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Trc s pht trin v cng mnh m ca cc dch v s liu, trc xu hng tch hp v IP ho t ra cc yu cu mi i vi cng nghip Vin Thng di ng. Mng thng tin di ng th h ba ra i khc phc c cc nhc im ca cc mng thng tin di ng th h trc . Tuy nhin, mng di ng ny cng c mt s nhc im nh: Tc truyn d liu ln nht l 2Mbps, vn cha p ng c yu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi dng, kh nng p ng cc dch v thi gian thc nh hi ngh truyn hnh l cha cao, rt kh trong vic download cc file d liu ln,cha p ng c cc yu cu nh: kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc (V d: WLAN, WiMAX,) cha tt, tnh m ca mng cha cao, khi a mt dch v mi vo mng s gp rt nhiu vn do tc mng thp, ti nguyn bng tn t, Trong bi cnh ngi ta chuyn hng sang nghin cu h thng thng tin di ng mi c tn gi l 4G. S ra i ca h thng ny m ra kh nng tch hp tt c cc dch v, cung cp bng thng rng, dung lng ln, truyn dn d liu tc cao, cung cp cho ngi s dng nhng hnh nh video mu cht lng cao, cc tr chi ho 3D linh hot, cc dich v m thanh s. Vic pht trin cng ngh giao thc u cui dung lng ln, cc dich v gi d liu tc cao, cng ngh da trn nn tng phn mm cng cng mang n cc chng trnh ng dng download, cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn a mode, v cng ngh m ho media cht lng cao trn nn cc mng di ng. Hin nay th trng di ng Vit Nam c nh gi l tng trng ng th 2 trn th gii sau Trung Quc, s thu bao khng ngng tng, nhu cu v vic s dng cc dch v v cc dch v a phng tin ngy cng cao v cng i hi cao hn trong tng lai. Do vic nghin cu mt cng ngh mi p ng cc nhu cu th trng trong tng lai l rt cn thit. Hin nay Viettel a vo s dng GPRS p ng nhu cu s dng cc dch v d liu ngy cng cao ca cc thu bao. Cc dch v ch yu ca GPRS nh: WAP, truy nhp Internet c hai phng thc l truy nhp gin tip v truy nhp trc tip, dch v nhn tin a phng tin, video, xem cc on phim ti v, xem video trc tuyn. Ngoi ra cn c dch v thng mi in t di ng, dch v ngn hng, qung co trn in thoi di ng do gi cc cn cao nn cc loi bao c thu nhp trung bnh v cao. Da trn nhu cu th trng Vit Nam, hin ti chng ta thy rng nhu cu chnh trong thng tin di ng vn l dch v thoi truyn thng, dch v d liu cng bt u tng trng, theo d on tng s thu bao c nhu cu dch v d liu chim khong 50% vo nm 2010. Vi i sng thu nhp ngy cng cao ca ngi dn, nhu cu cc dch v cht lng tt ngy cng ln, th mng di ng Viettel ngy cng phi nng cp p ng c cc nhu cu ny. Mt khc, xu hng chung trn th gii l hi t tt c cc mng vin thng li vi nhau. Do , yu

cu pht trin mng thng tin di ng ln th h 4G c tc cao, s dng all IP c kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc l yu cu tt yu ca mng di ng Viettel. ti Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh 4G cho mng di ng di ng Viettel Mobile c a ra khng ch nhm mc ch tm hiu, nghin cu cc dch v m n p ng m cn c gng a vo p dng Vit Nam c th l trn mng di ng ca Viettel.Vi mc ch ti nghin cu ca chng ti dc chia lm 4 chng: Chng 1: Xu hng pht trin cng ngh v dch v ca cc mng di ng Chng 2: M hnh cu trc mng 4G Chng 3: Dch v v cht lng dch v trong mng 4G Chng 4: L trnh tin ln mng thng tin di ng 4G cho Viettel Mobile Vi vic trin khai ti Nghin cu ng dng cng ngh 4G cho mng di ng di ng Viettel Mobile , Viettel m ra mt c hi mi, ng lc mi cho s pht trin cng ngh mng cng nh thng mi in t trong thi i kinh t s hin nay, khng ch cho cng ty m cn mong mun s ng gp mt phn vo s pht trin trong lnh vc vin thng cng ngh thng tin ca nc nh. cng l mong mun ln nht ca nhng ngi thc hin ti ny.

CHNG

XU HNG PHT TRIN CNG NGH V DCH V CA CC MNG DI NG

1.1. GII THIU H THNG THNG TIN DI NG 4G Vic nghin cu chuyn hng sang cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 4 (4G) gii quyt cc vn tn ti trong h thng di ng th h 3 (3G). l vic cung cp cc loi hnh dch v ngy cng a dng hn, t tn hiu thoi cht lng cao sang tn hiu video phn gii cao, cc knh v tuyn c tc d liu cao. Khi nim 4G c s dng rng ri khng ch c cc h thng in thoi t bo m cn bao gm cc kiu h thng vin thng truy nhp v tuyn bng thng rng. Mt trong s cc thut ng dng m t 4G l MAGIC: Mobile multimedia (a phng tin di ng), Anytime anywhere (Bt c khi no, bt c ni u), Global mobility support (H tr di ng ton cu), Integrated wireless solution (Gii php v tuyn tch hp) v Customized personal service (Dch v theo yu cu c nhn). Nh l mt li ha cho tng lai, h thng 4G l h thng truy nhp v tuyn t bo bng thng rng, v ang l mi quan tm ln ca lnh vc thng tin di ng. 4G khng ch h tr cho cc dch v thng tin di ng th h tip theo m cn h tr cho c cc mng v tuyn c nh. Chng ta xem xt trn c s ci nhn tng quan v cc c trng ca 4G, cch t chc v tch hp h thng di ng. c trng ca 4G c th c ng li bng t tch hp. Cc h thng 4G l mt s tch hp gn kt khng tch ri ca cc thnh phn thit b u cui, mng li v cc ng dng nhm tho mn i hi khng ngng v ngy cng cao ca ngi s dng. 1.2. LCH S V XU HNG PHT TRIN Lch s ra i v s pht trin ca dch v di ng t th h u tin 1G ti th h 4G tri qua nhiu giai on khc nhau. Bng 1.1 cho thy tm lc qu trnh tin trin ca cng ngh thng tin di ng thoi. Qu trnh bt u vi cc thit k u tin c bit n nh l 1G trong nhng nm 70 ca th k trc! Cc h thng ra i sm nht c thc hin da trn cng ngh tng t v cu trc t bo c bn ca thng tin di ng. Nhiu vn c tnh nguyn tc c bn c gii quyt trong nhng h thng ny. V c nhiu cc h thng khng tng thch c a ra cung cp dch v trong nhng nm 80.

Cc h thng th h th 2 (2G) c xy dng trong nhng nm 80 vn c s dng ch yu cho thoi nhng c thc hin trn c s cng ngh s, bao gm cc k thut x l tn hiu s. Cc h thng 2G ny cung cp cc dch v thng tin d liu chuyn mch knh tc thp. Tnh cnh tranh li mt ln na dn ti vic thit k v thc hin cc h thng b phn ho thnh cc chun khc nhau khng tng thch nh: GSM (h thng di ng ton cu) ch yu chu u, TDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian) IS-54/IS-136 M, PDC (h thng di ng t bo s c nhn) Nht v CDMA (a truy nhp phn chia theo m) IS95, mt h thng khc ti M. Cc h thng ny hot ng rng khp trn lnh th quc gia hoc quc t v hin nay chng vn chim vai tr l cc h thng ch o, mc d tc d liu ca cc thu bao trong h thng b gii hn nhiu.

Bc chuyn tip gia 2G v 3G l 2.5G. Th h 2,5G c pht trin t 2G vi dch v d liu v cc phng thc chuyn mch gi, v n cng ch trng ti cc dch v 3G cho cc mng 2G. V c bn n l s pht trin ca cng ngh 2G tng dung lng trn cc knh tn s v tuyn ca 2G v bc u a cc dch v d liu dung lng cao hn vo, c th nng ti 384 Kbps. Mt kha cnh rt quan trng ca 2.5G l cc knh d liu c ti u ho cho d liu gi truy nhp vo Internet t cc thit b di ng nh in thoi, PDA hoc my tnh xch tay. Trn cng mt mng li vi 2G, th h 2.5G a internet vo th gii thng tin di ng c nhn. y thc s l mt khi nim mang tnh cch mng cho h thng vin thng lai ghp hybrid. Trong thp k 90, cc nh nghin cu nh ngha ra h thng di ng th h k tip, th h th 3, loi tr c nhng s khng tng thch ca cc h thng trc y v thc s tr thnh h thng ton cu. H thng 3G c cc knh thoi cht lng cao cng nh cc kh nng v d liu bng rng, c th t ti 2Mbps. Cc h thng 3G ha hn cung cp nhng dch v vin thng tc cao hn, bao gm thoi, fax v internet bt c thi gian no, bt c ni u vi s chuyn vng roaming ton cu khng gin on. Chun 3G ton cu ca ITU m ng cho cc ng dng v dch v sng to (v d loi hnh gii tr a phng tin, cc dch v da trn v tr, ). Mng 3G u tin c thit lp ti Nht bn nm 2001. Cc mng 2.5G, nh l GPRS (dch v v tuyn gi chung) sn sng Chu u. Cng ngh 3G h tr bng thng 144 Kbps vi tc di chuyn ln (trn xe hi), 384 Kbps (trong mt khu vc), v 2 Mbps (i vi trng hp trong nh).

Hnh 1.1 Cc th h di ng

Bng 1.1 Bng so snh tham s cng ngh c bn Tuy nhin i hi ca vin thng a phng tin truy nhp tc cao i vi x hi ngy nay, ph thuc rt ln vo cng ngh thng tin s. Theo cc con s lch s ca cuc cch mng v cng ngh din ra trong 1 thp k th thi im hin ti chnh l thi im thch hp nghin cu h thng thng tin di ng 4G. Hin nay tc download ch d liu ang b gii hn 9.6 Kbps, thp hn khong 6 ln so vi 1 ng kt ni c nh ISDN (Mng s tch hp dch v). Gn y, vi cc thit b cm tay 504i tc download d liu c tng ln 3 ln t 28.8 Kbps. Tuy nhin trong thc t s dng tc d liu thng thp hn, c bit l nhng khu vc ng c, hoc l khi mng b nghn. Tc d liu di ng th h 3 l ti a 384 Kbps download, in hnh l xp x 200 kbps, v upload t 64 kbps t nm 2001. Thng tin di ng th h 4 s c tc truyn d liu cao hn, d kin c th t ti 20 Mbps. 3G c cc nh sn xut xut u tin m khng phi l t cc nh khai thc. Nm 1996 n c trin khai nh NTT (Hng in thoi v in bo Nht bn) cng Ericsson, nm 1997 Hip hi cng nghip Vin thng TIA M chn CDMA nh l 1 cng ngh cho 3G, nm 1998 CDMA bng rng (W-CDMA) v CDMA2000 c thng qua cho H thng thng tin di ng chung UMTS. Trong W-CDMA v CDMA2000 l 2 xut chnh ca 3G. Tuy nhin 3G vn tn ti mt s vn khim khuyt nhng im sau: Rt kh cho vic tng bng thng lin tc v tc d liu cao p ng c yu

cu ca cc dch v a phng tin, cng vi s tn ti song song ca cc dch v khc nhau cn c bng thng v QoS khc nhau. Gii hn ph v phn b ph Kh roaming qua cc mi trng dch v khc nhau cc bng tn khc nhau. Thiu c ch vn chuyn lin tc t u cui n u cui lin kt m rng mt mng di ng nh vi mt mng c nh nh khc. Trong cc lnh vc thng tin di ng, dch v di ng 4G l s pht trin ca cc dch v thng tin di ng 3G. Cc dch v di ng 4G c cho n bi kh nng cung cp bng thng rng, dung lng ln, truyn dn d liu tc cao, cung cp cho ngi s dng nhng hnh nh video mu cht lng cao, cc tr chi ho 3D linh hot, cc dich v m thanh s. Vic pht trin cng ngh giao thc u cui dung lng ln, cc dich v gi d liu tc cao, cng ngh da trn nn tng phn mm cng cng mang n cc chng trnh ng dng download, cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn a mode, v cng ngh m ho media cht lng cao trn nn cc mng di ng. Vi s xut hin ca mng 4G, n s gii quyt c:

1. dy, 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. H tr cc dch v tng tc a phng tin: truyn hnh hi ngh, Internet khng 2. Bng thng rng hn, tc bit ln hn 3. Tinh di ng ton cu v tnh di chuyn dch v 4. Gi thnh h 5. Tng kh dng ca h thng thng tin di ng

Cc nh nghin cu v nh cung cp pht trin cc mi quan tm vo mng v tuyn 4G h tr a roaming cc mng di ng v v tuyn ton cu, v d t mt mng di ng t bo sang mt mng cng ngh v tinh cng nh sang ti mng LAN khng dy bng rng. Vi c trng ny, ngi dng s c th truy nhp vo cc dch v khc nhau, tng vng ph, thun tin cho cc thit b n l, mt ho n cho vic gim ti a tng cng cc chi ph v rt nhiu truy nhp khng dy ng tin cy khc, thm ch ngay c khi c s h hng hay li ca 1 hay nhiu mng ng thi. Cc mng 4G cng c c trng lin h IP cho truy nhp Internet di ng khng ngt qung v tc bit c th t 50 Mbps hay cao hn. Do vic trin khai 4G trn thc t ch c th thc hin c t sau nm 2006 hoc thm ch cn lu hn na nn cc nh pht trin hy vng c thi gian gii quyt nhiu vn lin quan ti cc mng hn hp, c th l: Truy nhp Chuyn giao

nh v ng thi nh ngun ti nguyn mng ng thi cung cp cho ngi s dng mi H tr multicasting H tr cht lng dch v QoS Xc thc v bo mt v tuyn Li mng v backup Tnh cc Cu trc mng s ng vai tr quan trng trong vic p ng c tt c nhng i hi trn. H tr QoS trong mng 4G l mt th thch chnh v tc bit, c trng knh, gn bng thng, mc li v h tr chuyn giao gia cc mng v tuyn hn hp. H tr QoS c th thc hin i vi gi, chuyn dch tc v, knh, ngi dng v cc cp mng. Mc QoS gi ng dng cho jitter, thng lng, v t l li. Cc ngun ti nguyn mng nh khong m v giao thc truy nhp l nhng nh hng c kh nng. Mc QoS chuyn giao tc v m t c 2 yu t: thi gian cn thit hon thnh transaction v t l mt gi. Cc chuyn giao chc chn c th rt nhy v thi gian, trong khi mt s chuyn giao khc th khng c php mt gi. Mc QoS knh bao gm block cuc gi mi cng nh cc cuc gi ang thc hin. N ph thuc ngay vo kh nng ca mng thit lp v duy tr knh thng tin t thit b u cui n thit b u cui. nh tuyn cuc gi v qun l nh v l 2 thuc tnh quan trng ca mc knh. Mc QoS ngi s dng ph thuc vo tnh di ng v loi ng dng ca ngi dng. V tr mi c th h tr nhu cu QoS cc tiu, thm ch vi cc ng dng thch nghi. Trong mt gii php v tuyn hon thin, thng tin t im cui n im cui gia hai ngi s dng cng c kh nng lin quan ti nhiu mng v tuyn. V QoS s thay i qua cc mng khc nhau, nn QoS cho nhng thu bao ny c kh nng l mc ti thiu m nhng mng ny h tr. * Xu hng v cng ngh C ba xu hng c th tip cn. Th nht l hng tp trung quanh 3G, trong a truy cp phn chia theo m (CDMA) s c y dn ti im ti cc nh sn xut thit b u cui s t b. Khi t ti thi im , cn c cng ngh khc p ng c i hi tng ln v dung lng v tc d liu. Xu hng th hai l xu hng v mng LAN v tuyn. S pht trin rng khp ca WiFi c bt u t nm 2005 cho cc PC, my tnh xch tay, v PDA. Trong cc doanh nghip, tn hiu thoi c truyn i bi cng ngh Voice qua mng LAN v tuyn (VoWLAN). Tuy nhin cha ai thy r c cng ngh thnh cng tip theo l cng ngh no. t ti s thng nht v cng ngh 200 Mbps (v cao hn na) vn cn l mt chng ng lu di v c qu nhiu gii php cn xut. Xu hng th 3 l IEEE 802.16e v 802.20 thc hin n gin hn 3G. S pht trin ca mng li hng ti th h NGN bng rng s h tr cho vic p dng cc cng

ngh mng truy nhp mi thng qua cc gateway truy nhp tiu chun, da trn cc chun ETSI-TISPAN, ITU-T,3GPP, hip hi tiu chun vin thng Trung Quc (CCSA) v cc chun khc. Mt s cng ngh quan trng ca 4G c m t nh sau:

