant rebels of the House "on the ground floor," but after refused to take the last step and being "stung" once, as he exoust him from the speakership. pressed it, he resisted the temptaContent with stripping the post tion, only to see other friends take of its power, they voted to hold up this and other stocks to become him still in place. millionaires many times over. In the political deluge that fell But Mr. Cannon's own bank upon his party two years later, and other business ventures were "Uncle Joe" failed of reelection successful, and he amassed confor the second time in his national siderable wealth. Once before he had pracThe fact probabh' has been forcareer. ticed law in Danville after his gotten bj' most pubUshers that it defeat for Congress. When he came was Cannon, while a member of the back again at the next election, postoffice committee, who fought age had begun to cool his ardor. for reform in the postal laws and He sat many days without sharing put through the bill providing for in debate and it was only in flashes a low rate on second-class mail that his old fire showed when he matter, which is still in effect. In took the floor. his closing j^ears, mindful of this Born in a httle Quaker settle- service, he often remarked that ment near Guilford, N. C, May 7, the newspapers, which had lam1836, and named for Joseph Gur- pooned him, had gained much ney, a famous Quaker, Mr. Cannon through a law giving them the often remarked that he seemed to right of sending their publication have drifted away from the faith at less than the letter rate. and habits of the pious people Great Love for Children whom Gurney led. For he was In 190S, when in the glory of his a fiery, rough-and-tumble fighter On the floor he fought rule as boss of the House, Mr. Canalways. with whirling arms and contor- non looked toward the republican tions of his body to drive home his nomination for the presidency. When leaders proposed that he words. "Uncle Joe" smoked inces- take second place on the ticket, he santly, a cigar tilted sharply up- refused emphatically.

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The
old warrior's love for chiltor replied,

119

dren was greater than his love for He once told a friend that cigars. the multitude of cartoons, of friendly and vicious, the one he liked best pictured him as a baby in swaddling clothes, with the
Lincoln-like fringe on his face, and the cigar in his mouth pointing skyward. The original of this cartoon, with many others presented to him by cartoonist friends, hung on the wall of his study at Danville.

"you are no uncle of mine and you'll have to get Mr. LeSeure's O. K. to this call
it

before

goes through."

Last Years at

Home
latter

Mr. Cannon's dechne in vigor and health began with an accident shortly after his retirement from Congress. While in the basement of his home he fell on a coal pile and suffered a fracture of the right arm. The break mended, but he always guarded the member with care, and when greeting friends offered his right elbow or left hand.
Liked
to

Mr. Cannon spent the

years of his life leisurely at his home at Danville, 111., where he was a familiar figure upon the
streets.

"Listen In"

He made

In his retirement, the radio aided Mr. Cannon to span the distance

daily visits to

between

his

the Second National bank which

the scene of so

became known as "the Cannon activity. He often discussed, in his bank," and also attended the gossip with friends, men and events weekly dinners of the Kiwanis of 30 and 40 years and even half a And almost to the end he centurj- before; but when recent club. smoked his big black cigars. world and national events were Mr. Cannon came to accept the spoken of, he either was silent or designation affectionate "Uncle turned the conversation to a parJoe" as his very own, but when allel case of years gone by. asked about its origin, said he did An ivy-covered Methodist not know how it came about. church opposite his home was a "I was quite well known from source of consolation to Uncle Joe coast to coast as Uncle Joe, and during his declining years. He also in Europe," he said, "but it often recalled the time, more than remained for a httle girl in my own 25 years before, when his wife, who home town to tell me I was no died several years ago, planted
Uncle Joe entered politics as a candidate for state's attorney when he lived at Tuscola, a little town in Vermilion county; and before his long term in Congress ended, it was said that four generations of No Uncle of Hello Girl voters of many families in the "I can't help it if you are LTncle country had cast their ballots Joe," Mr. Cannon said the opera- for him.
uncle of hers." The denial of relationship was made by a telephone operator. Mr. Cannon had put in a call for Washington from the home of his son-inlaw, Ernest LeSeure, but told the operator "charge it to Uncle Joe."

home and Washington, much of his life's

the ivy.

120

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


CUESTIONARIO

fully what happened? 2. Give in the answer to the following questions: Who? What ? Where ? How ? 3. Is the question ivhy partially answered ? 4. Could one stop reading at the end of any paragraph and still 5. What details are added feel that the account was complete? by the later paragraphs ? 6. Can you tell whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican ? 7. Does the writer bring himself into the account at all? 8. Does this article appeal to one's feelings as well as to the intellect ? 9. Judging from the article, what kind 10. Is his of a man do you judge "Uncle Joe" to have been? 11. Do you think he lived a happy personality well brought out? 12. Does the writer speculate on his probable abode after life? death? 13. Would such a speculation be appropriate for an AssoJustify your answer. 14. Do you notice the ciated Press report ? 15. Are the use of small letters where you might expect capitals? 16. Is there much ornamentation in the sentences unduly short? 17. Is the matter clear? 18. Did you find this article style? 19. To what do you easier or more difficult than previous ones? judge this to be due ?
1.

Does the

title

tell

words

of the writer the

FROZEN WORDS
were separated by a storm in the latitude of seventythree, insomuch, that only the ship which I was in, with a Dutch and French vessel, got safe into a creek of Nova Zembla. We landed in order to refit our vessels and store ourThe crew of each vessel made a selves with provisions. cabin of turf and wood, at some distance from the others, to
fence themselves against the inclemencies of the weather,

We

which was severe beyond imagination. We soon observed that in talking to one another we lost several of our words, and could not hear one another at above two yard's distance, and that too when we sat very

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


near the
fire.

121

After

much

perplexity, I found that our words

froze in the air, before they could reach the ears of the
I was soon confirmed whereupon the whole company grew dumb, or rather deaf; for every man was sensible, as we

persons to
in
this

whom

they were spoken.

conjecture,

but the than they were condensed and lost. It was now a miserable spectacle to see us nodding and gaping at one another, every man talking, and no man heard. One might observe a seaman that could hail a ship at a league's distance, beckoning with his hand, straining his lungs, and tearing his throat; but all in vain. We continued here three weeks in this dismal plight. At length, upon a turn of wind, the air about us began to thaw. Our cabin was immediately filled with a dry clattering sound, which I afterwards founel to be the crackling of consonants that broke above our heads, and were often mixed with a gentle hissing, which I imputed to the letter s, that occurs I soon after felt a so frequently in the English tongue.

afterwards found, that he spoke as well as ever;

sounds no sooner took

air

breeze of whispers rushing by


soft

my

ear;

for those being of a

and gentle substance, immediately liquefied in the warm These were soon followed air that blew across our cabin. bj^ syllables and short words, and at length by entire sentences, that melted sooner or later, as they were more or less congealed; so that now we heard everything that had been spoken during the whole three weeks that we had been
silent,
if

may

use that expression.

was now very early in the morning, and yet, to my surprise, I heard somebody say, "Sir John, it is midnight, and time for the ship's crew to go to bed." This I knew to be the pilot's voice; and upon recollecting myself, I concluded that he had spoken these words to me some days before; though I could not hear them until the present thaw. My reader will easily imagine how the whole crew was amazed
It

122

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

man talking, and see no man opening his mouth. In the midst of this great surprise we were all in, we heard a volley of oaths and curses, lasting for a long time, and uttered in a very hoarse voice, which I knew belonged to the boatswain, who was a very choleric fellow, and had taken his opportunity of cursing and swearing at me, when he thought I could not hear him. When this confusion of voices was pretty well over, though I was afraid to offer at speaking, as fearing I could not be heard, I proposed a visit to the Dutch cabin, which lay about My crew were greatly a mile farther up in the country.
to hear every

rejoiced to find they

had again recovered


.

their hearing,

though every
hension that
I

man

uttered his voice with the same appre. .

had done.

We

at

length arrived at the

little

Dutch settlement;
with sighs that

and, upon entering the room, found

it filled

smelt of brandy, and several other unsavory sounds, that


valet, who was an Irishwhat he heard, that he drew his sword; but not knowing where to lay the blame, he put it up again. We were stunned with these confused noises, but did not hear a single word until about half an hour after; this phenomenon I ascribed to the harsh and obdurate sounds of that language, which wanted more time than ours to melt and become audible. After having met with a hearty welcome, we went to the cabin of the French, who, to make amends for their three weeks' silence, were talking and disputing with greater rapidity and confusion than I ever heard in an assemblj^, even of that nation. Their language, as I found, upon the first giving of the weather, fell asunder and dissolved.

were altogether inarticulate.


fell

My

man,

into so great a rage at

Joseph

Addison

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


CUESTIONARIO

123

1. During what season of the year did the vessels reach Nova Zembia? 2. Where is Nova Zembla? 3. What does the first

4. What one central fact is related in the second What is the central thought of the third paragraph ? 6. Would you call this selection a short story or merely a descriptive passage ? 7. What is the one main episode of the selec-

paragraph

tell ?

paragraph?

5.

tion?

8.

Is

it

well told?

9.

Is

it

logically developed ?
12.

10.

Is

it

conclusive?

11. Is

there

any humor displayed?


all ?

Does

it

appeal to the emotions at

DON'T GIVE UP
If

you've tried and have not won,

Never stop

for crying;

All that's great

and good

is

done

Just by patient trying.

Though the sturdy oak has known Many a blast that bowed her, She has risen again and grown
Loftier

and prouder.

by easy work you beat, the more will prize you? Gaining victory from defeat
If

Who

That's the test that

tries

you.

Phoebe
THE WIND AND THE MOON
Said the

Gary

Wind to the Moon, "I You stare in the air


Like a ghost in a chair,
I

will

blow you out.

Always looking what


I

am

about.

hate to be watched;

I will

blow you out."

124

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The Wind blew
hard, and out went the IMoon. So deep on a heap Of clouds to sleep Down lay the Wind, and slumbered soon, Muttering low, "I've done for that Moon."

He

turned in his bed; she was there again. On high in the sky.
plain.

With her one ghost eye, The Moon shone white and alive and

Said the Wind, "I will blow you out again."'

The Wind blew hard, and the Moon grew dim. "With my sledge and my wedge
have knocked off her edge. blow right fierce and grim. The creature will soon be dimmer than dim."
I If

only

He

blew and he blew, and she thinned to a thread; "One puff more's enough
last

To blow her to snuff One good puff more where the

was bred,

And

glimmer, glimmer, glum, will go the thread."

He blew

a great blast, and the thread was gone;

In the air nowhere

Was
Far
off

moonbeam

bare;

and harmless the shy stars shone; Sure and certain the IVIoon was gone

The Wind he took up

his revels

once more;

On down,
He

in

town.

Like a merry

mad

clown,

leaped and. hallooed with whistle and roar.

"What's that?" The glimmering thread once more.

!;

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


He
flew in a rage

125

he danced and blew


was the pain and blew.

But
Of For
still

in vain

his bursting brain;

the broader the moon-scrap grew,


swelled his big cheeks
till

The broader he
Slowly she grew,

she

filled

the night,

And

shone on her throne

In the sky alone,

matcliless, wonderful silvery light.


lovely, the

Radiant and

queen

of the night.

Said the Wind,

"What

a marvel of power

am

With
I

my

breath, good faith,

blew her to death;


in.

First blew her away, right out of the sky,

Then blew her

What

a strength

am

!"

But the Moon, she knew nothing about the


For high
in the sky,

affair,

With her one white

eye.
air,

Motionless, miles above the

She had never heard the great Wind

blare.

George
THE SHIP OF STATE
Thou,
too, sail on,

MacDonald

Ship of State

Sail on,

Union, strong and great


all its fears.
!

Humanity, with

With
Is

all

the hopes of future years


!

hanging breatliless on thy fate

We know
What

what Master

laid

thy keel,
ribs of steel.
sail,

What Workmen wrought thy

Who made

each mast, and

anvils rang,

In what a forge Were shaped the anchors

and rope. what hammers beat. and what a heat


of

thy hope

; ;

!!

126

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Fear not each sudden sound and shock,
'Tis of the 'Tis

wave, and not the rock; but the flapping of the sail,
not a rent

And

made by

the gale

In spite of rock and tempest's roar,

In spite of false lights on the shore. Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea Our hearts, our hopes are all with thee:

Our hearts, our hopes, our prayer, our Our faith triumphant o'er our fears, are aU with thee Are aU with thee,

tears.

Henry
WHEN
ICICLES

\V.

Longfellow

HANG BY THE WALL

When icicles hang by the wall, And Dick the shepherd blows his nail. And Tom bears logs into the hall, And milk comes frozen in the pail, When blood is nipped, and ways be foul,
Then
nightly sings the staring owl,

To-who
To-whit, to-who, a merry note.

When

all

aloud the wind doth blow,

And coughing drowns the parson's saw, And birds sit brooding in the snow, And Marian's nose looks red and raw,

When
Then

roasted crabs hiss in the bowl,


nightly sings the staring owl,

To-who
To-whit, to-who, a merry note.

William

Shakespeare

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


DAFFODILS
wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and When all at once I saw a crowd,
I
hills,

127

host of golden dafi:odils;

Beside the lake, beneath the

trees.

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the milky-way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of the bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance. Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves

beside them danced, but they Outdid the sparkling waves in glee: poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company; and gazed I gazed but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought.

For

oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon my inward eye Which is the bliss of solitude;

And And

then

my

heart with pleasure

fills,

dances with the daffodils.

William

Wordsworth

AN ANGLO-SAXON'S PRAYER
Almighty God,
I
I

come not

to

Thy

feet,

Like Magdaline, forgiveness to entreat.

come

to

Thee proudly,

for

Thy Son

Called

me

His brother. Great Eternal One.

128
I I

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


am Thy
do not ask that Thou shouldst steer my bark; son, and I fear not the dark.
I fail

What though
I pulled

the oar

my

and ne'er reach yonder shore? best; life holds no more.

Mine

is

the task, from


I steer

Thee

to

me was
life's

given;
oblivion.
faults

Faithful

my

craft

through

Work

of

Thy
I

hand,

Thou knowest my

and strength;

Confident

work towards Thee,

victor at length.

Slaves at their master's feet grovel and weep,

And

in the danger hour watch not, but sleep. Yea, but the Master's Son, strong for the race, Boldly He draweth near, taking His place.

Calmly the Master's Son doeth His work; Naught of paternal fear in Him doth lurk.
So
in the dust,

Trusting, I take

my God, I do not hide; my place close to His side.

Selected
WOMAN'S WILL
Men, dying, make their wills, but wives Escape a work so sad; Why should they make what all their lives The gentle dames have had?

John
RIDDLE
Ten fish I caught without an And nine without a tail;
I

Godfrey Saxe

eye,

Six had no head, and half of eight

weighed upon the

scale.

Now who can tell me, as I How many fish were in my

ask

it.

basket?

Anonymous

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER

129

ON THE VOWELS
We
One One
are
little

airy creatures,

All of different voice

and features;

of us in glass is set, of us you'll find in jet.

T'other you

may

see in tin,

And
If

the fourth a box within.

the fifth you should pursue,

It

can never

fly

from you.

Jonathan
RIDDLE
{Que
se

Swift

haga

lo

que dice

el

poema, deletreando asi una palabra)

Make three-fourths of a cross, And a circle complete, And let two semicircles On a perpendicular meet;
Next add a triangle That stands on two Next two semicircles.
feet;

And

a circle complete.

Anonymous
RIDDLE
As I was going to St. Ives, I met a man with seven wives, Every wife had seven sacks. Every sack had seven cats, Every cat had seven kits; Kits, cats, sacks, and wives.

How many

were there going to

St.

Ives?

Anonymous

130

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


LIMERICK
There was a young lady named Hannah Who shpped on a peel of banana;

More Than

stars she spied,


side,

As she lay on her

are found in the Star Spangled Banner.

AXONTMOUS

TONGUE TWISTER
Sudden swallows
swiftly skimming,

Sunset's slowly spreading shade,

SUvery songsters sweetly singing,

Summer's

sootliing serenade.

Anonymous
TONGUE TWISTER
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers;

A
If

peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked;


of pickled peppers Peter Piper

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,

Where's the peck

picked?

Anonymous

APENDICE
Regla
did y
I.

Por
y
la

regla

general, los verbos ingleses


el

forman

la

interrogacion

negacion en
del verbo:

preterite por

medio

del auxiliar

el infinitivo

Did Jack build the house?


Yes, Jack built the house. No, Jack did not build the house.

Construyo Juan

la

casa?

Juan construyo la casa. No, Juan no construyo la casa.


Si,

Regla
de
las

II

Para expresar wi o una en


a man an ox an old

ingles, se

usa a delante

palabras que comienzan por consonante, y an delante de las que comienzan por vocal:

man

un hombre un buey un anciano

Regla
la

III.

Por
y
la

regla general, los verbos ingleses


el

forman

interrogacion
la tercera

negacion en

presente por medio de do (does

en

persona singular) y

el infinitivo del
s

verbo:

Does the old woman buy a pig?


Yes, she buys a pig.

Compra

la

anciana un cerdo?

No, she does not buy a

pig.

Si, compra un cerdo. No, no compra un cerdo.

Regla IV. man la tercera


-es
al

Los

verbos ingleses, con raras excepciones, for-

persona del singular del presente agregando -s o infinitivo. Las otras personas conservan la forma invariable

del infinitivo.

Debido a que

los

verbos carecen de terminaciones

distintas para indicar la persona, los


it,

pronombres

I,

you, he, she,

we, you y they no se omiten nunca salvo cuando se emplea otro


I

sujeto:

buy a house.

We

go to market. He buys a house. She goes to market.


131

Compro una casa. Vamos al mercado. Compra una casa.

Va

al

mercado.

132

APENDICE
V.

Regla
1.

El plural de

los sustantivos se

forma como sigue:

Regularmente

se agrega

una -s

al singular:

bear, bears; cot, cots; lake, lakes;

cape, capes.

2. Los que terminan en -ss, oh, sh, x, u otra consonante que no se liga f acilmente con la -s, agregan -es al singular

kiss, kisses; wish,


3.

wishes; box, boxes.


la -f o

Los que terminan en -f o -fe generalmente cambian


lives; wife, wives.

-f e en -ves
half, halves;
life,

4. Los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante cambian -y en -ies:

la

body, bodies;
5.

city, cities;

lady, ladies.

Los que terminan en -y precedida de vocal agregan una -s:

boy, boys; toy, toys; key, keys; day, days.


6.

Algunos forman su plural irregularmente:

man, men; woman, women; hangman, hangmen.

Regla VL I. Con los verbos auxiliares can, may, ought y must, y con el verbo to be, se forma la interrogacion como en espanol, y la negacion con la particula not, que sigue al verbo

May

Can you swim? I help you?

Are elephants large?

Mary must
That house

not leave.
is

nadarf Puedo ayudarle? s Son grandes los elefantes? Maria no debe partir.
^ Sabe Vd.
I

not white.

Aquella casa no es blanca.

2. Si se emplea un pronombre interrogativo como sujeto, who, which, what, se hace la interrogacion lo mismo que en

espanol

Who came

in?
slept in the little

Which bear

bed?

iQu&
^

Which one found Golden Locks?

Quien entrof oso dormla en la cama pequena Cudl encontrd a Golden Locks?
se cayoi'

What

fell?

sQue

APENDICE
3.

133
ver-

Tambien con

el

pronombre indefinido u otra forma


se

daderamente negativa,

suprime

la particula

did en

la

negaci6n

No one came
table.

in.

Neither of the bears slept on the

Nadie entro. Ninguno de


ytiesa.

los osos

dormia en

la

Observaddn: Si se emplea cualquiera de los pronombres arriba indicados como complemento, se forman la interrogacion y la negaci6n

come

lo indica la

Regla

I.

Whom
What

do you see?

quien ve
vio

Vdf

did Golden Locks eat?

^
g

Que comid Golden Locks f

Did you see no one?

No

Vd. a nadie?

Regla
lante

VII.

el

1.

del sustantivo.

Per regla general, el adjetivo se coloca deLa forma del adjetivo es invariable en

genero y niimero:
the big bear,
ancient
2.

oso grande;

the big bears, los osos grandes;


cities,

an

city,

una ciudad antigua; ancient

ciudades antiguas.

Si

hay dos o mas adjetivos que

califican al

mismo

sustan-

todos se colocan delante del sustantivo en el orden de su importancia, el mas significativo junto al sustantivo:
tivo,

a giant circus elephant, poor old blind men,

wi

enoryne elefante de circa

pobres viejos ciegos

Regla

VIII.

1.

forma agregando
be, being
2.
(ser,

al infinitivo la

El gerundio ingles es siempre regular; terminacion -ing:


bvuld, building (construir, construyendo)

se

siendo);

Los

iniinitivos

que terminan en e pierden esta

letra

al

agregar -ing:
bite, biting {morder,

mordiendo)

take, taking {tomar, tomando).

3.

Los infinitivos de una sola silaba que termina en consonante


al

precedida de una sola vocal, doblan la consonante


beg, begging {mendigar, mendigando);
sit,

agregar -ing:

sitting {sentarse, sentdndose)

134

APENDICE

4. Los de mas de una silaba obedecen la misma regla solamente cuando llevan el acento tonico en la ultima silaba

begin, beginning
dar, olvidando);

(comenzar, comenzando)

forget,

forgetting

{olvi-

travel, traveling {viajar, viajando).

Regla IX.

1.

El imperfecto espanol equivale

al

continua-

tivo ingles, o sea al preterite del verbo to

be (was o

v^^ere)

el

gerundio del verbo principal:


Jack was building the house. They were not chasing the cat.

Juan

construia la casa.

No

perseguian al gato.

1. El preterito perfecto se forma por medio del Regla X. verbo auxiliar have (has en la tercera persona singular) y el participio pasivo del verbo principal:

have burned the

stick.

The maid has milked the cow.

We have
2.

built a house.

He quemado el palo. La criada ha ordenado Hemos construido una

la vaca.

casa.

They have

eaten.

Han

comido.
el

Para formar oraciones interrogativas con

preterito per-

fecto, se coloca el sujeto entre el auxiliar

el

participio pasivo.
el

Las oraciones negativas

se

forman en

este

tiempo colocando

adverbio not despues del verbo auxiliar:

Have you burned the Has the maid milked They have not eaten.

stick?

the cow ?

^Ha quemado Yd. el -palo? | Ha ordenado la vaca la criada f No han comido.


los

Regla XI.
se

\. Los participios pasivos de forman agregando -ed al infinitivo:

verbos regulares

bum, burned

{quemar, quemado); love, loved {querer, querido).


1.

Regla
y

XII.
por

El futuro se forma con

el

infinitivo prece-

dido, en la primera persona, por el auxiliar shall,


la tercera,
el auxiliar will:

y en

la

segunda

SINGULAR
I shall go, ire

plural

we
you

shall go, ireynos


will go, ireis

you will go, irds he will go, el ird she will go, ella ird

they will go, irdn [you will go, Vd{s.) ird{n)J

APENDIGE
2.

135

en

la

la

El tiempo condicional se forma con el infinitivo precedido, primera persona, por el verbo auxiliar should, y en la segunda tercera, por el auxiliar will:

SINGULAR
I

PLURAL

should go, yo vria

we

should go, iriamos

you would go, irias he would go, irias she would go, ella iria
3.

you would go, irlas they would go, irian [you would go, Vd{s.) iria{n)2

Como

en todas las formas verbales compuestas de verbo


el

auxiliar seguido de verbo principal sin la particula to, formase


la

interrogacion colocando
la

sujeto entre
el

el

verbo auxiliar y

el

verbo principal, y del verbo auxiliar:

negacion colocando

adverbio not despues

Will he go?

Ira el?

Would Mary go?

^ Iria

Maria

We
Regla XIII.
1.

shall not go.

No
el

iremos.

Se indica
la

poseedor en ingles:
si la

Por medio del apostrofo,

palabra termina en s:
el

the bears' house,


2.

casa de los osos; James' father,


s, si la

padre de Jaime.

Por medio del apostrofo y

palabra no termina en s:
el elefante

the bear's house, la casa del oso; the men's elephant,


los

de

hombres.

Regla XIV.
cortos se

1.

El

grado
al

forma agregando -er agregando -est al positivo:


long, longer, longest; largo,
2.

comparativo de grado positivo, y

los
el

adjetivos

superlative

mas

largo, el vids largo.

Para formar

el

de los adjetivos respectivamente


ancient,
antiguo.

largos,

grado comparativo y el grado superlativo se antepone al positivo more y most

more

ancient,

most ancient;

antiguo,

mas

antiguo,

el

mas

136

APENDICE

Regla XV.
ingles

1.

La comparacion de igualdad

se expresa
si

en
la

con

el

adjetivo positive precedido del adverbio as,

comparacion es afirmativa, y por so, si es negativa. En ambos casos se antepone as al segundo termino de la comparacion:
Golden Locks was as good as Jack.
Golden Locks era tan buena como Juan. De Soto no tenia tantos anas como

De

Soto was not so old as Ponce de Leon.

Ponce de Leoni
el

2. La comparacion de desigualdad se expresa con comparativo seguido de la particula than:

adjetivo

The elephant
owner.

is

larger than the

El

elefante es

mds grande que

el

duefio.

He

is

larger than I thought.


Si la

Es

7nds grande de lo que pensaba.

3.

comparacion
el

se

hace de mas de dos cosas o dos indivi-

duos, se emplea

adjetivo superlative seguido de la particula of:


all.

John

is

the tallest of
la

Juan
si

es el

mds

alto de todos.

4. Se usa verdadera de

particula in

la

ultima frase no forma parte

la

comparacion
boy
in

John

is

the tallest

the

Jua7i es
close.

el

muchacho rnds

alto de la

class.

Regla
The

XVL
el

Los adjetivos y
poseedor y no con

los

pronombres posesivos conhijo

cuerdan con
daughter.

la

cosa poseida:
y a su
el

father loves his son and his


father,

El padre quiere a su
hija.

The daughter loves her

and

La

hija quiere a su padre, y

hijo

the son loves his mother.

quiere a su madrc.

The

pig did not drink its milk.

El cerdo no bebio su

leche.

Regla XVIL
son como sigue:
1.

Las

reglas

para la colocacion del adverbio

El adverbio debe colocarse de manera que diste

lo

menos

posible del verbo

que modifica:

He

promised to pay

me

yesterday.

Yesterday, he promised to pay me.

Prometio paganne oyer. Ayer prometio pagarme.

APENDICE
2.

137

Un

solo adverbio

to-morrow, yet) precede

de tiempo (excepto yesterday, to-day, al verbo:

We

often go to the

city.

Vamos muchas
Hablan

veces a la ciudad.

They always speak English.


3.

siem'pre ingles.

Todos
al

los adverbios,

con

la

excepcion de los de tiempo,

siguen

verbo intransitivo

He
4.

talks wisely.

El habla sabiamente.

Mary

writes well.
al

Maria

escribe bien.

El adverbio precede

verbo transitivo:

The maid

quickly milked the cov/.

La

criada ordeno con presteza la


vaca.

He
el

wisely told the truth.

Dijo juiciosamente

la verdad.

5. En los tiempos compuestos, el adverbio suele colocarse entre verbo auxiliar y el verbo principal
is still talking.

He He

El habla todavia.

will

not come.

No

vendrd.

They have never seen him. She could well do it.


6.

to han visto. Bien podria ella hacerlo.

Nunca

y yet

Los adverbios to-day, to-morrow, yesterday, well, once, twice se colocan al fin de la frase, aun en los tiempos compuestos:
Vendrd manana.

He

will come to-morrow. They have done well to-day.

Thomas has
7.

written

it

twice.

Lo han hecho bien hoy. Tomds lo ha escrito dos

veces.

Todo adverbio puede

colocarse o al principio o al final de la

frase para hacerla enfdtica:


final)

(Never nunca
.,

se halla

en posicion

He

Now, he is studying. \ .' I is studymg now. J


,
.

Ahora

estudia.

Perhaps
.

it is

true.
,
,

It is true,

perhaps.
al

Tal vez es verdad.

8.

Si dos

adverbios siguen
al otro:

mismo

verbo,

el

de tiempo es

precedido por

He came here immediately. He did it easily then.

Vino inmediamente

acd.

Lo

hizo entonces fdcilmente.

138
9.

APENDICE
Todo
adverbio, con
al

la

excepcion

de enough, precede

al

adjetivo o

adverbio que modifica:


too easily, demasiado fdcilmente; good enough,

very well,

muy Men;

bnstante haeno.
10.

Una

frase adverbial suele colocarse al final de la oracion,


al principio

pero puede ponerse


I

para darle enfasis a esta:

answered him quickly manner.

in a playful

Le
Lei

conteste -prontamente en hroma.

read the address before opening the package. Before opening the package, I read the address.
I

las

senas

antes

de

abrir

el

paquete.

Antes de abrir
senas.

el

paquete,

lei

las

1. Hablando de los seres \'ivientes cuyo toma en cuenta, como per ejemplo los ninos recien nacidos y los animales, se emplea el pronombre neutro it [^plural they (them)] de la misma manera que se usa para las cosas

Regla XVIII.

sexo no se

inanimadas:

The baby
with

is

pretty ;

it

plays

all

day

La
el

criatura es bonita ;

juega todo

its toes.
;

dia con sus dedos.


es juguetoii;

The

cat is playful

it is

never

still.

El gato
quieto.

nunca

estd

2.

Si

emplea

el

hay nombre especial que indica el sexo del animal, pronombre he (him) o she (her) segun el sexo.
is

se

The cow The bull


him.

gives milk; she


is

useful.

La
El

vaca da leche; es
toro es viejo;

litil.

old; I

am

not afraid of

no

le

tengo miedo.

3. Hablando de los animales en sentido general

muy

grandes, se emplea he (him)

The elephant
angry.
4.

is

not blind; he

is

El elefante no

es ciego;

estd enojado.

En

la poesia se personifican a
el

menudo

las cosas

inanimadas,

ddndoles

sexo masculino a las cosas que sugieren fuerza, poder


el

o violencia, y

femenino a

las

que sugieren

belleza,

paz o dulzura.

APfiNDICE

139
se

Regla XIX.

1.

La voz pasiva
el

forma en

ingles con el

verbo auxiliar to be y

participio pasivo del verbo principal.

El participio es invariable en todo tiempo y persona:

The soup is prepared by the bears. The house was built by Jack.
2.

La sopa es preparada por los osos. La casa fue construida por Juan.
la

El reflexivo espaiiol, usado en vez de

voz pasiva, se traduce

al ingles

mediante

la

verdadera voz pasiva.


Las manzanas se venden por docena. Las tortas se quemaron. verbos que en espaiiol son reflexivos

Apples are sold by the dozen.