OFDMA Ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao OFDM khng ch to nn li ch r rng cho thc thi lp vt l, m cn hp nht vic ci thin hiu nng lp 2 nh vic a ra thm mt mc t do. Nh vic s dng OFDM c th khai thc min thi gian, min khng gian, min tn s v thm ch c min m ti u ho vic s dng knh v tuyn. Chc chn rng n c u th ln vi truyn dn trong mi trng a ng vi vic lm gim thiu s phc tp ca b thu. Tn hiu c chia thnh cc sng mang nh trc giao, trn mi sng mang tn hiu l bng hp (vi KHz) v v vy trnh c hiu ng a ng, to nn mt khong bo v chn vo gia mi tn hiu OFDM. OFDM cng to nn mt li v phn tp tn s, ci thin hiu nng ca lp vt l. N cng tng thch vi nhng cng ngh m rng nng cao khc, nh l cc anten thng minh v MIMO. iu ch OFDM cng c th tn dng nh l mt cng ngh a truy nhp (a truy nhp phn chia tn s trc giao, OFDMA). Trong trng hp ny mi tn hiu OFDM c th truyn thng tin t/ti mt vi thu bao s dng mt b cc sng mang nh khc nhau (subcarrier, subchannel). iu ny khng ch cung cp thm linh hot cho vic cp ngun ti nguyn (tng dung lng), m cn c th ti u ho cc lp cho ca vic s dng link v tuyn. V tuyn c nh ngha bng phn mm - SDR Li ch ca v tuyn c nh ngha bng phn mm SDR mang li hiu sut x l cao pht trin cc trm gc v thit b u cui a bng, a chun. Mc d trong tng lai cc u cui s thch ng vi giao din v tuyn sn sng cho cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn, thi im hin nay iu ny c thc hin nh c c s h tng. SDR mang li nhiu li ch cho mt s c s h tng. V d tng dung lng mng ti thi im nht nh (v d nh 1 s kin th thao), nh khai thc s cu hnh li mng ca h nh vic lp thm vo trm gc vi thit b modem. SDR khin cho vic cu hnh li ny rt d dng. Trong bi cnh cc h thng 4G, SDR s to iu kin d dng cho mt tp hp rt nhiu cc picocell v microcell a chun. i vi nh sn xut, vic ny c th l mt s h tr ln trong vic cung cp cc thit b a chun, a bng v gim i nhng n lc pht trin v h gi thnh thng qua vic x l a knh mt cch ng thi. MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output MIMO s dng ghp knh tn hiu gia rt nhiu cc anten pht (a thnh phn khng gian) trn min thi gian hoc min tn s. iu ny rt ph hp vi OFDM, bi v c th x l cc tn hiu thi gian c lp ngay khi dng sng OFDM c thit lp chnh

xc cho knh. c im ny ca OFDM gip cho cng on x l c n gin ho i rt nhiu. Tn hiu pht i bi m anten c n anten thu li. Vic x l cc tn hiu thu c c th mang li mt vi ci thin hiu nng: phm vi, cht lng ca tn hiu thu v hiu sut ph. Trin khai hiu nng trong mng t bo vn ang cn l i tng cho nhiu nghin cu v m phng (hnh 1.2). Tuy nhin, ni chung c th tha nhn rng nhng g nhn c t vic s dng hiu qu ph lin quan trc tip ti s lng anten cc tiu trong tuyn kt ni.

Hnh 1.2: L trnh hiu nng do Alcatel th nghim Ti u gia cc lp Hin nhin c s nh hng qua li gia MIMO v lp MAC. Cc mi nh hng qua li khc c th hin trn hnh 1.3.

Hnh1.3: nh hng qua li gia cc lp v ti u lin quan

Chuyn giao v tnh di ng Cc cng ngh chuyn giao da trn cng ngh IP di ng cn c s xem xt c v d liu v thoi. Cc k thut IP di ng thng chm nhng c th c tng tc vi cc phng php c in (IP di ng nhanh, phn cp). Cc phng php ny c th p dng c cho d liu v cng c th cho c thoi. Trong nhng mng n tn, c th xem xt cc phng php chuyn giao. Mt s k thut c th s dng khi t s sng mang/nhiu c gi tr m (v d VSFOFDM), nhng iu tr ngi ca nhng k thut ny chnh l dung lng. Trong OFDM, cng mt la chn c th thay th c trong CDMA, c th s dng phn tp macro. Trong trng hp OFDM, MIMO cho php x l phn tp macro vi cc li v hiu nng. Tuy nhin, thc hin phn tp macro dn n vic x l MIMO c tp trung v truyn dn c ng b. iu ny khng phc tp nh trong CDMA, nhng nhng k thut ny ch s dng trong cc tnh hung m ph rt khan him.

1.3. CC NG DNG V DCH V TRONG 4G Phn ny s nh gi v ch ra c cc dch v v tuyn ang ni ln, cc cng ngh tim nng cho tnh an ton chung c s dng trong tng lai gn v xa hn. N s a ra mt chui cc nghin cu tip theo cho cc cng ngh v tuyn khng dy ang xut hin. S nghin cu ny tp chung chnh vo cc ng dng (cc dch v v cc thch thc) ang hoch nh cho s pht trin ca mng v tuyn khng dy th h th t 4G. Phn ny s trnh by nhiu hn v cung cp chi tit hn cc dch v thy c trong mng 4G. Trn thc t s thc y mnh m ch yu cho cc cng ngh 4G l cung cp thng tin d liu gi ha, rng bng ln, tc cao. Thm ch ngi ta mong mun rng lu lng thoi c truyn i ti cc thit b cm tay trong cc gi (tri ngc vi vic phn pht thng qua knh chuyn mch dnh ring). Chuyn mch knh lin quan ti k thut trong cc knh dnh ring c s dng pht v nhn tn hiu thoi hay d liu. S thng tin d liu gi ha lin quan ti k thut bo hiu s trong thng tin (thoi hay d liu) c chuyn thnh m nh phn v c chia ct thnh cc on ngn (segments). Cc on ny sau s c gii ng gi theo th t sp xp chnh xc v c chuyn i ngc li thnh cc thng tin ban u pha thu. Trong chuyn mch gi ch c tn hiu thai c ni dung thc s c ng gi v gi ti h thng. iu ny l c th nh s tin b trong cc k thut a truy cp v cng ngh. Tht ng tic l cc k thut truy nhp v tuyn khng dy ngy nay khng h tr vic truyn bng rng v truyn tc cao. S hn ch ny chnh l s thc y cho qu trnh pht trin thng tin v tuyn khng dy. Trong th trng v tuyn khng dy ngy nay, nhng ngi s dng yu cu cc dch v gi tr gia tng. Cng vi s gii thiu rm r cc dch v th h 3, nhng ngi s dng mong mun cng ngh v tuyn th h k tip s khng ch l phng tin thng tin thoi m cn s c chc nng ha ging nh Internet. Cc nh cung cp dch v v cc nh pht trin ng dng ang trn con ng nhn ra cc nhu cu ca ngi s dng nhng vn l con

ng di pha trc. Thc t, trong trin khai 3G, vic mong mun vic chc nng ha c im Internet theo ng thng tin v tuyn khng dy chng ta c th khng nhn thc y c. Cc k thut a truy nhp hoch nh cho 3G s khng h tr cc tc truyn d liu v bng thng c yu cu cho cc ng dng ci tin m ngi s dng mong mun. Cc cng ngh 3G s thc s c cc chc nng mnh hn cc h thng v tuyn khng dy ngy nay, tuy nhin khng mnh bng khi chng ta trin khai 4G. Nhng ngi s dng v tuyn khng khng dy hm nay mong i nhiu th ln t cc mng v tuyn khng dy ngy mai. H ch i rng cc mng v tuyn khng dy th h tip theo nht l 4G s mang li g. Cc nh cung cp dch v cc pht trin ng dng ang ch hn na ti s mong i ca ngi s dng quyt nh hng pht trin v a ra cc loi hnh dch v. T cc nh cung cp phn chia nhng ngi s dng v tuyn ra thnh cc mng chung. Cc nghnh kinh doanh v tuyn phi hiu c cc mng ny, s mong ch v cc nhu cu ca mng (segment) s i theo hng no trong cng ngh v tuyn khng dy th h tip theo ln 4G. Nhng ngi s dng c phn mng theo nhiu cch. Theo nh cch trnh by hi tho gn y ca Lucent Technologies ti Supercomm, Lucent ang xem xt phn chia cc ngi s dng thnh 5 mng nh sau: .1-Mng Gender. .2-Mng theo tui (Age). .3 -Mng theo cch s dng Internet (Internet Usage). .4-Mng theo mc thu nhp (Income Brackets). .1-Mng nhng ngi chuyn s dng Mobile (Mobile Profesional). .2 Mng Gender: Tm n cc ngi s dng l ph n. Nhng ngi s dng ny in hnh l nhng c nhn thu nhp trung bnh. Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin cho mng ny l cc ng dng gii tr v x hi nh dch v chat v nhn tin nhanh. .3 Mng Age: c bao gm th trng gii tr cc i tng 18 tui hoc tr hn. H khng phi tr tin cho dch v do chnh h dng m vic tr tin l do b m hay ngi c lin quan thc hin. Cc kiu ng dng ang c pht trin cho on ny l cc ng dng gii tr v x hi nh cc dch v m nhc. .4 Mng Internet Usage : Bao gm in hnh l cc c nhn s dng nhiu hn so vi mc trung bnh (nhiu hn 30 pht trn mt phin) trnh duyt Internet. Nhng ngi s dng trong mng ny c hi t cng ngh. Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin l cc ng dng thng tin nh cc dch v tin tc c nhn v cc dng tin tc chnh (c truyn i vi m thanh, hnh nh, vn bn, hoc bt k s kt hp no th h th 3). Cc nh cung cp dch c bit kh khn trong vic p ng nhu cu ca cc khch hng ny bi h quen vi vic tnh tin kiu Internet. .5 Mng ngi s dng Income Bracket: Bao gm nhng c nhn tui trung lu nhng c nhn bit hiu r gi tr dch v. Cc loi ng dng ang pht trin trong mng ny l cc dch v thng tin nh dch v thi gian ngn (up-to-the-minute), personalized stock tickers. Nhng ngi s dng ny cng c nh hng tnh an ton chung; v th cc thng tin d liu v thoi c tin cy c nng cao. .6 Mng Mobile Profesional: Hng ti nhng ngi s dng tin tng vo cc thit b

v tuyn khng dy qun l cng vic kinh doanh hng ngy. Mng ny bao gm nhng ngi s dng chuyn nghip. Nhng ngi s dng ny hu ht rt quan trng i vi cc nh cung cp dch v bi h thng xuyn s dng nhiu hn cc dch v m h yu cu. Cc kiu ng dng ang pht trin cho mng ny l fax di ng, th in t, nhn tin nhanh. tng s tin cy cc ng dng, cc nh cung cp cng ang pht trin thit b thu bao c th chuyn vng vo cc mng v tuyn khng dy khc nhau trn ton th gii s dng mt thit b thng tin n. Ging nh mng Income Brackets, Mobile Professional yu cu cc phng tin thng tin d liu v thoi phi tin cy v lin tc. Tnh an ton chung s c quan tm v hiu chnh hp l trong mng ny. Ton b chc nng s c thm vo m bo tnh bo mt thng tin cho ngi s dng. .7

Hnh 1.4. Cc dch v v ng dng trong 4G - Cc trnh ng dng v cc dch chung: Mc ch ca phn ny l nh ngha cc dch v cng nh chc nng m nh cung cp a ra cho khch hng. Cc trnh ng dng c nh ngha nh cc phn mm, chng trnh hoc cc tnh nng mang li li th cho cc dch v cung cp bi nh khai thc. Nhn chung c bn loi dch v hoc trnh ng dng c pht trin v a vo s dng thng tin v tuyn th h tip theo. l dch v thng tin c nhn/khoanh vng, cc phng tin lin lc, t chc, gii tr. Cc ng dng v cc dch v thng tin c nhn/ khoanh vng hng ti phc v hu ht ngi s dng cc mng cp trc y n ni n nhiu hn cc mng Inernet Usage, Income Brackets, v Mobile Professional. Cc ng dng v cc dch v thng tin ny s cung cp cho ngi s dng cc bn tin chung, cc bn tin ti chnh, hng dn v tr, thng mi di ng, v cc dch v du lch. Cc dch v ny cho php ngi s dng xc minh cc thng tin n l lin quan ti ngi s dng d h trong vng phc v hay chuyn vng sang cc h thng khc. Cc quc gia Chu c cc ng dng theo di phng tin giao thng cng cng. T cc thng tin gim st ny ngi s dng c th xc nh thi gian xe but hay tu in dng li bn. Kiu dch v thng tin c nhn/khoanh vng ny c trin khai gii hn trong cc quc gia. Dch v ny c th l push-based hoc pull-based, ph thuc vo v tr thu bao mun thng tin pht tp trung t ng gi ti thit b v tuyn khng giy hoc nu mun thng tin pht tp trung

trn mt im c nhu cu. Cc dch v push v pull s c tho lun chi tit sau phn ny. Cc dch v v cc ng dng c mt tm quan trng i vi tt c cc mng ngi s dng c bit l mng Mobile Professional. .1-Cc dch v thng tin (Communication) bao gm c dch v nhn tin ngn (SMS), th in t, hi tho truyn hnh, fax, v cc bulletin board. Mc d mt s cc dch v c sn sng trong cc h thng khng dy ngy nay, nhng cc dch v ny s tip tc c nng cao hn trong th h tng lai. Trong cc dch v ny: thoi v tin cy c ch nht trong k hoch pht trin. .2-Cc dch v Organizational bao gm cc kh nng h tr s c nhn (PDA Personal digital assistant), trao i tin t da trn c s xc nh ngi s dng, v cc trnh ng dng qun l c nhn khc (v d: lch cng tc, qun l cuc gi, s lu a ch). Cc dch v v cch trnh ng dng Organizational c lin quan ti tt c cc mng ngi s dng nhng n c hng ti phc v cho cc mng ngi s dng l Income Brackets v Mobile Professional. - Cc dch v gii tr (Entertainment) c a vo tm ngm ca cc nh cung cp dch v v cc nh cung cp quay tr li u t vo n khi nhn thy n c mt tim nng ln. Cc dch v gii tr c th gm c on m thanh, on video, chat, trao i hnh nh, v chi game. Trong th trng v tuyn khng giy Chu 3G ang c pht trin, cc dch v gi tr ang to ra li nhun ng k. Mng m cc dch v gii tr hng ti l mng Age. Mt dch v khc ang to ra rt nhiu s si ng trong nghnh kinh doanh l thng mi di ng (M-Commerce). Thng mi di ng a ra kh nng cho thu bao ng k mua cc mn hng ( v d: mua gas, thc n t cc my bn hng t ng.v.v) s dung mt thit b v tuyn khng dy. V d ng k mua mt mn hng t my bn hng t ng, mi ngi s dng s quay s in thoi hoc m truy nhp lin quan ti mn hng v mn hng s c phn phi ti ngi mua. Trong s phi hp ny, my bn hng t ng s c kt ni ti mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng (PSTN) thng qua mt modem hoc mt thit b kiu gateway. Cc nh cung cp dch v v tuyn khng dy s gi thng tin ti cng ty bn hng v cng ty ny s gi thng tin ti my bn hng t ng ch th cho my bn hng phn phi mn hng. Ti khon ca ngi s dng dch v khng dy s c tnh vo cc mn hng m h ng k, ging nh mt th tn dng. Kiu dch v thng mi di ng ny hin thi ang c th nghim v c thc hin (trn c s cn nhiu hn ch) trong cc quc gia Chu u v Chu v thc s ang tin xa. Thng mi di ng c th c xem nh l mt kiu dch v Information hoc Organzation. - Cc dch v da trn c s xc nh v tr Push, Pull. Cc dch v Push v Pull a ra tin cy cho mng v kh nng xc nh v tr cc thu bao. Trong mng 4G, iu c th nhn thy, mng c kh nng xc nh v tr chnh xc ca cc thu bao c trong nh v ngoi nh. Kh nng ny c thc hin t cc chc

nng c thm vo t cc nh cung cp dch v. Cc thng tin c nhn ngi dng c thit lp v cp nht bi cc thu bao, m bo thng tin ti mi ngi s dng ng yu cu. Thng tin c nhn cha ng cc s thch ca thu bao (v d., thch/khng thch, k hoch lm vic, khun kh) v s cho php cc thu bao ( v d: ngi no c php bit hin ti h ang u). Nh cung cp dch v s duy tr v lu d thng tin c nhn ngi s dng trong c s d liu. Mng phc v s s dng cc thng tin ny y cc dch v cho cc thu bao. V d: nu mt thu bao thch mt kiu thc n ring, mng s xem trong thng tin c nhn ca thu bao v s y (push) cc thng tin c lin quan ti nhiu nh hng m phc v ki mn n v tr ca thu bao. Tng t, ngi s dng c th yu cu cc thng tin ging nh vy xut pht t mng (pull) nu c ta hay anh ta khng la chn c thng tin ny v thng tin ny c y ti (push) thit b khng dy. S thch thc vi cc dch v da trn c s xc nh v tr l n khng c trong cc trnh ng dng nhng c trong s b sung. cho cc dch v nh v tn ti bt k gi tr thc no, mng phi c kh nng ch ta v tr ca cc thu bao vi chnh xc cao c th trong khong vi Feet. Cc mng khng dy hin thi khng c kh nng ny. Cc mng ngy nay nhn vo cc cell ang phc v v ang thng tin vi thit b cm tay xc nh v tr ca thu bao. K thut ny c th chnh xc cao nht mt vi khi nh trong thnh ph nhng i vi cc trnh ng dng ca 4G s chnh xc ny gn nh l khng cn thit. Cc k hoch hin thi cho mng 4G bao gm s dng giao thc Internet phin bn 6 (IPv6) nh tuyn cc gi d liu ti my in thoi cm tay. IPv6 gn lin vi vic theo di nh v v iu ny s lm tng kh nng xc nh mt cch chnh xc v tr ca thu bao trong mng. Mt s c xut p dng cc kh nng ca h thng nh v ton cu (GPS) vo cc my cm tay gip cho vic xc nh v tr ca cc thu bao. Tuy nhin GPS s ch hu ch i vi phm vi nh. GPS tin vo kh nng my thu bt c tn hiu t cc v tinh quay quanh tri t. Nu my thu khng truy cp bn ngoi ( trong nh), cc thng tin v v tr khng c cung cp. Ngoi v tr ra, mng phi c kh nng xc nh cc s liu thng k khc.

-Kt lun: Cc dch v v cc trnh ng dng cho 4G vn ang c nh ngha, n pht trin v dch chuyn theo nhu cu ngi s dng. Cc ng dng 4G hng ti phc v cho th trng khch hng c nhu cu ln v cht lng dch v cng nh s a dng ca dch v. Vi kh nng ca mnh, 4G thc s p ng c cc nhu cu v a dch v ca khch hng hin ti v trong tng lai. Chng ny mi ch gii thiu v a ra mt s loi hnh dch v in hnh v mt s v d v cc ng dng trong 4G theo mt kha quan im chung. Phn dch v v m hnh c th ca n s c gii thiu k hn trong chng 3. nh hng pht trin cc dch v cho 4G da trn nn tng ca 3G nhng vi tin cy v tnh an ton cao hn, m hnh di y c th l cc dch v c th cho 4G :

Hnh 1.5. M hnh cc dch v trong mng 4G

CHNG 2 M HNH CU TRC MNG 4G

2.1. CC YU CU V CU TRC MNG MI

Mng 4G ra i l cuc cch mng v tc truyn d liu, kh nng tng tc, giao tip gia cc mng khc nhau. N l s kt hp gia cc mng khc nhau da trn nn IP. Mc ch chnh ca mng l cho php ngi dng c th truy nhp v khai thc cc dch v trong mng vi tc cao, cht lng tt, an ton, bo mt. V vy, p ng c cc nhu cu v cc dch v , mng 4G phi p ng c cc yu cu sau: a. Mng 4G phi p ng c yu cu tch hp c cc mng khc nh cc mng di ng th h 2, th h 3, th h 3,5G, v WLAN, WiMAX, v cc mng khng dy khc.

Hnh 2.1: S pht trin ca cc mng khc nhau dn n 4G Mng 4G c kh nng kt hp vi cc mng khc nhau da trn nn giao thc IP, vi tc cao, n cung cp cc dch v a dng thi gian thc, cc ng dng cht lng cao, y l yu t rt quan trng gip cho mt mng, cng ngh mi t c thnh cng. Vi s kt hp ny, ngi s dng c kh nng kt ni ti nhiu mng, c th s dng nhiu dng dch v khc nhau nh PSTN, ISDN, internet, WLAN, WiMAX,vv, m khng cn quan tm ti dng thit b ang s dng cng nh vic h ang u.

Hnh 2.2: S kt hp cc mng khc nhau b. Mng c tnh m Xem xt cc ng dng, dch v mng hin nay, chng ta thy rng cc h thng mng hin nay vn ang pht trin nh l cc h thng ng. Trong mng th h hai, dch v cung cp ch l nhng dch v n gin nh tin nhn SMS, MMS, Cc mng di ng th h ba bt u cung cp mt s ng dng, dch v nhng cn rt t, cht lng cha cao. Cc nh cung cp dch v cng ch trong phm vi l third-party trong mng. iu ny c th c khc phc trong mng 4G. Cu trc m ca mng 4G cho php ci t cc thnh phn mi vi cc giao din mi gia cc cu trc khc nhau trn cc lp. y l iu rt quan trng, c bit cho cc dch v ti u trong mng di ng vi lin kt khng dy v cc c tnh di ng. M hnh c xy dng ra phi c tnh m. iu ny gip cho h thng tr nn linh hot trong qu trnh pht trin. Yu cu v m rng, nng cp h thng hay thm vo cc ng dng, dch v mi lun l mt i hi i vi cc mng vin thng hin nay. Do mng phi m bo cho kh nng p ng cc nhu cu ny ngay t thi im hin ti cho n tng lai.

Hnh 2.3: Ngi dng cc mng khc nhau c th truy nhp vo h thng c. m bo cht lng dch v cho cc ng dng a phng tin trn nn IP: m bo cht lng dch v, cn s kt hp cht ch gia cc lp truy nhp, truyn ti v cc dch v Internet. c bit i vi cc vn v tr mng, bng thng dch vvv. Mng 4G yu cu tc truyn d liu cao, tr nh, dch v thi gian thc, cht lng cao. d. m bo tnh an ton, bo mt thng tin y l yu cu quan trng hng u ca h thng. H thng thng tin cng pht trin, cng c nhiu ngi dng cc mng khc nhau cung truy nhp vo h thng th thng tin b mt ca ngi dng cng khng m bo an ton. Tnh an ton ca h thng c nh gi qua kh nng bo mt trong truyn thng, tnh ng n v ring t ca cc d liu ngi s dng cng nh kh nng qun l, gim st h thng. Bo mt l yu cu chung i vi tt c cc h thng vin thng.

e. Mng m bo tnh di ng: Mt trong nhng vn quan trng ca 4G l cch truy nhp nhiu mng di ng v khng dy khc nhau. C ba kh nng: S dng thit b a ch , vng ph a

dch v, hoc s dng giao thc truy nhp chung. Cc thit b a ch : Thit b a ch c nhiu ch hot ng khc nhau, v d nh a truy nhp phn chia theo m, thng tin di ng ton cu GSM, ch truy nhp v tinh, Do , khi thit b nm ngoi vng ph ca mng mnh th n vn c th truy nhp c vo thng thng qua cc mng khc. i vi loi thit b ny th vn cht lng dch v yu cu phi c x l tt. Xem hnh 2.4 - a Vng ph a dch v: Trong kin trc ny, ngi dng truy nhp vo vng ph a dch v gm nhiu im truy chung (UAP: Universal Access Point). Nhng UAP ny kch hot chn mng da trn nhng ci c sn, c im cht lng, v s la chn thng thng ca ngi dng. Ngi dng, thit b c th chuyn dch v khi di chuyn t UAP ny sang UAP khc. Xem hnh 2.4 - b Giao thc truy nhp chung: Trong trng hp ny cc mng khng dy c th h tr mt hoc hai giao thc truy nhp chun. Khi thit b c th chuyn mng c cng giao thc truy nhp khi khng truy nhp c vo mng ca mnh. Xem hnh 2.4 - c

Hnh 2.4: Tnh di ng ca mng

f) Mng phi m bo v tc : Mng mi ra i phi c tc truyn d liu cao, p ng c yu cu ca ngi s dng. Tc truyn d liu trong mng mi c th ln n 100Mbps, v 160Mbps khi s dng MIMO (Nhiu u vo - Nhiu u ra)

Hnh 2.5: Tc truyn d liu trong mng 4G

2.2. M HNH MNG 4G 2.2.1. u nhc im ca cu trc mng 3G v 3,5G a) Mng thng tin di ng th h ba WCDMA Mng thng tin di ng th h ba ra i khc phc c cc nhc im ca cc mng thng tin di ng th h trc . Vi vic cu trc mng dng giao thc IP kt hp vi cng ngh ATM, cng vi vic h tr tc ln ti 2Mbps, mng thng tin di ng th h ba WCDMA c th h tr ngi dng cc dch v nh: hi ngh truyn hnh, truy cp internet tc cao, download cc file d liu nh, Tuy nhin, mng di ng ny cng c mt s nhc im nh: Tc truyn d liu ln nht l 2Mbps, vn cha p ng c yu cu ngy cng cao ca ngi dng, kh nng p ng cc dch v thi gian thc nh hi ngh truyn hnh l cha cao, rt kh trong vic download cc file d liu ln, Mng thng tin di ng th h ba WCDMA cha p ng c cc yu cu nh: kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc (V d: WLAN, WiMAX,) cha tt, tnh m ca mng cha cao, khi a mt dch v mi vo mng s gp rt nhiu vn do tc mng thp, ti nguyn bng tn t,

b) Mng thng tin di ng th h 3,5G HSDPA v HSUPA Cuc cch mng ca th trng thng tin di ng a ra cc yu cu nng cp ci tin v c dung lng h thng ln tc truyn dn d liu. Mng thng tin di ng th h ba WCDMA ra i l mt bc pht trin mnh m v tc v cht lng dch v. Tuy nhin, tc d liu ti a trong WCDMA ch t ti 2Mbps. tng kh nng h tr cho cc dch v d liu chuyn mch gi, c bit l nng cao tc truyn d liu, m trc ht l tc ng xung, 3GPP pht trin v chun ha trong phin bn Release 5 mt cng ngh mi, l cng ngh truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao (HSDPA) vi nhng tnh nng mi c cp trong cc phin bn R5 ca 3GPP cho h thng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA/UTRA FDD v c xem nh l mt trong nhng cng ngh tin tin cho h thng thng tin di ng 3,5G. HSDPA bao gm mt tp cc tnh nng mi kt hp cht ch vi nhau ci thin dung lng mng, v tng tc d liu nh trn 10 Mbps i vi lu lng gi ng xung. Nhng ci tin v mt k thut cho php cc nh khai thc c th a ra nhiu dch v tc bit cao, ci thin cht lng dch v (QoS) ca cc dch v hin c, v t chi ph thp nht. Kh nng h tr tc d liu v tnh di ng ca HSDPA l cha tng c trong cc phin bn trc y ca 3GPP. Cc kha cnh k thut trong ni dung HSDPA bao gm: Pht knh chia s iu ch v m ha thch ng K thut pht a m Yu cu lp li t ng nhanh HARQ. Mc ch ca HSDPA l h tr truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao bng cch s dng mt knh chia s ng xung tc cao (HS-DSCH) v h tr thoi c tch hp trn knh DCH v d liu tc cao trn knh HS-DSCH trn cng mt sng mang (tng t nh DSCH trong Release 99). Li ch ca HSDPA nh trnh by trong cc phn trc cho ng xung khi hu ht lu thng d liu 3G c trng i u tin l ng xung. Release 6 s ni v ci tin, nng cp ng ln, c gi l nng cp ng ln HSUPA (HSUPA: High Speed Uplink Packet Access). HSUPA s dng tng t cc c im chnh nh HSDPA, nhng thay v p dng cho ng xung th n li p dng cho ng ln. iu ny s lm tng tc truyn ng xung. c) Nhn xt: Cc mng thng tin di ng th h 3 WCDMA v th h 3,5G HSDPA v HSUPA ra i phn no p ng c nhu cu ca ngi tin dng nh: tc truyn d liu ln ti 2Mbps i vi mng WCDMA, 10Mbps ng xung i vi cng ngh 3,5G), c th truy nhp c nhiu dch v nh: truyn hnh hi ngh, truy nhp Internet tc cao, Tuy nhin, cc mng di ng ny cn nhiu nhc im nh: tc truyn d liu cha cao, do cht lng ca cc dch v thi gian thc cha cao, tc truyn d liu vn cn thp, c bit l tnh di ng km. Khi ngi dng i vo vng ph ca loi mng

khc v d nh mng WLAN, WiMAX, m khng nm trong vng ph sng ca mnh th mng khng th phc v ngi dng c. Ngoi ra, vic s dng IPv4 cng gy ra cc hn ch nh khng a ch trin khai theo yu cu ca mng, Kh nng trin khai cc dch v mi trn cc mng ny rt kh do cc hn ch v tc truyn thng v bng tn, Trong tng lai, ngi s dng mong mun c s dng nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau vi tc truyn cao ln ti hng trm Mbps, c cht lng tt, c th thm nhp vo mng t mi ni, c kh nng s dng cc dch v mi mt cch d dng, 2.2.2. M hnh mng thng tin di ng 4G: Phm vi ca mng 4G s bao ph ton b t cc phn truyn dn v tuyn, truyn dn trong mng li n tn cc ng dng trn thit b u cui. Vi yu cu mt kin trc phn lp cho h thng, nhm m bo tnh m v tnh thch ng cho h thng, cc thnh phn chc nng trong mng s c chun ho theo cc chc nng chung v mi chc nng chung ny s i din cho chc nng trong 1 lp. Vi yu cu ny, chng ti phn chia cu trc mng trn c s ca 4 lp chc nng, tng ng vi 4 phm vi chc nng ca cc thnh phn trong h thng mng.