The cakes were burned

up.

Regla XX.
se expresan

Muchos

en ingles por medio de verbo compuesto, o sea verbo

y adverbio:
marcharse,
to

go away; ponerse, to put on; sentarse,

to sit

down,

forma cuando

1. El pronombre personal tiene la misma emplea como complemento directo o indirecto. En ambos casos sigue al verbo, pero cuando se usa como complemento indirecto va precedido de la preposicion to

Regla XXI.

se

see him.

Le

veo.

I talk to
si el

him.

Le

hablo.

Nota:

La

particula to se omite

pronombre va delante de un
una hachita

sustantivo usado

como complemento

directo:

George's father gave him a


hatchet.

new

El Padre de Jorge
nueva.

le

did

2.

Cuando

se

emplean

los

dos en

la

misma

oracion, el directo

precede

al indirecto:

They gave

it

to

me.

Me
Se

lo dieron.

We

gave

it

to her.

lo

damos a

ella.

3. Usado como objeto de preposicion, el pronombre tiene forma igual a la usada como complemento de verbo:

came with him.


did
it

He

for

me.

Lo

Vine con el. hizo para

-mi.

140
4.

APENDICE
Los pronombres reflexivos obedecen
las

mismas

reglas de

colocacion que los otros pronombres complementos

John sees himself

in the mirror.

Mary

talks to herself.
it

They did
5.

for themselves.
la

Juan se ve en el espejo. Maria se habla. a si. Lo hicieron -para si.

En

resumen,
el

colocacion de los pronombres complementos

es la

misma que

sustantivo que reemplazan:


Ve7nos a Maria.

We We
I

see Mary. see her.


afraid of the elephant.

La
Le

vemos.
al elefante.

am am

Tengo miedo

afraid of him.

tengo iniedo.

Nota:

Hay ima

excepcion notable a esta regla.


al

En

los

verbos
pero
el

compuestos el sustantivo complemento sigue pronombre complemento sigue al verbo:

adverbio,

She ate up the soup. She ate it up.

Ella se cornio

la

sopa.

Ella se la comio.

Regla XXII.
whose
(posesivo)

1.

Los pronombres relativos who

(sujeto).

whom
who

{complemento) se refieren solamente a

personas
Pranklin was the boy the bread.
Sir

ate the

Franklin fue el comio el pan.


teses
le

muchacho que

se

Walter Raleigh, whose gallant deeds made him a knight, was sent to America. Washington, whom all Americans
love,

Sir Walter Raleigh, cuyos ados corhicieron


caballero,

fue

mandado a America.
Washington, a quien aman todos
los

was

buried

at

Mount

americanos, fue enterrado en


Vernori.

Vernon.
2.

Mount
se refiere

Which, que
en
la

igualmente a animales, cosas o ideas,

es invariable

forma:

The old woman bought a pig, which


would not go over the stile. The cloak which I have is new.
3.

La

vieja co^npro

un

cerdo, el que no

quiso pasar

el portillo.

La capa

que tengo es nueva. o

That puede reemplazar who,

whom

which

si

se quiere

que

la

referenda sea mas definitiva:

APENDICE
The boy
The
that ate all the bread

141

was

El muchacho que

Franklin.
pig that

stile

would not go over the was very small.

se comio todo el pan fue Franklin. El cerdo que no quiso pasar el portillo

era

muy

pequeno.

otros cerdos, pero el que

{Habia no quiso

pasar era pequefio.)


4.

Lo

que,

pero usado

como

empleado como complemento, equivale a what; sujeto, equivale a which:


you
did.

He

told

me what

Me
which

contd

lo

que Vd. hizo.


dijo la verdad, to que

Washington was well.


5.

told the truth,

Washington
era hueno.

That,

whom
la

o which, usado

como complemento,

se

omite

casi

siempre en

conversacion y en estilo literario vivo:


I

The cloak (that) (which) now is new. The beggar (whom) (that)
is

have

La capa que

tengo ahora es nueva.

know

El mendigo a quien conozco no


ciego.

es

not blind.

Regla XXIII.
antepone
al

1.

El articulo

indeterminado,

a,

(an),

se

predicado nominal para indicar que el sujeto es socio o miembro de una clase. No se usa el articulo indeterminado si el sujeto esta en plural.
Jack
is
is

a student.

Juan

es estudiante.

Man

an animal.

Horses are animals.


2.

El homhre es animal. Los caballos son animales.

El articulo indeterminado se usa con un sustantivo que

expresa medida o razon:

He He

receives forty cents an hour.

Recibe cuarenta centavos

la hora.

works

five

days a week.

Trabaja cinco dlas

la seniana.

Regla XXIV.
con
los

1.

El articulo determinado, the, no se usa

nombres de idiomas usados como sustantivos:


is

English

easy.

El ingles

es fdcil.
el

My

father

knows Spanish.

Mi

padre sabe

espanol.

142
2.

APENDICE
No No
No
se usa

con

los sustantivos

usados en sentido general:


las flores.

Girls love flowers.


3.

Las ninas aman

se usa
is

con

los

sustantivos abstractos:

Patience
4.

a virtue.

La

paciencia es una virtud.

se usa

con titulos:
el

el

doctor Franklin;
5.

Mr. Lincoln; Dr. Franklin; General Washington; el general Washington

senor Lincoln;

No

se usa
la

con expresiones de tiempo:


el

lastwee^,
el

doming o ;
6.

in

semana pasada; next year, summer, durante el verano.

ano que viene; on Sunday,

No

se

usa

con

los

nombres de

los

paises

nombres

geograficos
central Asia.,
el Asia central; southern Spain, Peru; Canada, el Canada.

la

Espana meridional;

Peru,

el

SELECCIONES MUSICALES

144

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


America

(r^^ A s V J "^
<

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->

'^

^
s ^
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of
thee,

4 1

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_ IP

S
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count
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lib- er- ty

no - ble free
lib- er- ty

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God
'

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-0-'

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sing

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land

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3
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f
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tzm.
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mountain side
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^^

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


America
_

145

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:zz

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early

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the

deep

^^
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we

hailed at the

twilight's last gleaming,

whose broad
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in

where the

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re

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what

is

146

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The Star -Spangled Banner
{Continued)

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ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The Star- Spangled Banner
{Continued)

147

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4-

148

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Busy Children

S^3
-5L
Planting the corn and po
ta
-

f < g g f =f
toes

Helping to scatter the

Spreading the hay

in

the

Work makes

us cheer-ful and

^ WW
hap
-

sun

shine

Raking

it

up when ifs
active and

py

Makes us both

oagg
seed

*-#-#
chick
-

Feeding the hens and


Play

the

ens
es

Freeing the

dry
strong

Picking the ap- pies and

peach
bet

Down in

the

we enjoy

all

the

'y ^^<^^\

P
1'

p^
M

t-

n
(

m
.^^

ter

when we have

^00<^

^K tr\ J
</

-m-m

r^

^m

^ 3 ^ #h5-f
#-#
weeds
by
long

-J|P-

garden frorn
orchard clos e
labored so

Driving the cowst() the


Picking the grapes i nthe

past

ure

vine

yard
ents

Gladly
.'

we help

on rkind

par

i\'
V

}' /

^^^ +^"
'-"'
*;

}P

"^

-#
r

/a '

t '

^ P^

l>

V'7

/m /

/<""

^0 r

A -^ /^

xi r ^ J
/

^'#
1

c>^

^ ^^ m J l# J i> l>
j^"P
'1

^-,p
}

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Busy Children
(Continued)

149

IB^
Feeding the horse
in

^
children are children are

the

stall

Gathering the nuts in the


Quickly

Fall
call

we we

little little

we come

at their

Children should love to be

vnr W WW^ o s3 tc^


bu bu
bu
-

sy sy
sy

surely there's surely there's


yes, there
is

work for us work for us

all

all all

we we

little

little

work for us

Children should

^ens' tP^XP^ w
^if
^'i\

150

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


In the Days of Washington

^ ^mm
1^

..

N N

^"^
many
years

^^5?i
a
-

In

the days of Wash-ing-ton

so

go.

^
^S
^

5f-5f

-p"

-w

-m

0-

^^^
George and Martha used to dance and

NTN-N

^J
^-

al-\vays curt-sy low.

i i

\=^
J

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


In the Days of Washington
(Continued)

151

Cho:

wSo they

w
a
-

^ m^
danced the Min - u - et
trip-ping to
\

and

fro

and

r:s

%=%

r
'^TN

^
ts
thats the

-/

n\

w
so

0-^0
many
years a-go.

way

they used to

do

N.

N
^.

^CN

d IM

r:\

TtT

152

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Jack Frost

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


Jack Frost
(Continued)

153

l>

^
nips

^&
lit

-tie

children

on the nose,
roguish boy,

a
He And He He

up the

chimney skips

the.

s .
^\ )
-

*
\^
d
all

m
on
the
for
toes,

a
lit -

0-

pinches
the

tie

children

lit

-tie

3
^j- * ^
pulls
lit - tie lit - tie

^ ^
children

jump

joy,

c^

children

by

^^
the
ho,
ears.

makes

boys sav

ho,

ho.

He He

t^^=^
draws from
their

:2Z3t
eyes
girls

the
cry

big
oh,

round
oh,

tears
oh.

makes

lit - tie

154

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH READER


The Shoemaker
Moderaio

s
*7
As wan-der-ing up and
O'er
lasts

i
down one day
bits
I

*^

of wooclhis

I peeped in a window of leather^he^ 'stitches and; fits

^m
i
i

mm

is:

o-ver the way and putting his nee -die through and through then sews together and puttin^iis waxed ends

NOTAS AL VOCABULARIO
el texto,

Este vocabulario comprende todos los vocablos ingleses usados en cada uno con su correspondiente equivalente espanol. Tenel

orden alfabetico ingles es como sigue: a, b, c, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z. No se conPor ejemplo, sideran como letras sueltas las siguientes: ch, II, rr. De la misma manera chain sigue a certification y no a czarlike. Holland se encuentra entre holiday y holy. Los vocablos compuestos cuyas partes est^n separadas por guion se consideran como palabras independientes. Por ejemplo, to-day sigue a to y no a tobacco. Los verbos regulares ingleses estan designados por la abreviatura vr., que quiere decir que forman su preterito y su participio pasivo agregando -ed al infinitivo. Los verbos irregulares llevan tras si, entre parentesis, las dos unicas irregularidades, o sea el preterito y Para facilitar el uso del texto en clases que no el participio pasivo. hayan empleado el Primer Curso de Ingles, se incluye en el vocabulario toda forma irregular. Los equivalentes espaiioles de los modismos ingleses se hallan, buscando el verbo, si lo hay, y si no hay verbo en Tambien se catalogan el modismo, la palabra principal de la frase. los modismos de la primera parte del libro bajo dos o mas formas en Una raya indica la beneficio de los alumnos de clases elementales. repetici6n de la palabra de que se trata, y unos puntos suspensivos indican la omision de la parte de la frase que no ofrezca dificultades. La pronunciaci6n de cada vocablo ingles est^ indicada por medio de los signos ortogrdficos, cm^a clave se encuentra en el pdrrafo 1, pagina 1 del libro. En los pocos casos en donde ha sido imposible indicar la pronunciacion por medio de los signos ortograficos se ha utilizado un recm-so ortol6gico para indicar la pronunciacion, redeletreando la palabra de modo figurado entre parentesis cuadrados. Por supuesto, tales formas (que se hallan inpresas en tipo claro) no deben ser consideradas como voces verdaderas. La t entre parentesis cuadrados quiere decir que la d final suena como t (vease el pdrrafo 7) Todas las vocales (tambien las consonantes c y g ) llevan signo ortogrdfico salvo en los casos siguientes.
gase presente que
d, e,
f,

g, h,

i,

j,

k,

1,

m,

155

156
(1) (2)

NOTAS AL VOCABULARIO

Los diptongos: ew, ow, ou, oi, oy {vease el pdrrafo 1). Las siguientes particulas de pronunciacion irregular: -tion, -sion, -tur delante de vocal, le(d) precedida de consonante, ng al finali de sUaba, ci y ti delante de vocal. Hay que estudiar bien el pdrrafo 16 (pdginas 13-15) para dominar estas particulas, pues su empleo es tan frecuente que una pronunciaci6n figurada resultaria confusa. El acento grdfico se indica por medio del signo que sigue a la sllaba que debe acentuarse. Las siguientes abreviaturas se usan en este vocabulario
'

a.,

adjetivo

pp., participio pasivo


pres.,
pret.,

adv.,
art.,

adverbio
articulo

tiempo presente tiempo preterito

comp., grado comparative


cond.,
conj.,
fut.,

pron.,
refl.,
s.,

pronombre

tiempo condicional
conjuncion

reflexivo

sustantivo

tiempo futuro
plural

sing., singular

interj., interjecci6n
pi.,

sup.,
vr.,

grado superlative verbo regular

VOCABULARIO
accord',
vr.,

conceder, otorgar

account',
a,
art.

s.,

indet.,

(se

pronuncia a

al

cuenta;
tivo de

on

of
vr.,

relacion,
(6v),

informe;

por moate-

deletrear), un,

una

abandono, despreabandonar abil'ity, s., habilidad, capacidad a'ble, a., capaz, hdbil; to be poder abode', s., morada, estancia
aban'don,
s.,

aceu'mulate,
sorar

acumular,

ocupacion;

vr.,

accumula'tion,
accuse',
vr.,

s.,

acumulaci6n
acusar,

culpar;

de-

nunciar
accus'tom, m\, acostumbrar
ac/ie, vr., doler;
.s.,

abol'ish,

vr.,

abolir, anular

dolor

abom'inable,

abound',
de;

vr.,

abominable abundar
a.,

ach/eve',

vr.,

lograr,

Uevar

cabo
acftn6u;rec?ge, fesar
vr.,

about', prep., tocante a; alrededor

a eso de;

(to

be)

to

reconocer, con-

be,

(estar)

he
at

is

para;
,

he knows what
que hace encima de, sobre;
lo

acquaint',

vr.,

familiarizar, enterar

sabe

above', prep.,

acquamt'anfe', s., s, conocidos

conocimiento;
conocido;
to

en

lo alto;
a.,

mds de; adv., arriba, mds de, mds que


precipitado, repentino

acquafnt'ed,

a.,

get

conocer
ir.,

abrupt',

acquire',

adquirir
s.,

ab'solute,

a.,

absolute, complete

aeguisi'tion,

adquisici6n
obrar,
as,

ab'solutely, adv., absolutamente

across', prep., a traves de, por


act,
s.,

absorbed',

a., absorbido abun'dange, s., abundancia abun'dant, a., abundante, copioso

hecho, accion;
conducirse;
el

vr.,

hacer,

to

hacer

papel de
actividad

aeadem'ie,
aegept',

abuso a., academico aead'emy, s., academia, liceo


abuse',
s.,

ac'tive, a., activo


activ'ity,
s.,

ae'tual, a., actual, real, efectivo

vr.,
s.,

aceptar, admitir
accidente, casualidad

ac'tualZy, adv., de hecho, efectiva-

ae'fident,

mente
add,
vr.,

aceom'pany, vr., acompanar aceom'plishment, s., consumacion, logro; s, talentos, prendas

agregar,

sumar
(1672-1719),

Ad'cRson,

jS'seph

escritor ingles

157

158
addi'tion,
s.,

VOCABULARTO
a(iici6n;

in

to,

ago', adv., hace, ha; a long time

adem^s
ac?di'tional, a., adicional

hace
discurso,

muchos

aiios;

[mgn'y] years
alios

many

hace muchos

address',

s.,

ad'equate,
adher'ent,
dario
adjust',

a.,
s.,

memorial adecuado
adherente,
parti-

agree',

vr.,

acceder, consentir
s.,

agree'ment,
agrieiirtural,

acuerdo, concordia
agricola;

a.,

im'-

vr.,

ajustar,
a.,

amoldar
administrativo
con-

plements, aperos de labranza


agrieiirture,
aid,
vr.,
s., s.,

administra'tive,

agricultura

admit',

vr.,

admitir, recibir,

ayudar, socorrer
mira,
fin,

ceder

afm,
vr.,

objeto

adoptar adop'tion, s., adopcion


adopt',

afr, s., aire

afr'plane,

s.,

aeroplano

advan'tage,

s.,

ventaja; to

provecho; to take
charse (de)
ad'versary,
advife',
a/fafr',
s., s., s.,

con

az'r'y, a.,

aereo; trivial

of,

aprove-

Alas'ka, Alaska
Al'den,

John (1599-1687), uno de


Alfredo;

adversario

lo-s

peregrinos

consejo
asunto, negocio;

Al'fred,

tbe

Greats
rey

how

Alfredo
ingles

Magno

(849-901),

s stand, el

verdadero estado
obrar
carinoso,
afec-

de cosas
a/feet', vr., infiuir,

alive', a., vivo, vdviente;


all,
a.,

activo

todo;

a/fee'tionate,

a.,

proti.,

tuoso
a/fxlia'tion,
s.,

modo
afiliacion,

enteramente; todo, todos; at en alguno


adv.,

adop-

aZlot', vr., distribuir,

asignar

cion
a/fray', afraid',
., riiia,

aZlow',

vr.,

permitir;

asignar

refriega
to

a.,

temeroso;

be

tener miedo
prep., despues de; conj., despues que afterwards, adv., despues; ev'er para siempre again [agSn'], adv., otra vez, de

after,

Al'ma Ma'ter, s., la univcrsidad donde uno sc ha graduado almi^M'y, s., omnipotente, todopoderoso
al'most, adv., casi
alone', a. y adv., solo, solamente
along', prep., a lo largo de

aloud',
recio

adv.,

alto,

en

alta

voz,

nuevo
against [ag6nst'3, prep., contra
age,
s.,

edad;

old

Mid'c?le

alread'y, adv., ya
al'so, adv.,

vejez;

s,

Edad Media
agregado, juntado
discutir

althoup'/i', conj.,

tambien aunque

a'genfy,

.,

agenda
a.,

altpgeth'er, adv., enteramente, en

ag'^regate,

junto

a'gitate, vr., agitar;

alum'nus

{pi.

aliim'nl),

s.,

cl

que

VOCABULARIO
ha recibido su
universidad
al'ways, adv., siempre
titulo

159
s.,

en cualquier

an'vil,

yunque
a.,

anx'ious,

ansioso

any [6n'y],

a.

amass',

vr.,
vr.,

acumular

thing, cualquier cosa,


Press
apart', adv., a

y pron., cualquiera;
algo

asombrar, aturdir ambl'tion, s., ambicion, aspiracion amend', s., recompensa; to make s, dar cumplida satisfaccion Amer'iea, America Amer'iean, a. y s., americano amid', prep., entre, en medio de am'nesty, s., indulto, amnistia among', prep., entre {varios) am'ple, a., bastante, amplio

amaze',

A. P., abreviatura de Asso'ciated

un

lado, separadalejos el

mente; far
otro

uno

del

Aj&palach'ian, Apalaches
ap/)ar'ently, adv., al parecer

appeal',

s.,

apelacion;

vr.,

Uamar

la atencion;

ser atractivo

appear',

vr.,

aparecer, asistir
s.,

amuse'ment,
tenimiento
an,

s.,

diversion, entre-

appear' anfe,
apariencia
ap'/>le, s.,

aparicion, Uegada,

forma del articulo indeterminado usada delante de palabra que principia por vocal, un, una
s.,

manzana
aplicar, dar
irr.,

apply',

vr.,

appoint',

nombrar
s.,

an'ehoT,
an'cient,

ancla
anciano, antiguo

aj!)point'ment,
a/>pre'ciate,

cita

a.,

ir.,

apreciar, estimar
s.,

and, conj., y An'glo-Sax'on, anglosajon


an'gry,
a.,

ap^rehen'sion,

aprehension,

temor
a/)pr6cch'ing,
a/)pr6'priate,
a., a.,

cnojado, enfadado
ansia, dolor

proximo, cercano
apropiado,
per-

an'guish,
an'imal,

s.,

s.,

animal

tinente
apt, a., listo, inclinado

Annap'olis, 'nombre de
capital de

una ciudad, Ma'ryland


s.,

areMtee'ture,
Are'tie, Aitico

s.,

arquitectura

annex',

vr.,

anexar
aniversario

anniver'sary,

ar'dor,

s.,

ardor, fervor

announce', vr., notificar, avisar annoy', vr., molestar, incomodar


an'nual,
a.,

ar'gue,

vr., argiiir,
s.,

disputar

ar'gument,
aparecer

argumento

anual
a.,

arise' (arose', aris'en), levantarse,

anon'ymous,
anoth'er,
a.

anonimo
otro;
(varios),

[wto^
unos a
an'su;er,
i'.,

y pron.,
entre
si

one
los

arith'metie,

s.,

aritmetica

los otros
vr.,

contestar, respuesta;

arm, s., brazo armed, a., armado arms, s., armas; servieio
guerra ar'my,
s.,

militar,

respuesta, contestacion
s.,

antag'onist,

antagonista

ejercito

anti-so'cial, a., antisocial

arose', pret. dc to arise'

160

VOCABULARIO
aston'ishing,
a.,

around', prep., alrededor de


aroused',
arrange',
a.,

asombroso, pas-

excitado,

movido
poner en

moso
asun'der, adv., en dos, en pedazos
at, prep.,

vr.,

arreglar,

orden
array',
s.,

en {sin movimiento)
gimnastico
juegos

orden

{de batalla)

ate, pret. de to ect


athlet'ie, a., atletico,

arrest', vr., detener, reprimir


arriv'al,
s.,

llegada

athlet'ies,

s.,

gimnasia,

arrive', vr.,

Uegar

atleticos

ar'row,
art,
s.,

s.,

flecha

Atlan'tie, Atldntico
a-trip'/jing,

arte
s.,

moviendo

los pies

con

ar'tiele,

artfculo

ritmo
asi,

as,

conj.,

como,
a.,

tan,

tam-

artafn', vr., lograr,

ganar
concurrir a;

bien
asgend'ing,
ascribe',

attempt',

vr.,

intentar, procurar

ascendiente

artend',

vr., asistir a,

vr.,

atribuir

cuidar
arten'tion,
s.,

ash'es,

s.,

cenizas; lisase general-

atenci6n,

mira-

mente en plural ashore', adv., en tierra; to go

set

miento, cuidado
aften'tive, a., atento, cuidadoso
at'fitude,
s., s.,

desembarcar
aside', adv., al lado, aparte;

actitud

a/tor'ney,

ask,
to

abogado; states

destinado
vr.,

fiscal {de

un
a.,

estado o de distrito

preguntar;
a;

rogar, pedir;

judicial)
a/trae'tive,

about', preguntar per o


to

tocante
solicitar

atractivo,

hala-

for,

pedir,

gueiio
au'dible,
a., olble,
s.,

asleep',

dormido; to fall dormirse, quedarse dormido; fast profundamente dora.,

perceptible

au'dienge,
au'thor,

auditorio, gyentes

Aug'ust, agosto
s.,

autor
s.,

mido
as'peet,
s.,

author'ity,

autoridad
(o

aspecto, fase

automo'bile

automobile'),

s.,

assail', rr.,

acometer, asaltar
vr.,

autom6vil
av'erage,
tipico
avert',
rr.,
s.,

assas'sinate,

asesinar

promedio;

a medio,

assem'bly,
cion
as'set,
s.,

s.,

asamblea, conven-

impedir, prevenir

haber, propiedad, valor


senalar

await',

vr.,

aguardar, esperar
ausente,
de,
lejos;

assig-n', w., fijar,

away',

adv.,

assist', vr.,

ayudar
s.,

from, fuera

lejos

de;


once

asso'ciate,

asociado, socio

with such trum'perj^, fuera de aqui con estos cachivaches


awhile',
adv.,

Asso'ciated

Prensa Asociada, agenda mundial para la


Press,
distribucidn de noticias

[wiins] in

un
,

rato;

de vez en cuando

VOCABULARIO
B
ba'by,
s.,

161
oso

bear,

8.,

criatura, nino
s.,

bear (bore, borne), sostener, Uevar, soportar, aguantar


beast,
s.,

bach'elor,

soltero;

bachiller
a.,

bestia
a.,

back,

s.,

espalda, lomo;

pos-

beast'ly,

bestial

terior;

adv., atrds, detras;


s.,

alM

beat

(beat,

beat'en),
to

back'ground,
bake,
ir.,

fondo

veneer,

ganar;

golpear;

from,

cocer {en

homo)

ahuyentar {por medio de golpes)


beau'tiful,
a.,

bak'ery,

s.,
.s.,

banan'a,

panaderia pldtano

bonito, bello,

Undo

beau'ty,
de

s.,

belleza

band,

s.,

cuadrilla;

banda

because', conj., porque

ban'jo,

s.,

especie de gidtarra

beck'on,

vr.,

hacer senas a ade-

cinco cuerdas con caja redonda

a modo de pandero bank, s., banco, casa de banca ban'ner, s., estandarte, bandera;
Star Span'gled
bar'barous,
bare,
a.,

manes become' (became', become'), venir


a parar, llegar a ser;
ponerse; to
cerse

young, rejuvenebe
de,

hacerse,

la

bandera

de los Estados Unidos


a.,

bed,

s.,

cama, lecho

barbaro, salvaje
liso,

been

[o bin], pp., de to

sencillo;
s.,

descubierto
at

before', adv., antes, delante; prep.,

bar'gain,

ganga;

delante
conj.,

de,

antes

ante;

baratisimo
bark,
s.,

antes que

corteza (deldrbol); barca


granero, pajar
s.,

beg,

vr.,

mendigar; rogar
s.,

bam,
base,

s.,

began', pret. de to begin'


beg'^ar,
s.,

bar'rier,

obstaculo
basar,
establecer;
a.,

mendigo, pordiosero

vr.,

begin',

(began', begun'),

comen-

base,

fundamento;
s.,

bajo,

zar, principiar,

empezar

soez
base'ball,

juego de pelota norte-

begun', pp. dc to begin' beha/f: in of [ov], a favor de

americano
base'ly, adv., bajamente, vilmente

behind', adv.,
trds de

detras;

conj.,

de-

base'ment,
ba'sin,
ba'sis,
.s.,

s.,

sotano, cuarto bajo


ba'ses), base, basa

behef,
cree
bell,

s.,

creencia, opinion
creer;
it

cuenca, valle
{pi.

beheve',

vr.,

is

d,

se

s., s.,

bas'ket,

cesta, canasta

bas'ketball,

bathe,

vr.,

juego de bal6n banar(se)


s.,

al

s.,

cascabel;

campana;

to

the cat,

poner un cascabel

batfe'ing,

s.,

bano

Bell,

gato Ale?an'der
el
vr.,
vr.,

Gra'Mm

(1847-

baffle,

s.,

batalla, lucha

1922),

inventor del telefo?io

bay,

s.,

bahia, rada

heVlow,
belong',

bramar, gritar
pertenecer;
ser socio

beam,

s.,

rayo de luz

162
belov'ed,
a.,

VOCABULARIO
amado, querido
bgnt),
doblar,

blame,
en-

.s.,

culpa;

to lay the

bend

(bent,

echar
blare,
blast,

la

culpa

corvar
beneath', adv. y prep., bajo, debajo

vr.,
s.,

sonar (co7no trompeta) ventarron


desierto, frio
s.,

de
ber'ry,
s.,

bleak,

a.,

baya, grano

bles'sing,

beneficio, bendicion,

beseech'
siiplicar,

(hesdughf,
implorar

besought'),

prosperidad

blew [blu],
blind,
a.,

pret. de to hlbiv

beside', prep., al lado de, cerca de

ciego;

man,

(el)

besides', adv.,
best,

ademds
de

ciego

superlativo

good

de

bliss,

s.,

gloria, deleite
s.,

well
betray',
bet'/er,
vr.,

block'head,
traicionar

necio,

tonto,

zo-

quete
blood,
s.,

comp. de good y de well between', prep., entre (de dos)


bewil'dering,
a.,

sangre
s.,

blood'shed,

matanza, efusion

aturdidor,

per-

turbador
beyond', prep., fuera de,
sobre,

de sangre blou; (blew [blu], bloum), soplar; away, aparhacer sonar; to


tar soplando;
to

mds
bid

alia de

in,

intro-

(bade,

bid'den),

mandar,

ducir
to

ordenar
bid (bid, bid), ofrecer, hacer una
oferta o
licitacion; to

out, apagar
s.,

alguna

cosa

soplando;

blow,
blue,

golpe
azul
s.,

fa/r,

a.,

dar indicios de

blue'bird,

azulejo

grande bill, s., proyecto de ley bind (bound, bound), atar, unir; up, vendar; to hand to and foot, atar seguramente;
big, a.,

board,
boast,
boat,

s.,
CT-.,

junta
jactarse

bird,

to tpgeth'er, junt avo, pajaro;


s.,

buque, barco boat'swafn [o hbat'swain],


s.,

s.,

contramaestre Bo'bo, t}07)ih-e propio


bod'y,
s.,

's

eye

cuerpo, coleccion, agre-

view, vista de pd,jaro


birth,
&.,

gado

nacimiento;

gen'tle

bold'ly,

adi'.,

osadamente, gallar-

bien nacido
birth'day,
Ijcio
s.,

cumpleanos,

nataa

bit,

s.,

pedazo, pedazito;

damente bomb, s., bomba boob'y, s. y a., bobo


book,
bore,
s.,

libro

un poco
bite,
s.,

IT.,

cavar, taladrar
to

bocado
negro

bom,

pp., nacido;

be

nacer

bite (bit, bit'/en), morder, picar

borne, pp. dc to bear; shall have

black,

a.,

habra aguantado

VOCABULARIO
bor'rou;,
vr.,

163
brotar,. desatarse;

pedir prestado

to to

boss,
taz

s.,

jefe,

amo, patr6n, capa-

loose, out,
s.,

estallar,

brotar

break,
breast,

rotura

Bos'ton, capital de Mas'sachusetts


both,

s.,

pecho;
aliento
a.,

vr.,

acometer

ambos, los dos; tanto como, asi como


a.,

conj.,

de frente
breath,
s.,

y pp. de to buy bound, pp. de to bind; a., atado, amarrado, destinado; for, con destine a
bought,
pret.