Hnh 2.6: M hnh cu trc mng 4G Vi m hnh trn, tnh tch hp h thng c gii quyt trn lp truyn dn. Cc h thng s dng mi trng truyn v tuyn c tch hp chung vo mng RAN. Vi m hnh ny, cc mng truy nhp v tuyn c tch hp vo mt mi trng chung, c ngha thu bao di ng u cui khi bt c mi trng truyn v tuyn no cng m bo hot ng trong mng.

Tnh tng tc gia cc lp gip cho m hnh c tnh m trong vic pht trin cng ngh cng nh dch v trong tng lai. Vic x l cc cng ngh iu ch, m ho v truy nhp trn cc lp tng tc cng to ra tnh thch nghi vi cc yu cu v dch v, m bo y cc yu cu v tc dch v trong tng lai. Chc nng mng truy nhp v tuyn: -C kh nng tch hp gia cc thit b u cui -m bo tc dch v Chc nng ca mng li: -Kt ni cc mng khc nhau: mng khng dy v mng c dy. -Truyn ti traffic trn cc tuyn t ni gi n ch an ton. -nh tuyn lu lng -Chuyn i dng d liu all IP Chc nng iu khin: -Cung cp nn tng h tng kt ni mng dch v -iu khin h thng: .1+ Bo hiu .2+ Lu lng .3+ Bo mt (Security) .4+ Billing .5+ Mobity v Roaming Dch v: Cung cp dch v s dng cho ngi dng 2.3.CHC NNG CC PHN T TRONG M HNH 2.3.1 .Cc phn t lp truy nhp v tuyn Nhim v chnh ca mng truy nhp v tuyn (Radio Access Network) l to v duy tr cc knh mang truy nhp v tuyn (RAB) thc hin thng tin gia thit b di ng (UE) vi mng li (CN). Thit b ngi dng y c th l cc MS, cc thit b xch tay, Do , mng truy nhp v tuyn phi c kh nng giao tip vi cc thit b u cui, k c khi thit b u cui l thit b di ng khng dy thuc mng khc.

- Thit b u cui:

Thit b u cui di ng trong mng 4G phi c s pht trin trong vic chy nhiu dng ng dng khc nhau. iu ny cng m bo c hi tng li nhun cho cc nh cung cp dch v bng vic cung cp thm cc dch v gi tr gia tng. Do vy, cc thit b ny phi hot ng c tnh thch nghi v linh ng cao. Hin nay, cc thit b u cui di ng ang trong qu trnh chuyn dch sang dng tch hp hi t. Cc nh sn xut cng cung cp cc h iu hnh (OS) v phn mm dch v c tnh m, c kin trc dng lp v c kh nng chy trn nhng phn mm ca cc nh cung cp th 3. Tnh phc tp ca th h thit b u cui di ng ny s phi cha ng y cc iu kin v phn cng v phn mm nh sau: -Cc dng ng dng khc nhau v di ng ( nh email, MMS ) -Thc hin c nhiu phn mm ghp ng dng ( nh d on kiu g, son tho vn bn, kim tra pht m ) -Thc hin trn nhiu dng h iu hnh (nh Symbian, SmartPhone, Linux..) -Hot ng trn nhiu mi trng ng dng ( nh J2ME, .NET) -Hot ng trn nhiu phng thc m ho v tuyn ( nh cdma2000, GPRS, GSM, W-CDMA, WiFi .) -Hot ng trn nhiu phng thc m ho ( ting ni, hnh nh). -Hot ng trn nhiu phm vi giao thc mng ( Ipv4, IPv6 ) -B vi x l mng vi cc ng dng ca di ng v tnh nng chung ca PC. -C b nh ln.

-im truy nhp v tuyn RAP (Radio Access Point): Chc nng chnh ca RAP l thc hin x l lp 1 ca giao din v tuyn (m ha knh, an xen, thch ng tc , tri ph,). N cng thc hin mt phn khai thc qun l ti nguyn v tuyn nh iu khin cng sut vng trong. im truy nhp v tuyn cng tng t nh Node B trong 3G, tuy nhin c mt s k thut mi nhm lm tng tc ng truyn, l: + S dng Anten thng minh Anten thng minh l mt thnh phn khng th thiu c trong mng 4G. Mt h thng anten thng minh l s kt hp ca nhiu phn t anten vi mt kh nng x l tn hiu t ng ti u mu thu v bc x ca n da vo s hi p ca mi trng tnh hiu. H thng 3.5G dng Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao (HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access) da trn cng ngh giao din v tuyn W-CDMA d nh cung cp tc ln n 10 Mbps bng cch s dng hiu qu hn ph tn s 3G hin hnh. H thng 4G s dng mt ph tn khc (c th l 40 hoc 60 GHz) v c th cung cp ln n 100 Mbps cho t bo WAN v n 1 Gbps i vi truy sut khng dy ni b. Mc ch ca h thng anten thng minh l lm tng cht lng tn hiu ca h thng v tuyn bng cch truyn tp trung cc tn hiu v tuyn trong khi tng dung lng bng cch tng vic dng li tn s. Bng sau s lit k cc c tnh v li ch ca mt h thng anten thng minh.

c tnh li tn hiu: Tn hiu ng vo t nhiu anten c kt hp li ti u cng sut c sn nhm thit lp mc vng ph cho.

Li ch Vng ph tt hn: Vic tp trung nng lng gi ra trong mt t bo s lm tng vng ph ca trm gc. Cc yu cu cng sut tiu th thp hn dn n thi gian dng pin lu hn v kch thc handset s nh hn

S loi b nhiu: Antenna pattern c Tng dung lng:Vic iu khin cht th c to ra do cc ngun nhiu ng lng cc null tn hiu chnh xc v knh, vic ci thin t s tn hiu gim nhiu kt hp vi vic s dng li trn nhiu ca tn hiu thu c. tn s s lm tng dung lng mng. K thut thch nghi (nh l a truy cp phn chia theo khng gian) h tr vic s dng li tn s trong cng mt t bo. Phn tp khng gian: Thng tin c tp hp t mng anten c dng ti thiu fading v cc tc ng ca truyn a ng khng mong mun. Hiu qu cng sut: kt hp cc ng vo n nhiu thit b ti u tng ch x l c sn trn ng xung. Loi b a ng: C th gim tc ng tri tr ca knh, cho php truyn tc bit cao hn m khng cn dng b cn bng. Chi ph gim: Chi ph khuych i cng sut, cng sut tiu th gim v tin cy cao hn.

Bng 2.1: Cc c tnh v li ch ca h thng anten thng minh

.1+ Mt trong nhng k thut thch ng lin kt s c cp n gi l iu ch v m ha thch ng (AMC Adaptation and Modulation Coding).Vi k thut AMC, iu ch v t l m ha c thch ng mt cch lin tc v cht lng knh thay cho vic iu chnh cng sut. Truyn dn s dng nhiu m Walsh cng c s dng trong qu trnh thch ng lin kt. S kt hp ca hai k thut thch ng lin kt trn thay th hon ton k thut h s tri ph bin thin ca truyn dn v tuyn tc cao. .2+ Ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao OFDM: Tn hiu gi i c chia thnh cc sng mang nh, trn mi sng mang tn hiu l bng hp v v vy trnh c hiu ng a

ng, to nn mt khong bo v chn vo gia mi tn hiu OMDF. OFDM cng to nn mt li v phn tp tn s, ci thin hiu nng ca lp vt l. N cng tng thch vi nhng cng ngh m rng nng cao khc, nh l cc anten thng minh v MIMO. iu ny khng ch to nn li ch r rng cho thc thi lp vt l, m cn hp nht vic ci thin hiu nng lp 2 nh vic a ra thm mt mc t do.

Hnh 2.7. Nguyn l OFDM + MIMO:MIMO s dng ghp knh tn hiu gia rt nhiu cc anten pht v thi gian hay tn s. N kt hp vi OFDM x l cc tn hiu thi gian c lp ngay khi dng sng OFDM c thit k chnh xc cho knh. S kt hp gia OFDM v MIMO gip cho vic x l n gin hn, hiu qu thu pht cao. Ngoi ra lp thm nhp dch v cn s dng thm mt s k thut khc nh k thut SDR, tng thm tnh thch nghi cho UE trong mi trng mng tch hp chung. -B iu khin truy nhp v tuyn (RAC: Radio Access Controller): B iu khin truy nhp v tuyn (RAC) l phn t iu khin ca lp truy nhp v tuyn. Chc nng RNC dng iu khin lu lng v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn ca lp thm nhp v tuyn. i vi mt UE th RAC thc hin kt cui c ng ni Iu truyn s liu ngi s dng v c bo hiu tng ng t/ti mng li. RAC cng kt cui bo hiu iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn, x l s liu lp on ni s liu t/ti giao din v tuyn. Cc thao tc qun l ti nguyn v tuyn nh sp xp cc thng s vt mang thm nhp v tuyn vi cc thng s knh truyn ti giao din v tuyn. Chc nng qun l ti nguyn v tuyn: RRM (Radio Resources Management) l mt tp hp cc thut ton c s dng m bo s n nh ca ng truyn v tuyn v QoS ca kt ni v tuyn bng cch chia s v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn mt cch c hiu qu. Trong 4G, thm mt s k nng mi nh yu cu pht li t ng nhanh (HARQ: Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request), lp lch nhanh, thi gian pht truyn dn ngn (TTI: Transmission Time Interval). Hai tnh nng quan trng nht ca cng ngh WCDMA nh iu khin cng sut vng kn v h s tri ph bin thin khng cn c s dng.

2.3.2. Lp mng li Mng li phi tch hp c tt c cc mng vin thng khc nh cc mng di ng, WLAN, WiMAX, cc mng khng dy khc, t c iu th trong mng li phi c: -Nh s pht trin mnh m ca NGN trn ton cu, ngi ta xy dng h thng truyn dn trong mng li s dng giao thc IPv6, c bit vic s dng IP di ng mt cch linh hot gip cho vic kt hp gia cc mng. -Cng a phng tin (MGW: Multimedia Gateway): Trong mng li, MGW thc hin cc chc nng chnh l: + Thc hin chuyn i d liu sang gi IP v ngc li + Thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn d liu t/ti mt vng dch v ca mng tu thuc vo v tr thu bao. MGW c iu khin bi MGCF. ng truyn cho cc cuc gi c thc hin gia RNC v MGW. Thng thng MGW nhn cc cuc gi t RNC, chuyn i d liu theo nh dng gi IP v nh tuyn cc cuc gi ny n ni nhn trn cc ng trc gi. Trong nhiu trng hp ng trc gi s dng Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc(RTP: Real Time Transport Protocol) trn Giao thc Internet (IP). ni m mt cuc gi cn chuyn n mt mng khc, PTSN chng hn, c mt cng cc phng tin khc (MGW), MGW ny s chuyn ting thoi ng gi thnh PCM tiu chun a n PTSN. Nh vy chuyn i m ch cn thc hin ti im ny. Truyn ti kiu ng gi ny cho php tit kim ng k rng bng tn, nht l khi cc MGW cch xa nhau. -Cc router: Trong mng li th cc router thc hin chc nng chnh l nh tuyn cuc gi, a cc gi s liu t/ti cc ni theo ng yu cu. Cc router s dng giao thc nh tuyn tin tin trong mng IP nh BGP (BGP: Border Gateway Protocol). BGP l giao thc nh tuyn mt h thng mng t tr AS (AS: Autonomous System). H thng t tr y l mt mng hoc mt nhm mng c cng qun l chung vi cng chnh sch nh tuyn chung. BGP c s dng thay i thng tin nh tuyn cho Internet v l giao thc c s dng gia cc nh cung cp dch v ISP. Khi nh tuyn trong mng, da trn bng nh tuyn router gi cho cc router lng ging cc BGP lng ging thay i thng tin nh tuyn. Vic cp nhp nh tuyn BGP ch thng bo con ng ti u gi tin ti mng ch.Cng vi vic s dng Tuyn lin vng khng phn lp CIDR (Classless Interdomain Routing), lm tng hiu qu ca vic phn lp s dng a ch IP. Khi BGP c s gia mt nhm mng (AS) th giao thc gi l BGP ngoi, cn nu nh cung cp dch v s dng BGP thay i nh tuyn trong mt AS, th giao thc l BGP trong. Ngoi ra, mng li cn s dng mt k thut mi na l Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS (MPLS: Multiprotocol Label Switching). Trong mi trng nh tuyn bnh thng, cc khung truyn t ngun n ch theo tng bc tng bc mt. nh tuyn nh gi mi khung tiu lp 3 v thc hin bng nh tuyn xc nh bc nhy tip

theo hng n ch. iu ny c khuynh hng lm gim dung lng mng bi v cc yu cu CPU tp trung x l mi khung. Vi s bng n s ngi s dng Internet, cng vi vic yu cu thay i v lu lng truyn ti th phng php c khng p ng c. MPLS thay i kiu nh tuyn tng bc bng cch cho php cc ng dn c th trong mng da trn cht lng v bng tn cn dng cho cc ng dng. Ni cch khc, la chn ng dn by gi c th a vo lp 2. iu ny s lm tng hiu qu s dng lu lng trong mng. 2.3.3. Lp chc nng Lp chc nng iu khin dng iu khin h thng nh iu khin h thng bo hiu, iu khin lu lng, bo mt thng tin, ng thi cung cp c s h tng cho lp dch v cung cp cc loi hnh dch v khc nhau. Chc nng iu khin gm c: .1 -Chc nng bo hiu: Bo hiu trong mng li l loi bo hiu tp trung. Do yu cu tch hp c cc mng khc nhau, do phi c phng thc bo hiu ging nhau cho cc mng. mng li ngi ta xy dng cc trung tm m im bo hiu STP dng iu khin bo hiu trong ton mng v lin kt vi cc trung tm m im bo hiu ca cc nh cung cp dch v khc trong nc v trn quc t. Mt c im chnh trong mng 4G l tt c u hi t trn nn IP, do giao thc bo hiu thc hin chnh trn mng 4G l SS7oIP. iu ny c thc hin thng qua Gateway bo hiu (SGW Signalling gateway). Chc nng chnh ca SGW l kt ni cc mng bo hiu khc nhau thng qua vic chuyn i gia cc lp v iu khin thc hin bo hiu trong ni mng thng qua giao thc SS7oIP. .2 -Chc nng bo mt: y l mt trong nhng chc nng quan trng trong h thng tng lai, n m bo cho vic thng tin ca ngi s dng c an ton, b mt v c tnh ring t. Chc nng ny c thc hin thng qua Gateway an ninh (SEG - Security Gateway) cung cp v chnh sch an ton (proxy server) v bc tng la (firewall). Proxy server s nh ra cc chnh sch v an ninh trong ton mng. Bn cnh , Firewall s thc hin phn vng an ninh v m bo tnh bo mt cho cc vng mng. thc hin bo mt thng tin, d liu s c i qua Security Gateway trc khi vo hoc ra khi vng bo mt. Vng bo mt ny thng l mng c qun l cht ch v SEG c t bin ca mng ny. Mt nh cung cp c th c 1 hoc mt vi SEG m bo tnh an ninh cho mng ng thi phng nga trng hp b s c trn 1 SEG n l gy nh hng n hot ng ca mng. .1-Chc nng v Billing: Chc nng ny cung cp cho mng kh nng v nhn thc, tnh cc i vi cc dch v s dng trong mng. N thc hin nhn cc thng tin v tnh cc t lp mng li, cn c vo cc c im v thng tin .2tinh cc ca tng UE, tng dch v chn lc thng tin v tnh cc. Cc thng tin ny sau c nh dng li v c gi n cc h thng tnh cc tng ng v gi n cc UE. .3-Chc nng v tnh di ng trong mng (Mobility): Chc nng ny c k tha t cc mng di ng th h trc. N c th hin qua cc thnh phn c ca mng nh HLR,

VLR, EIR, AUC, MSCS v c cu iu khin handover, handoff ca thu bao. .4+ Thanh ghi nh v thng tr (HLR): l mt c s d liu c t ti h thng ch ca ngi s dng lu bn sao chnh v l lch dch v ca ngi s dng. L lch dch v ny bao gm: thng tin v cc dch v c php, cc vng khng c php chuyn mng, v thng tin v cc dch v b sung nh: trng thi chuyn hng cuc gi Cc thng tin lin quan n vic cung cp cc dch v vin thng c lu trong HLR khng ph thuc vo v tr hin thi ca thu bao. HLR thng l mt my tnh ng ring khng c kh nng chuyn mng nhng c kh nng qun l hng trm ngn thu bao. .5+ B ghi nh v tm tr (VLR): chc nng ca VLR l lu gi bn sao v l lch ca ngi s dng khch cng nh v tr ca UE trong h thng ang phc v mc chnh xc hn HLR. .6+ EIR: thc hin qun l thit b ngi s dng UE. EIR lu tt c cc d liu lin quan n UE. EIR c ni n MSC v SGSN qua ng bo hiu kim tra s c php ca thit b. Mt thit b khng c php s b cm. .7+ Trung tm nhn thc (AUC): qun l cc thng tin nhn thc v mt m ha lin quan n tng c nhn lin quan n tng c nhn thu bao da trn kha b mt. Vic qun l thu bao c thc hin thng qua kha nhn dng b mt duy nht cho tng thu bao. Kha ny c lu gi vnh cu v b mt trong b nh ca UE. .8+ MSCS MSC server l b phn ci tin ca mng 3G so vi cc th h trc. Khi yu cu v d liu s dng tng cao, s thu bao pht trin cao buc MSC truyn thng tch thnh 2 b phn chc nng ring bit: MSC Server dng iu khin chung vic nh tuyn cuc gi v phn chuyn mch PS + CS c tp trung trong chc nng ca MGW. Vi vic tch ra 2 thnh phn chc nng ny, MSCS tng c hiu qu hot ng ca h thng thng qua vic iu khin tp trung cc MGW. N cng th hin c tnh linh ng ng thi gip phn tng dung lng h thng. .1+ Chc nng qun l di ng c thc hin ring bit trn mng li v mng RAN. Nhng tin trnh v truy nhp v tuyn c thc hin trn mng RAN. Do RAN qun l tnh di ng mc cell, trong khi mng li khng cn quan tm n cu trc cell. Cc qu trnh qun l di ng bao gm: .2+ Qun l trng thi UE v v tr ca n. .3+ Qun l UE khi thm nhp vo mng. .4+ Cp nht cc vng nh tuyn. .2+ Qun l thay i Handover v phn nh li vng phc v cho cc UE thc hin handover. -Chc nng IP Multimedia: y l khi chc nng tin tin so vi cc mng di ng 2G. im chnh ca khi chc nng ny l thc hin cc chc nng iu khin, qun l cc phin lm vic IP trong mng 4G. Cc thnh phn trong IP Multimedia bao gm:

Hnh 2.8. Cu trc chc nng ca khi IP Multimedia + HSS (Home Subcriber Server): y l c s d liu chnh ca h thng trong lu gi ton b cc thng tin v thu bao v cc d liu lin quan n dch v IP Media. Cc thng tin ny bao gm s nhn thc thu bao, cc thng tin ng k, cc tham s truy nhp . N bao gm cc chc nng tng t nh ca HLR, AUC trong h thng di ng chuyn mch knh nhng i vi cc thu bao v dch v chuyn mch gi.

+CSCF (Call Session Control Function): Chc nng iu khin trng thi phin cuc gi, qun l vic thit lp, duy tr v gii phng cc phin a phng tin n v t ngi s dng. N bao gm cc chc nng nh: phin dch v nh tuyn. +MRCF (Multimedia Resource Control Function): Chc nng iu khin ti nguyn a phng tin. Khi c yu cu v cc phin lm vic a phng tin, MRFC s iu khin thc hin trn MRFP. MRFC cng m nhn chc nng gi cc thng tin v tnh cc. .1+ MRFP (Multimedia Resource Function Process): Cung cp ti nguync yu cu v ch dn bi MRFC. MRFP thc hin nhng chc nng sau: Kt hp gia cc dng d liu media u vo (c th t nhiu nh cung cp). L ngun cung cp cc thng bo v a phng tin. X l cc dng d liu a phng tin nh chuyn i m m thanh . .2+ MGCF (Media Gateway Control Function): Chc nng iu khin thit lp kt ni gia mng chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh. N x l cc bo hiu dch v n t cc thu bao chuyn mch gi v thc hin chuyn i giao thc lm vic gia 2 mng. 2.3.4. Lp dch v: C chc nng cung cp cc dch v theo yu cu ca ngi dng, c cht lng cao

nh: Cc dch v thng tin nh v, dch v a phng tin cht lng cao, dch v iu khin t xa, Vi m hnh ny, lp dch v l lp cung cp cc ni dung v d liu cho ngi s dng, ng thi n tng tc vi 2.4. CNG NGH TRN IP V IP DI NG Trong h thng thng tin di ng 4G th IP di ng (MIP: Mobile IP) l mt vn rt quan trng. Vn thch thc i vi IP di ng l phi chuyn cc ng dng IP n cc kt cui di ng. Hin nay c hai phin bn MIP l MIPv4 v MIPv6 c thit k m bo h tr di ng bn trong mng IPv4 v mng IPv6 tng ng. Trong h thng thng tin di ng 4G, trong giai on u, chng ta s dng c hai loi ny, sau s dn thay th IPv4 c mng ton IPv6. Bi v MIPv6 c nhiu u im hn hn so vi MIPv4 nh: -nh a ch: Chng ta thy rng vi di 32bit th MIPv4 khng th nh ht a ch cho cc thit b u cui c, cn MIPv6 th s bit dng nh a ch l 128bit sc nh a ch cho ton b cc thit b. -Vic nh tuyn ti u ch l mt b phn thm vo cho MIPv4 nhng n li l mt b phn tch hp ca MIPv6. -nh tuyn ti u MIPv4 vn i hi truyn ng hm lu lng gia cc my tnh i tc v nt di ng. Trong MIPv6 cc gi c th gi i khng theo tunnel m ch cn b sung thm mt tiu nh tuyn Cc loi truy nhp trong mng 4G Trong giai on pht trin u ca mng 4G, th tn ti c hai giao thc IP l MIPv4 v MIPv6, do yu cu phi c s chuyn i a ch trong qu trnh truy nhp khi cn thit. Truy nhp t MS n cc dch v c cc kh nng sau: 1) MS IPv4 truy nhp dch v IPv4 qua mng IPv4: C MS, loi dch v, v c mng s dng chung mt giao thc l IPv4. Trng hp ny thng xy ra khi chng l cc dch v v thit b u cui ca 2,5G v 3G. Khi MS v dch v trong cng mng, a ch IPv4 c nhn c s dng, cn khi dch v ngoi mng th phi s dng a ch IPv4 cng cng nh tuyn, do b phin dch a ch mng NAT (NAT: Network Address Translator) c s dng. 2) MS IPv6 truy nhp dch v IPv6 qua mng IPv6 Trong trng hp ny, c MS, loi hnh dch v v mng cng u s dng cng giao thc IPv6. Vi a ch IPv6, chng ta khng cn h tr ca b phin dch a ch mng (NAT). Khi c dch v v ngi dng nm cng trong mt mng th chng ta c th dng a ch v tr IPv6. 3) MS IPv6 truy nhp dch v IPv6 thng qua mang IPv4 Thng xy ra trong giai on u pht trin IPv6, yu cu c tunnel ca IPv6 qua IPv4. C hai trng hp xy ra: a) MS IPv6 trong mng IPv6 nhng phn mng ngoi kt ni ti dch v l IPv4. b) MS IPv6 roam ti mt mng IPv4 4) MS IPv6 truy nhp dch v IPv4 Trng hp ny t xy ra trong mng 4G. Tuy nhin khi xy ra nhiu th yu cu phi c NAT. 5) MS IPv4 truy nhp dch v ca

IPv6 Trng hp ny yu cu phi c b phin dch a ch t a ch IPv4 sang a ch IPv6. iu ny s c h tr bi mt Router hoc mt node no 6) MS IPv4 truy nhp dch v IPv4 thng qua mng IPv6 Giao tip gia hai mng dch v: 7) Server IPv4 giao tip vi Server IPv4 thng qua mng IPv4 8) Server IPv6 giao tip vi Server IPv6 thng qua mng IPv6 9) Server IPv6 giao tip vi Server IPv6 thng qua mng IPv4 Trng hp ny thng xy ra trong giai on u chuyn tip ln IPv6. Yu cu phi c ng hm (Tunnel) t IPv6 qua IPv4. ng hm ny c th c thit lp trc hoc c thit lp t ng. 10) Server IPv6 giao tip vi Server IPv4 Trng hp ny yu cu c b phin dch a ch mng-phin dch giao thc NAT-PT. Nu Server IPv6 l mt IMS, th ngoi vic chuyn i v ring bit giao thc IP, cn phi chuyn i SIP/SDP qua mt ALG. 11) Server IPv4 giao tip vi Server IPv6 Trng hp ny ging trng hp 4 12) Server IPv4 giao tip vi Server IPv4 thng qua mng IPv6 Trng hp ny t xy ra, bi khi IPv6 chim u th trong mng v IPv4 khng th khi tt c dch v s c trin khai IPv6.

CHNG 3 DCH V V CHT LNG DCH V TRONG MNG 4G

3.1. DCH V TRONG MNG 4G S cnh tranh gay gt trong lnh vc mng thng tin cng nh mng vin thng ang din ra trong nhng nm gn y. Khi s cnh tranh gia tng, iu c bit quan trng i vi cc cng ty l xc nh v tr thch hp mang li thun li cho bn thn mnh, v chun b cho mi trng truyn thng mi ang ni ln. Trong mi trng ny, s ha nhp, lin kt v cnh tranh ca cc thnh vin mi tham gia vo th trng phi hot ng tch cc tm ra phng thc mi, nhm gi v thu ht hu ht cc khch hng c tim nng. Cc nh cung cp dch v hin nay ang c gng tm ra li i ring cho mnh to ra s khc bit vi cc nh cung cp khc, chng hn nh tm kim phng thc mi ng nhn v ng gi dch v, thc hin gim cc chi ph hot ng, Trong cc chng trc chng ta nghin cu v sao phi ln 4G? V n c th p ng c: tc truy nhp ln ti 200Mb/s, h tr roaming ton cu, da trn mng li thun IP, tng tc mnh vi cc mng khc cng tn ti Tt c cc yu t m ra mt kh nng cung cp dch v di do cho mng 4G. C ba loi dch v ch yu trong 4G: dch v thi gian thc v thi gian khng thc, dch v ni dung, dch v qun l. Cc dch v ny gip cho cc nh khai thc c s iu khin, bo mt v tin cy tt hn ng thi gim chi ph vn hnh. Nh , cc nh cung cp dch v c th nhanh chng c ngun thu

mi. Phn sau s cp ti cc yu cu v dch v trong 4G v mt s dch v c th trin khai trc mt. 3.1.2 Cc loi dch v cung cp Cng ging nh h thng thng tin di dng th h 3, cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 4 cng s cung cp cc loi dich v chnh: di ng, vin thng v internet nhng vi tc cao hn ln n 200 Mbit/s v iu ng quan tm hn l cc dch v a phng tin. Vi kh nng cung cp cc dch v tc bit cao, cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 4 cung cp cc dch v cht lng tt, m bo: in thoi thy hnh, ti d liu nhanh, cc dch v thng tin v v tr, cc dch v thng mi di ng, cc dch v phn phi ni dung, cc dch v h tr ti d liu, cc dch v iu khin t xa, cc dch s liu tc bt thp, dch v s liu bt cao Cng c th phn chia dch v thnh hai loi chnh: Dch v c s v dch v a phng tin.Cc dch v c s gm:

-Cc dch v xa (Teleservice): L mt kiu dch v vin thng cung cp cc kh nng y bao gm c chc nng thit b u cui thng tin gia hai ngi s dng theo cc giao thc c tha thun gia cc c quan qun l bao gm: in thoi, cc cuc gi khn, dch v bn tin ngn, cc dch v nhm thoi, pht thanh thoi.v.v -Cc dch v mang (Bearer Service): L mt loi dch v vin thng cung cp kh nng truyn dn tn hiu gia hai giao din ngi s dng mng. -Cc dch v b sung (Supplementary): gm c: .1 + Cc dch v b sung bao gm .2+ Cc dch v b sung cho gi .3+ Cc dch v b sung a pha .4+ Cc dch v b sung cho mt cng ng .5 + Cc dch v b sung tnh cc + Cc dch v b sung hn ch cuc gi Cc dch v a phng tin gm: .1 -Cc dch v im ti im i xng: Truyn hnh hi ngh (cht lng cao, thp), in thoi thy hnh, in thoi, truy nhp Internet th in t, in thoi IP .2-Cc dch v im ti im khng i xng: Y t t xa c hnh nh, th ting, truy xut c s d liu nh mua hng theo catalog video, video theo yu cu (tin tc, th thao, phim), bo in t, xut bn in t, Fax. -Cc dch im a im a phng: Cc dch v phn phi thng tin gm c tin tc, d bo thi tit, truyn hnh di ng, truyn thanh di ng, Sau y xin a ra mt s dch v in hnh cho mng 4G.

Mt s loi hnh dch v in hnh cho 4G Truyn thng tc cao (High Multimedia): Vi kh nng truyn s liu tc cao, 4G cho php truy cp internet vi tc rt cao, phc v cho cc ng dng theo yu cu nh: video phn gii cao, audio cht lng hoc cc ng dng mua bn trc tuyn vi cc sn phm hu hnh nh m nhc, phn mm Dch v thoi (Voice telephony): 4G vn cung cp cc dch v thoi khc nhau ang tn ti nh ch cuc gi, chuyn cuc gi, gi ba bn, cc thuc tnh AIN khc nhau, Centrex, Class, Tuy nhin cn lu l 4G khng c gng lp li cc dch v thoi truyn thng hin ang cung cp; dch v th vn m bo nhng cng ngh th thay i, ch yu dng thoi trn nn IP. Tin nhn (Messaging): Khng ging nh dch v tin nhn thng thng trong mng 2G, 3G ch n thun l bn tin text. Tin nhn trong 4G cho php email i km v c th c s dng trong vic thanh ton trc tuyn cho cc dch v gia nh nh mua v xem phim, thanh ton ha n in nc, Dch v d liu (Data Service) cho php thit lp kt ni thi gian thc gia cc u cui, cng vi cc c t gi tr gi tng nh tnh tin cy v phc hi nhanh kt ni, cc kt ni chuyn mch o (SVC- Switched Virtual Connection), v qun l di tn, iu khin cuc gi, Tm li cc dch v d liu c kh nng thit lp kt ni theo bng thng v cht lng dch v QoS theo yu cu. Dch v a phng tin (Multimedia Service): cho php nhiu ngi tham gia tng tc vi nhau qua thoi, video, d liu. Cc dch v ny cho php khch hng va ni chuyn, va hin th thng tin. Ngoi ra, cc my tnh cn c th cng tc vi nhau.