breath'less,
aliento

desalentado,

sin

bred, pret. y pp. de to breed breed (bred, bred), criar, engen-

bound, vr., deslindar, limitar boun'dary, s., limite, frontera bout, s., turno, lid, contienda bow, vr., inclinarse; doblar(se), encorvar b6u;l, s., tazon (de fuente) cuenca,
;

drar breeze,
ers,
s.,

brisa, airecillo

breth'ren,

forma

ayitigua de broth'-

usada en la actualidad en
s.,

sentido religioso a patriotico

brick,

ladrillo

cuenco; estadio universitario

bride,
hright,

s.,

novia, desposada
a.,

compartimiento; ju'fy tribuna del jurado boy, s., muchacho, nine, varon Boy Seout, escucha; miembro de una asociacion mundial cuyo ohjeto es ediicar a los iiinos por medio de juegos recreativos y
box,
s.,

caja,

luciente,

flamante;

ilustre

brig'/it-plumed', a.,

adornado con
excelente

vistosas

plumas
borde;

bril'Ziant, a., brUlante,

brim, bring

s.,

hat

ala

(de

sombrero)

iliiles

bram,

s.,

y actividades cerebro;
s.,

civiles
s,

juicio

branch,
bran'dy,
brave,
a.

rama;

ramo,

sub-

division
s.,

aguardiente, coilac
s.,

valiente

about', efectuar, causar; to back, traer de vuelta; to home, traer a casa; to recoger; to out, exponer; to 6'ver,
Uevar;
to
in,

(brought,

brought),

traer,

traer,

brave'ly, adv., valientemente


Brazil'ian, brasileno

traer de lejos (especialmente de

ultramar)
bring'er,
s.,

breech,

s.,

infraccion, violacion

portador
s.,

bread,

s.,

pan
to

Brit'ish, a. y

britdnico, britano

break (broke, brok'en), romper,


quebrar;

broad,

a.,

ancho, pleno
(broad'cast,

all

to

hacer
salud;

pedazos;
to

to

pieges,

broad'east
east),

broad'(es-

down,

esparcir,

diseminar

hacer caer, destruir, perder la


trinchera,
to
-

groxmd, abrir 1? preparar el camino;


penetrar,
forzar;

pecialmente por medio del radio),


perifonear

broke,

pret. de to
a.,

in'tp,

brok'en,

break quebrado, roto

164
brood,
vr.,

VOCABULARIO
cavilar,
s.,

brotb'er,

ruminar hermano; colega

bus,

s.,

omnibus
[biz'ily],
adv.,

busily

diligente-

brought^ pret. y pp., de to bring brown, a., moreno, castano

mente
business
negocio,
to
[biz'ings]],
s.,

asunto,

brush,

vr.,

acepillar, frotar

brusque [brusk], a., brusco, rudo brusqueness [brusk'ness], s., rudeza bru'talZy, adv., brutalmente
buck'le,
s.,

dedicarse a nego metodico, mdtico; men, hombres de negocios; big aplicase


be in
,

industria,

ocupacion;
los

cios;

like,

siste-

este

hebilla

nombre a

bud'ding,

a.,

naciente

build (built, built), construir, edificar,

formar; to

empresas comerdales industriales que hacen negocios en graii escala


las

up again
the

busy
but,

[biz'y],
C071J.,

a.,

ocupado

Cagen'3, reconstruir;
la

ing,

pero, sine;

construccion
s.,

build'ing,
built, pret.

edificio

mente; I have one C^^'^li no tengo mas que uno


bufch'er,
s.,

adv.,

sola-

be'ing
bul'Zet,

s.,

y pp., de to build; are estan construyendose


,

carnicero

buy (bought, bought), comprar;


to

bala

(de

fusil

de

up, acaparar

revdlver)

buy'ing, gerundio,
haz, atado, paquete

el

comprar,
al

el

bun'dle,
biir'den,

s., lie,

hacer compras
by, prep., per, para;

s.,

carga, peso
a.,

lado de

bur'densome,
fete;

pesado, oneroso
s.,

biireau [bu'ro],

comoda; bueab'in,
s.,

junta

[ov3 eduea'tion, departamento de enseof

cabaiia, choza;

log

nanza
buried [ber'id], escondido, sepul-

cabana rustica
eab'inet,
s.,

gabinete, ministerio

tado
Bur'lington, nombre propio
bfirn, vr.,

eake,

.s.,

pastelillo, tortita

quemar, encender; to
to

to

a erisp, achicharrar;

alif6r'nia, California
call,
s.,

llamada;

at

tad;

to put in a

a volunfor,

pedir

down,
thefr

consumirse,

quemarse;

ing, que se quemaran


a.,

a la telefonisfa que ponga a uno

en cominiicacidn con alguien;


llamar;
to

biimt,

quemado
]6hn
(1837-1921),
reventar,

Bur'roughs,
bfirst
(biirst,

vocear; to
gir,
ir

vr.,

after, llamar

a,

for, requerir, exi-

naturalista amcricano
bfirst),

por;

to

home, hacer
to

volver a la casa; to
entrar,

estallar
biirst'ing, a., rebosante, estallante

recoger;

in,

hacer
iipon',

visitar, invocar, solicitar

bury Cbgr'y^,

vr.,

enterrar

called,

a.,

llamado;

he was

VOCABULARIO
se le

165
vr.,

se

Uamaba; ha Uamado
s.,

it

has been

ear'ry,

to

Uevar;
to

tener consigo;

doi/hle,

eall'ing,

profesi6n,

empleo

una persona;
ner,

eaZm,

a.,

quieto, tranquilo

sostener;

on, to

llevar

mds de
mantesin'gle,

eaZm'ly, adv., sosegadamente

eame, eamp,

pret. de to
s.,

eome

earn' era,

s.,

cdmara fotogrdfica campo, campamento;


en

una persona; dicese de un caballo que no lleva mas de una persona; to out, llevarse,
llevar

llevar a

cabo
caricatura
s.,

fire,

hoguera que se enciende

cartoon',

s.,

un campamento; to out, acampar bajo tienda eampaf^n'ing, s., campana


al aire lihre

eartoon'ist,

caricaturista

a'ry, Phoe'be (1824-1871), poetisa

americana
s., s.,

can, presente de to be a'ble, puede,

ease,
cast,

estuche; caso

pueden
Can'ada,
eanal',
s.,

persona] es {de una pieza


cast),
bal'/ot,

el

Canadd.
s.,

dramdtica)
cast
to

canal

ean'didate,

candidate
{de guerra)

s.,

(cast,

tirar,

lanzar;
tp

a
a.,

votar;

ean'non,

s.,

can6n

a vote
cas'ual,
cat,

for,

votar a favor de

an'n6n, Jo'seph Giir'ney (18361926), diputado americano


ean'not,
cap,
s.,

casual, fortuito

gato
{caught,

no puede, no pueden
a.,
s.,

catch

caught),

coger;

gorra
capaz, idoneo

alcanzar, prender

cap'able,
eapa'fity,

eaughtj
cause,

pret. de tp
vr.,

catch
ocasionar,

capacidad

causar,

ape 6d, Cabo Cod


eap'ital,
a.,
s.,

capital, caudal, fondo;

mover; s., causa, motivo; tfee Amer'ican las principios par

mayiiscula
s., s.,

las

cuales

peleaban los ameri-

eap'tain,
eap'tive,

capitdn
cautivo, prisionero

canos
cau'tion,
eav'ity,
vr.,

eap'ture,
ear,
s.,

vr.,

capturar, prender

s.,

tranvia,

vagon,

coche,

fecse,

vr.,

amonestar, avisar cavidad cesar, parar


cielo raso
a.,

automovil
efire,
s.,

fede,
vr.,

vr.,

ceder
celebre,

cuidado, solicitud; guardar, custodiar;

fefl'ing,

s.,

estimar, apreciar, importar;

tp

to

Sel'ebrated,
fen'ter,
s.,

famoso
centrali-

for,

not
pro-

centro;

vr.,

to,
s.,

no tener ganas de
carrera,

zar, concertar

career',

curso,

fen'tral, a., central

fesion

fentraliza'tion,

s.,

centralizaci6n

despreocupado eire'fulZy, adv., con cuidado ear'load, s., carga {de unfurgdn)
eare'free, a., libre,

fen'tralized,

a.,

centralizado

gen'tury,

s.,

siglo

Ser'toin, a., cierto,

un

tal

166
fer'toinly, adv.,
gertifiea'tion,

VOCABULARIO
seguramente
certificado, certi-

cher'ry,

s.,

cereza;

tree,

s.,

cerezo Qhica'go, ciudad de il?inois'


chick' en,
chzef,
s.

ficaci6n

chain,
chafr,

s.,
s.,

cadena, serie
silla
(pi.

s.,

polio, polluelo
jefe, principal

a.,

chair'man
chal'/enge,

chair'men),

s.,

chiefly, adv., principalmente


child
ipl.

presidente [de una junta)


vr.,
s.,

chil'dren),

s.,

nino,

desafiar, retar

nina
child'hood,
fancia
child'like, a., pueril
s.

cham'pion,
change,
chap'ter,

cham'pionship,
s.,

campe6n s., campeonato

a.,

ninez, de in-

oportunidad, ocasi6n,
capitulo
s.,

casualidad
s.,

chil'dren, pi. de child

chim'ney,
ca-

s.,

can6n

(de chimenea)

e/iar'aeter,

personaje;

Chi'na, China
fhiv'alry,
s.,

rdcter;

prin'fipal

protago-

caballerla, caballero-

nista
e/iaraeteris'tie,
s.,

sidad
caractenstico
choice,
s.,

elecci6n, seleccidn

charge,
dato;
de;

s.,

cargo, custodia,

in

vr.,

encargado cargar, poner en cuenta


[_6v^,

of

man-

choke,

vr.,

ahogar, estrangnlar

eTiol'erie, a., colerico

choose (chose, cho'sen), escoger,


elegir
cTiris'fen, vr., bautizar, cristianar

char'ity,

s.,
s.,

caridad
encanto, gracia;
perseguir, dar caza
vr.,

charm,
chase,
chat,
vr.,

encantar, atraer
vr.,

chiirch,
iglesia
figar',
Sir'ele,

s.,

iglesia;

at

en

la

chastise',
s.,

vr.,

castigar,

reformar

s., s.,

puro, cigarro
circulo
circo,

pldtica,

conversacion;

charlar, platicar
a.,

fir'eus,

s.,

arena
a
a.,

cheap,

barato, econ6mico
adv.,

site, vr., citar, referirse

cheap'ly,

bajo

precio;

fit'y

(pi.,

git'ies), s.,

ciudad;

barato
cheat'ing,
s.,

municipal
engaiio,

trampa

fiv'il,

a.,

civil;

War,

giierra

check,

s.,

restricci6n, freno, obs-

civil entre los

estados del

Korte

tdculo

cheek,
cheer,

s.,

carrillo, mejilla

y los del Sur de la Union americana durante los anos 1S61-1S65


s.,

vr.,

alentar,

alegrar;

fiviliza'tion,

s.,

civilizaci6n

alegrfa,
,

animaci6n; grito; good


a.,

fiv'ilized, a., civilizado

alegria
alegre,

elad,

a.,

vestido,

cubierto;

pp.

cheer'ful,

animado

arcaico de to clothe
claim,
elSsh,
class,
vr.,
s.,

queso s., qufmica cher'ish, vr., apreciar, fomentar


cheese,
s.,

reclamar

c/iem'istrj^,

choque
clase

s.,

VOCABULARIO
elat'fering,
a.,

167
CT'.,

martilleante,

rui-

eoZlect',

recoger
s.,

doso
elean'liness,
clear,
vr.,
s.,

coZlec'tion,

colecci6n, conjunto

aseo, limpieza
a.,

col'Zege,

s.,

institucidn

de

ense-

desmontar;

claro,

nanza superior
Colom'bia, Colombia
col'onist,
s.,

evidente, franco
elear'est, swp. de clear
clear'ly,
adv.,

colono
s.,

claramente,

evi-

coloniza'tion,
coloniz'er,
s.,

coIonizaci6n

dentemente
click, vr.,

colonizador

sonar {uno o mas golpes clima


culminacion, colmo
trepar; to

col'ony,
col'or,

s.,

colonia

secos)

s.,

color;

s,

pabell6n

cli'mate,

s.,
s.,

Colora'do, Colorado

cli'max,

climb,

vr.,

up,

colt,

s.,

potro

subir

Colum'bia,

nombre de

xina

uni-

trepando cloak, s., manto, capa


close, a., estrecho, unido;

versidad de la ciudad de

Nueva

cerca de, junto a;


close,
fin,
vr.,

by,

York
to,

eol'umn, com'bat,

s.,

columna;

news

cerca
s.,

gacetilla
s.,

cerrar;

concluir;

conclusi6n
a.,

combina'tion,

combate, lucha s., combinaci6n

clos'ing,

liltimo

combined',

a.,

combinado
venir;
to

cloth,

s.,

pano, tela
s.,

come (came, come),

clothes,

ropa, vestuario
vestido, ropa

cloth'ing,

s.,

cloud,

s., s.,

nube
bufon, payaso
'~

away', separarse; to in, introback, volver; to


to

about',

originar,

efectuar;

clown,
club,
coal,

ducirse;

to

in'tp the world,

s., s.,

club

venir al
fundirse, unirse

mundo, nacer;
;

carbon de piedra
vr.,

near, acercarse
zar,

to

coalesce',
coast,
coat,
s.,

costa

s.,

levita,
s.,

casaca

cob'bler,

zapatero,

remendon

code,
cog,

s.,

codigo, reglamento
s.,

ascender parar en; to to beh'eve', llegar a creer; to upon', encontrarse con, dar con; vaya!
to
to,
a,
!,
i

medrar;

to

to on, avan
out, salir;

c6-educa'tion,
s.,

coeducaci6n

com'fort,

s.,

comodidad, convea.,

diente {de rueda)


a.,

niencia, c6nfort

c6-in'sident,
cold, a., frio;

it is

hace
to

frio;

am

concurrente
{el

com'fortable,
Iisimo

c6modo
s.,

tiempo),

command'er-in-chief,

generareco-

{estado del

cuerpo), tengoirio;

s.,

take

resfriado;

resfriarse

commend'able, mendable
commer'cial,
eommit'/ee,
a.,
.,

a.,

loable,

col'Zeague,
ro,

s.,

colega,

compane-

comercial

colaborador

comision, junta

168
eommo'dious,
a.,

VOCABULARIO
espacioso,
c6-

eonclu'sion,
al fin,

s.,

conclusion;

in

modo
c6mm6d'itie,
s.,

para terminal
a.,

generos,

pro-

eonelu'sive,

concluyente, ter-

ductos c6m'm6nlj^,
eommu'nitj^,

minante
adv.,
s.,

la

ulualmente comunidad,

condense',
la

vr.,

condensar,

com-

primir
eondi'tion,
liv'ing

sociedad

eom'pany,
sociedad
eompel',

s.,

compania, empresa,

s.,

s.,

condicion, estado;

s,

condiciones de vida

condu'five,
obligar, forzar

a.,

conducente

ir.,

conduct',

ir.,

conducir, guiar

compete',

vr.,

competir, contender

eon' duct,
alianza
confer',

conducta, proceder
s.,

eompet'ing,

a., rival,
s.,

eompeti'tion,

competidor competencia, ri-

confedera'tion,

confederacion,

validad
eompet'itively, adv., por oposicion

vr.,

otorgar, conferir
a., cierto,

eon'fident,

seguro
corro-

eompet'itor,

s.,

competidor, rival
completar,
con-

confined',

a.,
vr.,

confinado, limitado

complete',
cluir;
a.,

vr.,

confirm',

confirmar,

completo, perfecto

borar
confirmed',
ficado
conflagra'tion,
s.,

complete'ly, adv., enteramente


comple'tion,
s.,

a.,

comprobado,
incendio

rati-

terminaci6n
a.,

com'plex,

a.,

complejo
complejo,
en-

com'plieated,

con'fiict,

s.,

conflicto,

pugna,
con-

redado
comport',
tarse
vr.,

lucha
concordar, compor-

conform',

m\,

conformar,

cordar
confused',
confu'sion,
a.,
s.,

compose', vr., componer comprehen'sive, a., comprehensivo,

confuso, indistinto
confusion, pertur-

amplio
a.,

baci6n

compul'sorj^,
confeol',
vr.,

compulsive

congealed',
con'gress,

a.,

congelado

ocultar, tapar
s.,

.,

congreso, asamblea

confep'tion,

concepci6n

Congres'sional Rec'ord, diario de


las sesiones del

confem', vr., concernir, tocar; s., empresa, establecimiento confemed', a., interesado, pertenecido

Congreso de

los

Estados Unidos
conjec'ture,
sicion
s.,

conjectura, supo-

coneem'ing, prep., con respecto a


con'fert,
s.,

connect',

concierto
a.,

unir

ing

vr.,

conectar,
link,

juntar,
;

eslabon

ing
{de

confert'ed,

concertado,

con-

lines,

Uneas

subsidiarias

venido
conclude', m\, decidir,
concluir

ferrocairil)

deducir;

conquer [cSn'ker], veneer

vr.,

canquistar,

VOCABULARIO
conqueror
[eOn'kerer],
s.,

169
s.,

con-

eontribu'tion,

cuota,

contri-

qmstador
eonscien'tious,
a.,
s.,

bucion
concienzudo
consecuencia,
contriv'anfe,
control',
s.,

s.,

utensilio, aparato
dirigir,

eon'sequenge,
resultado
eonsid'er,
vr.,

vr.,

dominar;

mando, dominio
a.,

considerar, opinar
a.,

control'Zing,
in'terest,

gobernante;
conveniencia

eonsid'erable,

considerable,

mayorfa
s., s.,

cuantioso
eonsist'ently,
adv.,

conven'ienfe,

consecuente-

conven'tion,
social

convenio, usanza
conversaci6n,

mente
eonsola'tion,
laci6n
eonsol'idate,
mr.,
s.,

consuelo, consoconsolidar, unir


a.,

conversa'tion,

s.,

pMtica
convey',
irr.,

transportar, Uevar
s.,

eonsol'idated,

consolidado,

eonvey'anfe,
culo;
quiler,

unido
con'sonant,

pub'lic

transporte, vehi,

coche de

al-

consonante eon'stantly, adv., constantemente


s.,

omnibus
vr.,

convinje',
dir

convencer, persua-

eonstitu'tion,

s.,

constitucidn

construct',

vr.,

construir
s.,

cook,
cool,

vr., vr.,

cocer, cocinar, guisar


enfriar;
s.,

construc'tion,
eonsulta'tion,

construcci6n
consulta;

a.,

fresco

s.,

de-

c6-6pera'tion,

cooperaci6n

liberaci6n

cope,

vr.,

contender, competir
s.,

consume',
eon'taet,
s.,

vr.,

consumir, destruir

c6p'/>er,

contacto
contender, lidiar
contento, satisfecho
a.,

cobre; penique {moneda de un centavo)


s.,

contend',
content',

vr.,

corn,

mafz, cereal; In'dian

a.,

maiz
cor'ner stone,
cor'porate,
a.,
s.,

content'ed,

contento,

satis-

piedra angular

fecho
content'edly,
adv.,

social

tranquila-

corpora' tion,
corpse,
s.,

s.,

corporacidn

mente, contentamente con'tents, s., contenido


con'test,
s.,

cadaver correspond', vr., corresponder


correspond'ent,
diente, rep6rter
cost,
s.,

contienda, disputa

s.,

correspon-

Con'tinental Con'gress, Congreso

Continental
eontin'ue, w., continuar, seguir

costo, precio;

s,

costas,

gastos
cost (cost, cost), costar
cot' f age,
s.,

contin'uous,
contor'tion,
contract',

a.,
s.,

continuo, sin fin


adquirir;

contorsion
tQ

vr,,

casa

pequena

moderna
cot' ton,
s.,

cold, resfriarse, constiparse


eon'trar;^, a., contrario;
al contrario

algodon
s.,

6n

tlie

couch,

s.,

canap6, sofd, lecho


tos

cough'ing [eSf'ing],

170

VOCABULARIO

eouZd, pret. y cond. de to be able,

pudo, podria; not help but, no podria menos de eoun'fil, s., concejo, junta
podfa,

cram,

vr.,

henchir, embutir, darse


to
o

un atrac6n; throat, comer mente


crea'ture,
s.,

down

his

tragar voraz-

count,

vr.,

contar;
s.,

valer

ser viviente

eoun'terpart,
plica

duplicado,

re-

crew,

s.,

tripulacion
tercera persona

cries, pi. de cry;


a.,

count'less,

innumerable

singular de to cry

eoun'try,
tierra

s.,

pais, patria;

campo,

crisp, a., frdgil, tostado;

to a

s.,

burned

achicharrado
cosecha;
atravesar,

e6un'tryman, s., compatriota, conciudadano eaun'ty, s., condado, distrito


eou'ple,
s.,

crop,

small
pasar;

s,

frutos
cross,

menores
s.,

vr.,

par, pareja

cruz

c6u'pled, eour'age,

a.,
s.,

unido, juntado
coraje, valor
a.,

crowd, crown,
crude,

s.,

tropel, multitud

vr.,

coronar;

completar

eoura'geous,
intrepido

animoso, valiente,
via;

a.,
s.,

crudo, tosco

course,

s.,

curso;

of

crumb,
Cov]]
;

miga
a.,

crum'pled,
cry,
vr.,

stud'y,

programa de estudios
y
a.,

of

Uorar;

arrugado exclamar;

s.,

por supuesto
s.

alarido, grito

court,

corte,

palaciego;

Cu'ba,

supreme' bunal supremo


tribunal;

Cuba
s., s.,

tri-

cud'gel,
cul'prit,

garrote

delincuente
cultura

coQr'teous,
afable
cofir'tesy,
s.,

a.,

cortes,

cumplido,

cul'tural, a., cultural


eul'txire,
s.,

cortesia

cftrb, vr., refrenar,


ciirl'ing,
a.,

reprimir
to go

cov'enant,
cov'er,
vr.,

vr.,

convenir, pactar

en
s.,

rizos;

cubrir;

abarcar

cnroscarse
eiirrie'ulum,

eov'eted,

a.,

codiciado, anhelado

conjunto de asigmaldici6n,

vaca eow'ard, s., cobarde


s.,

cow,

naturas
cfirse, vr.,

maldecir;

s.,

cow'ardly,
jutor
eoy'lj^,

a.,

cobarde, medroso
colaborador, coad-

imprecaci6n
cto'sy,
cus'tom,
vr.,
s.,

c6-work'er,

s.,

saludar, inclinarse

adv.,

modestamente, con

cus'tomary,

costumbre, usanza usual, acostuma.,

recato
crib,
s.,

brado
cangrejo
eus'tomer,
s.,

parroquiano

hendidura, grieta crack'ling, a., chicharr6n


s.,

cr&ck,

cut, (cut, ciit), cortar; to

down,

derribar cortando
czar,
s.,

erdft,

s.,

barco,

buque

zar

, ,

VOCABULARIO
czar'like, a.,

171
s.,

como un

zar,

domi-

defis'ion,

decision;

acuerdo

nador

Deelara'tion of Indepen'dense,

Declaraci6n de Independencia
deeltre',
daf'/odil,
dai'ly, a.
s.,

vr.,
vr.,

declarar, proclamar

narciso
s.

decline',
adv., diaria-

rehusar, excusar;

s.,

diario;

decadencia
deelin'ing, a., decadente

mente dame, s.,


dan^e,

seiiora,

dama
s.,

deereas'ing,

a.,

declinante
s.,

vr.,

bailar;

baile

deep,

a.,

hondo, profundo;
derrota;
s.,

el

Dane, Danes
dan'ger,
s.,

mar
peligro,

riesgo;

has been hang'ing


este peligro nos

this

defeat',

s.,

vr.,

derrotar
res-

6'ver us,

deference,
deferen'tial,

deferencia, respeto
a.,

amenaza
del

deferente,

Dan'ville,
Il/inois'

ciudad

estado

de

petuoso
degree',
s.,

grado, paso; tltulo

dare,

vr.,
s.,

atreverse, osar

del'ieate, a., delicado, fino

dark,

obscuro;

s.,

obscuridad,

deli'cious, a., delicioso, sabroso


delight',
s.,

tinieblas

delicia, placer
s.,

dark'en,

vr.,

obscurecer

delinea'tion,

deLineaci6n,

de-

dark'ness,

s.,

obscuridad
hija

lineamiento
deliv'er,
vr.,

dash,

vr.,

echar
s.,

entregar;

to

daugh'ter,

speech, pronunciar un discurso


del'uge,
s.,

daum,
day,

s.,

alba,

madrugada

diluvio, inundaci6n

s.,

dia,

tiempo; in brood

en pleno dia; no bad 's work, exito bastante favorable


deaf,
a.,

delus'ive,

a., ilusivo,
vr.,
s.,

enganoso

demand',

exigir

sordo;

the

dem'ocrat,

democrata
democrdtico

man,

el

democrat'ic,

a.,

sordo
deal,
s.,

de'mon,
trato, negociacion;

s.,

demonio
negaci6n, denegacion

cion, parte;

a great

por-

deni'al,

s.,

mucho

Den' mark, Dinamarca


dense,
deny',
a.,

deal (dealt, dealt), traficar, negociar;

to

with, tratar con

espeso

vr.,

negar
s.,

dean,
deer,

s.,

decano, dedn
querido, caro

depart'ment,

departamento,
ministerial;

a.,

dear'ly, adv., tiernamente

subdivision,
store,

ramo

death,

s.,

muerte;

to

put tp

grande
depart'ture,

almacen o tienda en donde se venden


s.,

quitar la vida, matar


debate',
degeive',
defide',
s.,

varias cosas
partida, salida

discusi6n, debate

vr.,
vr.,

enganar
decidir,

determinar,

depend' (upon'), vr., depender (de) depend'ent, a., dependiente


depict,' vr., pintar, representar

resolver

172
depos'it,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
dep6sito, sedimento profundidad
vr.,

dig'nity,

s,,

dignidad

depth,

s.,

dil'igently, a., diligentemente

describe',

describir

dim,

a.,

obscure, poco
adv.,

Uuminade

deserip'tion,

s.,

descripci6n

dimly,

deserip'tive, a., descriptive

des'ignate,

vr.,

designar,

nomti-

brar
designa'tion,
tulo
desire',
s.,
s.,

designacion,

ebscuramente di'ner, s., ceche comedor din'ner, s., cemida principal del dia; to eot comer direct', vr., dirigir, manejar; a., directe, inmediato

deseo,

anhelo;
St his

vr.,

direc'tion,

s.,

direccion,

rumbo

desear

direct'ly, adv.,

desk,

s.,

escritorio;

directamente

en

disa/>pear', vr., desaparecer

su despacho
despair',
s.,

disa/>point'ed, a., frustrade, con-

desesperaci6n

trariado, desilusienade

despa/ch',
des'tined,
des'tiny, destroy',
detail',

vr.,

despachar, concluir
destinado, dedicado

disa/point'ment,
silusi6n
disa/>prove',
vr.,

s.,

chasce,

de-

a.,

s.,

destine
destruir

desaprobar

vr.,

disarmed',
disas'ter,
especifi-

a.,

desarmade
cmnplimiente; qui-

s.,

detalle
a.,

s.,

desastre, desgracia

detailed',

detallado,

discharge,

s.,

cado
deter'mine,
devel'op,
vr.,

tanza

determinar
s.,

dis'cipline, vr., disciplinar, cerregir

vr.,

desarrollar(se)
desarrollo,

devel'opment,
devote',
vr.,

de-

disclose',

vr.,

destapar, exponer

senvolvimiento
dedicar, aplicar

discom'fort,
lestia

s.,

incemedidad, me-

devot'ed,

a.,

devote,

ferviente,

discour'aged,

a.,

desanimade, de-

dedicado
devour',
vr.,
s.,

salcntado
devorar, engiillir
didlogo
discofir'teous, c, descort^s

dia'logue,

discov'er,

vr.,
s.,

descubrir

Dick, Ricardito
did, verbo auxiliar
terito

discov'ery,

descubrimiente

usado en pre-

discreet', a., discrete, cuerde

en frases interrogativas y

discuss',
disfa'vor,

vr.,
s.,

discutir

en negativas
did, pret. de to
die, vr.,

desaprebaci6n
disgustado, hastiadesinteresado,

do
diferencia

disgust'ed,

a.,

morir
s.,

de
disin'terested,
a.,

dif'/erenfe,

dif'/erent, a., diferente, distinto


dif'/ieult, a., dificil
dif'/ieiilty, s., dificultad

neutral
dis'mal,
dismiss',
a., triste,
rr.,

funeste
disolver

despedir,

dig (dug, dug), cavar, excavar

(:una junta)

VOCABULARIO
display',
\

173
puerta

vr.,

desplegar, exhibir
a.,

door,

s.,

displeas'ing,

antipdtico, desa-

doth,

gradable
dispSsed',
dispute',
vr.,

forma antigua de d6e (usado como verho auxiliar)


a.,

a.,
s.,

dispuesto
disputa,
discusidn;

ddt'fed,

salpicado
a.,

ddi/'ble, vr., doblar, duplicar;

disputar
s.,

doble, duplo

disregard',

descuido;

vr.,

desa-

doubt,

vr.,

dudar, desconfiar;

s.,

tender, no hacer caso


dissolve',
vr.,
s.,

duda
a long

disolver, deshacer

dis'tanfe,

distancia;

muy

lejos
s.,

distine'tion,

distmci6n, honor
a.,

distin'guished,

distinguido,

eminente
distrib'ute,
dis'triet,
s.,

vr.,

distribuir

s., palomar down, adv., abajo; tp, hasta; s., to go (el sol), ponerse; en tierra meseta, duna; on dram, vr., desaguar draped [-t], a., colgado, entapizado drau; (drew [dru], draum), tirar,

dove'eote,

distrito,
a.,

comarca
to

arrastrar;

dibujar; tp
tp

diver'gent,
grou;

divergente;

acercarse;
tp

separarse
a.,

up, redactar
a.,

near,
sacar;

out,

divin'est,

el

mas

divino,

el

draiz;'eth,

forma antigua de drains


espantoso
a.,

mas admirable
dp

dread,
to

(did, done), hacer, servir;

so,

hacerlo;

to

dread'ful,
dress,
vr.,

terrible,

espantoso
preparar,

well,

vestir(se);
s.,

tener buen exito


dp,
verho

cocinar;

vestido, traje
vestido, arreglado
(sin

auxiliar usado en pre-

dressed
drift,

|^-t], a.,

sente en

forma negativa y en
medico, doctor;

in-

vr.,

terrogativa

doe'tor,

s.,

of
Filo-

tp

away' poco a poco

flotar

rumbo

fijo);

from,

apartarse

Philos'ophy,
sofia

Doctor

en

drink (drank, drunk), beber, to-

mar; tp
drive
dp,

does, tercera persona singular del


verho to

(drove,

tamhien del verho

guiar,

up, beberse (todo) driv'en), empujar, conducir; tp home,


el

auxiliar dp
dp'eth,

dar en
tp

forma antigua de does (usado como verho independiente)


s.,

out, ahuyentar, rechazar


s.,

bianco, llegar al alma;

drive'way,
drop,
vr.,

calzada para coches

dog,

perro
s.,

dejar caer
de tp drive

dol'Zar,

d61ar, peso,

duro

drove,

pi-et.
irr.,

domain',

s.,

propiedad, imperio
a.,
a.,

droum,
drug,

ahogar, sofocar
s.,

dominante dominante done, pp. de to dp don't, co7it. de dp not


dom'inant,
dominat'ing,

druc?'gery,
s.,

trabajo penoso

store, botica, drogueria


a.,

droga,

medicamento;

dry,

seco;

vr.,

secar

174
due, dug,
a.,

VOCABULARIO
debido;

to,

debido a

eeonom'ieaUy,

adv.,

econ6mica-

duet',

s.,

diio {musical)

pret.