Tnh ton mng cng cng (PNC: Public Network Computing): Cung cp cc dch v tnh ton da trn c s mng cng cng cho thng mi v cc khch hng. V d nh cung cp mng cng cng c th cung cp kh nng lu tr v x l ring ( chng hn nh lm ch mt trang web, lu tr/ bo v/ d phng cc file s liu hay chy mt ng dng tnh ton). Nh mt s la chn, cc nh cung cp dch v mng cng cng c th cung cp cc dch v thng mi c th (nh hoch nh ti nguyn cng ty (ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning), d bo thi gian, ha n chng thc, ) vi tt c hoc mt phn cc lu tr v x l xy ra trn mng. Nh cung cp dch v c th tnh cc theo gi, ngy, tun, hay theo ph bn quyn i vi dch v. Bn tin hp nht (Unified Messaging): H tr cung cp cc dch v voice

mail, email, fax mail, pages qua cc giao din chung. Thng qua cc giao din ny, ngi s dng s truy nhp (cng nh c thng bo) tt c cc loi tin nhn trn, khng ph thuc vo hnh thc truy nhp (hu tuyn hay v tuyn, my tnh, thit b d liu v tuyn). c bit k thut chuyn i li ni sang file vn bn v ngc li c thc hin server ng dng cn phi c s dng dch v ny. Mi gii thng tin (Information Brokering): Bao gm qung co, tm kim v cung cp thng tin n khch hng tng ng vi nh cung cp. V d nh khch hng c th nhn thng tin trn c s cc tiu chun c th hay trn cc c s tham chiu c nhn, Thng mi in t (E-Commerce/ M-Commerce): Cho php khch hng mua hng ha, dch v c x l bng in t trn mng; c th bao

gm c vic x l tin trnh, kim tra thng tin thanh ton tin, cung cp kh nng bo mt, Ngn hng ti nh v i ch ti nh nm trong danh mc cc dch v ny; bao gm c cc ng dng thng mi, v d nh qun l dy chuyn cung cp v cc ng dng qun l tri thc. Tr chi tng tc trn mng (Interactive gaming): Cung cp cho khch hng mt phng thc gp nhau trc tuyn v to ra cc tr chi tng tc (chng hn nh video games) Thc t o phn tn (Distributed Virtual Reality): tham chiu n s thay i c to ra c tnh cht k thut ca cc s kin, con ngi, a im, kinh nghim, ca th gii thc, nhng ngi tham d v cc nh cung cp kinh nghim o l phn tn v a l. Dch v ny yu cu s phi hp rt phc tp ca cc ti nguyn khc nhau. Qun l ti gia (Home Manager): Vi s ra i ca cc thit b mng thng minh, cc dch v ny c th gim st v iu khin cc h thng bo v ti nh, cc h thng ang hot ng, cc h thng gii tr, v cc cng c khc ti nh. Gi s nh chng ta ang xem ti vi v c chung ca, khng vn g c, ta ch vic s dng iu khin ti vi t xa xem c trn mn hnh ai ang ng trc ca nh mnh. Hoc chng hn nh chng ta c th quan st c ngi nh ca mnh trong khi ang i xa, hoc quan st c ngi trng tr ang chm sc em b nh th no khi ta ang lm vic ti c quan.

Ngoi cc dch v nu trn cn c rt nhiu dch v khc c th trin khai trong mi trng 4G nh: cc dch v ng dng trong y hc, chnh ph in t, nghin cu o to t xa, nhn tin a phng tin, Nh vy cc dch v th h sau l rt a

dng v phong ph, vic xy dng, pht trin v trin khai chng l m v linh hot. Chnh v vy n thun tin cho cc nh cung cp dch v v ng dng trin khai dch v n cho khch hng trong mng 4G. 3.1.2.1 Cc yu cu v dch v Dch v trn mng di ng 4G cn tun theo cc c tnh sau: Dch v truy nhp khng ng nht: cc h thng 4G s phi cung cp nhiu dng dch v ng vi nhiu loi thit b truy nhp u cui ca khch hng, cc mng truyn dn v cc tiu chun dch v c mong i. Cc kin trc dch v u cui s phi khai thc phng tin phn mm c c s ng hp tc. Mng truy nhp khng ng nht: C mt lot cc k thut mng s c s dng ti cng mt thi gian bao gm cc k thut dng trong cc mng c nh EDGE, HSCSD, GPRS v c cc mng peer-to-peer, Wifi, bluetoothCc kin trc 4G phi cung cp dch v trong sut nh tru tng ha cc mode khc bit c bn trong hot ng ca mng. Nhn dch v: Kin trc dch v phi l mt thc th thng mi cung cp cc dch v tng cng, vi ngha t nh cung cp dch v ny n nh cung cp dch v khc, iu ny c thc hin nh kin trc mng v kin trc dch v. Cc kin trc dch v trong mng di ng 4G phi tun theo cc tnh cht sau: Cc mu n nh ti nguyn v dch v m: Cc khung dch v phi c to ra, thit lp v sp xp mt cch c lp trong cc min chng ln ca cc nh cung cp dch v. Vic cung cp cc ti nguyn, kh nng v trng thi hin thi cn c m t v trao i gia cc nh cung cp dch v lin kt vi nhau, l mc ch ti bn li ti nguyn ti cc dch v c kt hp hay thc hin cc chc nng thng qua nh cung cp a phng. Mu nguyn l v tha thun kh nng m: Hin nhin tha thun kh nng cn c hiu trong mi trng c nhiu s kt hp v phc tp hn cc mng in thoi truyn thng. y l yu cu t nhin ging nh mt th trng da trn khun dng n nh dch v. Thc ra l cc k thut n nh ng da trn cc phng php kinh t nh u gi in t, i i vi cc h thng thanh ton/qung co/thanh ton thi gian thc cho s dng cc ti nguyn. Qun l trch nhim: Cc k thut qun l trch nhim da trn quan h gia cc nh cung cp dch v vi ngi s dng v gia cc nh cung cp dch v vi nhau. Cc mi quan h ang tn ti gia cc nh cung cp dch v c da trn cc hp ng gia cc hng kinh doanh ln mnh. Cc gi thit c th khng ph hp trong trng hp cc nh cung cp dch v tng bt thng. Better business bureau cung cp mt tc dch v chia thnh cc bn tham gia tin cy t cc thnh vin khng tin cy.

Cc nhm dch v kt hp: Mt mu c s dng cho nh hnh kt hp dch v ng thng qua cc k thut hp tc c yu cu. Cc tnh cht mong mun c th bao gm kh nng khm ph cc lin kt tim nng, cc k thut cho thit lp cc mi quan h trch nhim, cho qun l cc lin h trch nhim phn tn v qun l cc cp thay i ca cc h thng trong sut. Ch l khng phi tt c cc lin kt u l cc i tc tim nng. V d nh cung cp WiFi c th kt hp vi mt nh cung cp dch v thoi di ng t bo cung cp hai phn tch bit ng d liu cn bng thng ln v cc lung thoi cn bng thng thp trong vic h tr cc ng dng hi tho a phng tin ca ngi s dng. Trong trng hp ny, gi s l trong cng ln cn ca ngi s dng tn ti mt in thoi di ng v mt s loi thit b vi tnh mn hnh lin, cc thit b ny hnh thnh mt lin kt cho mt ng dng h tr trong sut vi dch v audio di theo ng mng in thoi cn dch v video di theo ng mng WiFi. Kh nng chu li dch v: Cc lin minh c th, nhm dch v kt hp cung cp c hi cho kh nng chu li tin tin. Cc tnh cht mong mun trong kha cnh ny bao gm khm ph li, ng k dch v v pht hin nh mode a truy nhp. 3.1.2.2 Xu hng dch v trong mng 4G xc nh c cc dch v trong mng 4G cng nh chin lc u t ca cc cng ty, xu hng pht trin cc dch v trong tng lai l vn rt cn xem xt. Trc ht chng ta cn quan tm n xu hng ca dch v thoi. y l dch v ph bin, lu i v thu nhiu li nhun nht t nhng ngy u cho n nay. Do , dch v thoi truyn thng s tip tc tn ti trong thi gian di. Sau , mt phn dch v truyn thng ny chuyn sang thng tin di ng v thoi qua IP. i vi dch v truyn thng a phng tin, hin nay H.323 l mi trng cho gii php thoi qua giao thc IP v cc dch v a phng tin tng i n gin. Tuy nhin, sau SIP s thay th cho H.323 do SIP c nhiu u im hn v thch hp vi cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin phc tp. Trong tng lai, tnh cc dch v theo ni dung v cht lng, khng theo thi gian s chim u th. Cui cng, phng thc truy nhp mng, ra lnh, nhn thng tin, bng li ni (voice portal) s l mt chn la trong tng lai. Hin nay, k thut chuyn i t li ni sang file vn bn v ngc li ang pht trin mnh.

Mc tiu chnh ca cc dch v trong 4G l cho php khch hng c th ly thng tin h mun bt k dng no, trong bt k iu kin no, ti mi ni v dung lng ty . Da trn cc khuynh hng c cp trn, sau y l mt s c tnh dch v quan trng trong mng 4G: Lin lc thng tin rng khp, thi gian thc, a phng tin, m bo tin cy, thn thin trong vic lin kt cc thu bao, truy nhp tc cao v truyn ti thng tin vi bt k phng tin no, vo mi lc, ti mi ni, Nhiu thc th v cc phn t mng thng minh c phn b trn ton mng. N bao gm cc ng dng cho php truy nhp v iu khin cc dch v mng. N cng c th thc hin cc chc nng c th thay th cho nh cung cp dch v hoc mng. Ta c th xem n nh mt tc t qun l c th thc hin gim st ti nguyn mng, tp hp cc s liu, D dng s dng. Khch hng khng b nh hng t cc qu trnh tp trung, x l v truyn dn thng tin phc tp ca h thng. N cho php khch hng truy xut v s dng cc dch v mng mt cch n gin hn, bao gm cc giao din ngi dng cho php tng tc t nhin gia khch hng v mng. Khch hng c cung cp cc thng tin hng dn, cc ty chn, cc tng tc qun l xuyn sut cc dch v. Ngoi ra n cn cung cp cc menu khc nhau cho nhng ngi cha c kinh nghim ngc li vi nhng ngi c kinh nghim, v cung cp mt mi trng thng nht cho cc dng thng tin. Cho php khch hng qun l h s cc nhn, t d phng cc dch v mng, gim st thng tin tnh cc, c nhn ha giao din ngi dng, to ra v d phng cc ng dng mi Qun l thng tin thng minh, gip ngi dng qun l s qu ti ca thng tin bng cch cung cp cho h kh nng tm, sp xp v lc cc bn tin hoc d liu, qun l chng cho mi phng tin. 1. 2. 3.2. CHT LNG DCH V TRONG MNG DI NG 4G 3.2.1 Khi nim QoS

3.2.1.1 Khi nim QoS theo ITU nh ngha v QoS theo tiu chun E800 ca ITU: Cht lng dch v vin thng l kt qu tng hp ca cc ch tiu dch v, th hin mc hi lng ca i tng s dng dch v . Hnh 3.1 m t mt cch tng qut cc khi nim c bn v QoS theo khuyn ngh ca ITU-T. Cc khi nim c trnh by trong s c th c p dng nh gi mc QoS c th t c trong thc t, hng ti mc QoS theo ch tiu hoc cc yu cu m t c tnh thit k mng. Tuy nhin tng khi nim trong s c th mang ngha th hin

theo mc tng th hay ring l, nhng khi nim c trnh by trong s c th cha th hin ton b nhng mi lin h ca chng. Kha cnh cn quan tm khi nh gi tng th mt dch v l quan im s dng dch v. Kt qu nh gi ny th hin mc hi lng ca nhng ngi s dng dch v. iu ny s c xem xt theo cc ni dung sau: Khi nim QoS. Mi quan h gia QoS v NP Cc ch tiu v QoS v NP Mt iu hin nhin l mt dch v c s dng ch khi n c cung cp v ngi ta mong mun nh cung cp dch v c s hiu bit c th v cht lng ca cc dch v m h pht hnh. Theo quan im ca nh cung cp dch v, khi nim NP l mt chui cc tham s mng c th c xc nh, c o v c iu hnh c th t mc hi lng ca ngi s dng v cht lng dch v. Nh cung cp dch v c nhim v phi t hp cc tham s NP khc nhau thnh mt b ch tiu c th va m bo cc nhu cu li ch kinh t ca mnh ng thi phi tho mn mt cch tt nht cho nhng ngi s dng dch v.

Trong khi s dng dch v, thng thng ngi s dng ch bit n nh cung cp dch v. Mc hi lng ca ngi s dng dch v ph thuc vo cht lng dch v QoS hay nhng cm nhn sau cng ca khch hng v thc hin dch v H tr dch v (service support performance) Khai thc dch v (service operability performance) Nng lc phc v (serveability performance) An ton dch v ( service security performance)

Hnh 3.1: Khi nim QoS v mi quan h QoS vi cht lng mng H tr dch v: l kh nng ca mt t chc cung cp dch v v tr gip trong vic s dng dch v cung cp . Khai thc dch v: l kh nng vn hnh dch v mt cch thnh cng v d dng ca ngi s dng, bao gm cc c tnh v thit b u cui, cc m hiu v tin bo d hiu Mc an ton dch v: l mc bo v chng li s gim st tri php, s dng gian ln, quy ph, thao tc sai, thm ho thin nhin.