y pp. de to dig;

out,

mente
edge,
s., filo,

canto, borde
s.,

excavado

edifiea'tion,

edificaci6n,

ins-

dumb,
dust,

a.,

mudo, callado

truccion
ed'itor,
s.,

dur'ing, prep., durante


s.,

redactor, editor
a.,

polvo, tierra

edito'rial,

editorial;

s.,

arti-

"Dutch,
du'ty,

s.,

holandes
deber, obligacion

culo de fondo

s.,

eduea'tion,

s.,

educacion
a.,

dy'ing, gerundio de to die

eduea'tional,

docente,

edu-

cativo
e/feet',
s.,

efecto, resultado

e/fee'tive, a., eficiente, eficaz

each,

a.,

cada;

pron.,

cada uno;

e/fee'tual, a., eficiente, activo

6'tfeer, el
a.,

uno

al otro

e/fi'ciengy,

s.,

eficiencia, eficacia

ea'ger,

ansioso
adv.,

e/fi'cient, a., eficiente,

competente

ea'gerly,

dvidamente,

con

ef'/ort,

s.,

esfuerzo,

empeno

anhelo
ear,
s.,

ef'tber (o ei'tfeer),

coiij., o;

...
uno u

oreja;

oido

or,

o;

a.

y pron.,

eor'lier,

eor'ly, a.,

comp. de ear'ly proximo, cercano; adv., temprano, pronto; in tiie

otro, cualquiera
el'bou;,
s.,

de

los

dos

codo
de old
{preferido a
el

eld'est,

sup.

year, a principios del aiio

old'est cuando denota

mayor

earn,

vr.,

ganar
a.,

de los hijos)

ear'nest,

serio,

formal;

in

elect', vr., elegir,

escoger

de buena fe eam'ings, s., ganancias


eorth,
s., s.,

elee'tion,
elee'tor,

s.,

elecci6n

s.,

elector

suelo, tierra

elee'toral, a., electoral


elee'trie, a., electrico

ease,

facilidad

eas'iest, sup. de eas'y


eas'ily, adv., fdcilmente

eleetri'fity,

s.,

electricidad

elemen'tary,
el'ephant,
elim'inate,
s.,

a.,

elemental

east,

s.,

este, oriente

elefante

Eas'ter Sun'dai/, Pascua de resurrecci6n o florida


eas'y,
a.,

ir.,

eliminar

Eliz'abeth, Isabel

Mcil

el'oquently, adv., elocuentamente

eat (ate, eat'en), comer;


to

up, comerse (todo)


vr.,

saber a;
to

else, a., otro;

no one [wiin]

ningun otro
em'igrate,
ir.,
s.,

ebb,

menguar
{o

{la

marea);
a.,

awai/', decaer, disminuir

emo'tion,
eco-

emigrar emoci6n
enfdtico

eeonom'ie

eeonom'ie),

emphat'ie,

a.,

n6mico

emphat'iealZy, adv., enfdticamente

VOCABULARIO
employee',
diente
ena'ble,
vr., facilitar,
s.,

175
a.,

empleado, depenpermitir

enterpris'ing,

atrevido,

em-

prendedor
entertam',
vr.,

entretener, hospe-

enchant'ing,

a.,
vr.,

eneour'age,

encantador animar, alentar


incitante,

dar, festejar
entire', a., entero,
enti'tle,
vi\,

eneour'aging,

a.,

alen-

todo dar derecho, autori-

tador
end,
at
s.,

zar; to

be
s.,

cabo,

extremidad,
fin;

fin;

en'trange,
greso;
entreot',

a.,

to this

an

para este

to

be
vr.,

to, tener derecho a de entrada, de inentrada

estar acabado;

vr.,
s.,

rogar, suplicar
peticion, ruego

acabar, terminar

entrect'y,

endeav'or,
end'ing,
lace

s.,

esfuerzo,

empeno

envel'oped
ep'isode,

[-t], a.,
s.,

envuelto

s., fin,

conclusion; desen-

envi'ronment,
s.,

medio ambiente

episodic
s.,

end'less,

a.,

interminable, sin fin

e'qual, a. y

igual

endowed', a., dotado en'emy, s., enemigo


en'ergy,
enforje',
s.,

e'qualZy, adv., igualmente

equip'ment,
e'ra,
s.,

s.,

equipo, equipaje

energia, vigor

era,

vr.,

hacer cumpLir
emplear,
ocupar;

ere, conj.,

epoca antes que


recado, diligencia
error,

engage',
to

vr.,

er'rand,
er'ror,

s., s.,

in,
s.,

ocuparse de

equivocaci6n,

en'gine,

mdquina, motor, locos.,

falta

motora
engineer'ing,
ingenieria

escape',

vr.,

escaparse

escort', vr., acompaiiar, escoltar

England

New

[Ing'land],
,

Inglaterra;

essen'tial, a., esencial

Nueva

Inglaterra
s.

estab'lish,

vr.,

establecer, fundar

English [ing'lish],

y a., ingles; speok'ing, de habla inglesa


[Ing'llshman]],
[pi.

esteem',
eter'nal,

vr.,

estimar, apreciar

a.,

eterno
s.,

Englishman

etiquette [6t'ik6t],

etiqueta

Englishmen), ingles enjoin', rr., mandar, imponer enjoy', vr., gozar (de)
enlarge',
enliv'en,
vr., vr.,

u'r6pe, Europa

Europe'an,
e'ven,

a.,

europeo
IlZinois'

Ev'anston, ciudad de
adv.,

agrandar, aumentar

aun,

hasta;

animar enor'mously, adv., enormemente,

though, aunque, no obstante que


eve'ning,
event',
s.,

tarde, noche

muy
enough',
a.

s.,

hecho, acontecimiento

adv.,
(o

bastante
s.,

even'tualZy, adv., con el tiempo


ev'er,
adv.,

enroU'ment
matricula
ensue',
vr.,

enrol'ment),

siempre;

nunca, ja(que)

mds;
ev'ery,

sinfe, despues
a.,

suceder, seguir

cada, todo
s.,

en'ter, vr., entrar

ev'erybod'y,

todo

el

mundo

176
ev'erything,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
todo
evidencia;
testivr.,

exper'iment,
ex'pert,
explain',

s.,

experimento;

vr.,

ev'ery where, adv., por todas partes


ev'idenfe,
s.,

experimentar, tentar
a.,

diestro, perito

monio;
e?aet'ing,

in

a.,
s.,

visible;

vr.,

explicar
s.,

evidenciar, probar
a.,

explana'tion,

explicacion, acla-

exigente

racion
exploita'tion,
s.,

eja^'gerated,

exagerado

utilizaci6n

(con

ejamina'tion,

an examen
,

salir

examen; to pass aprobado en un


examinador,
ins-

miras interesadas)
explora'tion,
explore',
vr.,
s., s.,

exploraci6n

explorar

ejam'iner,
pector

s.,

explor'er,

expose,

vr.,
s.,

explorador exponer
expreso;
vr.,

exfel', vr., sobresalir, superar

express',

expresar,

ex'felZent, a., excelente

manifestar

expept',

prep.,

excepto,

excepcion de;
exfes'sive,
a.,
vr.,

con

la

expres'sion,
extend',
vr.,

s.,

expresion, termino

for,

fuera de

extender, ofrecer

excesivo, sobrado

exten'sion,
extent',
s.,

s.,

extension
disminuir,

exchange',

cambiar, trocar
excitacion,

extension, alcance
vr.,

exfite'ment,

s.,

con-

exten'uate,

ami-

mocion
exelaim',
vr.,

norar

exclamar
s.,

extreme',
eye,
s.,

a.,

extreme,

sumo

exelu'sively, adv., exclusivamente

ojo

ejee'utive, a. y
ex'erfise,
vr.,

ejecutivo
ejercitar,

ejercer;

formar
e^ert', vr., ejercer, esforzar

fa'bled, a., fabuloso


fage,
vr.,
s.,

exhaust',

vr.,

apurar, agotar
exhibici6n, exposi-

cara, rostro,

apariencia;

e^Wb'it,

vr.,

estrenar
s.,

exhibi'tion,

hacer f rente a fafil'ity, s., facUidad


s., hecho; as a mat'fer of en realidad fac'tor, s., factor, agente, comisionado

ci6n
Crist', vr., existir, subsistir

fact,

expand',

vr.,

extender, ensanchar
s.,

expan'sion,

expansi6n,

desa-

rroUo
expect',
vr.,

fae'tory,

s.,

fdbrica, taller

esperar,

aguardar,

fac'ulty,

s.,

facultad

contar con
expe'dient,
expedi'tion,
s.,
s.,

fad'ing,

a.,

decadente
dejar de, fracasar;
to

expediente, recurso

faz'l,

vr., f altar,

expedici6n
costoso, caro

to

tQ,

dejar de;

of
ser

expen'sive,

a.,

re'-elec'tion,
vr.,

no

Uegar
abatido

expe'rienfe,

s.,

experiencia;

rreligido
fkint, a., indistinto,

experimentar, sentir

VOCABULARIO
fair,
a.,

177
a.,

claro, limpio,

razonable;
s.,

fa'vored,
lecto

to bid
feria
fair'lj^,

favorecido,

predi-

dar indicios de;

fear, vr., temer, tener


adv.,

miedo;

s.,

cabalmente, bastante;

temor, miedo
feast,
s.

sin reserva
fafth,
s.,

fe; in

good

a., fiesta,

festivo

de buena

fe

feath'er,
fea'ttire,

s.,

plxmia
cardcter,
distintivo;

fa/th'ful, a., fiel


fall, s.,

s.,

caida;

otono
caer; to to

fall

asun'to in love, enamorarse; to caer enfermo; to principiar(se) a; to upon',


asleep', dormirse;

(fell,

faU'en),

a.,

notable,

conspicuo;

s,

facciones
fed'eral,
a.,

federal

der, quebrarse en pe4azos;

feed,
feel

vr.,

dar de comer
felt),

(felt,

sick,

to,

sentirse;

atacar, asaltar
false, a., false,

mentido

hun'gry, sentir hambre; inclined', tener ganas; to of palpar; to sor'to


to
at,

to

around', palpar;

tocar, manosear,

famil'iar, a., familiar;

muy

cono-

ry, sentir,

deplorar
ternura,

cido
fam'ily,
s.,

feel'ing,

s.,

compasion,

familia

emocion
feet, pi. de foot
fell, pret.

fa'mous,
fan,
far,
s.,

a.,

famoso^ celebre

abanico
lejos;

adv.,
off,

de to fall

away', lejos;
alejado,

fel'Zou;, s.,
felt, pret.

hombre, sujeto, tipo

lejos
a.,

de to feel

far-away',
lejos

lejano,

fe'male,

s.,

hembra
a.,

fem'inine,
granja, hacienda, estanvr.,

femenino
calidad o

farm,
cia,

s.,

fenunin'ity,

s.,

estado

rancho;
s.,

cultivar

de femenino
fenfe,
vr.,

farm'er,

agriciiltor,

hacendado,

cercar, defender, guar-

colono, labrador

dar
fer'tile, a., fertil

farm'ing,

s.,

agricultura

far'tfeer, adv.,

far)

mds lejos {comp. de back, mds hacia detrds


moda, costumbre profundamente;
fiel

fertiliza'tion,

s.,

abono;

fecun-

daci6n
feu'dalism,
s.,

fash'zon,

s.,

feudalismo

fast, adv., aprisa;


a.,

few,

a.,

pocos; a

unos pocos

rdpido;

few'er, comp. de few,


field,
s.,

fa'tal, a.,

funesto, fatal

menos campo; ramo


furibundo

fate,

s.,

hado, suerte
s.,

fferfe, a., feroz, violento


fi'ery, a., vivo,

fa'tber,
fault,

padre
favorecer, apoyar;
s.,

s.,

culpa; defecto

fifteen, quince
fifth, a.,
fif' t;y',

fa'vor,

vr.,

quinto

favor

cincuenta

178
fig, s.,

VOCABULARIO
higo;

bledo
fought),
pelear,

dar, adecuar;
jar,

to

into',

fight

{fdught,

concordar;

to

encaout,

pugnar, batallar
fight,
s.,

equipar, disponer
batalla
fit'fuUy, adv.,

lucha,
s.,

lid,

caprichosamente

flghfer,

batallador, luchador,

fit'/ed (up), a., dispuesto,

acomo-

combatiente
fig'ure,
vr.,
5.,

dado, proveido
presencia;
to

personaje,

figurar,

disponer;

de

five, cinco

five-and-ten,
fix, vr., fijar,

a.,

de cinco y diez

out, resolver, idear


file,
s.,

asentar; reparar

coleccion

ordenada

periddicos o de documentos
fill, vr.,

Uenar, rellenar

a., fijo, determinado bandera Flamborou^/i', nombre projno

fixed [-t],
flag,
s.,

fi'nal, a., final,

ultimo

fiap'/)ing,

s.,

batimiento, aleteo
vr.,

fi'nalZy, adv., finalmente,

en

fin

flash,

s.,

destello;

relampa-

finance',

ciencia

rentistica,

ha-

guear, destellar
fia'vor,
s.,

cienda piiblica
finan'cial, a.,

sabor, gusto
7tiodo

monetario, rentistico
found),

fia'vour,

ingles

de escribir

find

(found,

con trar; to averiguar


fine, a., bello,

hallar,

en-

fia'vor
flee (fied, fled), huir(se)
fleet,
s.,
s.,

out,

descubrir,

flota,

armada
de to fly

fin'ger,
fin'ish,
fire,

primoroso s., dedo vr., terminar, acabar


encender, inflamar;
s.,

flesh,

came
pret.

flew [flul,
flies, pi.

r.,

de fly, y tercera persona singidar de fly


s.,

fuego, lumbre, incendio; ardor;


to

be on

s.,

^ght,

estar ardiendo

fuga;

vuelo;

to put to

poner en fuga
vr.,

fire'-eating, a.,

matamoros,

fiera-

float, vr., flotar

brds
fire'brand,
fire'plage,

flock,

moverse

en

grupos,

incendiario

atroparse; to

eome

ing, venir

s.,

hogar,

chimenea

atropdndose
floor,
s.,

francesa
firm,
s.,

suelo, piso;

groiind
in

compania, razon social


s.,

piso

bajo;

firm'ness,
first, a.,

firmeza, consistencia
at

primero;

ground

on the asociarse a una cmto

get

al prin-

presa mientras las oportunidades de ganancia


so7i

cipio;
adv.,

year, del primer aiio;

buenas; to
la

por primera vez fish, s., pescado, pez fish'ing, s., pesca; pesqueria
fist, s.,
fit,

take the
(en
fl6p'/)ing, a.,

tomar

palabra

una juiUa)
colgante
floreo;

puno
apto, propio;
to see
vr.,

a.,

Flor'ida, Florida
flour'ish,
s.,

exMbicion

juzgar conveniente;

acomo-

fiow,

rr.,

correr, fluir

VOCABULARIO
flow'er,
s.,

179
s.,

flor

fore'man,

capataz;

of

tfee

fluff er,
s.,

vr.,

agitarse,

menearse;

ju'ry, presidente del


for'est,
s., s.,

jurado
fraguar,

alboroto, tumulto

bosque, selva
fragua;
vr.,

fly, s.,

mosca
to

forge,

fly

ahead', adelantarse volando; from, escapar volando, a rage, monhuir; to


to
into'

(flew [flu], fiowii), volar;

forjar forget'
(forgot', forgot'fen),

dar;

to

about',
s.,

olvi-

olvidarse de

forgive'ness,
forlorn', a.,

perd6n, remisi6n

tar en colera
foe,
s.,

abandonado, desamvr.,

enemigo
ejercer

parado
[una
form,
s.,

foVldw, w., seguir;


profesidn)

forma, modo;

formar,

construir

foVlower,

s.,

adherente,
activo,
a.,

acom-

f6r'mal,a., formal, met6dico, regular

panante
f6rZou;ing, part,

siguiente,

formal'ity,

s.,

formalidad,

cere-

subsiguiente;
fol'Zy,
s.,

siguiente

monia
for'mer,
of,
a.,

locura, tonteria

fond,

a.,

aficionado;

to

be

anterior;

pron., aquel

for'merly, adv., antiguamente, en

ser aficionado a

tiempos pasados

food,
fool,

s., s.,

alimento, comida,
tonto, necio

man jar

for'midable,
rrible

a.,

formidable,

te-

fool'ish, a., necio,

tonto

for'mulate,

vr.,

foot

{pi.

feet), pie, pata;

on
de

30,5

formular

forth, adv., fuera, afuera

pie;

medida
s.,

lineal

forthwith', adv., inmediatamente,

centimetros
fdot'ball,

en

el

acto
s.,

futbol,

balompie

foTt'mght,

quincena,

dos se-

foot'step,

s.,

paso, huella, pisada

manas
for'tunate,
a.,
,

for, prep., por,

para; conj., porque,

dichoso, afortunado

pues
forbid' (forbade', forbid'den), prohibir,

vedar
fuerza,

cuarenta y ocho for'ty-ninth', a., cuarenta y nueve, cuadragesimo noveno


foT'ty-eight'

forfe,

s.,

poder, energia;

for'ward,

adv.,

main

adelante,

hacia

fuerza

obligar;

to

mayor;

vr.,

adelante
fos'ter-fa'ther,
s.,

out of business

padre adoptivo

[biz'Ines], obligar a declararse

fought, pret. de to fight


foul, a., desagradable, sucio

insolvente

forged [-t],

a.,

obligatorio,

obli-

fotmd, are

pret.

gado
forge'ful, a., fuerte,

y pp.
s.,

de

to

find;

se hallan, se

poderoso

founda'tion,
foun'tcin,
s.,

encuentran fundaci6n, base

iot'eign, a., extranjero


for'eig'ner,
s.,

fuente

extranjero

fowr, cuatro

180
fourth,
a.,

VOCABULARIO
cuarto
s.,

ful'some,
fum'ble,

a.,
vr.,

grosero, repugnante

frae'ture,

rotura, fractura

chapucear; tp

at,

fra'gile, a., frdgil,

quebradizo

Franf e, Francia Frank'lin, Ben'jamin (1706-1790), sabio americano


frater'nity,
s.,

manosear fun, s., broma, chanza, diversion


fune'tion,
s.,

funcion, oficio;

vr.,

funcionar
fun'ny,
a.,

fraternidad, socie-

comico
suplir,

dad

escolar
;

fur'nish,
vr.,

vr., surtir,
s.,

proveer

free, a., libre, independiente


librar, desembarazar; gozan de estado libre
s.,

fur'niture,
fur'rou;,
s.,

muebles
adicional,

los

que

surco

fur'ther, a.,

mds ampho,
future;
s.,

free'dom,
dencia
freeze

s.,

libertad,

indepenhelar,
excluir,

nuevo
fu'tiu"e, a.,

porvenir

(froze,

congelar;

to

fro'zen),

out,

matar per medio de rivalidad


French,
fresh,
a. y. s., f ranees

gam,
gale,

vr.,
s.,

fre'quently, adv., frecuentemente


a., nuevo, fresco fresh'man (pi. fresh'men), s., alumno de -primer ano de bachille-

ganar ventarron
a.,

gal'Zant,

galante,

cortes,

va-

liente
gal'/antly, bizarramente, valerosa-

rato
frie'tion, s., friccion,

roce

mente game, s.,


partido
gape,
din
gas'oline,
?>?-.,

caza;

juego, partida,

friend,

s.,

amigo
a.,

fnend'ly,

amistoso, amigable
s.,

bostezar
s.,

fr/end'ship,

amistad
espantado, asustado
atrd,s;

gar'den,

huerta, huerto;

jar-

fri^'/it'ened, a.,

fringe,

s.,

fleco, orla

s.,

gasoUna
reunir,

fro, adv.,

hacia

to

and

of,

gate,

s.,

puerta
vr.,

de un lado a otro from, prep., de, a causa de; desde


front,
s., f rente,

gath'er,

fachada; in

coger;

cosechar, retogeth'er,

his

men

reunir su gente

en frente de
frost,
s.,

gave,
gay,

pret. de tp
s.,

give

escarcha, helado

gav'el,
a.,

mallete

froze, pret. de to freeze

alegre

fro'zen, pp. y
friigarity,
s.,

a.,

congelado, helado

gaze,

IT.,

contemplar
a.

frugalidad,

economia

gen'eral,

s.,

general
generalizar

frus'trate,
fu'el,
s.,

vr.,

frustrar, anular

ggn'eralize,

vr.,

combustible
Ueno, pleno

gen'eral/y, adv., generalmente, per


lo

full, a.,

coniun
s.,

ful'Zj^, adv.,

enteramente

genera'tion,

generaci6n

VOCABULARIO
gen erous,
gen'tle,
a.,

181
a.,

a.,

generoso

blando, benigno;

s.,

glo'rious,

glorioso,

ilustre,

magnifico
glo'ry,
s.,

birth, nobleza {de sangre) gen'tleman (pi. gen'tlemen),

gloria,

glum,
cente

a.,

renombre malhumorado,

displi-

caballero

geog'raphy,

s.,

geografia

George, Jorge Geor'gia, Georgia


ges'ture,
s.,

go (went, gone), ir; to desembarcar; to irse, marcharse; to


regresar,

gesto,

ademdn
Uegar;
to

get (got, got), conseguir, obtener,


recibir,

hallar,

about',
blico;

divulgar,
to

acquafnt'ed with, conocer; along', adelantar, bien; to his men togeth'er, reunir sus soldados; to vida; to ganar Uegar to togeth'er, juntar,
to to
liv'ing,

across',

hacerse

pu-

atravesar;

salir

its

la

to,

a;

amontar gMst, s., espectro, fantasma gigantesco, enorme; gi'ant, a.,


s.,

enros down, ponerse to hunt'ing, a caza; to entrar, pasar; to on, continuar, proseguir; to out, pasar por encima; through, a cabo; to to bed, acostarse; sleep, dormirse; work, dedicarse trabajo; subir escalera God, Dies; the Hosts,
pasar;
carse; to
eurl'ing,

volver;

ashore', away', back, to by,


ir

to

{el

sol);

la

inside',

salir;

to to

6'ver,

realizarse,

llevar

to to to

to

to

al

upstafrs',

la

of

el

gigante
nina,

girl, s.,

muchacha;

heZlo'

dios de la guerra

goes, tercera persona singidar de

telefonista

go;
se

give (gave, giv'en), dar, conceder;


to

up,

renunciar,

dar per

back to remote' times, remonta a tiempos muy remotos


s.,

perdido
giv'ing,
s.,

gold,

ore
a.,

disolucion,

cambio
to

gold'en,

dureo, de oro

glad,

a.,
,

alegre, contento;

be

Gold'en

alegrarse, tener gusto


s.,

Locks, (Rizos de Oro)

nomhre

propio

gladiador de buena gana glange, s., mirada, ojeada glare, s., resplandor
glad'iator,

Gold'smith, Ol'iver (1728-1774),


novelista ingles
golf,
s.,

glad'ly, adv.,

golfo ijuego escoces)

good,

a.,

bueno;

s.,

bien

glass,

s.,
s.,

vaso; vidrio

good-look'ing,

a.,

guapo,

bien

gleam,
glee,

relampago, destello
s.,

parecido
gobd-na'tured,
a.,

gleam'ing,
s.,

fulgor, destello

bien intencio-

alegria,
s.,

gozo

nado
goods,
s.,

glim'mer,

luz
a.,

debU
luciente

generos,

mercancias;

glim'mering,

efectos

182
gos'sip,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
charla, chismografia

gro'fery,
veres;

s.,

got, pret. de to get

abaceria, lonja, vistore,

tienda

de

gobernar gov'ernment, s., gobierno government'al, a., gubernativo gov'ernor, s., gobernador
gov'ern,
vr.,

viveres

groove,
gross,

s.,

s.,

muesca, encaje, ranura gruesa


tierra, suelo;

ground,

s.,

grab,

vr.,

coger, asir
a.,

on

tfeat

por la razon de que;


s.,

grage'less,

gra'cious,

malvado, reprobo a., benigno, bondanota gradualmente,


graduado, reestudio graacta

floor, piso bajo,

group,

fundamental grupo; a., agrupado


serpear, envilecerse
crecer,

doso
grade,
s.,

grov'el,
calificativo,
adv.,

vr.,

grow (grew, groum),


mentar; ponerse; enmudecer; to
separarse;
to

grad'ualZy,

poco a poco
grad'uate,
cibido;
s.

stud'y,
s.,

a.,

to

to

dumb,
to

au-

diver'gent,

into', hacerse;

tired, cansarse;

up

duado
grad'uation,

desarrollarse

graduacion;

el

grou;n'-up,
gr6u;th,
s., s.,

a.,

adulto

de recibirse en alguna facultad


graz'n,
s.,

crecimiento, desarrollo

grano, cereal
gran(de), esplendido

guard,
guest,

guarda, guardia;

ir.,

grand,
grant,

a.,
vr.,
s.,

guardar, proteger
s.,

conceder, ortorgar

huesped, convidado
guiar;
s.,

grape,
grasp,
grass,

uva
empufiar, agarrar
herboso, gramineo
rozar, rechinar; to

guide,

vi\,

guia
con-

vr.,
s.,

Guil'ford, nombre propio


guil'ty,
a.,

hierba

reo,

culpable,

grass'y,
grate,

a.,

vr.,

victo
gulf,
s.,

golfo

on, irritar, molestar

gush,

vr.,

grave,

a., serio,

grave'ly, adv.,

grave gravemente, seria-

gymnas'tie,

derramar, brotar a., gimnastico

mente
gray,
great,
s.,

gris

H
hab'it,
s.,

a.,

grande, enorme

costumbre, hdbito
y pp. de to have; I at a great bar'gain,

Great
green,
greet,

Brit'oin,

Gran
a.,

Bretaiia

had,

Greek'-letfer,
a.,
vr.,

de letra griega

los

pret.

them

verde
saludar

hazl, vr.,

grew
grim,

[gru], pret. de to

grow
parrilla

obtuve baratisimo Uamar, vocear hafl'stone, s., piedra de granizo


hafr,
s.,

gridiron [gridi'urn],
a.,

s.,

cabello, pelo
a.,

formidable, torvo

hal'fyon,
haZf,
hall,
s., s.,

apacible, tranquilo
a.,

griz'zled, a., gris,

encanecido

mitad;

medio

groan'ing,

s.,

gemido, mugido

gran sala; pasadizo

VOCABULARIO
haZloo',
vr.,

183
vr.,

gritar;

azuzar o Uamar

hark back,
harm'less,

remontarse

(a

una

a gritos

fecha remota)
s.,

ham'mer,
hand,
foot,
s.,

martillo

mano;

bovind

a.,

inofensivo, inocente

and

atado seguramente de concierto, de acuerdo; por una on tfee one [wun]] parte o por un lado; on #ie oth'er por otra parte; vr., entregar, poner en manos
in
,

harsh,

a.,

aspero, duro

Har'vard, nombre propio


har'vest,
s.,

cosecha,

siega;

time, mies

has,

tercera

persona singular de

have, tiene
hat,
s.,

sombrero
s.,

hand'ful,
han'dle,

s.,

pufiado
dirigir;
s.,

hafch'et,

hachita

vr.,

hand'-shaking,

manosear ado de dar

hate,
la

vr.,

detestar, odiar

hath, forma antigua de has


hau^/i'ty,
a.,

mano
hanc?'s6me,
s.,

soberbio, altanero
tener, haber;
to

hermoso
colgar;
to to

hang (hung, hung), 6'ver, amenazar;

have (had, had),

out, susbe

to

anything [en'ythtng] to dp wife, tener algo que ver con;


to

pender en el aire hang, vr., ahorcar hanged, a., ahorcado;


you!, exclamacion
el

on,
to,

usar,

Uevar puesto;
Repiiblica

tener que

to

que significa

colmo de desaprohacion
s.,

Hawai'/an Repub'lie, del Hawaii hay, s., heno


he, pron., el

hang'man,
Han'na/i,

verdugo
acontecer,

Ana
vr.,

hap'^en,

suceder;

ed to be stand'ing, estaba por casualidad de do you to sabe Vd. por


pie;
ftnoif,

head, s., cabeza; jefe head'gear, s., tocado, cofia health, s., salud
health'y,
a.,

sano,

fuerte,

salu-

dable

casualidad?
hap'/>ening,
s.,

heap,

s.,

monton
oir, oir decir;

acontecimiento
felizmente

heor (heard, heard),


to

hap';&ily, adv.,

said [sed]
s., s.,

o to

about',

hap'/>y, a., feliz, contento, dichoso

oir decir

har'bor,

s.,

puerto
dure,
solido;
dificil;

hear'er,

oyente, audiencia

hard,
adv.,

a.,

hear'ing,
heart,
s.,

enteramente; to work

oido

corazon;

brok'en

trabajar

mucho
robustecer; endurecer
it

traspasado de dolor
is

hard'en,
es

vr.,

hard'er, comp. de hard;

hearth,
heart'y,

s.,

hogar
cordial, sincero

a.,

mas

dificil

heat,

s.,

calor

hard'ly, adv., apenas, no del todo

hard'ship,

s.,

penalidad

Heath, nombre propio heav'y, a., pesado

184

VOCABULARIO
Hispan'ie,
hiss,
vr.,

heed, vr., atender, observar Hel'en, Elena


heZlo', interj., hola, oiga; respuesta

a.,

hispanico

silbar
s.,

hiss'ing,

silba

cuando siiena el telefono help, vr., ayudar; remediar; eould not but, no pudo menos de hem'isphere, s., hemisferio on hen, s., gallina; to sell his

histo'rian,

s.,

historiador

histor'ieal, a., historico

his'tory,

s.,

historia

ho, interj., grito de sorpresa

hoarse, hog,
s.,

a.,

ronco, enronquecido

ram'y day, permitirse ganar o defraudar


a

en-

puerco, cerdo, chancho

hold (held, held), retener, tener,


agarrar, contener, poseer; to

Hen'ry, Pat'rick (1736-1799), patriota y estadista americano


her, pron., la;
a., su,

to

le,

ella;

de

ella

Tierb,

s.,

hierba

it is, aqui they aqui tiene Vd.; are, aqui estdn heretofore', adv., antes, en tiempos

here, adv., aqui, acd;


esta,

a meet'ing, celebrar to up, up the head, levantar;


cion; to

an

elee'tion, celebrar

una

elec-

una reunion;
to

alzar,

tener orguUo
hole,
s.,

agujero, orificio;
s.,

hoyo

hol'iday,

dia festivo, dia feriado

Hol'Jand, Holanda
ho'ly,
a.,

pasados
her'itage,
s.,

santo, sagrado
casa,

herencia
So'to,

home,
at

s.,
,

Hernan'dd de
Soto
he'ro,
s.,

Hernando de

hogar,
a.,

morada;

en casa;
a.,

casero

home'ly,
heroe
ella misnia,

/lon'est, a.,

domestico, sencillo honrado, recto

hers, pron., de ella

hon'oT,
si,

s.,

honor;

vr.,

honrar

herself, pron.