Nng lc phc v: l kh nng dch v t c khi ngi s dng yu cu v tip tc c cung cp m khng c s suy gim qu mc trong khong thi gian s dng (trong nhng s thay i xc nh v cc iu kin khc nhau). Kh nng phc v l phn ph thuc vo c tnh mng nhiu nht v tip tc c chia thnh ba khi nim: -Nng lc truy nhp n dch v (service accessibility performance): l kh nng dch v t c trong nhng s thay i xc nh v cc iu kin khc nhau khi c yu cu bi ngi s dng -Nng lc duy tr dch v (service retainability performance): l kh nng ca mt dch v tip tc c cung cp trong cc iu kin a ra trong khong thi gian s dng. -Mc hon ho ca dch v (service integrity performance): l mc dch v c cung cp m khng b suy gim qu mc, mt khi t c Nng lc tnh cc chnh l thng s nh gi v ghi cc v ho n, trong phn xc sut v tnh cc sai, tnh cc tha v tnh cc thiu thuc v ch tiu ca QoS. Phn nh gi v chnh xc ghi cc l ch tiu ca cht lng mng. Qua hnh v 3.1, chng ta cng thy rng nng lc phc v s c mi lin h vi cc khi nim thuc phn cht lng mng nh kh nng x l lu lng, tin cy, ti nguyn v phng tin cng nh cht lng truyn dn (gm c nng lc truyn lan). iu ny c ngha l QoS c mi quan h cht ch vi cht lng mng. Cht lng mng l kh nng ca mng cung cp cc chc nng lin quan n thng tin gia nhng ngi s dng (theo ITU-E800). Dch v vin thng l cc hot ng trc tip hoc gin tip ca cc doanh nghip cung cp cho khch hng kh nng truyn, a v nhn cc loi thng tin thng qua mng li vin thng cng cng. QoS c xc nh bng cc ch tiu nh tnh v ch tiu nh lng. Ch tiu nh tnh th hin s cm nhn ca khch hng, cn ch tiu nh lng c th hin bng s liu o c th. C rt nhiu t chc a ra cc khi nim QoS nh ISO/IEC, RM-ODP, ETSI tuy nhin cc khi nim ny khng hon ton ging nhau. Sau y s trnh by thm khi nim QoS theo ETSI. 3.2.1.2 Khi nim QoS theo ETSI Theo ETSI th quan im ca ngi s dng /khch hng v mc QoS l s m t cc tham s sau: -Tng hp nhng kt qu m ngi s dng/khch hng nhn c, bao gm c nhng nguyn nhn lin quan n mng -Khng ph thuc vo nhng hiu bit ca khch hng v thit k mng chi tit -Nm c cc kha cch ca dch v theo quan im ca ngi s dng/khch hng -Cc khi nim lin quan n mng c m t theo mt ngn ng chung, d hiu bi

ngi s dng/khch hng v nh cung cp dch v. -C s hiu bit gia ngi s dng/khch hng v nh cung cp dch v

Hnh 3.2: Mi lin h gia cc khi nim QoS theo ETSI 3.2.2 Kin trc QoS C rt nhiu kin trc QoS c a ra cho mng di ng 4G. Sau y s gii thiu mt kin trc QoS: m bo QoS cn phi c kin trc QoS. N l mt framework m bo cht lng t u cui n u cui v cung cp cc chc nng tch hp v qun l iu khin QoS, v giao din QoS Cc nguyn tc ca QoS: -Tch hp (Integration): c kh nng cu hnh li, c th d on truc v c th qun l c thng qua tt c cc lp mng -Phn tch (Separation): tch gia bo hiu v d liu truyn. -Trong sut (Transparency): tch bit gia QoS v ng dng -Thc thi (performance): X l cc giao thc mt cch c hiu qu Nh vy kin trc QoS lin quan n: QoS specification, QoS mechanism, Traffic Engineering, QoS supporting protcol. QoS specification: -Yu cu QoS mc ng dng -K hoch chnh sch QoS trong mi lp -Cu hnh v duy tr c ch QoS -Theo tnh ng b, kh nng thc thi, mc dch v, chnh sch, gi,... QoS Mechanism -Cung cp QoS: sp

xp QoS, kim tra kt qu vo -iu khin QoS: theo trng thi, theo k hoch, chnh sch, iu khin, ng b. iu ny lin quan n qun l lu lng -Qun l QoS: gim st QoS, duy tr QoS QoS supporting protcol -H tr chuyn vng ca Micro mobility: CIP, Hawaii, HMIP -H tr chuyn vng ca Macro mobility: MIP v4, MIP v6 Tuy nhin cc tiu chun v cht lng ca dch v 4G cng nh 3G vn cn l vn ang uc cc nh chuyn mn, cc hng trn ton th gii nghin cu. Hin ti cha c cc tiu chun c th no v cht lng dch v ca mng 4G. cng l d hiu v theo kin trc QoS trn: nh gi ca ngi s dng: h mi s dng cc dch v th h mi cho nn cha c c s nh gi v cht lng. Bn cnh qu trnh pht trin mng cng nh dch v mng vn ang pht trin mnh v thit b, v cht lng dch v theo xu hng ngy mt tt hn v hon thin hn. QoS ca cc ng dng: cc ng dng mi giai on u ca s pht trin nn cha c nh gi mt cch chnh xc, c th v QoS Hiu nng ca cc thit b u cui, hiu nng ca mng, v hiu nng ca cc phn t mng: cc hng sn xut thit b trn th gii cng tp trung vo vn lin quan n cht lng dch v trong cc sn phm ca mnh, l mt u th cnh tranh quan trng. Tuy nhin qu trnh vn ang pht trin. Cc dch v v ng dng ca mng di ng 4G c phn loi theo tiu chun chung ca ITU-T/-R. Tuy nhin ng trn quan im QoS chng ta c th phn loi dch v theo nm mc sau: -m bo chc chn (deterministic guarantee) -m bo thng k (Statistical guarantee) -Mc tiu ch ( Target objectives) -N lc nht (best effort) -Khng m bo (no guarantee) -m bo chc chn: lun lun cung cp cc dch v vi QoS theo yu cu hoc tt hn trong mi hon cnh. -m bo thng k: cho php QoS c th khng c nh yu cu trong mt khong thi gian no . Ba phng php cui khng m bo QoS, nhng chng ta phn loi c cc bin php k thut hp l t c QoS mong mun. Vi h thng target objectives mng s c gng tho mn cc yu cu, sau cn c vo mc tiu m mng c th a ra

bin php hp l nh quyt nh u tin scheduling. Vi h thng best effort (v d mng internet), mng s cung cp QoS nh nhau cho ton b cc thu bao. No guarantee cng tng t nh best effort.

Hnh 3.3: Kin trc dch v trong mng di ng th h sau 3.2.3 Cc tham s QoS trong mng di ng 4G Phn loi Tham s Ghi ch tr ( delay) Tnh ng lc (Timeliness) Thi gian p ng (response time) Thi gian mt bn tin c truyn

Jitter Tc d liu mc h thng Bng thng (Bandwidth) Tc d liu mc mg dng Tc truyn ti (Transaction rate

bin ng ca tr hay thi gian phn hi

Kh nng x l/s

Khong thi gian hot MTTF (Mean time to ng bnh thng gia cc failure) s c Khong thi gian t khi c MTTR (Mean time to s c ti lc bt u hot repair) ng bnh thng MTBF (Mean time between failures) Phn trm thi gian s dng T l li hay mt mt MTTF/MTTF+MTTR T l li mng MTBF=MTTF+MTTR

tin cy (reliability)

- Picture detail - Video - phn gii nh Cm nhn ca khch smoothness -Video/audio synchronisation hng (Perceived QoS) Tin phi tr thit lp kt ni, hay truy cp li ti ti nguyn Per-unit cost Tin phi tr cho mt n v d liu hay n v thi gian (tc l cc kt ni v cc per query) S tin cn (Confidentiality) Ngn chn truy cp thng tin

Per-use cost Cc (Cost)

Tnh nguyn (Integrity) Tnh bo mt (Security) Non-repudiation sending or delivery S xc nhn (Authentication)

m bo d liu khng vn thay i trong qu trnh truyn dn of Cc ch k xc nhn ngi gi hay ngi nhn Kim chng nhn dng ca ngi s dng hay nh cung cp dch v ngn chn s gian ln....

3.2.4 Thch thc v cht lng dch v trong mng di ng 4G Trong cc mng v tuyn, cht lng dch v c da trn o lng hiu qu ca mt h thng c phn nh t cht lng truyn dn ti cc dch v ang c (v d 4G yu cu tin cy t ti 99,99%). QoS trong mng 4G phi i mt vi rt nhiu kh khn. Khi xem xt QoS phi quan tm ti rt nhiu yu t trong mng 4G nh: c tnh knh tc bin thin, n nh bng tn, mc dung sai li v h tr chuyn giao gia cc mng v tuyn khc nhau, H tr QoS xut hin trong ng gi, truyn dn, nh tuyn v ti cp mng. QoS c th khc nhau ti cc cp hot ng khc nhau. Cc c tnh knh tc thch ng cho cc ng dng thc t 4G c rng bng v cc yu cu truyn dn khc nhau. Theo yu cu cung cp mt mng vng chc cho truy nhp ti cc ng dng 4G h tr d cp pha trn, mng 4G phi oc thit k trn c hai phong din mm do v quy m. Cc tnh cht knh tc thay i phi c xem xt trn hiu nng ngi s dng yu cu v m bo qun l mng hiu qu. Ph l mt ti nguyn hu hn. Trong cc h thng v tuyn hin ti cp php tn s v qun l ph hiu qu l vn mu cht. Vi cc h thng 4G, n nh rng bng tn vn cn l mt s quan tm ln. S quan tm khc l ng hp tc gia cc k thut bo hiu c nh hng s dng trong 4G (v d 3xRTT, W-CDMA). So snh vi mng 2G v 2.5G hin ti, 4G c nhiu kh nng khc phc li nh chp nhn hay loi tr khi mng s c, vng ph km, rtt cuc gi. K thut 4G ha hn ci thin QoS nh s dng cc k thut chun on v cc cng c bo hiu. 4G s h tr tt hn roaming v chuyn giao gia cc mng khc nhau. 4G thm ch c th h tr roaming gia cc mng c cng ngh khc nhau nh s dng k thut bo hiu LASCDMA. Mt gii php khc l v tuyn nh ngha bng phn mm cng c th h tr roaming gia cc mng p dng cng ngh khc nhau. Phn ln cc thch thc v QoS trong 4G u dang c nghin cu v cc gii php ang c pht trin. Cc nh nghin cu rt tin tng 4G s to ra cht lng dch v hn hn mng 2G v 2.5G hin ti.

3.2.5 Bo mt dch v C nhiu thnh phn yu cu v bo mt mc cao trong mng 4G: Khch hng/ thu bao cn phi c tnh ring t trong mng v cc dch v c cung cp, bao gm c vic tnh cc. Thm vo , h yu cu dch v phi c tnh sn sng cao, cnh tranh lnh mnh v bo m s ring t ca h. Cc nh vn hnh mng, cc nh cung cp dch v, cc nh cung cp truy nhp u cn phi bo mt bo v hot ng, vn hnh v kinh doanh ca h, ng thi c th gip h phc v tt khch hng cng nh cng ng. Cc quc gia khc nhau yu cu v i hi tnh bo mt bng cch a ra cc hng dn v to ra cc b lut m bo tnh sn sng ca dch v, cnh tranh lnh mnh v tnh ring t. S gia tng ri ro do s thay i trong ton b cc quy nh v cc mi trng k thut cng nhn mnh s cn thit ngy cng gia tng v tnh bo mt trong mng. Cc vn cn bo mt Cc vn ny c thc hin trong mi dng cu hnh 4G, bao gm cc dng truyn dn khc nhau v x l cc nguy c sau y: T chi dch v: Nguy c ny tn cng vo cc thnh phn mng truyn dn bng cch lin tc a dn dp d liu lm cho cc khch hng khc khng th s dng ti nguyn mng. Nghe trm: Nguy c ny nh hng n tnh ring t ca mt cuc ni chuyn bng cch chn ng dy gia ngi gi v ngi nhn. Gi dng: Th phm s dng mt mt n to ra mt c tnh gi. V d anh ta c th thu c mt c tnh gi bng cch theo di mt m v ID ca khch hng, bng cch thao tc khi to tin nhn hay thao tc a ch vo/ra ca mng. Truy nhp tri php: Truy nhp vo cc thc th mng phi c hn ch v ph hp vi chnh sch bo mt. Nu k tn cng truy nhp tri php vo cc thc th mng th cc dng tn cng khc nh t chi dch v, nghe trm hay gi dng cng c th xy ra. Truy nhp tri php cng l kt qu ca cc nguy c k trn. Sa i thng tin: Trong trng hp ny, d liu b ph hng hay lm cho khng th s dng c do thao tc ca hacker. Mt hu qu ca hnh ng ny l nhng khch hng hp php khng truy xut vo ti nguyn mng c. Trn nguyn tc khng th ngn cn khch hng thao tc trn d liu hay ph hy mt c s d liu trong phm vi truy nhp cho php ca h. T chi khch hng: Mt hay nhiu khch hng trong mng c th b t chi tham gia vo mt phn hay ton b mng vi cc khch hng/ dch v/server khc. Phng php tn cng c th l tc ng ln ng truyn, truy nhp d liu hay sa i d liu. Trn quan im ca nh vn hnh mng hay nh cung cp dch v, dng tn cng ny gy hu qu l mt nim

tin, mt khch hng dn ti mt doanh thu. Cc gii php tm thi Cc bin php i ph c th chia thnh hai loi sau: phng chng v d tm. Sau y l cc bin php tiu biu: Nhn thc Ch k s iu khin truy nhp Mng ring o Pht hin xm nhp Ghi nht k v kim ton M ha Trong mi trng hp cn lu rng cc h thng vn hnh trong cc thnh phn ca mng 4G cn phi bo v cu hnh nh mt bin php i ph c bn:

Tt c cc thnh phn khng quan trng (chng hn nh cc cng TCP/UDP) phi tnh trng th ng. Cc c tnh truy nhp t xa cho truy nhp trong v truy nhp ngoi cng phi th ng. Nu cc c tnh ny c ng nhp, tt c cc hot ng cn c kim tra.

Bng iu khin server iu khin tt c cc c tnh vn hnh ca h thng cn c bo v. Tt c cc h thng vn hnh c mt vi c tnh c bit bo v bng iu khin ny.

H thng hon chnh c th ng nhp v kim tra. Cc log file cn phi c gim st thng xuyn.

Thm vo , cn phi nhn mnh rng mng t n phi c cch bo v cu hnh. V d nh nh vn hnh phi thc hin cc cng vic sau:

Thay i password l. Lm cho cc port khng dng phi khng hot ng c. Duy tr mt nht k password. S dng s nhn thc cc thc th. Bo v iu khin cu hnh.