refl.,

se

glorificar

hey'day,

s.,

colmo, apogeo
jerarquia
superior;

hide (hid, hid'den), esconder


hierar'e/iy,
s.,

hook, hope,
vr.,

vr.,
s.,

enganchar
esperanza,
confianza;

esperar
s.,

high,

a., alto,

las alturas;

on

en

horn,

cuerno, asta, trompa


a.,

se/iool, escuela

hor'rible,

horrible, terrible

superior
high'ly, adv., altamente

hor'ror,

s.,

horror, consternacion

horse,
carre-

s.,

caballo
s.,

hiy/i'way,

s.,

camino

real,

horse'back,

tera
hik'ing,
s.,

andar a pie {por


cerro

placer)

on a caballo horse'man, s., jinete


,

lomo

del caballo;

hill, s., colina,

hos'pitable,

a.,
s.,

hospitalario

him, pron., le, lo; to himself, pro7i. refl.,


el

le

hospital'ity,

hospitalidad
ej^r-

si

mismo,

host,

s.,

multitud, hueste;

his,

mismo, se a., su, de 6\

cito;

patron, anfitri6n

hos'tile, a., hostil,

enemigo

VOCABULARIO
hot,
a.,

185

caliente, caluroso;

it is

I,

hace calor
s., hotel, posada nombre propio /lour, s., hora; half an hora house, a., casa; camara

hotel',

pron.,

yo
card,mbano
de 1 shouZd o 1 wouZd
idea,

Ho'ti,

i'giele, s.,
,

all

media
(de

I'd, cont.

ide'a,

s.,
s.,

pensamiento

un

Ide'al,

ideal
s.,

cuerpo
the

legislativo);

6'ver

ide'alist,

idealista

per toda la casa


s.,

i'dle, a., ocioso,


if,

desocupado

house'-hunt'ing,
domicilio

busqueda de

conj., si
a.,

ig'norant,
a.,

ignorante, indocto,

house'hold,

how,

como; much, cuanto; many [men'y], cuantos


adv.,
conj.,

casero, domestico

desconocido
I'll,

cont. de 1 shall o

del

will

ill, s.,

mal, maldad

howev'er,
obstante

sin

embargo, no

ill.,

abreviatura de Illinois'

ilHnois,' Illinois
ill'ness,
s.,

hue, s., matiz, tinte hug, vr., abrazar; halagar huge, a., enorme, gigante

mal, enfermedad
ilusion, ensueiio
s.,

iZlu'sion,

s.,

imagina'tion,

imaginacion
inmediata-

hu'man,

a.,

humano
s.,

ima'gine,

vr.,

imaginar(se)

human'ity,

humanidad

hum'ble, a., hmnUde, modesto hu'mor, s., humor, genio hun'dred, ciento, centenar

immediately, adv., mente, al instante


im'migrant,
imper'ative,
torio
s.,

inmigrante
inmigracion
imperativo, peren-

immigra'tion,

s.,

y pp. de to hang hun'gry, a., hambriento; to be sentir tener hambre; to feel


hung,
pret.

a.,

im'plement,
silio,

s.,

herramienta, uten-

hambre
hunt,
vr.,

apero
vr.,

cazar;

to

cando;

out, to go
\

buscar;

ir

de

caza,

implore',
impolite',

implorar
descortes
s.,

recorrer bus-

a.,

ing, ir

de caza

impor'tange,
impor'tant,

hurra/i', interj.,

viva!

a.,

importancia importante
vr.,

hur'riedly, adv., apresuradamente

hur'ry,
prisa;

vr.,

apresurar(se), dar(se)

to

impose' (upon'), bauear


impos'sible,
a.,

enganar, em-

past, pasar apre-

imposible

suradamente
hurt (hurt, hurt), danar, lastimar;
to

impress',

vr.,

grabar, inculcar

one's [^wuns] feel'ings,

vr., mejorar improve'ment, s., mejora,

improve',
greso
im'pulse,

pro-

herir el

amor propio
s.,

hus'band,
hut,
s.,

marido

s.,

choza, cabana

impute',

vr.,

impulse imputar, atribuir

186
in,

VOCABULARIO
en {posicidn to, para
s.,

or'der
tencia

prep.,

o estado);

inev'itable,

a.,

inevitable

in'fanfy,

s.,

infancia
a.,

inabil'ity,

incapacidad,
inaccion

impo-

in'fant,

s.

criatura,

nene

inflict', vr.,
s.,

imponer; to
s.,

upon',
poder;

inae'tion,

descargar sobre
in'fluenfe,
vr.,

inartie'ulate, a., inarticulado

influencia,

inau'gural,

a.,

inaugural

influir (en)
s.,

infes'santly,
in'fident,
s.,

a.,

incesantemente
inclemencia,
in-

informa'tion,

informe, conoci-

incidente
s.,

mientos
inher'ent,
inher'it,
a.,

inelem'enfy,

inherente, esencial

temperie
inelmed',fl, inclinado, propenso; to

vr.,

heredar

ink,

s.,

be

tener ganas;

to feel

tinta
s.,

in'sect,

insecto
a.,

tener ganas
include',
vr., incluir,
s.,

insep'arable,

inseparable

abarcar

inside', adv.

in'erease, increase',

aumento
aumentar, crecer

y prep., dentro, dentro de, adentro; to go entrar

vr.,

insid'ioiis, a., insidioso,

enganoso

ind., ahreviatura de Indian'a

m' sight,
picacia

s.,

discernimiento, persinsignificante

indeed', adv., de veras, verdadera-

mente
indel'ibly, adv., indeleblemente

insignificant,
insincere',
a.,

a.,

insincere

indepen'denge,
indepen'dent,
In'dian,
s.

s.,

independencia

insist', vr., insistir, porfiar

a.,

independiente

insomuch',
in'stange,

conj.,

de manera que
colocar

a.,
s.,

indio
indicacion, senal

install', vr., instalar,


s.,

indiea'tion,

indiserim'inately, adv., indistinta-

in'stant, a.,

ejemplo inmediato
adv.,

mente
individ'ual,
s.,

insteod' of []6vJ, prep., en lugar de

individuo
s.,

instine'tively,

instintiva-

individual'ity,

individualidad,

mente
in'stitiite, vr., instituir,

personalidad
indufe',
indulge',
vr.,

crear, es-

causar,

mover
to

vr.,

gratificar;
a,

tablecer
in,

institu'tion,

s.,

institucion,

es-

entrcgarse
rndul'gent,
indus'trial,

gozar en
industrial

tablecimiento
instruc'tion,
instrue'tor,
s.,

a., a.,

indulgente
aplicado, indus-

instruccion

s.,

instructor

indus'trious,
trioso
in'diistry,
s.,

a.,

insu/fi'cient, a., insuficiente


in'sult,
6.,

insulto, ultraje
s.,

industria, diligencia,

insurance [inshur'angc],

seguro

laboriosidad
ine/fee'tive, a., ineficaz

insure [inshurf'], garantizar. ase-

gurar
insfir'gent,
.<.,

ines' tunable,

a.,

inestimable

iusiuTecto

VOCABULARIO
in'teZleet,
s.,

187
s.,

intelecto, inteligencia

Is'land,

isia

intense',

a.,

fuerte, vivo

i'solated, a., isolado


is'siie,
s.,

inten'sive,
inten'tion,

a.,
s.,

intensive

intencion
a.,

in'ter-eoZle'giate,
sitario

interuniver-

en disputa is//i'mus, s., istmo


,

evento,

cuestion;

at

it,

pron.,
a.,

el, ella;

interfedc',

vr.,
s.,

interceder, mediar

its,

su;

be'ing
refi., si

lo, la;

ello

writ'fen, el

in'tereourse,
in'terest,
s.,

intercambio, trato
intei'es,

haberse escrito
itself, pron.
i'vy,
s.,

beneficio;

mismo
cubierto

empresa; w., interesar


interpose',
vr.,

hiedra, yedra
a.,

interponer
s.,

i'vy-eov'ered,

de

interposi'tion,

intervencion,

hiedra

mediacion
interriipt', vr.,

interrumpir
Jack,

in'terval,

s.,

intervalo
vr.,

Juan;
a.,
s.,

Frost,

personi-

intim'idate,

intimidar,

ame-

ficacion de la escarcha

drentar
into', prep., in

jeal'ous,

envidioso, celoso
celos,

jeal'ousy,

sospecha

intra-grpup',

a.,

intragrupo

jet,

s.,

azabache; fuente, chorro


s.,

introdufe',
tar;

vr.,

introducir, presen-

jew'elry,

joyas;

store,

insertar
vr.,

joyeria
confiar

intrust' (with),

jo'eund,

a.,

alegre, festivo

invade',

vr.,

invadir
invertir,

invent', w., inventar, idear


invest',
vr.,

]6hn, Juan Jo/zns Hop'kins, nomhre propio


join, vr., juntarse, unirse a, aliarse

emplear o

imponer dinero
inves'tor,
s.,

joint,

s.,

juntura
s.,

el

que invierte dinero

jour'ney,
joy,
s.,

viaje;

vr., ir

de viaje

en empresas industriales
invin'fible, a., invincible
invi'olate, a., inviolado, incorrupto

alegria, jubilo, deleite


s.,

juc?ge,

juez;
(o

judge'ment

vr., juzgar judg'ment)

s.,

jui-

invita'tion,

s.,

invitacion

cio, criterio

invite', vr., convidar, invitar

judi'cial, a., judicial

in'ward,

a., interior,
{pi.

secreto
s.

iuige,

s.,

jugo,

zumo
to

i'rishman
irlandes

i'rishmen),

a.,

July', juho

iron i^i'urn],

s.,

hierro, fierro;

in-

jump,

vr.,

saltar(se);

up,
tercer

le-

vantarse de prisa
June, junio
jun'ior,
s.,

-hand'ed, de
irresolii'tion,

mano

de hierro

s.,

irresolucion,

alumno de
en

ana

decision
is,

es, est^;

there

hay;

it

de

bachillerato

las

escuelas

superiores de los Estados Unidos


jurisdie'tion,
s.,

not

for,

no toca a

jurisdiccion

188
ju'rjr, s.,

VOCABULARIO
jurado
adv.,

fenew, pret. de to

kaow

just, a., justo;

exactamente;

justamente,
Tight,

per-

fectamente bien; way, cerca de aqui


justifiea'tion,
s.,

6'ver the

cabaUero taiock, vr., llamar (a una -puerta); to off, desprender (a fuerza


knight,
s.,

de golpes)
ftnot'hole,
la
s.,

justificacion

agujero que deja en

jus'tify, vr., justificar

just'ly, adv.,

debidamente, rectajusticia

madera un nudo desprendido know {knew, known), saber, conocer

mente
just'ness,
s.,

know'est, forma antigua de

know

knowVedge, s., conocimiento known, a. y pp., conocido, sabido; to be as, llamarse

Kan'sas
keel,
s.,

Git'y,

una

ciudad

de

Misspu'ri
quilla

keen,

a.,

vivo,
adv.,

vehemente
vivamente,
kept),
sutil-

la'bor,
jar,

s.,

labor, obra;

vr.,

traba-

keen'ly,

afanarse
s.,

mente keep (kept,


guardar;
continuar,

la'borer,

labrador
ingles

mantener,
to

detener;

la'bour,

modo
hacer

de

escribir

up,

mantener;

to

la

la'bor
lack,
vr.,

falta, carecer;

6-.,

waft'ing, hacer esperar

falta,

escasez

Kentuck'y, uno de los estados de Union norteamericana


kill, vr.,

lad,

s.,

mozo, joven
s.,

la'dy,

matar
clase;
a.,

senora, senorita;

young

seiiorita,

joven

kind,

s.,

bondadoso, be-

laid, pret.

nigno klnd-heart'ed,
kin'dle,
to

lake,
a.,

s.,

y pp. dc to lay lago

bonachon
inflamar;

Lamb, Charles (1775-1S34), autor ingles

pegar fucgo kind'ly, a., amable, benigno king, s., rey kiss, m\, besar; s., beso
fire,

(up) a

vr.,

encender,

lamp, s., lampara, candil lampoon', vr., satirizar, pasqiiinar


land,
s.,

tierra,
vr.,
s.,
s.,

terrene,

region;

patria;

desembarcar
paisaje, campifia

kit, s.,

forma vulgar y antigua de

land'seape,
lan'guage,

kit'/en, gatito, gatico

idioma,

lengua;

Kiwan'ian, miembro del Club Kiwanis,


dista taieel (/jnelt, fenelt), tambien verbo

mod'em
large,
a.,

s,

lenguas ^ivas

organizacidn

propagan-

large'ly, adv.,

grande grandemente
azotar,

lash, to

regular, arrodillarse

out,

vr.,

dar latigazos;

desfrenarse

VOCABULARIO
last,
vr.,

189
(left,

durar,

liltimo;

continuar;

a.,

leave

left),

nlghiy
to the

anoche;

kt
el

dejar;

to

al fin;
s.,

hasta

casa; to

salir,

partir;
salir

home,

off,

cesar; to

de
out,

fin;

horma de zapatero
duradero
adv., tarde, ultimo, re-

omitir, excluir
lee'ture,
led, pret.
s.,

last'ing, a.,
late, a.

discurso, conferencia

ciente;

fines del
late'ly,

in the sum'mer, a verano adv., poco ha, no ha mucho


s.,

y pp. de to lead all left, pret. y pp. de to leave; that is todo lo que queda

left, a.,

izquierdo
pierna, pata
s.,

lat'itude,

latitud

leg,

s.,

lat'^er, a.,

posterior, ultimo,
pron., este to

mds
de

le'gend,

lej^enda
s.,

reciente;

laugh,
lau;,

vr., reir;

legisla'tion,

legislacion

at, reirse

legLsla'tive, a., legislativo

s.,

jurisprudencia, ley, esta-

lefs'ure (o lezs'iire),

s.,

ocio, deso-

tuto
lau;'yer,
s.,

cupacion

abogado
lazd),

lefs'xirely

(o

leis'urely), a.,

pau-

lay
to

(laid,

poner,

colocar;

sado, deliberado

aside',

poner a un lado,
^^out,

arrinconar;
igolpes);

to

plear;

to

the

to

on, descargar
gastar,

lend
at

(lent, lent),
s.,
5

prestar

lenyth,

longitud;

duracion;

emon,

al fin

blame

Le Seure,
less, adv.,

Er'nest, nombre propio

echar la culpa
lay, pret. de to lie

la'zy, a., perezoso, flojo

lead, lead,

s., s.,

plomo
primer lugar, delantero
led),

comp. de lit'rte, menor, en grado mas bajo less'er, a., comp. de lit' fie, menor, mds pequeno
let
(let,

let),

permitir,
auxiliar

dejar;

lead
to

(led,

conducir,

guiar,

tanibicn

verba

llevar de

to to up
s.,

mano, ir a la cabeza; away', lie varseguiando; to the way, mostrar el camino;


to vie'tory,
to,

modo imperativo; to loose, soltar; us have it, que venga,

con

el

denoslo
let'fer,
s.,

hacer triunfar;
caudillo,

carta;

letra;

small

conducir hasta

letra

lead'er,

jefe, director,

mimiscula; letra maj^uscula

eap'ital

conductor
lead'ership,
s.,

lib'eral, a., liberal, caballeroso

direccion,

don de

libera'tion,
lib'erty,
s.,

s.,

liberacion, rendicion

mando
lead'ing,
a.,

libertad, privilegio

principal, primero

lick,
lie

VI'.,

lamer, chupar
estar situado, ubito

league,
leap,

s.,

legua; iiga

(lay, lafn),

vr.,

saltar, brincar

car;

tenderse;

down,

learn,

vr.,

aprender
cuero

acostarse, tenderse
lie,

leath'er,

s.,

w., mentir;

s.,

mentira

190
life (pi. lives), s.,
lift,

VOCABULARIO
vida
to

w., levantar;

live'lihood,

s.,

vida,

manteni-

tbe hat,

miento
lives, pi. de life

quitarse el sombrero

para saludar

a alguien
light,
s.,

live'stock,

s.,

ganado
s.,

luz,
s.,

resplandor

liv'ing,

s.,

vida, subsistencia

llght'mng,
like,
a.,

relampago
adv.,
vr.,

loaf

of

bread,

hogaza

de

semejante;
igual

como;
querer,

pan
lo'eal, a., local, regional

prep.,

que;

desear, gustar de; they

les

loeal'ity,

s.,

locahdad
colocar, situar

gusta
like-mind'ed,
cer
like'ly,
adv.,
a.,

lo'ealized, a., localizado

del

mismo

pare-

lo'eate,

vr.,

loea'tion,

s.,

ubicacion, sitio

probablemente, selas apariencias

lock,

s.,

rizo, cabello
a.,

gun todas
like'wise,

loftier,
log,
s.,

mas elevado
tronco;

adv.,

igualmente, ade-

palo,

eab'in,

mds
lim'erick,
s.,

cabana
estrofa de cinco lineas

riistica

de cardcter festivo y fondo extravagante


lim'it,
s.,

16'gieal/y, adr., logicamente Lon'don, Londres

lone'ly,

a.,

solitario,

solo,

aban-

limite,

termino
Estados Unidos
al

donado
lone'some,
long,
a.,
a.,

Lin'coZn,

A'braham (1809-1865),
la

sohtario, triste

p7-esidente de los

largo, de largo;

durante

Guerra Civil
a.,

tanto tiempo;

so

time ago',

Lin'eoln-like,

estilo

de

hace

mucho tiempo
,

Lincoln
line,
s.,

longer [lon'ger^, comp. de long;


fila,

linea,

ramo, limite,

confin
lined,
a.,

ya no no any Cen'yD
fempo7-al)

m^

{en sentido negativo)

(en sentido

forrado, cubierto

lin'gering, a.,
link,
s.,

prolongado

Long'felZou;,

Hen'ry Wads'worth
vr.,

eslabon, enlace; eonneet',

ing

(1807-1882), poeta americano


look,

nexo, vinculo

li'quefy, vr., derretir, disolver


lis'fen,
in,
vr.,

escuchar, oir;
el

to

escuchar

radio;

to

to

rea'son, atender a la raz6n


lit'/er, s.,

lechigada,

camada

little,

a.,

poco, escaso, pequefio;

busto for'ward contar con tiempo; to inspeccionarlo; to on upon', considerar, ser espectador; to out cuidarse
to

s.,

mirada;

mu-ar, ver;
for,

at,

mirar;

to

car;

to,

el

it

6'ver,

for,

(de)

adv., poco,
live,
'vr.,

escasamente
to

loose'ly-Zmit,

a.,

flojamente unido
seiioria, ex-

vivir,

d, vivia;

up

habitar;
to,

there

lord'ship,

s.,

seiiorio,

cumplir,

celencia
lore,
s.,

efectuar

erudicion, conocimientos

VOCABULARIO
lose
(lost,

191
s.,

lost),

perder,

hacer

mafd'en,
tera

doncella, joven sol-

perder
loss,
s.,

perdida

mail,

s.,

correo;

a.,

de correo;

vr.,

lost, pret.
lot,
s.,

y pp. de to lose suerte, destine, porcion

echar al correo main, a., principal, mayor

lots of [_6v},

mucho, muchos

en alta voz Lpuisian'a, Luisiana love, vr., amar, querer, gustar de; to fall in enamos., amor;
loud,
a.,

Mame, Maine mamtam', vr., mantener


maj'esty,
ma'jor,
major'ity,
s.,

majestad
el

vr.,

especializar

s.,

mayor

niimero, la

rarse
love'ly,
a.,

hermoso,
adv.,

atractivo,

mayoria make (made, made), hacer, causar,

deleitoso
lou;,
a.,

crear,

fabricar;
(a

to

a a

bajo;

bajamente,

fine shou;,
show;),

good shou;,
gala
de,

sumisamente
low'er, m\, bajar, disminuirse
loy'al, a., leal,

hacer

gran papel;
redactar un
to

devote

tablecer su hogar;

loy'alty,

s.,

lealtad

a home, to a estatuto; to
to

hacer
eslau;,

lub'berly,

a.,

torpe (aplicase gene-

speech, pronunciar un discurso;

rahnente a los marineros de agua


didce)

satisfaccion;
suerte, ventura;

luck,

s.,

good

amends', dar cumplida an end of, to


to to

acabar;
conocer;

fortuna, feliz casualidad

lum'ber,
lung,
lurk,
s.,

s.,

madera, maderaje

gresar; to
to

pulmon
esconderse
s.,

room, hacer lugar; up one's [wun] mind,


determinar;
de;
to

known, hacer
prog'ress, pro-

vr.,

resolver,

lux'ury,
ly'ing,

lujo, fausto

use

of, servirse

to

to

war

a.,

situado;

gerundio de

upon', guerrear contra;

to lie

wel'eome, dar
make'-belzeve',

la
s.,

bienvenida
artificio,

pre-

M
MacDon'ald, Ceorge (1824-1905),
poeta y novelista escoces

texto

male,
cion

s.,

varon
s.,

mal'ife,

malicia,

mala intenhombre;
a

mafhin'ery,

s.,

maquinaria

man

(pi.

mad, a., loco made, pret. y pp. de to make Mag'daline, Magdalena


magnet'ie,
tivo
a.,

young

men),
,

s.,

un joven

man'age, vr., manejar, dirigir man'agement, s., direccion, gobierno, gerencia

magnetico,

atrac-

mazd,

s.,

criada,

muchacha

man'ager, dor

s.,

gerente, administra-

192

VOCABULARIO
ma^ch'less,
igual
a.,

man'kind, s., humanidad man'ner, s., manera, modo, cos-

incomparable, sin

tumbre
man'ners,
s.,

mate,
modales,
feudo;

s.,

consorte, conyuge
s.,

compor-

mate'rial,
rau;

tamiento man'or, s. y
man'sion,
s.,

a.,

house,

material,

materia;

materia prima
a.,

mate'rialistie,

materiaKstico

finca solariega

mate'rialZy,

adv.,

materialmente,

morada, residencia man'ual, a., manual; work o la'bor, obra manual


manufae'ture,
dustrial;
vr.,

esencialmente
ma'tron,
familia mat'^er,
s.,
s.,

matrona, madre de

fabricar, hacer
a.,
fal^ril,

asunto;

of fact, en

manufae'turing,
s.,

in-

realidad

fabricacion,

in-

dustria

May, maj^o may, puede;


tivo

auxiliar de subjim-

manuscrito many [men'y], pi. de much, muchos; so tantos; ver'y muchisimos march, s., marcha, adelanto mar'gin, s., margen, bordc, orilla Mar'ian, Mariana mark, vr., marcar, caracterizar
man'useript,
s.,

mar'ket,

s.,

mercado;

vr.,

llevar o

mercado mar'keting, s., compra el mercado


vender
al

may'be, adv., tal vez, quiza May'fiower, novihre de la nave de los Puritanos me, j)ron., me, a mi meal, a., comida {en general) meon (meant, meant), querer decir; proponerse meons, s., medio, manera, instrumento; by no de ningun

o venta en

modo
meat,
s.,

carne, vianda
s.,

mar'riage,
cias

s.,

casamiento,

nup-

meat'-pack'ing,
med'ifine,

industria

de

carues en conserva
vr.,

mar'ry,
mar'tial,

casar, casarse con

s.,

medicina
to togeth'er, with, dar con

Mar'tha, Marta
a.,
s.,
s.,

meet
con;

(met, met), encontrar, dar


juntarse;
to
s.,

marcial, guerrero

mar' tin,
mar'vel,

avion

reunirse;

mara villa, prodigio


a.,

meet'ing,

junta,

asamblea,

mar'velous,

maravilloso

reunion, sesion

mass,

s.,

mas'sive,

masa, monton a., macizo, pesado


palo,

melo'dious,
melt,
vr.,

a.,

melodioso

derretir, licuar
s.,

mast, s., fabuco


mas'ter,

mastil;

bellota,

mem'ber,
dividuo

socio,

miembro,

in-

s.,

amo,

seiior;

of

mem'bership,
bro
socio
pi.

s.,

calidad de

miem-

Arts, maestro en artes

mas'tery,

s.,

dominio

men,

de

man

VOCABULARIO
mend,
men'tal,
vr.,

193
s.,

recomponer(se),

re-

milZionaire',

millonario
vr.,

parar(se)

mind,

s.,

mente;
nev'er

notar, ob,

mental men'tion, vr., mencionar mere, a., mero, puro, simple merge, vr., unir, fundir, combinar mer'ger, s., union o combinacion de propiedades o intereses
a.,

servar;

no

haga

Vd. caso
mind'ful,
a.,

atento, cuidadoso
vr.,

mine,
of

s.,

mina;

explotar, ex-

traer;

pron., el mi'o;

an un'ele

un
s.,

tio

mio

mer'it,

s.,

merito
s.,

min'eral,

mer'riment,
mer'ry,
a.,

alegria, regocijo

min'iature,

s., s.,

mineral miniatura

alegre, festivo

min'imiim,
min'ing,
min'istry,
s.,

minimo

mess, s., plato, racion met, pret. y pp. de to meet met'al, s., metal meth'od, s., metodo, mode meth'odist, s., metodista Mex'ieo, Mejico o Mexico mid'dle, a., medio, mediano mid'rfle-sized, a., de mediana
estatura o

mineria, explotaci6n
ministerio

de minas
s., s.,

minor'ity,
miniiet',

minoria
a.,

s.,

minue
misceMneo
a.,
s.,

misceZla'neous,
mis'erable,
misled',
misfor'tiine,
a.,

miserable
desgracia, desastre

tamano
la

enganado
echar

Midc?lewest',

region

de

los

miss,

vr.,

de

menos, exla

Unidos entre los Mantes Apalaches y las Montanas Roquenas mid'night, s., medianoche midst, s., medio, centro might, pret. y cond. de to be able, podia, podria; usado tambien como verba auxiliar de subjuntivo; whatev'er be tfeefr lot, sea lo que fuere su suerte
Estados

traiiar

Miss Mer'ry Eyes,


Ojos
mist,
pillos

seilorita

Mississip'/)i, Misisipi
s.,

niebla, llovizna
s., s.,

mistake',
mistrust',

error, falta

desconfianza
s.,

misunderstand'ing,

error, equi-

vocacion mix, vr., mezclar

might,
mile,

s.,

poder, fuerza

s.,

milla (1609 metros)


s.,

mob, s., turbamulta mode, s., mode, forma, manera


s., modelo; ed after, segun el plan de mod'ern, a., moderno; lan'guages, lenguas vivas mold, vr., amoldar, moldar mo'ment, s., momento, tiempo

mile'age,

longitud en millas
w., ordenar
la via lactea, ga-

mod'el,

mil'itary, a., militar

milk,

s.,

leche;
s.,

milk'y way,
laxia
mill,
s.,

dos
mil'/ion,

molino; fdbrica de hilade tejidos


s.,

millon

Mon'day, lunes mon'ey, s., dinero

194
monop'olize,
mon'ster,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
vr., monopolizar monstruo

mov'ies,

s.,

mpv'ing,
tivo

a.,

cinematdgrafo movedizo, continua-

month, s., mes mood, s., humor, disposicion de dnimo

moon, 5., luna moon'beam, s., rayo de luna


moon'-serap,
mor'al,
a.,
s.,

Mr. (Mis'ter), senor Mr. Long Tazl, El seiior Rabilargo Mrs. (Mis'sis) Speck'les, la semuch,
Manchitas y adv., mucho; too demasiado; so tanto;
iiora
a.

pedazo de luna

moral

more,

y adv., mds, comp. de much; two yeors, dos anos


a.

as

as,

tanto
a.,

como

miid'dy,
pio

barroso, lodoso, sucio

mas
more's, cont. de

MiirZens, Prisfil'Za, nomhre pro-

more

is

morn'ing,

s.,

maiiana;
the

per
la

la

maiiana;

next a
in the
,

mul'tiply,

CT.,

multiplicar(se)
s.,

mul'titude,

multitud,

sin-

maiiana siguiente mor'tal, a., mortal Mo'ses, Moises most, sup. de much,

mimero
municipal 'ity, s., municipalidad mur'der, vr., asesinar
el

m^s,

la

mayor parte moth'er, s., madre


md'tion
grafo
mo'tionless,
mo'tive,
s., s.,

pic'ture,

s.,

cinemat6-

a.,

inmovil

motive, causa

must, verho defectuoso, tener que, haber de, deber, deber de; we make up our minds, tenemos que resolver; some'thing be done, hay que hacer algo; have, hubiera debido (de) mus'ty, a., mohoso, aiiejo

mo'tor,

motor, m^quina;
vr.,

a.,

mii'tual [mu'chtial],

a.,

mutuo

motriz;

viajar o pasearse en

raut'ter, vr., decir entre dientes

automovil mount, vr., subir, ascender

my,

a.,

mi, mis
pro7i. refl.,
s.,

myself,

mi mismo

Mount

Ver'non, casa solariega de


montaiia,

mys'tery,

misterio

Wdshington
moun'tain,
sierra
s.,

monte,
nail,
s.,

N
uiia;

motmt'ed,

a.,

montado

to blou; his

so-

mourn, vr., Uorar, deplorar mouth, s., boca, mueca move, vr., moverse, mudar,
ladar

plar con el aliento para calentar

tras-

moved, a., persuadido, conmovido move'ment, s., movimiento, marcha

dedos the s., nombre, apellido; firm razon social; by the vr., of, llamado; nombrar. poner nombre named, a., llamado
los

name,

195
nido
s.,

VOCABULARIO
nap,
s.,

siesta;

to

take

" nest,

s.,

dormitar
narra'tion,
nar'rative,
s.,

net'work,
narraci6n, relacion
neu'tral,

red
indefinido, pardusco

a.,

a.,

narrative

nev'er, adv.,

nunca
a.,

nai'row,
na'tion,

a.,

angosto, estrecho

nev'er-end'ing,
fin

continue, sin

s.,

nacion
nacional

na'tional,

a.,

nev'er-tp-be-forgot'^en,

a.,

inol-

na'tive, a., native, natal

vidable
nevertheless',
adv.,

nat'ural, a., natural


nat'uralist,
s.,

conj.,

no

naturalista

obstante, sin

embargo

nat'uralZy, adv.,

naturalmente

new,

na'ture,

s.,

naturaleza

a., nuevo, reciente new'-born, a., recien nacido

naught, s., nada na'vy {pi. na'vies),


li'na

New
s.,

England

[[tng'land]],

Nueva

armada

Inglaterra

N. C, abreviatura de North Caroneor, adv., cerca; prep., cerca de

New New

Or'leans, Nueva Orledns York, Nueva York news, s., noticias, nueva;

near'by,
near'ly,

a.,

cercano, inmediato
casi,

eol'umns, gacetiUa

adv.,

poco mds o

news'paper,

s.,

menos
ne'fessarily, adv., necesariamente

periodico;

dai'ly

diario
a.,

next,

siguiente, proximo;

adv.,
to,

ne'gessary,
neges'sity,

a.,
s.,

necesario

despues,

enseguida;
lado de
delicioso,

necesidad

junto
nige,
a.,

a, al

neck,

s.,

cuello,

pescuezo
urgencia;

fino,

gustoso,

need,

s.,

necesidad,

simpatico
night,
last
s.,

w., necesitar, carecer de;

not be unecs'y, no hay que


estar inquieto

you

noche; at
,

anoche mght'iall, s., anochecer


night'ly,
adv.,

de noche;

need'le,

s.,

aguja
s.,

todas las noches,


noche, de noche

ne'er, cont. de nev'er

nocturnamente
night'tlme,
nine, nueve
nine'tieth, noventavo,
nine'ty,
nip,
vr.,
s.,

neg'ligenfe,
ne'gro,
s.

negligencia

a.,

negro, etiope

neigh'hoT,

s.,

vecino, proximo
a.,

neigh'hormg,

vecinal,

comarde
es-

cano
neigh'houT,
cribir

noventa noventa morder, escarchar


a.,

modo

ingles

no, adv., no;

ningun(o);

neighlaoT
(o

one [wiin], nadie


conj.,
ni;

nefth'er

... nor, ni
s.,

neith'er),
. . .

no'ble,

a.,

noble

ni

nod,
s,

rr.,
s.,

cabaceai
ruido, son
vr.,

nerve,
tenia

nervio;

neuras-

noise,

nom'inate,

nombrar

196
nomina'tion,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
nombramiento,
obdu'rate,
ob'jeet,
5.,

a.,

obstinado
obligacion, deber

propuesta

objeto, proposito
s.,

nom'inee,

s.,

candidate
a.,

obliga'tion,
obliv'ion,

non-frater'nity,

que no pertenece

s.,

olvido
a.,

a las fraternidades

obnox'ious,
cible

ofensivo,

aborre-

none, pron., nadie, ninguno


nor, conj., ni
nor'nial, a.,

observ'anf e,
a.,

s.,

observancia, cum-

normal
norte;

north,

s. y norte de

plimiento
of, al

observe',

ir.,

observar;

guardar,

cumplir
a.,

north' ern,

septentrional,

del

obtafn',

vr.,

obtener
obvio, manifiesto
ocasion;
vr.,

norte
north'west,
s.,

ob'vious,

a.,
s.,

noroeste;
el

safl'ing

ocea'sion,

ocasio-

navegando hacia
s.,

noroeste

nar, causar

nose,

nariz

oe'cupy,
occur',

IT.,

ocupar,

emplear;

n6s'tril,s.,nariz,ventanadelanariz
not, adv.,

estar instalado en
vr.,

no
a.,

ocurrir, suceder
s.,

no'table,

notable

ocean
o'dor,

[^o'shan]],
s.,

oceano

note,

s.,

nota, apuntacion; sonido

olor,

aroma

musical
noth'ing,
no'tife,
s.,

o'er, cont. de 6'ver

nada
notar,

of [ov], prep., de;

to

eoin"se,

por

vr.,

observar;

s.,

supuesto
6f'/er, vr., ofrecer;

aviso
no'tigeable, c, reparable, perceptible

at,

tratar

de;
of'fige,

s., s.,

oferta, ofreciniiento

ministerio, cargo,

com-

no'tion,

s.,
,

nocion, percepcion;

to

])ania
of'/ifer,
s.,

her segun su parecer No'va Zem'bla, Nueva Zembla


nov'el,
6'.,

oficial,

funcionario

6/fi'cial, a., oficial,

autorizado
contra-

novela

offset,

rr.,

balancear,

Novem'ber, noviembre now, adv., ahora no'where, adv., en ninguna parte num'ber, s., niimero nu'merous, a., numeroso nut, s., nuez

pesar
6ft,

forma

pociica de

often
tJ'taTi

often, adv., a
oh, intcrj.,

menudo

Og'den, una ciudad de


;

oh!

Ohi'6, Ohio
oil, s.,

O
oak,
oar,
s.,

petroleo, aceite

O. K., visto bueno


old,
a.,

encina, roble

anciano, ^aejo,

s.,

remo
s.,

oath (pZ. oaths), blasfemia

juramento,

wom'an, una vieja; an man, un vie jo O'maha, una ciudad de Nebras'ka


de edad;

an

antiguo;

, ;

VOCABULARIO
on, prep., en, sobre

197

once Qwuns],

una vez; upon' a time, habia una vez; in awhile', de vez en cuando for all, de una vez para siemadv.,

ori'ginaUy, adv., originalmente

ornamenta'tion,
cion, decoracion

s.,

ornamenta-

omithol'ogist,

s.,

ornit61ogo

or'phan,

s.,

huerfano

pre;

all at

one [wixn],
se;
a.,

a.

de subito y pron., un, una,


,

unico, solo;

alguien;

no

some
nadie;
(varios);


s.,

s, 'os y pron., otro; each el uno al otro ounce, s., onza (28.35 gramos)

oth'er, a.

otros;

our,

a.,

nuestro
nos, noso-

anotb'er, entre

si

ours, pron., el nuestro

entidad, unidad; a
tantivo anterior

palabra hace las veces de


one-third' []wun-],
tercera parte
on'ly, a., unico;
adv.,

menudo esta un sustercio,

ourselves', pron.
tros

refl.,

mismos;
desposeer

between'

entre nosotros

un

una

oust,

vr.,

outdid', pret. de to outdo'

solamente,
lo

outdo'

(outdid',

outdone'), exce-

solo

der, eclipsar

on'ward, adv., en adelante, en


venidero
6'pen,
in
vr.,

outdoor',
libre

a.,

fuera de casa, al aire


exterior; prep., fuera

abrir;
,

s.,

lugar abierto;
a.,

outside',

a.,

tfee

al raso;

abierto,

de
outstand'ing,
a.,

libre,

franco
vr.,
s.,

saliente,

promi-

op'erate,
op'erator,

obrar, funcionar
operario; tel'ephone

nente
o'ver, adv.

telefonista
s.,

opin'ion,

opinion, acuerdo
s.,

6/>p6'nent,
sario

antagonista, adver-

y prep., sobre, encima acabado; all por todo; to be cesar, acabar; many [men'y] times repetide;
a.,

das veces
s., oportunidad oponer

op^ortu'nity,
6/p6se', vr.,

6'vereoat,

s.,

sobretodo, gabdn

6'verheod,

6/>p6s''ing, a., rival,

adversario

y s., gastos de administracion (en un negocio


a.

op'^osite,

a.,

opuesto, contrario;

o industria)

en frente de
6r, conj.,

overem'phasize,

w.,

dar

dema-

o
s.,

siado enf asis, sobreacentuar

or'chard,
or'der,
vr.,
s.,

huerto
in

orden:

oversees', adv., allende los mares,


to,

para;

ultramar
overtake' (overtook', overtak'en),
alcanzar
oit;e, vr.,

mandar, ordenar
s.,

6rganiza'tion,

organizaci6n

or'ganize, m\, organizar


or'igin,
s.,

deber, adeudar

origen

6u;'ing to, debido a

ori'ginal, a.

s.,

original

owl,

s.,

lechuza,

buho

198
own,
a.,

VOCABULARIO
propio,
partie'ular,
s.,

mismo; dueno cle oum'er, s., dueno ox (pi. ox'en), s., buey
poseer, ser

especial, precise

part'ly, adv.,

en parte
socio,

part'ner,
par'ty,
s.,

s.,

companero

partido, partida, bando,

faccion; tertulia

pass,
to

vr.,

page,

s.,

paso
fardo;

an e^amina'tion, salir aprobado en un examen; to

pasar, atravesar, escapar;

Pafif ie, Pacifico


pack,
page,
pail,
s., lio,

hdrse, ac6-

mila, caballo de carga


s.,

a estatuir; pasar por lado o'ver, atravesar,


lau;,
el

to

by,
to

o cerca;

pasar por

pagina

paid, pret. y pp. de to pay


s., s.,

encima; a lai^; must proyecto debe aprobarse


pas'sage,
s.,

un

cube
dolor,
a.,

pasaje, incidente
s.

pam,

pena

pas'senger,
pass'ing,
past,
a.,

pam'ful,
paz'r, s.,

doloroso, penoso

a.,

par, pareja
s.,

y a., pasajero aprobado, que pasa pasado, ultimo; s., pas.,

pal'age,

palacio

sado
pas'ture,

Pan'ama, Panamd, pandemo'nium, s., batahola, baraiinda


par,
s.,

pasto,

pradera,

de-

hesa
pater'nal,
a.,

paternal, paterno
s.,

witb, igual
s.,

equivalencia,
a, al

nivel;

on

path

(pi.

paths),

senda, sendero,

par de

camino rustico
pa'tient, a., paciente, asiduo
pa'triot,
s.,

par'agraph,
paraHel',
par'ent,
s.
s.,

pdrrafo

y a., paralelo padre o madre;

patriota
copiar,
to

s,

pat'/em,
ejemplo;

vr.,

padre y madre park, par que Par'licrment, parlamento


.s'.,

servir

de
the

along'

same
cura
deber,
of,

gen'eral lines, seguir en


el

general

par'son,
part,
s.,

s.,

clcrigo, parraco,

pave,

vr.,

niismo modelo pavimentar; to

the

parte,

trozo;

obligacion;

on tbe
partir;

parte de; to play a


papel;
vr.,

de hacer un to witb,
,

way, facilitar o abrir el camino pay (pazd, paid), pagar, remunerar, best, valer mejor; to to trib'ute, encomiar

deshacerse de
partake' (partook', partak'en)
participar de,
of,

pay'ing,

a.,

ganancioso,

prove-

choso

tener parte en,

pay'ment,
pecfe,
s.

s.,

pago, recompeasa
tranquilo

tomar parte
par'tialZy, adv.,

paz
a.,

parcialmente
participante

peoge'ful,

parti'ffipate, vr., participar

peach,

s.,

melocot6n, durazno

parti'fipant,

*.,

peafe'ful/y, adv., tranquilamente

VOCABULARIO
peck,
s.,

199
.;.,

medida de
s.,

dridos,

9.9

peti'tion,
oficio;

peticion,
dirigir

memorial,

litros

vr.,

un memorial

peeuliar'ity,

peculiaridad

ped'dler,
peel,
s.,

s.,

buhonero, baratillero
mirar a hur-

corteza, cascara
atisbar,

pet'/y, n., pequeno, insignificante pew, .s., banco de iglesia phan'tom, s., fantasma

peep,

vr.,

phase,

s.,

fase

tadillas

Pekin(g)', ciudad de China

pen,

s.,

pluma {para
s.,

escribir)

phenom'enon {pi. phenom'ena), fenomeno Philadel'phia, una ciudad de Penn6'.,

pen'nant,
pen'sive,

bander a
pensativo,

sylva'nia

a.,

medita-

Phil'li^pine

Is'lands,

Islas

fili-

bundo
peo'ple,
s.,

pinas
gente, pueblo, vulgo
s.,

philos'ophy,
se

s.,

filosofia

pep'-meet'ing, convoca

reunion que

phoe'be bird,
physi'cian,
pick,
vr.,
s.,

s.,

febe

en

las
el

universidades

photog'rapher,

s.,

fotografo

para despertar
pep'/>er,
s.,

entusiasmo del
chili, aji

medico

cuerpo estudiantil

coger, recoger; to

out,

pimienta,
vr.,

escoger, elegir
pick'led,
a.,

pergefve',

percibir,

compren-

encurtido
ir

der
pergent'age,
perfeet',
vr.,
s.,

pie'nicking, gerundio,

de romerfa
s.,

(tanto) por ciento

pie'ture,

vr.,

pintar, dibujar;
to

perfeccionar
s.,

cuadro,
fun'/iy

perfee'tion,

perfeccion

escena;
,

make a

ser
a.,

muy

comico

perhaps', adv., tal vcz, quiza


pe'riod,
per'ish,
s.,

picturesque',
pie,
s.,

pintoresco

periodo, tiempo
perecer, morir
peligroso,
a.,

pastel,
s.,

empanada
co-

vr.,

piefe,
pig,

pedazo, anico

per'ilous,

a.,

per'manent,
permit',
vr.,

aventurado permanente
s.,

s.,

cerdo joven, puerco;

chino
pile, s.,

permitir, autorizar

monton

perpendie'ular,
dicular
perplex'ity,
s.,

Imea perpen-

piled, a.,

amontonado; amontonado muy alto


s.,

high,

perplejidad,

duda

Pil'grim,
pi'lot, s.,

peregrino

per'son,

s.,

persona, individuo
a.,

piloto
pellizcar
s.,

per'sonal,

personal, particular
s.,

pinch,

vr.,

personal'ity,

personalidad,

pioneer',

descubridor, exploel

individualidad

rador {especialmente en
de emigrar a vivir en

sentido

per'sonaUy, adv., personalmente


persuade',
pest,
vr.,

una region

persuadir
perteneciente
Flautista

nueva)
pi'ous,
a.,

pertazn'ing,
s.,

a.,

piadoso, devoto

plaga, peste
el

pipe, a., pipa para fumar, cachim-

Pe'ter Pi'per, Pedro

ba; tubo, cafieria

200
pi<ch,
pit'y,
s.,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
tono
lastima;
poet'ie, a., poetico

what a

que
vr.,

point,
vr.,

s.,

punto, punta;

puerto;
to

lastima
plaje,
s.,

senalar,

apuntar;

lugar, sitio, destine;


to

out, senalar

colocar;

take

suceder,

poi'soned,

a.,

verificar(se)

poi'sonous,

a.,

envenenado venenoso
bien educado

plam,

5.,

llano,

pampa; c,

claro,

pol'igy, s

curso o plan de accion

puro
plam'ly, adv., claramente, sencilla-

polite', a., cortes,

polit'ieal, a., politico

mente
plan,
s.,

politi'cian,

s.,

politico, estacUsta

plan, proyecto;

ot.,

idear,

pol'itks,
poll, vi\,

s.,

politica

proyectar
plane,
plant,
s.,

rango, piano

dar o recibir votos, votar en las elecciones


s.,

vr.,

sembrar, plantar;

s.,

polls,

colegio electoral

fAbrica
planta'tion,
plate,
s., s.,

Pon'ge
hacienda
plato

de Leon' Ponce de Leon


s.,

(1460-1521),
caballito;

play,

V7\,

jugar; to
s.,

a part, hacer
juego,
recreo,

po'ny,

potro,

express', servicio de correo por

un papel;
ejecucion
play'er,
.s.,

medio de jinetes
pool,
s.,

charco;

swim'/Tung

jugador
s.,

piscina de natacion
poor,
a.,

play'ground,
pleod'ing,
s.,

patio de recreo

pobre, esteril
s.,

alegato, defensa

popula'tion,

poblaci6n,

habi-

please,

vr.,

agradar, gustar;

el

tantes
pop'ulous,
a.,

be ver'y arten'tive, haga(n)


favor de prestar atencion
pleosed,
pleas'ure,
a.,

populoso

porch,

i'.,

portico, entrada
ir.,

agradecido, complagusto, placer

por'tion,

partir, repartir

cido, satisfecho
s.,

Por'to Rie'o, Puerto Rico

Portuguese',
possess',
pos'sible,
vr.,

s.,

portugues

pledge,
terse

vr.,

prometer, comprome-

pcseer, tener

a.,

pcsible

plen'tiful, a.,
ipllght, s.,

abundante apuro
escrito plough),
s.,

pos'sibly, adv., posiblemente


post,
s.,

puesto, cargo

plow {tamhicn
arado;
vr.,

pos'tal, a., postal

arar
la

post'of/ige,

s.,

casa

de
s.,

correos,

Ply'mouth Rock,
Peregrin OS

roca de los

administracion de correos
pota'to
{pi.

pota'toes),

patata,

Poeahon'tas
pock'et,
p6'et,
s.,
s.,

(1595-1617), cesa india de Virginia


bolsillo

prm-

papa
poten'tial, a., potencial, posible

poeta

Poto'mae Riv'er, el rio gin'ia Ma'ryland


;/

enire Vir-

VOCABULARIO
pouch,
s.,

201
vr.,

saquito, bolsa
libra

preside' (o'ver),
gravios);
sidir

dirigir,

pre-

pound,

s.,

(454

libra esterlina

pres'idengy,
pres'ident,

s.,

presidencia

pour, vr., derramarse, arrojarse powder, s., fuerza, poder, autori-

s.,

presidente
presion,

press,

s.,

dad;

prensa
s.,

plant,

generador de

pressure [presh'ure],
impulse, lu-gencia
pres'tige,
s.,

fuerza motriz
pow'erful,
a.,

poderoso
a.,

prestigio,

fama

prae'tieable,

factible,

hace-

pre'tenge,

s.,

pretexto, excusa

dcro
prae'tiealZy,
adv.,

pretend',

vr., fingir,

simular
bonito, lindo,

virtualmente;

en

practicamente,
al'wai/s, casi

pretty [prit'fyj,
belle;
adv.,

a.,

siempre
prae'tife,
s.,

practica;

in
la

un poco; medianamente
prevail',
vr.,

well,

ver-

reinar,

prevalecer;
pre-

daderamente,
wr.,

practica;
to

ejercer,

ensayar;
la

de

had

ed

for gen'turies,

valecian

hacla

siglos;

to

laif,

ejercer

profesion

upon', influir
prevail'ingly, adv., predominante-

abogado
pra/'rie,
s.,

pradera, llanura
oracion, rezo, plegaria
a.

niente
prev'alent,
a.,

prayer,

s.,

prevaleciente,

ge-

preged'ing,

y gerimdio, precedente, que precede


s.,

neral
prevent',
to

predie'ament,

trance,

compro-

s.,

vr-.,

prevenir,

impedir;

their

bum'ing, impedir

miso
predict',
vr.,

que
predecir, profetizar
prey,
prife,

se

quemaran
a.,

pre'vious,

previo, anterior

pre-em'inently, adv., preeminente-

victima,
precio

botm
vanavana-

mente
prefer',
vr.,

s.,

preferir
s.,

pride,

vr.,

enorguUecerse,
s.,

preference,
dileccion

preferencia,

pre-

gloriarse;

orguUo,

gloria
s.,

prej'udige,

prejuicio
s.,

pnest,
rio

s.,

sacerdote, cura
a.,

prep'aration,

preparacion

pri'mary,
prim'itive,

primario,

origina-

prepare',

vr.,

preparar(se)
prescribir, dictar

prescribe',

vr.,

a.,

primitive, tesco

pres'ent,
at tbe

there are
present',

time, en actualidad; here to-night, conla


it.,

a.,

presente, aqui, actual;

Pringe'ton, nomhre propio


prin'fipal,
a.,

principal,

funda-

mental
pri'vate,
a.,

curren esta noche


presentar,

particular
pri\'ilegio,

dar

priv'ilege,
priv'ily,

s.,

favor

conocer
preserve',
vr.,

adv.,

secretamente,

guardar, proteger

escendidas

202
prize,
vr.,

VOCABULARIO
estimar, valuar
a.,

pros'per,

vr.,

hacer medrar, pros-

prob'able,

probable
prueba, ensayo
vr.,

perar
prosper'ity,
s.,

prob'ably, adv., probablemente


proba'tion,
s.,

prosperidad
prospero;
feliz

pros'perous,
es-

a.,

probe

(in'tp),

explorar,

pros'trate,
protect',

vr.,

prostrarse

cudriiiar

vr.,

proteger

prob'lem,

s.,

problema
s.,

protee'tive, a.,protectivo

proge'dure [o pr5Qe'jure]],
ceder, procedimiento

pro-

proud,
prove,

a.,

orguUoso
probar; resultar
habilitar, esti-

proud'Iy, adv., orgullosamente


vr.,

profeed',
pro'fess,

vr.,
.s.,

seguir, continuar

procedimiento, curso
s.,

provide', proveer;

proges'sion,

procesion

pular
provi'sions,
s.,

proelafm',

vr., vr.,

proclamar
producir,

comestibles,

prc-

produfe',
prod'uet,

manu-

visiones

facturar, exhibir

proxim'ity,

s.,

proximidad,

cer-

producto produe'tion, s., produccion


s.,

cania

pru'denfe,
pub'lie,
a.,

s.,

prudencia, cordura comiin;


s.,

produe'tive,
lifico

a.,

productivo, pro-

publico,

rood, camino real;


s.,

publico

profes'sion,

profesion
profesional, facul-

piibliea'tion,

s.,

publicacion, perio-

profes'sional,

a.,

dico, revista

tativo
pr6fes'5or,
fesor
s.,

pub'liely,

adv.,

piiblicamente, en
editor, casa edito-

catedr^tico,

pro-

publico
pub'lisher,
s.,

profit,

s.,

ganancia, provecho;

vr.,

rial

sacar utilidad o provecho


profitable,
joso
a.,

piid'dle,
puff,
pull,
s., s.,

s.,

charco
influencia;

provechoso, venta-

resoplido, bufido

pro'gram,
prog'ress, progress',

s., s.,

programa, plan
adelanto, progreso

tirar;

car;

out, to the
to
s.,

influjo,

;t.,

arrancar, sa-

oar,

remar

vr., vr.,
vr.,

progresar

pump'kin,
pur'chase,
cion

calabaza

prom'ise,

prometer

vr.,

comprar, mercar

promote',

prompt,
proof,

vr.,

promover impiilsar, mover


vr.,

pur'chasing,

s.,

compra, adquisi-

pronounce',
s.,

pronunciar; fallar
conveniente;

pure'ly, adv., puramente. entera-

prueba
a.,

mente
purge,
IT.,
s.

prop'er,
to

be

propio,

purgar, purificar
tj

convenir
a., proporcionado proponer

Pur'itan,
pur'ple,

a.,

puritano
fin,

prop'erly, adv., correctamente

a.,

purpureo, morado
proposito.

propor'tionate,

pur'pose,

.s..

objeto

propose',

vr.,

pursue',

;t.,

perseguir, dar caza

VOCABULARIO
pursuit',
s.,

203
s.,

persecucion

push,

empujar; to on, adelantarse dando empujones, seguir camino


vr.,

ra'dio,

radio
ferrocarril, via ferrea

rage,

s.,

rabia, ira
s.,

razl'road,

put

(put,

put),

poner;
to

around', cercar;
ejercer,

to

in

ram,
raise,

s.,

Uuvia; w., llover

ram'y,
var;

a.,
vr.,

Uuvioso
criar,

emplear;

to

forth,

producir,
alzar;

culti-

mind, hacer recordar;


out,

apagar;

ejecutar; to

en fuga;
efectivo;

to to death, poner to thiough, hacer to up, conservar


to flight,

to

levantar,

to

mon'ey, juntar dinero; to levantar, hacer levantar


raised,
a.,
s.,

up,

alzado
crianza
rastrillar;

rafs'ing,

rake,

vr.,

to

puz'zled,

a.,

confundido

sacar

rastrillando;

to

out, up,

amontonar rastrillando
Ra'leigh, Sir Wal'ter (1552-1618),
quaznt'ly, adv., de

un modo rare
reli-

Qua'ker,
giosa)
qual'ity,

s.,

cuaquero {seda
calidad,

ram'bling,
ram'part,

explorador y cortesano ingles a., serpenteante


s.,

terraplen, baluarte

s.,

cuaHdad

ran, pret. de to run

quan'tity,

s.,

cantidad
cuarto, distrito

rang, pret. de to ring

range,
s.,

vr.,

colocar,

poner en
vr.,

fila;

quar'rel, w., renir


sierra
s.,

quar'ter,

s.,

rank,

queen,
quest,

rango, clase;
tal

tener
o

s.,
s.,

reina

busca ques'tion, s., pregunta;


asunto; a

poner
cuestion,
rap'a-tap,

cual

grado
hace

clasificacion

tiempo;
quick,
a.,

V7'.,

en poco preguntar, dudar


of time,

sonido

que
el

el

zapatero al hacer
rap'id, a., rapido

zapato

rapido, vivo; agil


rapid'ity,
s.,

quick'ly,

adv.,

prontamente, con

rapidez
extasis, trasporte

rap 'idly, adv., rapidamente


rap'ture,
ras'eal,
rat,
s.,

presteza, aprisa

Quin'fy, nomhre propio


quite, adv.,

s.,

muy, bastante, enteras.,

s.,

picaro, tuno

mente
quota'tion,
cita

rata
razon, precio

rate,

s.,

rath'er, adv., bastante;


rat'ify, w., ratificar,

mas

bien

rage,

s.,

raza;

carrera, corrida

aprobar rau;, a., crudo, pelado; mate'rial, materia prima

ra'cial, a.,

de raza
a.,

reach,
to

vr.,

alargar;

ra'diant,

radiante, resplande-

llegar a; to

ciente

alcanzar,

in'tp,

alcanzar a;

out the hand, alargar o

204

VOCABULARIO

way up, tender la mano; to tender la mano hacia arriba


read (read, read),
read'er,
s.,

refine'ment,
tileza
refit', vr.,

s.,

refinamiento; gen-

leer

reparar
a.,

lector; libro

de lectura

refleet'ed,

reflejado

read'ing,

s.,

lectura

reform',

s.,

reforma
refrenar(se)

read'y,

a., listo

refram',

vr.,

re'al, a.,

verdadero
s.,

refuse', m\, rehusar

real'ity,

realidad

regard'ing, prep., respecto a

re'alize, vr., realizar, darse

cuenta
verda-

regard'less of [ov], no obstante de


re'gion,
regret',
s.,
s.,

de

region

re'al/y, adv., efectivamente,

pena, pesadumbre;
regularizado,

vr.,

deramente
reap,
rear,
vr.,
s.,

sentir

cosechar, segar

reg'ulated,

a.,

or-

fondo, parte posterior


s.,

denado
reign,
s.,

rea'son,

razon, causa
s.,

reinado
vr.,

reb'el, a. y

rebelde, insurrecto

rejoife',
relate',

regocijar, alegrar

rebel'Zious,

a.,

rebelde, sublevado

vr., referir,

contar

recall', vr., recordar,

hacer recoraceptar

relent'less, a., implacable

dar
repefve',
re'jent,
vr.,

relieved',
recibir,

a.,
s.,

libertado, eximido

reli'gion,

religion

a.,

reciente, recien

reli'gious, a., religioso

re'f ently, adv.,

recientemente

relin'quish,

vr.,

ceder,

abandonar
de
toc6 a

refep'tion,

s.,

recibimiento, recibo

rely', vr., confiar, fiarse

ree/irisf'en, vr., rebautizar

remam',
it

vr.,

quedar, permanecer;
lit' fie girl, le

reeoir,

vr.,

retroceder, rctirarse

ed for a
vr.,

reeoZlect', vr., recordar, acordarse

una nina
remark',
decir
advertir,

ree'onfile,

vr.,

reconciliar
s.,

observar;

reeongilia'tion,

reconciliacion
s.,

reeonstrue'tion,

reestableci-

remark'able,
ble

a.,

reparable, nota-

miento, reconstrucci6n
recount',
reeov'er,
vr., referir,
vr.,

detallar

recobrar;
recreo

recuperar

rem'edy, s., remedio remem'ber, vr., recordar,

acor-

reerea'tion,

s.,

darse de; Frank'lin will long be

red,

a.,

encarnado, rojo
vr.,

ed,
(en
el

Franklin serd recordadb

reduje',
reel,
s.,

reducir

carrete,

roUo

por mucho tiempo remon'strange, s., protesta


remon'strate,
remote',
a.,
;t.,

cinema, cada uno de los


de peliculas)
re-elee'tion,
s.,

r olios

vr.,

protestar

distante, lejano

reeleeci6n

ren'der,
verter;

suministrar, prestar,

re-en'try,
refin'ery,

s., s.,

segunda entrada
refineria

to

asun'der, separar

con violencia

VOCABULARIO
rent,
s.,

205
[res'torantj,
s.,

raja,
vr.,

hendidura; renta

restaurant
rest'less,

res-

repeat',
repel',

repetir

taurants, fonda
a.,

vr.,

rechazar
vr.,

inquieto,

desasose-

replace',

substituir,

reems.,

gado
restore',
vr.,

plazar
reply',
vr.,

restaurar
resultar, seguirse;

replicar, responder;

restrict', vr., limitar, coartar

contestacion
report',
s.,

result',

vr.,

s.,

informacion;

voz,

resultado, resulta

rumor
report'er,
s.,

retam',
reporter, gacetillero

vr.,

retener
jubilaci6n
vr.,

retire', vr., retirarse

repose',

vi\,

descansar, tenderse
vr.,

retire'ment,
retreat',
s.,

s.,

retire;

represent',
bolizar

representar,

sim-

retiro;

retirada;

retirarse
s.,
s.,

representa'tion,
represen'tative,

representacion
representativo,

return',

vr.,

regresar, volver;

de-

volver;
s.,

on

ing,

al regresar;

diputado
repub'lie,
s.,

regreso
vr.,

republica
s.,

reveal',
rev'el,

re velar, di vulgar

repub'liean,
request',
gir;
s.,

republicano

s.,

francachela
a.,

vr.,

rogar, suplicar, exi-

rev'erend-look'ing,

de aspecto

petici6n, ruego;

upon'

venerable
revolt', vr., rebelar(se), sublevar

a peticion
vr.,

reqmre',
quisito

requerir, exigir
s.,

revolu'tion,
re-

s.,

revolucion
la
li-

require'ment,
res'eue,

demanda,

Revolu'tionary War, Guerra de


Inde/pendencia

(1775-1783)

s.,

rescate, socorro
vr.,

hrada contra Inglaterra por sus


parecolonias de Norte
revolve',
vr.,
vr.,

resem'ble,
cerse a

asemejarse

a,

America

revolver, dar vueltas

reside', m\, morar, vivir


resist', vr., resistir,

reward',
rib,
s.,

premiar, remunerar

rechazar

Costilla;
s.,

cuaderna
fertil;
s.,

resis'tange,
resort',
vr.,

s.,

resistencia

rib'bon,
rich,

cinta, listen
rico;

acudir, recurrir
a.,

a.,

los

resound'ing,
resourfe',
s.,

resonante
adv.,

ricos
rich'es,
s.,

recurso

riqueza, caudales
s.,

respeet'fulZy,

respetuosa-

rid'rfange,

libramiento,

pre-

mente
respee'tive,
a.,

scrvacion de
respectivo
rid' die,
s.,

un mal
(a caballo, en cache

adivinanza, acertijo

respon'sible,

a.,

responsable
s.,

ride',

s.,

paseo
jinete
a.,

responsibil'ity,

responsabili-

o en automovil)
rid'er,
s.,

dad
rest,
s.,

descanso;
vr.,

resto,

lo

de-

ridic'ulous,
Tight,
s.,

ridiculo, grotesco
justicia;
a..

mds;

descansar, asentarse

derecho,

206
bueno,
bien;

VOCABULARIO
derecho;
adv.,

rous'ing,

a.,

excitanfe,

provovia,

exactamente rlght'ly, adv., debidamente


rig'orous,
rill, s.,

cante;

animado
route],
s.,

route

[o

ruta,

a.,

rigoroso, severe

curse
rozi;, s.,

riachuelo, arroyuelo

hilera, fila

rim,

s.,

canto, cerco, bordc

roy'al, a., real, regie

ring (rang, rung), sonar; repicar

rude,

a.,

rude,

brusco,

grosero;

Rio Gran'de [o Rio Grande], Rio grande del norte


rise (rose, ris'en), levantarse
risk,
s.,

tosco
rug'^ed,
culto
ru'in,
s.,

a.,

aspere, abrupte, in-

peligro, riesgo;

vr.,

arries-

ruina
a.,

gar, aventurar
ri'val,
s.,

ru'ined,
rule,
s.,

arruinado
a

rival,
s.,

ri'valry,
riv'er,
riv'et,

competidor rivalidad, competencia


remachar,
redoblar;

regla, regimen, gebierno;


,

s.,

rio

to

up, asegurar
s.,

^r.,

road,

camino;
rugido,
s.,

piib'lie

ca-

impener(se) una por regla general; gebernar, dominar run (ran, run), correr; to away', huir, escaparse; to a
to

make

regla; as a
vr.,

risk,

mino
roar, roost,
s.,

real

correr peligro

bramido

a.y
s.,

asado;

run,

s.,

corrida, curso, Jornada

pig,

puerco

ru'ral, a., rural,


riish,

campesino
abalanzarse;

asado; w., asar


rob'in,

{al

homo)

petirojo

to

out,

vr.,

arrojarse,
salir

precipitadamente

rock,

s.,

roca, peiiasco
s.,

rus'set, a., bermejo,

burdo

rock'et,

cohete, volador

Rus'sia, Rusia

Rock'y

rocoso, penascoso Moun'torns, Montanas Roqueiias rogue, s., bribon, picaro, tunante

rock'y,

a.,

sack,
sad,
safe,

s.,

costal, saco

ro'guish,

a.,

picaresco

s.,

triste,

pesaroso

roll'ing, a.,

ondulado
cuarto,
to
sala;

a.,
s.,

seguro, salvo
sabio, fil6sofo

room,
lugar
rope,
s.,

a.,

causa,
,

sage,

ocasi6n;

make

hacer

said [ted], pret. y pp. de to say; it is se dice

soga, cordaje
s.,
s.,

sail,

s.,

vela;

ros'trum,
rota'tion,

tribuna
rotaci6n;

a la vela;

crop

sin cesar;

rotacion de cultivos

sake
tosco, duro,
sale,
salt,

for tfee

on, navegar de to out por, a causa de


to
of, salir of,

vr.,

navegar, darse

rough-and-tum'ble,
tempestiioso

a.,

s., s.,

venta
sal
s.,

round,

a.,

redondo, esferico; llano

salva'tion,

salvaci6n

VOCABULARIO
same,
sane,
sap,
a.

207
para
atrevesar
laa

s.,

niismo, igual

eyyiigrantes

S3,n Frangis'eo,
a.,

San Francisco

llanuras del Oeste de los Estados

cuerdo, sano

Unidos
sfi'enge,
s.,

sang, pret. de to sing


s.,

ciencia
cientifico

savia

sat, pret.

down, y pp. de to sit ; in a eir'ele, estaban se sento;

scientific,

a.,

scold,

ir.,

regaiiar, reiiir
s.,

seold'ing,

regario

sentados formando circulo


satisfae'tory,
a.,

scorch,
sec,
s.,

vr.,

chamuscar
s.,

satisfactorio, sufi-

ciente
sat'isfied, a., satisfecho

sea'man
seorch,
s.,

mar, oceano (pi. seo'men),


vr.,
s.,
s.,

buscar;

to

marino
for,

saufe'pan,
sav'age,
save,
ir.,

cacerola
s.,

buscar;
seo'shore,
seo'son,
sect,
s.,
s.,

busca
playa, orilla del

a.

salvaje

mar

salvar
s.,

s.,

estacion (del ano)


to take a

sav'ings,
sau;,

ahorros
sierra,

pi^et.

de to see;

back
sefede',

asiento, silla;
,

quitarse del frente

serrucho

vr.,

separarse
secesion
s.,

say (said [sed], said [sed]), decir says Csgz], tercera persona de to say
scale,
s.,

sefes'sion,.

s.,

sec'ond,

a.

sec'ond-elass',
escala;
a.,

a.,

segundo de segunda clase

balanza, bascula

se'cret,

s.,

secrete
s.,

seant'y,

escaso, limitado

secrta'ry,

secretario; ministro

searge,

a.,

escaso

se'cretly, adv., secretamente, ocul-

searge'ly, adv., apenas

tamente
sect,
s.,

seared,

a.,

espantado, amedren-

secta, partido
s.,

tado
seat'^er, vr., esparcir, dispersar

see'tion,

seccion, localidad
lograr, obtener, con-

secure',

vr.,

sgene,
Sfent,

s.,

escena, paisaje
olfato;
s., s.,

seguir

s.,

olor

see
sabio, eru-

(sau;,

seen), ver;

to

se/jeme,
se/iol'ar,

plan, proyecto

creer

oportimo;
semilla

on

ing,

fit,

al

alumno;
s.,

ver
seed,
s.,

dito

se/iorarship,

saber, erudicion;

seek

(sought,
to

sought),

beca
school,
s.,

solicitar;

escuela;

casa escolar;
sc/iool'ing,

\dgh

buscar,

her hand in

house,
escuela

mar'ricge, pedir la
seek'er,
s.,

mano

buscador
adv.,
al

secundaria, liceo;
s.,

a.,

escolar

seem,

vr.,

parecer
parecer,

instrucci6n {en

una

seem'ingly,

escuela)

aparentemente
s.,

se/iobn'er,
rie

goleta, galera; praz'-

sel'dom,

adv.,

raramente,

rara

galera

que

usaban

los

vez

208

VOCABULARIO
to

select', vr., seleccionar; a., selecto,

out, ponerse

escogido
seleet'ed,
a.,

partir; to

to

seleccionado, esco-

a trabajar; to
set'fle,
vr.,

gido
selee'tion,
s.,

colonizar;

up, establecer to
fijarse

en camino, work, comenzar

seleccion, eleccion;

down
blacion
set'^ler,

back, asentarse,
s.,

trozo
self'-reli'ant,
a.,

set'^lement,

colonizacion; po-

confiado

en

si

mismo
sell (sold, sold),

vender; to

out,

s.,

colono, poblador

sev'en, siete

vender todo
sem'i-fir'ele,
s.,

sev'enty-three', setenta

tres

semicirculo

sev'eral,

., a.,

algunos, varies
severe, rigurose
vr.,

senado senador send (sent, sent), mandar, enviar;


sen'ate,
s.,

severe',

sen'ator,

s.,

sew
sex,

Cso],

coser;

to

to-

to

geth'er, jmitar cosiendo


s.,

for,

venir; to

buscar,

mandar
desde

sexe
s.,

6'ver, enviar

shade,

sembra
s.,

otra parte
sen'ior,
s.,

shagreen',

piel

de zapa,
de;

lija

almnno de cuarto ano


en
las

shake (shook, shak'en), sacudir;


to

de

bachillerato

escuelas

off,

librarse

to

superiores de los Estados Unidos

hands,

darse

un apreton de
Wil'/iam
(1564-

sense,

s.,

sentido
a.,

manes
Shake'speore,
ingles
shall,
la

sense'Iess,
sen'sible,

insensate, absurdo

a.,

sensible, cuerda

1616), gran poeta y dramaiurgo


verba

sent, pret. y pp. de to send; he was to Frange, se le envi6 a

auxiliar

usado para
pro-

Francia
sen'tenje,
sep'arate,
s.,

oracion, frase

separado Septem'ber, septiembre


a.,

formacion del futuro shal'Zou;, a., somere, peco fundo


shape,
share,
s.,

IT.,

fermar, plasmar
cempartir, participar;
acci6n

serenade',
se'rious,

s.,

serenata
grave, verdadero

ir.,

a., serio,

parte, cueta;
a.,

se'riously,

adv.,

seriamente;

take himself
serio
serv'ife,
set,
s., s.,

to

sharp,

agude, puntiagudo
vr.,
s.,

ser

hombre

sharp'en,
sharp'er,

aguzar, afilar

tahm-, fullere

servicio
clase;
los

sharp'ly, adv.,

dm'amente

grupo,

juego;
o

shav'en, adj., afeitade, rasiirado


she, pron., ella {se refiere solamente

young'er

j6vencs

menores de edad
set (set, set), poner, colocar;

a perso7ias)
to

to

shep'/ierd,
shil'Zing,

s.,

pastor, zagal
chelin,

forth, manifestar, exponer;

aside',

separar,

destinar;

s.,

(nwncda

in-

glesa)

VOCABULARIO
shine
rielar
f

209
vr.,

shone,

shone),

brillar,

sight,

avistar,

alcanzar {con
signo, senal,

la vi&ta)

ship,

s.,

cion,
peclir

nave;
s.,

buque, barco, embarcavr., embarcar, exchoque, golpe

sign,

vr.,

firmar;

s.,

sintoma
si'lenge,
s.,

silencio

shock,

si'lent, a.,

mudo, sUencioso
plata;
a.,

shoe, s., zapato shpe'maker, s., zapatero shone, pret. y pp. de to shine

sil'ver,

s.,

plateado

sim'ilar, a., similar, parecido

sim'ple,

a.,

sencillo,
a.,

simple
necio, tonto
canj.,

shop,

s.,

tienda,
,

taller;

to

up
shore,

s.,

shut

sim'ple-mind'ed,

desistir

de

una em-

since, adv., desde;

presa
ribera, borde, costa

puesto que;
(que)

ev'er

ya que,
despues

shorn,

a.,

tonsurado
in

sing (sang, siing), cantar;


,

anun-

short, c, corto;

en

fin

ciar gritando
sin'gle, a., solo, particular

short'Iy, adv., luego, al instante;

after, poco despues


I
s.,

sink,

vr.,

hundir(se), debilitarse
(arcaico), padre, progeni-

shQuld, verba auxiliar del tiempo


condicional
debiera;

sir, s.,

senor, caballero

de
like,

subjuntivo;

sire,

s.,

yo quisiera

tor; anciano;
to del

tambien tratamien-

shoul'der,

hombro
vocear
a

soberano
sirena

shouldst, forma antigua de should

si'ren,
sis'ter,
sit

s.,
s.,

shout,
shou;,

vr.,
s.,

gritar,

hermana
sat),

exhibicion, espectdculo,
to

(sat,

sentar(se);
to

funcion;

make

hacer

down, sentarse;
estar sentado
site, s., sitio,

be

ting,

to

gran papel o gala


shou; (shoifed, shou;n), mostrar,

situacion

ensenar,

demostrar;
astute, sagaz

tambien

six, seis

verba regular

six'penge,

s.,

maneda de
patinar

plata de

shrewd,
shrine,

a.,
s.,

seis peniques, a sea 'medio chelin

altar,

templete

skat'ing,
skill,
s.,

s.,

el

shut (shut, shut), cerrar, encerrar;


to

to

up, cerrar completamente; up shop, desistir de una


a.,

destreza
deslizarse, pasar rasando

skim,
skin,
skip,
skirt,

vr.,
s.,

piel,

peUejo

empresa
shy,
timido, cauteloso
sick, a.,

vr.,
s.,

cabriolar, saltar

falda

enfermo, male, doliente


lado, costado;

side,

s.,

by

sky,

s.,

cielo
adv.,

sky'ward,
slave,
s.,

hacia

el cielo

como vecinos
side'waZk,
sigh,
vr.,
s.,

esclavo
.,

acera
s.,

slave'holder,

amo

de esclavos

suspirar;

suspiro

slav'ery,

s.,

esclavitud

210
sledge,
s.,

VOCABULARIO
macho, mandarria
coche dormitorio
menospreciar,
a.,

soft, a.,
soil, s.,

suave, blando
terreno, suelo

sleep (slept, slept), dormir


sleep'er,
slight,
s.,

sol'age, vr., solazar, consolar

vr.,

des-

sold, pret.

y pp. de to
s.,

sell

preciar;

leve, ligero, flojo

soldier [sol'jer],

sol dado

slip, vr., deslizar(se);

resbalar

sole, a., linico, solo


sole'ly,
adv.,

slow,

a.,

lento, torpe
adv.,

solamente,

unica-

slou)'ly,

mente;
slum'ber,
small,
smell,

V7\,

despacio,

lenta-

mente
sol'emnly, adv., santamente, seria-

spread'ing, que se

extiende lentamente

mente
sol'itude,
s.,

dormitar

soledad,

vida

soli-

sly, a., astuto,


a.,
vr.,

taimado

taria
so'lo,
s.,

pequeiio,

menudo
s.,

solo (musical)

oler, olfatear;

olor,

solve,

vr.,

resolver

aroma
smelt,
smile,
pret.,

forma

antigua

de

smelled
s.,

sonrisa

Smith, Cap'tain Jo/m (1579-1631),


explorador ingles

some, a., algun(o), algo de, un poco de; pron., alg'uno(s); one [wun], alguien, alguno some'body, s., alguien, alguna persona
some'thing,

smoke,

humo; vr., fumar; to a pipe, fumar en cachimba


s.,
s.,

a.,

algo,

alguna cosa;

must be done, hay que


adv.,

hacer algo

smok'ing,

accion

she had nev'er smok'ing, nunca le habia visto fumar; a., humeante, humoso smooth'-run'ning, a., que corre o funciona con suavidad snake, s., culebra, serpiente
snare,
s.,

de fumar; seen him

some'where,
son,
s.,

en alguna parte

hijo
s.,

son'-in-lau;,
tico

yerno, hijo poli-

song,

s.,

cancion, cantar
s.,

song'ster,

cantor, pajaro cantor

soon, adv., pronto

lazo,

trampa
a hurtadillas fachenda

sooth 'ing,

a.,

calmante, consolador
s.,

sneak
snou;,
snuff,
so,

(out), vr., irse


a.,

soph'omore,
las

aliuuuo de segundo
las escue-

snob'bish,
s.,

ano de bachillerato en
superiores
de
los

nieve
rape, tabaco en polvo
asf, tal,

Estados

s.,

Unidos

adv.,

tan (to);

conj.,

asl
that,

que,

de manera que; de manera que


a.,

co-

sore'ly, adv., severamente, peno-

samente
soror'ity,
s.,

sororidad, sociedad

so'cial, a., social

escolar de ninas

so'cializing,

calidad de hacer

s6r'r6u;fulZy, adv., tristemente


sor'ry, a., triste; tQ feel
sort,
s.,

mds amigable y mutuamente


operativo

sentir

clase,

ginero

VOCABULARIO
sound,
soup,
sour,

211
s.,

sought, pret. y pp. de to seek s., sonido, son; a., sano,

spe'cialist,

especialista

spe'cialize,

vr.,

especializar

bueno, pure
s.,

spe'gify,

vr.,

especificar
s.,

sopa
agrio, desabrido
a.,

spee'taele,

a.,

bicion;

espectdculo,

exhi-

gafas, anteojos

sourfe,

origen,

procedencia;

spee'ulate,
flexionar

m\,

especular;

re-

fuente, causa

south,

s.

a.,
s.,

sur

speeula'tion,

s.,

especulacion
to
dis-

south'east,

sudeste
meridional, del sur

speech,

s.,

south'em,

a.,
s.,

make
curso

discurso, oracion;
,

pronunciar un

sov'ereig'n,

sov'ereignty,

s.,

soberano soberania

speed,

s.,

rapidez, velocidad
s.,

spafe,

s.,

espacio, lugar

spel'Zing,

ortografia, deletreo

Spafn,

Espana
vr.,

spend
extenderse

(spent,

spent),

gastar,

span,

alcanzar,

pasar (tiempo)

sobre
span'gled,
juelas;

sphere

[sfere^j,

s.,

esfera, circulo

adornado con lentestar adornado con


a.,

de accion
spied, pret. y pp. de to spy spike, s., perno, gancho
spir'it, s.,

estrellas;

Star
los

Ban'ner, la

handera de
de America

Estados

Unidos

espiritu

spit, s.,

asador
despecho;
a.,

Span'iard,
Span'ish,

s., s.

espanol {persona)

a.,

espanol;

spite,

s.,

in

of,

pesar de
splen'did,

Amer'iea, la America espanola;

magnifico,

esplen-

Amer'iean,

hispanoameria.,

dido
spoke,
pret.

cano
Span'ish-speak'ing,
espaiiola

de to speak

de habla

spok'en, pp. de to speck; are se hablan; a., hablado

spare,

vr.,
s.,

perdonar, guardar
chispa
a.,

spark,

spokes'man, s., interlocutor, el que habla en nombre de otro(s)


bri-

spark'ling,
llante
spar'rou;,
s.,

centelleante,

sport,

s.,

juego, diversion

spot,

s., sitio,

lugar

gorrion
hablar,

speck

(spoke, spofen),

sprecd (sprecd, sprecd), tender, extender, desplegar, poner


s-pnght'ly,
a.,

pronunciar, decir
speak'er,
s.,

orador;

la

alegre, vivo

of

the

spring,

s.,

manantial,

fuente;

House, presidente de
Estados Unidos
specT,
s.,

Cdmara

primavera
spring
crecer

de Diputados del Congreso de los


lanza, venablo

(sprang,
to

brincar;

sprung), saltar,
up,
brotar,

spe'cial, a., especial

spurn,

vr.,

desdeiiar

212

VOCABULARIO
sta'tioned,
.,

spy (spied, spied), observar, columbrar St. []Sa/nt3 Ives, nombre propio St. [Samt] James, Santiago sta'ble, s., establo, cuadra
sta'dium,
s.,

colocado, situado

statis'tieal, a., estadistico

stay,

vr.,

quedar(se)

steol

(stole,

bar;

to

sto'lenj, hurtar,

ro-

thxoughy deslizarse

estadio,

campo

atletico

sin ruido
steel,
s.,

donde tienen lugar las car r eras


y otros ejercicios gimndsticos de una universidad
staff,
s.,

acero
precipicio
guiar, dirigir el rurnbo;
of,

steep,
steer,
to

s.,

cuerpo editorial, cuerpo


representar, poner en

de redactores
stage,
vr.,

step,

escena
stall, s.,

pesebre, casilla de establo


vr.,

stamp,

estampar, marcar

stand (stood, stood), estar de pararse, permanecer; to


accused', estar acusado;
for,

to
to

pie,

by gradualmente, de modo racional; along', caminar, avanzar dando pasos; back, retroceder, volver atras; from, apearse; desviarse, ponerse a un
s.,

eleor

vr.,

evitar

paso;

;/-.,

pisar;

to

to

to

salir,

to

off,

lado
ster'eotyped,
clisado
a.,

to

representar,
out,

significar;

estereotipado,

wnt'ten, hallarse escrito


s.,

destacarse,

persistir;

stem,
stick,

a.,
.s.,

austero, severo
palo, baston
sofocar,

stand'ard,

modelo;

a.,

norma, medida, conforme a la


hacer conformar

sti'fie, vr.,

ahogar (usado

norma
stand'ardize,
vr.,

en sentido metaforico)
stile, s., portillo
still,

con escalones

a la

norma

adv., todavia,

aun
(en

Stan' dish, ap'toin Miles (15841656), capitdn de la colonia de los

stim'iilate, vr., estimular

sting

(stung,

stung), picar;

Peregrinos
star,
s.,

sentido vulgar)
stitch,
vr.,
s.,

estrella

stare, vr., clavar o fijar la vista


start, vr.,

stock,

comenzar, poner(se) en

marcha, funcionar; to comenzar a funcionar starve, vr., morir de hambre


state,
s.,

rafs'ing,

enganar coser, embastar linaje; ganado; crianza de ganado

up,

stocks,
cos
stone,

s.,

acciones, valores piibli-

s.,

piedra;

vr.,

apedrear
el

estado
calidad de estado

stat'ed, a., regular, periodico

stood, pret. y pp. de to stand stoop, vr., doblar a inclinar

state'hood,

s.,

cuerpo
stop,
vr.,

state'l^, a., soberbio,

imponente
s.,

parar(se),

detenerise"!;

states'man
estadista,

[_pl.

states'men],

cesar, dejar

de
gro'fery

hombre de estado

store,

6;.,

tienda;

VOCABULARIO
tiendade comestibles;
iienda de

213
lucha, disputa

cham

strife,

s., s., s.,

una

serie situada en

string,
strip,

cuerda; (arcaico) espeton


faja, tira;
vr.,

varias ciudades y propiedad de eloth'ing la misma compania;

despojar,

desvestir
stripe,
s.,

roperia;

drug

botica;

jew'elry

depart'ment almacen, tienda grande surtida de articulos varios;


,

farmacia, joyeria;
, ,

raya, lista
striv'en),

strive

(strove,

esfor-

zarse, procurar
striv'ing, a., el

fivc'-and-ten'-gent

que se esfuerza

tienda

strong,

a.,

fuerte, sano
s.,

que se dedica a articulos a cinco

y a diez centavos; tobae'co estanco de tabaco, tabaqueria; w., abastecer, almacenar, guar-

strug'g'le,

contienda, lucha
estudiante, colegial
estudiar;
s.,

stub,

s.,

tocon, cepa, fragmento


s.,

stu'dent,
stud'y,
tura;

vr.,

asigna-

dar
storm,
sto'ry,
s.,

estudio; escritorio
s.,

tempestad, borrasca
cuento, historia

stump,
stun,

tocon
atontar,

s.,

vr.,

pasmar

stTdiight, a.,

derecho, recto

stung, pret. de to sting


stur'dy,
style,
s.,

strazp'/it'ly, adv.,

stram,

it.,

directamente extender o estirar con

a.,

fuerte, firme

estilo;

diccion;

manera,
cdte-

esfuerzo

modo, tono, moda


sub'jeet,
s.,

Strand, una de las calles principales de Londres

sujeto, materia;

dra
subjeet'ed,
a.,

strange,

a.,

extrailo, raro, sorpren-

dente;
stran'ger,
strap,
strau;,
vr.,
s.,

to
s.,

expuesto, sometido
s.,

say, por sorpren-

subjuga'tion,

sujeccion,

sub-

dente que sea


forastero, extranjero
liar,

jugacion

submis'sion,
cia

s.,

sumision, obediensubstancia, esencia

atar con correas

paja
correr, flotar;
s.,

sub'stange,
co-

s.,

stream,
street,

vr.,

substan'cial,

a.,

verdadero, soUdo
exito

rriente
s.,

suef ess',
calle
s.,

s.,

buen
a.,

suefess'ful,

prospero,

afor-

streng-th,

fuerza, vigor, robus-

tunado
such,
a., tal;

tez
streng'th'en,

a
un

risk, tal peligro;

m\,

fortalecer,

re-

pron., tal,

tal

forzar

sud'den,
a.,

c,

repentino,

impro-

stren'uous,

activo, laborioso

visto, precipitado

stress, w., acentuar,

subrayar
exten-

sud'c?enly, adv., de repente


suf'/er,
vr.,

strefch,

vr.,

alargar(se),

sufrir

der (se)
striet'ly, adv.,

suf'/erer,

s., s.,

sufridor, victima

stride,

s.,

rigurosamente paso largo, tranco

suf'/ering,

sufrimiento, dolor

sii/fi'cient, a., suficiente,

bastante

214

VOCABULARIO
surround'ing,
a.,

su/fi'ciently, adv., suficientemente,

cercano, circum-

bastante

ambiente
survey',
vr.,

sugar-mak'ing Cshu'gar-^l, s., confeccion de azucar sugar-ma'ple Hshu'gar-], s., arce meple, especie de drbol cuya savia produce el azticar de arce
suggest',
vr.,

medir

dcslindar

terrenos
survive',
vr.,
s.,

sobrevivir

suspi'cion,

desconfianza, recelo

suspi'cious,

a.,

sospechoso,

des-

sugerir

confiado

suzt, vr., convenir, sentar

swad'dling clothes, panales

suft'able,

a.,

adecuado,

conve-

swal'Zou;,

s.,

golondrina
sworn),
jurar,

niente

sway,

s.,

poder, imperio
(swore,

sum'mary, s., sumario, resumen sum'mer, s., verano, estio sum'mon, vr., citar, Uamar went down, se sun, s., sol; puso el sol

swear
sweat,

blasfemar
vr.,

sudar, trabajar dura-

sun'set,

s.,

ocaso, puesta del sol


s.,
,

mente sweep (swept, swept), pasar rdpidamente por


sweet,
swell,
a.,
vr.,

barrer,

sun'shine,

solana, luz del sol;

land of
supe'rior,

dulce, sabroso; gustoso

tierra resplandeciente

hinchar, inflar

a.,

superior
s.,

supervis'ion,

superintendencia

swept, pret. y pp. de to sweep Swift, Jon'athan (1667-1745),


7iovelista

su'pinely, adv., boca arriba, des-

escritor satirico ingles

cuidadamente sup'/er, s., cena


sup'/>lieate, vr., suplicar

velozmente swim'mer, s., nadador swim'ming pool, s., piscina de


swift'ly, adv.,

sup/>liea'tion,
su/>p6rt',
s.,

s.,

suplica

natacion
vr.,

sosten,

apoyo;

swine

{pi.

swine),

s.,

marrano,

sostener,
suj!port'er,

amparar
s.,

puerco, cochino

defensor, sostenedor

swine'herd,
su'ord,
s.,

suprem'afy,

s.,

supremacfa, hege-

s., porquero espada

monia
supreme',
a.,

syl'Zable,

s.,

silaba
.,

supremo
a.,

sympathet'ie,
cierto; sin

simpd.tico,

que

sure [shure],
there are
surely

to be, habrd
(^d^-,

seguro,

simpatiza
sym'pathizer,
partidario
s.,

duda

simpatizador,

[shure'ly]>

segura-

mente, sin duda


siirprise',
s.,

sym'pathy,
syn'dieate,

s., s.,

simpatfa
sindicado,
asocia-

sorpresa
rendir, ceder

surren'der,

vr.,

cidn de capitalistas para

empren-

sur'reptitioiisly, adv., subrepticia-

der un negocio

magna
sin6nimo

mente
surround',
vr.,

synon'ymous,
circundar, rodear
sj^s'tem,
s.,

a.,

sistema

VOCABULARIO
teach'ing,
s.,

215
doctrina, enseiianza

team,
ta'ble,
s.,

s.,

partido

mesa
ciudad
tdctica
del

tear,

s.,

Mgrima

Taco'ma,
tae'ties,
s.,

estado

de

tear (tore, torn), desgarrar, des-

Washington
tail, s., cola,

pedazar
tel'ephone,
s.,

telefono

rabo
sect, ser

tell (told, told), decir,

contar

take (took, tak'en), tomar; llevar;

a back a regano;
to to to

tem'peranfe,
briedad
tem'pest,
s.,

s.,

moderaci6n, so-

modesto

seold'ing,

aguantar un a waZk, dar un


to to

paseo,

pasearse;
to

echarse al aire;
llevarse;
to

hold, coger, agarrarse; months, necesitarse meses; to notes, apuntar; to quitarse; to on, asumir, apropiar; to plape, suceder, verificarse; to sides against contra; [aggnsf], declararse delanto the lead, llevar tomar tera; to the palabra; to thought, conalzar, cosiderar; to menzar; to wing, divulgarto
off,

away,
air,

tem'pled,
la

a.,

tempestad lugar en donde mora


temporal, secular

presencia divina
a.,

tem'poral,

eold, resfriarse;

tempora'rily, adv., temporalmente

tempt,

IT.,

tentar
s.,

tempta'tion,
ten, diez

tentacidn
tender,

tend,

vr.,

cultivar;

pro-

pender
ten'dency,
sion ten'der,
a.,
s.,

tendencia, propen-

la

tierno

floor,

la

ten'derly, adv., tiernamente

ten'ement,
ciudadela

s.,

casa de vecindad,
los estados

iip,

Tennessee', uno de
la

de

(se)

Union norteaniericana
s.,

tale,

s.,

ing
talk,

cuento, relaci6n; a mpv',

ten'nis,

juego de raqueta
tenso

relacion continuativa

vr.,

hablar;

hablar de; to
tar'iff, s., tarifa,

up, alabar

to

tense,
tent,

a., tieso,

about',

s., s.,

tienda de campafia
plazo, termino; vocablo;

term,
,

arancel

s,

condiciones, estipulaciones

task,
taste,
s.,

s.,

tarea, labor

ter'rible, a., terrible,

horroroso

vr.,

probar, paladear, catar;

territo'rial, a., territorial

gusto, sabor

ter'ritory,
test,
s.,

s.,

territorio

tat'fered, a., androjoso, harapiento

prueba, ensayo

taught, pret. y pp. de to teoch


tax,
s.,

Tex'as, Tejas, uno de los estados


de la

impuesto
{taught,

Union norteaniericana
a.,

teach

taught),

ensenar,

than, conj., que, de

instruir

thank'ful,

agradecido

teach'er,

s.,

maestro, profesor

thanks,

s.,

gracias

216

VOCABULARIO
-pron., ese,

Thanks'giving, Dia de Gracias


that, cojij., que;
a., ese,

aquel;

aquel;

thought, pret. y pp. de to think; s., pensamiento, intencion

of, el

de

thou'sand, mil
thread,
s.,

that's, cont. de that is


thazi;,
vr.,

hilo
vr.,

deshelar,

derretir;

s.,

threot'en,
three, tres

amenazar

deshielo, derretimiento

the

(se

pronuncia the delante de


el, la, los,

three'fourths', tres cuartos

consonante),
the'ater,
s.,

las

teatro

threw [thru], pret. de to throu; thrill, vr., conmoverse, estremecerse


throat,
s., s.,

thee, pron. antiguo, te


thezr, a., su,

de

ellos

them, pron.,
mos,
thenfe,
si

los, las;

to

les

throne,

garganta trono
prep.,
;

themselves', pron.

refl.,

ellos

mis-

through,

por,

por entre;
;

mismos
de
alli,

then, adv., entonces


adv.,

desde en-

a traves de all por todo; a., que va hasta el fin; tram, tren terminal; adv., de

por causa de

tonces
the'ory,
s.,

un lado a
teoria
alli,

otro,

a traves

throughout', prep., por todo, en


alM, en aquella

there, adv.,

parte;

is o are,

hay;

has

todo

throw

(threw
tirar;

[thru],
to

been, ha habido
thereafter, adv., despues de esto,

echar,

throum),

around', abrazar;
arrinconar, arrojar

to

away',
meter,

the

arms

de entonces en adelante
there's, cont. de there is

thrust

(thrust,

thrust),

these, pi. de this


the'sis (pi. the'ses),
s.,

empujar
tesis, disers., trueno Thurs'day, jueves

thun'der,

taei6n
they, pron., ellos, ellas
thick,
thin,
a.,
m-.,

thus, adv., asf, de este


thy,

modo
papeleta

espeso, denso; frecuente

forma antigua de your


s.,

adelgazar, atenuar;

a.,

tiek'et,

billete, boleto;

delgado; ligero, escaso


thing,
s.,

electoral
tie, vr., atar, liar
till,

cosa,

hecho
of,

think (thought, thought), pensar,


crecr;

to
s.,

prep., hasta;

conj.,

hasta que

think'er,
this
(pi.

pensar en pensador
a.,

tilt'ed, a.,

inclinado

time,
esta;

s.,

these),

este,

pres'ent
the

pron., este, esta, esto

those,

pi.

de that;

of, los de;

it is

actualidad; for be'ing, por momento; for fee ship's erew to go


,

tiempo, hora; vez, epoca;


la
el

i^ho, los

que

to bed,

ya

es hora

though, conj., aunque, no obstante

la tripulaci6n;

que; e'ven

no obstante que

times, veces;

four
in
,

que

se acueste
al fin

as

much

VOCABULARIO
as
it

217
rasgo, toque;
tocar,

was worth,

el

cud,drupIo

t'oth'er, cont. poetica de the oth'er

de

lo

tin, s.,

que valia estano, hoja de lata


vr.,

touch,

s.,

ir.,

palpar, manosear;
sil'ver,

to

with

tin'gle,

sentir
o

producir

encanecer, platear

hormigueo
tint, s., tinte, tire, vr.,

picazon

to'ward, prep., hacia;

para con,

tin'kle, vr., retinir

con respecto a

matiz

cansar, fatigar; to

out,
infati-

tow'ering,

a.,

elevado, dominante

town,

s.,

cansarse, agotarse
tired, a.,
tire'less,

down

pueblo, ciudad pequena;


,

al centre;

home

cansado
a.,

ciudad natal
towns'foZk,
s., s.,

incansable,

gable
'tis, cont.

town'ship,
de
it is

vecinos del pueblo municipio


conjunto de juegos

toy,

s.,

juguete
s.,

ti'tle, s.,

titulo

to,

prep.,

para;

hasta;

track,

pista;

and

de carrera;
letico

meet, torneo attraccion,


arrastre;

fro,

to-day',

de un lado a otro s., el dia de hoy,

la actuali-

trae'tion,

s.,

dad; adv., hoy


toe,
s.,

eom'pany, empresa de transporte


trade,
vr.,

dedo

{del pie)

tp-ni^7it', adv.,' est&

to- whit, grito del


tp-ii;h6, grito del

noche buho huho

traficar, comerciar;
oficio,

s.,

industria;
trad'ing,
store,
a.,
s.,

negocio

tobae'co,

s.,

tabaco;

negociante, mercantil
tradici6n
s.,

tradi'tion,

tabaqueria
tpgeth'er, adv., juntamente, juntos;

tram,
tren

vr.,

adiestrar, ensenar;

with, junto con


y pp. de to
a.,

tramed,
traft,
s.,

a.,
s.,

adiestrado

toi'let, s.,

acto de vestirse, tocado


tell

tram'ing,

ensenanza, educacion
tranquilidad
a.,

told, pret.

rasgo
s.,

tol'erant,

tolerante, indulgente

tranquility,

tol'erate, vr., tolerar

transeontinen'tal,
tinental

transcon-

tom'ahai^k,
los indios

s.,

hacha de guerra de

transform', w., transformar

tomb,

s.,

tumba, sepulcro
s.,

tongue,
too, adv.,

lengua;

transfu'sion,
twist'er,

s.,

transfusion

transmit',

vr.,

transmitir
s.,

trabalengua demasiado; tambien


a.,
vi\,

transporta'tion,
trav'el,
vr.,

transportacion
s.,

viajar;

viaje

took, pret. de to take


torn,
toss,

trav'eler,

s.,

viajero

roto, rasgado

treat, vi\, tratar

arrojar, lanzar, corcovear

treot'y,
tree,
s.,

s.,

tratado, convenio

to'tal, a., total

arbol
vr.,

to'talZy, adv.,

totalmente

trem'ble,

temblar

218
tri'al, s., juicio,

VOCABULARIO
/

vista de

una causa

twist' er,

s.,

torcedor

tri'angle,
tribe,
s.,

s.,

tridngulo
tribute,

two, dos
tu;6'pen5e, dos peniques

tribu
s.,

trib'ute,

encomio;

type,

s.,

tipo
a.,

to

pay
s.,

encomiar
a.,

tyran'nieal,

tirdnico, cruel

trick,

treta, travesura

tried, pret.

y pp. de to try;

pro-

bade
trim,
trip,
vr.,
s.,

U
una'ble,
a.,

cortar, arreglar
viaje, los pies
a.,

incapaz;

to

be

no

excursion;

vr.,

poder
iinaceus'tomed,
a.,

mover
troii'ble,

con ritmo

desacostum-

trium'phant,
s.,

triunfante

brado, inhabit uado

pena, aflicci6n, moles-

unan'imously,
unartached'

adv.,

unanimemente

tia

[-t], a., suelto, soltero

truck,

s.y

cami6n
verdadero;
it

true, a.,

is

es

unbound', a., desatado Un'ele Hoo'ry Locks,

El

Tio

verdad
trump'ery,
s.,

Canas
hojarasca,
cachi-

vache
trunk,

Un'ele Joe, El Tio Jose Un'ele Shag'^y Whis'kers,

EI

s.,

trompa;

a.,

del tronco;

Tio Barbou
uneonstitu'tional,
a.,

line, linea principal

unconstitu-

trust, w., confiar, fiarse, tener con-

tional, anticonstitutional

fianza en
truth,
s.,

verdad

try (tried, tried), procurar, tratar;

desenganado no sabido iindemoerat'ie, n., no democrdundefe/ved',


unde^id'ed,
tico
n.,
a.,

indeciso,

probar, poner a prueba

trying,
tiirf, s.,

a.,

penoso, molesto

un'der, prep., bajo, debajo de

cesped
s.,

undergo'
turno,
vr.,

(underwent',

under-

tur'key,
turn,
s.,

pavo
en su turno; cambiar, revolver;
,

gone'), sufrir, padecer

genio, direccion;

vuelta; in
volver,

tbe aften'tion, interesarse en


Tiiseo'la,

to

understand' (understood', understood'), comprender, entender iinderstand'ing, s., entendimiento;

nomhre propio

acuerdo undertake'
tak'en),

(undertook',

under-

tusk,

s.,

colmillo

emprender

twang,

s.,

punteado de una cuerda


a.,

undu'ly, adv., indebidamente, ex-

twen'tieth,

vigesimo, vcinte

cesivamente
uneas'y,
a.,

twen'ty, veinte
twi'lij/'/it, s.,

inquieto
o.,

crepusculo
centellear,

unexplored',

inexplorado
falta de

twin'kle,

w.,

parpa-

unfair',

a., in juste
6.,

dear

unfa/r'ness,

equidad

VOCABULARIO
unfor'tunate
a.,

219
(particula

[o

unfor'chtinate],

arriba

agregada

desafortunado, desgraciado
a.,

muchos

verhos covipuestos)
s.,

unfriendly,

enemigo,

poco

up'bringing,

crianza
{delante

amistoso

upon', prep., en, sobre;

unhap'^y,

a., infeliz,

desdichado

de gerundio se traduce al
infinitivo

mas

el

unheord'-of C-6v], a., desconocido, que no se ha oido


u'nion,
u'nit,
s., s.,

en espanol)
ipl.

up'^er-elass'man

up'^er-elasstercero

union unidad
unir,

men),
cambiar Estados Unidos

s.,

alumno de

cuarto ano en las universidades

unite',

vr.,

norteamericanas
up'roor,
s.,

tini'ted
(del

States,

tumulto, alboroto
adv.,

Norte)
a.,
s.,

upstazrs',

arriba,

univer'sal,
univer'sity,

universal

altos;

to

go

en

los

subir

las

universidad

escaleras

unjiist'ly, adv.,

injustamente

urge,

vr.,

excitar, estimular

unfenoum',
unlike',
a.,

a.,

desconocido desemejante, diferente


desgraciado,
olvidadizo,
infor-

ur'gent,

a.,

urgente
to
,

us, p7-on., nos;

nos
to

unluck'y,

a.,

use,

s.,

uso, empleo;

tunado
unmind'ful,
tento
unnat'ural,
a., a.,

prop'er
desa-

make
ser util

of,

servirse

mente
use,
vr.,

de;

to

be of

sabia-

utilizar,

emplear,

usar,

desnaturalizado, ininnecesario
a., sin

valerse de

humano
unneges'sary,
a.,

used
precedente,

to,

solia;

usado a menudo

para indicar
iise'ful, a., util

tin acta habitual

unpre'gedented, inaudito
unrestra/ned',
libre

iise'less, a., iniitil

a.,

desenfrenado,

u'sual,

a.,

usual,

acostumbrado

u'sualZy, adv., generalmente


a.,

unri'valed,
lelo

sin rival, sin para-

U'ta/i,

Utah
a.,

ut'most,
a.,

extremo, sumo, ultimo

unsa'vory,

insipido
a.,

ut'^er, vr., pronunciar, articular

unsympathet'ie,
until',

poco benevolo,
conj.,

poco simpdtico
prep.,

hasta;

hasta
va'eant,
a.,

que
untime'ly,
unu'sual,
a.,

vacio,

desocupado

iintried', a.,
a.,

inoportuno no experimentado
raro, excepcional

vaea'tion,

s.,

vacacion, vacaciones,

dias feriados
vafn,
vale,
a.,
s.,

vano
valle,

unwil'fing,

a.,

desinclinado
prep.,

unwise',
up,

a.,

imprudente
arriba;

val'ef,

s.,

criado,

Canada camarero

adv.,

hacia

val'id, a., vdlido, justo

220
val'Zey,
s., s.,

VOCABULARIO
valle

Virgin'ian,

habitante

del

estado

val'ue,

valor; estimaci6n

de Virginia
virtue [vir'chiie],
vi'sion,
s., s.,

va'ried,
vari'ety,

a.,
s.,

variado

virtud
visitar

variedad
vario, diverse
a.,

vision
vr.,

va'rious,

a.,

vis'it, s., visita;

var'nished,

barnizado;

de

vis'itor,

s.,

visitador,

huesped

6'ver, barnizado

vi'tal, s., vital, esencial

vast,

a.,
s.,

vasto, extenso

voice,

s.,

vem,

vena
s.

vol'Zey,
a.,

s.,

voz descarga
s.,

vel'vet,

terciopelo,

vote,

vr.,
s.,

votar;

voto, votaci6D

terciopelo

vot'er,

votante
vocal
viaje (por mar)

ven'ison,

s.,
s.,

carne de venado
riesgo, especulacion
a.,

vow'el,

s.,

ven'ture,

voy'age,

s.,

ven'turesome,
veran'da,
ver'diet,
s., s.,

atrevido, osado

portico, galeria

veredicto, fallo

W
wa'ges,
5.,
s.,

Vermil'ion, nombre propio


ver'satile, a., versatil

paga, jornal, sueldo


carro, carreta
s.,

wag'on,

ver'y, adv.,
ves'sel,
s.,

muy;
V7\,

a.,

mismo

wafst'eoot,

chaleco

barco, buque, bajel

waft,

vr.,

aguardar, esperar; to

poner en posesion (de), encargar a vet'eran, s., veterano


vest
(in),

aguardar wake (woke, woke), tambien verba


for, esperar,

regidar,

despertar;

to

(up)

vexa'tion,

s.,

disgusto, enojo
s.,

despertarse

vife'-pres'ident,
vi'cioiis,

vicepresidente

waZk,

s.,

paseo
to

c, vicioso, maligno
vencedor, triunfador
s.,

to go for a

(a pie);
,

to take o

dar un paseo,

vie'tor,

s.,

pasearse;
to

be out for a
vr.,

vie'tory,

lead to
vie, vr.,

victoria,
,

triunfo;

estar pasedndose;

ir

hacer triunfar
opinion,

andar;
street,

to

be out
to

competir, rivalizar
s.,

pasedndose;
ir

a pie.

ing, estar
tfee

down

view

[vii],

parecer;
vista

calle

abajo

vista;
pd,jaro;

bird's-eye
point of

de

wall,

s.,

pared, muro, tapia

punto de

vista
vi'gilant, a., vigilante,

atento

wan'der, vr., errar, vagar want, vr., querer, desear war, s., guerra
ward'robe,
war'like,
a.,
s.,

vig'or,

s.,

vigor, energia

vestuario, ropa

viVlage,

s.,

aldea;

a.,

aldeano

guerrero, belicoso

vi'olence,

s.,
s.,

violencia
vina, viiiedo

vine'yard,
vir'gin,
.s.,

warm, a., raluroso, caliente warmth, 6\, calor moderado


war'rant,
war'rior,
rr.,
6\,

virgcn

justificar,

garantizar

Virgin'ia, Virginia

guerrero, soldado

VOCABULARIO
was,
pret.

221
a.,

de

to

be;

there

week'ly,

semanal;

adv.,

sema-

habfa,

hubo

nalmente

wash, vi'., lavar wash'-day, s., dia de lavar la ropa Wash'ington, capital de los Estados Unidos de America, tamhien estado del oeste

weep (wept, wept), llorar, lamentar weigh, vr., pesar wel'eome, a., bienvenido; tp make dar la bienvenida

wel'fare,
well,
s.,

s.,

bienestar

Wash'ington, George (1732-1799), primer presidente de los Estados


waste,
ciar

pozo;
as

bien;
asi

a.,

bueno;

adv.,

as,

tan bien como,

Unidos de America s., desierto, inmensidad


presen-

como
a.,

well'-bred,

bien criado

wafch, w., vigilar, velar;


wa'ter,

well'-ftnoiwi, a., bien conocido

s.,

agua;

pow'er, fuerza
extensidn

well'-oiled, a., bien aceitado

well'-or'ganized,

a.,

bien organi-

hidraulica
wa'ters,

zado
de
to
rio,

cualquier
lago,

agua:

mar,

etc.;
,

pass

thiough deep
a.,

sufrir

mucho waxed \_-%~\,


wave,
s.,

encerado, ceroso
vr.,

thefr wend, vr., andar; tp way, seguir camino went, pret. de tp go were, pret. de tp be out wa/k'ing, daban un paseo
;

ola;

endear
oscilar

west,

s.,

oeste;
a.,

of, al

oeste de

wa'ver,

vr.,

vacilar;

wesfern,

occidental, poniente

way, s., on the

camino, via; manera; en camino; on the


,

west'ward,
lo cual

adv.,
a.,

hacia

el

oeste

what, pron. y

que, cual; lo que,

home,
the

al regresar

a casa;

6'ver

ways, s., we, pron.,

no lejos usanza
nosotros;

whatev'er, pron.,

cualquier cosa

que

have

what's, cont. de what

is

seen, se ha visto

wheat,
whelp,
opulencia;

s., s.,

trigo

weak,

s.,

debil
s.,

cachorro, mozalbete

wealth,
bienes

riqueza,

when,

C071J.,

cuando

weap'on,

s.,

arma
usar,
llevar

wear (wore, worn),

puesto wea'ry, a., tedioso, hastiado


wecth'er,
ferico)
s.,

tiempo

{estado atmos-

wedge, s., cuna weed, s., mala hierba week, s., semana

where, adv., donde whereupon', adv., asi que sucedi6 que wheth'er, co7ij., si, sea, sea que which, pron., que, el que, que; all of todos los cuales while, conj., mientras (que); s., en poco rato; in a lit'fle tiempo; all the todo el tiempo

222
whim'sieal,
whirl
,

VOCABULARIO
a.,

caprichoso

wind,
s.,

s.,

-^dento
s.,

vr.

girar,
vr.,

dar vueltas
cu-

win'dou;,

ventana
un'der the pater'nal

whis'per,

cuchichear;

wing,

s.,

ala;

chicheo, susurro
whis'fle,
silbar,
s.,

silbato,

silbo;

in\,

chiflar;

to

go

bajo la proteccion de sus padres; to take di vul,

ing,

gar (se)

andar silbando
white,
la
a.,

bianco;

the

House,
del

wink,

vr.,

pestanear;

to
,

at, di-

simular, hacer la vista gorda

Casa Blanca, residencia

win'ning,
fante
win'ter,
s.,

a.,

victorioso,

triun-

Presidente de los Estados Utvidos

who, pron., quien; que u^hole, a., entero, todo u^hole'sale, s. y a., al per mayor
Zf;h61e's6me,
a.,

invierno
hibernal, hiemal
sabiduria, sagacidad;

win'try,

a.,

wis'dom,
se

saludable,

edifi-

cante, sano
li^hol'Zy, adv.,

enteramente
a.,

been ques'tioned, ha dudado del juicio wise, a., sabio; men, sabios

... has
vr.,

s.,

u;hom, pron., quien, a quien


lyhpse, pron. y

wish,

desear, querer

cuyo

with, prep., con

why,
wide,

adv.,
a.,

pues; conj., per que

withdrau;'

(withdrew

[witfedru],
salir

ancho, de anchura
a.,

withdraum'), retirar(se),

wide-awake',
pliamente

muy

despierto

within', prep., dentro de, a la dis-

wide'ly, adv., extensamente,

am-

tancia de; adv., dentro


without', prep., sin

wide'ly-tai6u;n',

a.,

bien conocido

wit'ness,

vr.,

presenciar, ver

wid'ened,

a.,

extendido,

aumen-

wives,

pi.

de wife

tado
wid'ou;,
s.,

woke,
viuda
s.,

pret. de to
{pi.

wake
,

wom'an
esposa, mujer;
s.,

wife
wild,

{pi.

wives),
,

late

difunta esposa
desierto, selva

mujer; joven

n.,

silvestre, salvaje
s.,

wil'demess,
ci6n

won, pret. gano para


won'der,
s.,
;

y pp. de to win; him,


el

women

[wim'gn^), una a yoimg

will, verho auxiliar

para
s.,

del fiituro;

formavoluntad,
la

mara villa;
niaravillarse
a.,

vr.,

pre-

gunt arse

testamento
will

won'derful,
. . .

maravilloso
adv.,

(wouZd,

))

querer,

estar

won'derfulZy,

maravillosa-

dispuesto
wil'Zing,
a.,

mente
dispuesto,

gustoso;

won't,

co7it.

de will not

to

be

estar dispuesto

wood,

s., leiia,

madera; bosque
leiiador
{ave)

win (won, won), ganar, veneer,


conquistar;
to

wobd'eutZer,

^.,

back, ganar

de nuevo

wobd'pecker, s., carpintero woods, s., bosque

VOCABULARIO
woo'ing,
a.,

223
{wrung, iw^ng), arrancar, atormentar
u;rit'<en), escribir

cortejante,

reque-

u;ring

brante

torcer;
iwrite

word, s., palabra; mensaje Winiam (177UWords'worth,


1850], poeta ingles work, s., trabajo, labor; m., trabajar;

(unvote,

u;rit'er, s., escritor,

autor

u;rit'ing, s., escritura

to

hard, trabajar mucho


s.,

iwit'ings,
writ' ten.., crito

s.,

obras, articulos
a.,

pp. de to write;

es-

work'er,

trabajador,
funcion,

obrero,

operario

wrote, pret. de to u;rite


s.,

work'ing,

operacion;
trabaja;

a.,

laborante,

que

wrought, forma arcaica del to work, for jo, labro

pret. de

class, clase obrera


(pZ.

u;rung, pret. y pp. de to u;ring

work'man
world,
s.,

work'men), s., trabajador, labrador, obrador

Wyo'ming, Wj^oming

mundo;

in the

del

mundo
worn,
to
d'e

a.,

raido, cansado;
a.,

wdr'ried,

be

o'ver, estar preocupado


s.,

gastado preocupado, inquieto;

Yale, nombre propio yard,


s.,

yarda (0.914 metro)


tam-

yea, forma arcaica de yes;


bien queria decir de veras

wor'ry,

cuidado, ansiedad

year,

s.,

aiio;

worse, comp. de bad, peer


wor'ship,
vr.,

tras ano;

from

adorar
el

worst, sup. de bad,


lo

peer;

s.,

en alio; pasados
year'ly,
o.,

after ano to de ano


,
,

gone by, anos


adv.,

peor
s.,

worth,
valer

valor;

a.,

digno;

liv'ing,

digno de vivir;
a.,

to be

anual;

anual-

mente
yell, vr., gritar;
s.,

alarido, grito

salvaje

worthless,
ble

indigno, desprecia-

yel'Z6u;ed, a., amarillento

yes, adv.,
a.,

si

wor'thy,

digno, merecedor

yef, conj.,

con todo, sin embargo


adv.,
alli,

wouZd,

pret.

querria;

y cond. de will, quiso, tambien verbo auxiliar


la

ydke,

s.,

jugo
aculla;
a.,

yon'der,

usado en

formacion del tiempo


s.,

aquel
you, pron., Vd(s)., tu, vosotros;
os

condicional

wound
u;reath,
u;ren,

(o

wound),

herida

le, lo, la, te,

s.,

corona, feston

you'll, cont. de

you
s.,

will

s.,

reyezuelo, abadejo
infeliz,

young,

a.,

joven;

wrhtch,
dura,

s.,

ente vil

rejuvenecer;

u;rig''g'ling, a.,

enroscadura, colea-

Young

Small

become' juventud Teeth, el joven


to

meneo serpentine

Dientes chicos

224
younger [youn'ger],
0.,

VOCABULARIO
mas
the

menor de edad;
jovenes
young'ster,
your,
s.,

joven,

yourself, pron.

reH., ti

mismo,

si

set, los

mismo
youth,
s.,

juventud, joven
a.,

jovencito, chico

youth'ful,

joven

a., tu, su,

de Vd.

INDICE ALFABETICO
(Los numeros remiten a las pdginas.)
a, los

sonidos de, 45
Lincoln, 63

Burroughs, John:
bird, 106

The Blue-

Abraham

acento tonico, 10, 57 Joseph: Addison,

Frozen

c,

los

sonidos de,

3,

37;

la

Words, 120
adjetivo, sus grados de

manera de escribir su sonido,


sus

paracion,
sona,

41;

comformas

57

posesivas de la tercera per45;

su

colocacion,

133
adverbio, su colocacion en la
frase, 48,

Cannon, Joseph Giurney, 116 Captain John Smith and Pocahontas, 46 Carij, Phoebe: Don't Give Up,
123
clave

136

de los sonidos de

las

American College Life, 94 American Education, 90 Americas, The Two, 67 Amusements, Sports and, 83

letras inglesas, 1

College Life, American, 94 comparacion, el uso de as,


so, than, of, en, 55;

modo
forma,

An Anglo-Saxon's

Prayer, 127

de formar, 135, 136


condicional,

apostrofo, 37, 45, 135


artlculo determinado, 66, 141-

como

se

135
continuativo pasado,

142
articulo indeterminado, su uso,
23, 66, 141

como

se

forma y su

significado, 134

conson antes, como se pronuncian en combinaciones,


de,
9,

b,

el

sonido

26,

53;

12-13, 65; finales,


dobles, 8; sordas y

7, 19,

33;

final

de sllaba, 65

Belling the Cat, 31

mudas, 16 Customs and Manners, 87


Eled,
el

Benjamin Franklin, 55

The Blind Beggars and the


phant, 27

sonido

de,

9,

22,

65;

final

de silaba, 65

The

Bluebird,

por

John

Bur225

Daffodils, por William Wordsworth, 127

roughs, 106

226
Development
tion, 76

Indice alfabetico
of

Transporta-

i,

los sonidos de,

40

Industries, 80

did, su uso

en

la interrogacion

interrogacion,

y en

la negaci6n, 131

mar,
Phoebe

diptongos, 44

Don't Give Up, por


Cary, 123

modo de forcon los verbos auxiliares, 132; en el preterito perfecto, 134


131;

j,

el

sonido de, 37, 65

e, Ids

sonidos de, 48

Economic
cent, 98

Tendencies,

Re-

k, el sonido de, 37;


sllaba, 8,

-ed,

final,

su pronunciaci6n,

7-8, 19, 26

final de 65 King Alfred and the Cakes, 35

Education, American, 90
f,

la

manera de

escribir

su

1,

el

sonido, 8, 57 formas fundamentales de los verbos irregulares, 23 Franklin, Benjamin, 55 Frozen Words, por Joseph Addison, 120 future, como se forma, 134

de

sonido de, 22; manera representar su sonido,


of

57

Lamb, Charles: The Origin Roast Pig,

letras dobles, 8, 41
letras

mudas, 12

Liberty or Death, por Patrick

Henry, 103
g,

los

sonidos de,
final

3,

9,

37,

Limerick, 130
Lincoln,
Longfellow,

de sllaba, 65; delante de e o i, 65 gfoero de los pronombres posesivos, de los 136; pronombres personales, 138
40, 53;

Abraham, 63 Henry Wadsworth:


of State, 125

The Ship

George Washington, 59
gerundio, su forma, 30, 133
Goldsviith,
Oliver:

Moses

MacDonald, George: The Wind and the Moon, 123 Manners, Customs and, 87 modismos, 45, 58

Makes

a Bargain, 108
of

Moses Makes

a Bargain, por

The Government
States, 72

the United

Oliver Goldsmith, 108

n, el sonido de, 22 h, el sonido de,

28
Liberty
or

negaci6n,
131;

modo
los

Henry, Patrick: Death, 103

con

liares, 132;

de formar, verbos auxien el preterite

The House

that Jack Built, 17

perfecto, 134

Indice alfabetico
0, los

227
la

sonidos de, 54

s,

los sonidos de, 4-5, 37;

The Old

Woman
129

and the
ipor

Pig, 20

manera de
57;
final,

escribir su sonido,

On

the Vowels,

Jonathan

4-5, 22

S.wift,

Saxe,

John Godfrey: Woman's


William:

orden de las palabras en la frase, 30 The Origin of Roast Pig, por


Charles Lamb, 111
palabras, su orden en la frase,

Will, 128

Shakespeare,
Icicles

When

Hang by

the Wall,

126

The Ship
30
participio pasivo,

of State, por

Henry W.

Longfellow, 125
silabas, division

de las palabras

pronunciareguuse,

en, 9, 33, 57

ci6n
lares,

de

las

formas
34;

7-8,

su

The Spanish

134
partlculas

Walter Raleigh, 42 Explorers, 38 Sports and Amusements, 83


Sir

de

pronunciaci6n

sustantivos, su plural, 132


Swift,

irregular, 13-15, 61

The

Pilgrims, 50

Jonathan: Vowels, 129


el

On

the

Pocahontas, Captain Smith and, 46


poseedor,
ingles,

John
t,

sonido de, 22;

final

de

como
135

se

indica en

silaba,

65

Territorial

preguntas, la forma de, 19, 27;

Expansion of the United States, 70


sonidos de, 5-6, 61

en

el

tiempo presente, 37,

th, los

131; en el tiempo preterite,


38, 131

The Three Bears, 24 Tongue Twister, 130


Transportation, Development
of,

preterite

perfecto,

como

se

forma, 134

76

pronombres,
61, 62, 139;

complementos,
personales, 49,
136;
re-

The Two Americas, 67


u, los sonidos de, 61

138;

posesivos,

flexivos, 140;

relativos, 62,

"Uncle Joe" Cannon's Death,


116

140-141
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 42

The United
Recent Economic Tendencies,
98
reflexivo espanol, la

States, Territorial Exof,

pansion

70

The United States, The Government of, 72


V, el

manera de
sonido de, 26, 53
el plural,

traducir ciertos de estos al


ingles, 58,

140

verbo, su forma en
26, 131

Riddle, 128, 129

22S

"^^^ ^^UL^' a 6^59

Due

by the
'

Shake-

Don,

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123

ohn God-

Dai-

Elementary English reader

for

main

428.246S736eC.2

152459
3

ISbE D3123

7bfl7

2pALAND/ y

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WOKLD SHOWING
UNITED STATES
AND ITS POSSESSIONS
TJnited States FoBsesBione in
Scale of

Red

MUc3 on

the Equator

120

Longiludo

IW Eut

from

ICO

QreeDwich

ISO

^:^

ISO

Longirude

100

West from

80

Greenwich

'^0

longitude

20

NOTE:

United States assumed temporary control oi Cuba, X898