CHNG 4 L TRNH TIN LN MNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H TH 4 CHO VIETTEL MOBILE 4.1. C IM MNG THNGTIN DI NG VIETTEL VietTel tuy l mng mi c hn mt nm nhng tnh n ngy 01/3/2006 c hn hai triu vt qua S-fone tr thnh nh cung cp dch v ln th 3 ti Vit Nam. Viettel ang y mnh pht trin thm cc vng ph sng v mua sm thm cc thit b mi. Vi hn 1700 trm thu pht sng hin ti v trn 1000 trm pht sng s u t vo nm 2006 mng ny s m rng vng ph sng v phc v nhu cu pht trin ca thu bao. V dch v chuyn vng quc t, d kin, n u qu II/2006 thu bao Viettel s lin lc c ti hu ht cc nc s dng cng ngh GSM (hn 200 mng GSM khc trn th gii). Th trng di ng Vit Nam hin ti c nh gi l tng trng ng th 2 trn th gii sau Trung Quc, s thu bao khng ngng tng, do nhu cu v vic s dng cc dch v ngy cng cao. Trong thi gian gn y, mng Viettel lin tc pht trin c v vng ph sng v cc loi hnh dch v. Hin nay Viettel a vo s dng GPRS p ng nhu cu s dng cc dch v d liu ngy cng cao ca cc thu bao. Cc dch v ch yu ca GPRS nh: WAP, truy nhp Internet c hai phng thc truy nhp Internet bng GPRS l truy nhp gin tip v truy nhp trc tip. Dch v nhn tin a phng tin. Video, xem cc on phim ti v, xem video trc tuyn. Ngoi ra cn c dch v thng mi in t di ng, dch v ngn hng, qung co trn in thoi di ngdo gi cc cn cao nn cc loi hnh dch v ny cha thu ht c nhiu thu bao ch thu ht c nhng thu bao c thu nhp cao. Da trn nhu cu th trng Vit Nam, hin ti chng ta thy rng nhu cu chnh trong thng tin di ng vn l dch v thoi truyn thng, dch v d liu cng bt u tng trng, theo d on tng s thu bao c nhu cu dch v d liu chim khong 50% vo nm 2010. Vi i sng thu nhp ngy cng cao ca ngi dn, nhu cu cc dch v cht lng tt ngy cng ln, th mng di ng Viettel ngy cng phi nng cp p ng c cc nhu cu ny. Mt khc, xu hng chung trn th gii l hi t tt c cc mng vin thng li vi nhau. Do , yu cu pht trin mng thng tin di ng ln th h 4G c tc cao, s dng all IP c kh nng tch hp vi cc mng khc l yu cu tt yu ca mng di ng Viettel. Vi nn tng h tng c s, cng vi s pht trin ca mng di ng Viettel hin nay, chng ta thy rng mng thng tin di ng ny hon ton c th pht trin ln 4G trong tng lai. pht trin cc h thng GSM hin ti ln 4G, nh khai thc dch v cn ch ti nhng vn sau:

Pht trin dch v: Song song vi vic gim gi cc, cn pht trin cc dch v mi

theo hng i ln thng tin di ng th h th t nh GPRS, EDGEnhm thu ht thu bao v tin gn n s tng thch vi cc h thng 4G. S xut hin nhng kh khn ln trong vic ng thi gim gi cc v pht trin dch v, v gi cc gim s lm gim li nhun tc thi ca doanh nghip, dn n cn tr s pht trin cc dch v mi. Nhng y l hai vn m cc nh khai thc vin thng cn phi thc hin nu mun cnh tranh hiu qu trong bi cnh m ca ca th trng vin thng. Quy hoch mng: Quy hoch mng hin nay ang l mt vn cn quan tm i vi cc mng di ng. Khi mng li pht trin cng ln, s lng thu bao cng tng th hin tng nhiu gia cc ln cn cng tng tng ng. Do vn ti u ho mng thng tin di ng trong qu trnh pht trin i ln thng tin di ng th h th ba l rt cn thit. Xy dng c s h tng vin thng: iu kin tin quyt pht trin h thng di ng bng rng l cc mng xng sng backbone phi c dung lng ln v cng ngh tng thch vi mng core network ca 3G, 4G. Ni mt cch khc, thc ht phi pht trin cc dch v c tc cc v linh hot nh ATM ng thi cng phi tng tc cho cc kt ni vo Internet v mc ch chnh ca vic tng tc truyn d liu cho thu bao l tng tc thuy cp Internet. M hnh pht trin ca cng ngh di ng t 2G ln 4G:

Hnh 4.1: M hnh pht trin ln 4G t h thng GSM 4.2. TIN TRNH TRIN KHAI LN 4G T 2.5 G CA MNG VIETTEL c th a ra c cc bc pht trin theo mi giai on, chng ta cn xem xt xu hng pht trin mng 3G trong tng lai. Phin bn 3GPP R5 hng ti vic pht trin mt mng ton IP. Cc bc chuyn i cho cc nh khai thc GSM nc ta hin nay l trin khai mng li d liu gi GPRS (IP) ri mi n WCDMA s l phng n ph hp nht vi mt iu kin duy nht l mng li IP ca GPRS phi c s dng lm c s cho mng li ca mng 3G WCDMA. tin ln 4G, c th chia thnh 5 giai on. Giai on u kt hp GSM vi GPRS, giai on th hai thit lp mng UMTS, giai on ba chuyn sang mng li c s IP, giai on l mng c s IP, v cui cng l trin khai mng 4G. Cc bc chi tit c gii thiu nh sau:

Giai on 1: Kt hp GPRS vo mng GSM Giai on ny d kin hon thnh trong nm 2006. Thc cht vn y l ch yu

nhm vo vic chun b mt mng li IP cho 3G trong tng lai gn vi hai nt mng cho dch v d liu gi l GGSN v SGSN. GGSN c kt ni vi mng GSM ang c qua SGSN v PCU (Packet Control Unit). PCU c lp t pha BSC vi mc ch b sung chc nng iu khin gi cho BSC trong qu trnh khai thc dch v GPRS. Cu trc mng GPRS c xy dng trn nn ca h thng GSM hin ti. H thng mng truy cp ca GSM c gi nguyn m ch cn nng cp phn mm. C th BTS, BSC phi c nng cp phn mm, MS phi c chc nng GPRS, HLR/VLR, AuC v EIR cng cn c nng cp phn mm qun l dch v d liu. Phn h mng li c b sung thm phn chuyn mch gi vi hai nt chnh: Nt h tr dch v GPRS(SGSN) v nt h tr cng GPRS(GGSN). Bng cch ny, vi nng cp khng ng k, h thng c th cung cp dch v d liu gi cho thu bao di ng rt thch hp vi cc dch v d liu khng i xng. Giai on ny ch yu nhm vo vic chun b mt mng li IP cho 3G trong tng lai gn vi hai nt mng cho dch v d liu gi l GGSN v SGSN. Chc nng nh tuyn chnh c thc hin thc hin thng qua cc im h tr, bao gm: GGSN v SGSN. Bn cnh c mt mng backbone ni cc im GGSN v SGSN vi nhau, v mt cng bin gii kt ni vi cc mng PLMN khc. Ngoi ra cn c server qun l tn min phc v cho mc ch bin dch a ch.

Hnh 4.2: Cu trc mng GSM-GPRS tng tc trn giao din v tuyn, EDGE thay th phng thc iu ch GMK ca GSM (1bit/ symbol) bng iu ch 8-PSK, tng ng vi 3bit/symbol. Tc symbol ca mt knh vt l trong EDGE l 271 kbit/s, tc l 69,2 kbp/khe thi gian, gp 3 ln so vi tc 22,8 kbit/s /khe thi gian nu dng GSMK.

Bng vic s dng li cu trc ca GPRS, EDGE c th cung cp dch v truyn d liu gi vi tc t 11,2 kbit/s n 69,2 kbit/s cho mt khe thi gian. Ngoi ra, EDGE cn h tr phng thc s dng nhiu khe thi gian tng tc truyn gi ln 554 kbit/s. Vic trin khai EDGE trong cc h thng GSM i hi phi nng cp h tng v tuyn, cn phn core network s khng c nhiu thay i v cc node ca GPRS, SGSN, GGSN u t nhiu c lp vi tc truyn d liu. i vi cc giao thc truyn trong sut, EDGE s thc hn c ch tng tch kt ni (lin adaptation) thay i cc phng thc m ho v iu ch nhm cung cp cc khe thi gian c cht lng p ng cc yu cu v tc bit v BER. Giai on hai: Trin khai mng UMTS Trong giai on ny, bn cnh vic s dng cc BTS GSM sn c, cc trm mi trin khai l cc Node B (Node B Universal BTS), c kt ni vi mng di ng qua cc RNC (Radio Network Controler). Cc RNC c th ni trc tip vi SGSN hoc ni vi MSC. Lc ny MSC v SGSN c thay i cho mc ch thch ng vi mng UMTS nn gi l MSCu v SGSNu. Nhng thay i ny l cn thit tng bc xo b mng GSM th h hai, pht trin ln mng 3G. Cc Node B l cc trm thu pht gc chung (Node B Universal BTS) tch hp u t v t cc site GSM ang tn ti (tng v m, M-Cell, InCell). Chng rt linh hot s dng li/ trin khai cc site ang tn ti. Trong giai on ny chng ta tin hnh trin khai th nghim mng 3G ti H Ni, Nng v Thnh ph H Ch Minh. D kin thi gian tin hnh th nghim l t thng 10/2006 n 12/2006.

Hnh 4.3: M hnh trin khai mng UMTS Giai on 3: mng li c s IP Trong giai on ny, Viettel Mobile s tp trung cho vic pht trin mng li thng qua vic xy dng mt mng li IP c tc cao, s dng nhng cng ngh tin tin. Song song vi qu trnh ny, Viettel Mobile s nng cp MSC Server, MGW. MGW s c nng cp ln m bo c nhng tnh nng: -Giao din Gigabit Ethernet cho kt ni vi mng li IP. -Chc nng nn tn hiu thoi GSM, c kh nng chuyn i m tn hiu PCM sang IP v ngc li. p ng vic pht trin thoi v d liu, Viettel Mobile tin hnh ng thi vic nng cp MSC Server v MGW cng vi vic m rng dung lng ca chng. Giai on ny d kin c thc hin t thng 6 nm 2007 vi kh nng p ng c 4 triu thu bao GSM v 1 triu thu bao 3G.

Hnh 4.4: Mng li c s IP Giai on 4: Mng c s IP v trin khai mng 3,5G Trn c s mng li IP v mng 3G c xy dng, Viettel Mobile s tp trung pht trin dch v 3G cung cp cho khch hng. iu ny c thc hin thng qua vic pht trin ln IMS v 3,5G cho ton mng. Cu trc mng IMS trn nn tng IP core s m bo c vic cung cp cc dch v a phng tin trong tng lai cho khch hng. y l qu trnh chuyn dch mng di ng sang hng IP trn c s mt nn tng dch v IP linh ng ca IMS. ng thi vi cc cng ngh tin tin trong 3,5G cng gii quyt c cc vn i vi mng truy nhp v tuyn. Vi cc cng ngh HSDPA v HSUPA cho php ci thin ng k tc d liu ti ngi s dng. y l nn tng v l bc chun b cho vic pht trin tip theo ln mng 4G ca Viettel Mobile. M hnh cu trc mng c th hin trn hnh 4.5.

Hnh 4.5: M hnh mng 3,5G Viettel Mobile Cc kha cnh k thut thc hin trong ni dung HSDPA bao gm: Pht knh chia s iu ch v m ha thch ng K thut pht a m Yu cu lp li t ng nhanh HARQ.

nng cp t cng ngh WCDMA ln HSDPA, th cn phi thay i phn cng v phn mm ca RNC, Node B (BS), v UE. S thay i chnh l lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC: Medium Access Control), Node B c thm MAC-hs iu khin ti nguyn ca knh HS-DSCH. Node B cng c ci tin c th lin tc gim st cht lng tn hiu nh nhn c cc bn tin v cht lng knh hin thi, cho php kch hot giao thc HARQ t lp vt l, gip cho cc qu trnh pht li nhanh hn. Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC-Medium Access Control) c t ti Node B, do cho php truy nhp nhanh hn ti cc gi tr o lng tuyn kt ni, lp lch gi hiu qu hn v nhanh hn, cng nh iu khin cht lng cht ch hn. Bng cch s dng k thut m ha Turbo tc thay i, iu ch 16QAM, cng nh hot ng a m m rng, knh HSDSCH h tr tc d liu nh t 120Kbps ti hn 10 Mbps.

Hnh 4.6: Thay i RNC v Node B

HSUPA s dng cc k thut, cng ngh ca HSDPA nhng c p dng cho knh ng ln. Giai on 5: Trin khai mng 4G

Hnh 4.7: M hnh cu trc mng 4G Viettel Mobile Sau giai on 4, th mng c da trn nn IP, c tc kh cao. Trong

giai on 5 ny chng ta cn nng cp giao din v tuyn, nng cp mng thm nhp v tuyn, thit b u cui, n c tnh linh hot trong qu trnh giao tip vi nhau. Ngoi ra, thay th dn IPv4 thnh IPv6. a ra mt s giao thc chun cho cc mng d dng trong vic tch hp cc mng vi nhau. Vi cu trc ny, th Viettel Mobile c th cung cp c nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau, c tc cao, cht lng tt. Lc ny, mng c th tch hp c vi nhiu mng khc nhau nh WiMAX, WLAN, 4.4 KT LUN Vi iu kin ca Vit nam v c s h tng vin thng m Viettel ang qun l, vic nng cp tng bc mng li thng tin di ng nhm tin ti 4G, v trc mt p ng nhu cu dch v GPRS nh cp trn l hp l v cn thit. Qua tng bc phat trin nh trn, ta c th tn dng ngun c s vt cht sn c, ng thi tip cn c cng ngh hin i nhm xy dng mt mng li thng tin di ng hin i, p ng c nhu cu ca ngi s dng. Vic pht trin cc thng tin di ng th h th t l mt xu hng tt yu m tt c cc quc gia trn th gii u phi thc hin. Tuy nhin, phm vi, mc v thi gian trin khai s khc nhau i vi iu kin c th ca tng quc gia, tng khu vc.

KT

LUN

Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng v mi mt ca i sng x hi, th nhu cu ca con ngi cng ngy cng tng trn tt c cc lnh vc. c bit trong lnh vc thng tin, con ngi mong mun thng tin c cp nhp nhanh nht, d liu c ly vi tc cao. Trong thng tin di ng, cng ngh WCDMA ra i l mt bc pht trin ln, n lm tng tc truy cp mng ln n 2Mbps, h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v Internet di ng a phng tin vi cht lng c ci thin so vi 2,5G. Trong giai on tip theo, ngi ta pht trin mt cng ngh mi l cng ngh HSDPA. Vi nhiu k thut mi, cng ngh ny c th t tc truyn d liu ln n 10Mbps. Tuy nhin, cng ngh HSDPA cng cha p ng c ht c nhu cu pht trin dch v ca con ngi. Ngi s dng mong mun mng c tc truyn d liu cao hn na, cht lng dch v tt, c bit l c kh nng tch hp c vi cc mng khng dy khc. Vi yu cu , mng thng tin di ng th h 4 ra i. Kh nng truyn d liu tc cao ln n 160Mbps, cht lng cc dch v tt, kh nng tch hp d dng vi cc mng khc, phn no p ng c nhu cu ca con ngi. Viettel hin l mt trong nhng nh cung cp dch v vin thng, di ng hng u Vit Nam. Vi mong mun phc v ngi dng cc dch v cht lng cao, Viettel khng ngng vn ng, nng cp, pht trin mng in thoi di ng ca mnh. Vic nghin cu cc xu hng pht trin v cng ngh v dch v mi cng khng nm ngoi mc tiu ny. Cng ngh 4G vi nhng tnh nng u vit ca n cng nh li ch trong vic cung cp v s dng dch v l mt xu hng tt yu cho cc nh cung cp dch v di ng. Chng ti mong mun ti ny s l ti liu c ch cho Viettel Mobile cng nh gp phn no trong vic nh hng v pht trin cng ngh cho mng di ng Viettel Mobile. Chng ti xin chn thnh cm n!

Cc t vit tt
3G Third Generation 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project 4G AAL

Fourth Generation ATM Adaptation Layer

AMC Adaptive Modulation and Coding ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode BCCH Broadcast Control Channel BER BSC BSS BTS CCCH CDMA CN CPCH CPCH CPCH

Bit Error Rate Base Station Controller Base Station System Base Transceiver Station Common Control Channel Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Common Packet Channel Common Pilot Channel Common Packet Channel Power Control Part

PCP CQI Channel Quality Indicator CRC Cyclic Redundance Check CS Circuit Switching CSCF Call Session Control Function DCH Dedicated Channel DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPCH Dedicated Physical Channel DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel DTX Discontinuos Transmission EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute FACH Forward Access Channel FDD Frequency Correction Channel H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 D n hp tc thng tin

di ng th h 3 H thng thng tin di ng th h 4 Lp thch ng ATM iu ch v m ha thch ng Ch pht khng ng b Knh iu khin qung b Tc li bt B iu khin tm gc H thng trm gc Trm thu pht gc Knh iu khin chung a truy nhp phn chia theo m Mng li Knh gi chung Knh hoa tiu chung Phn iu khin cng sut knh gi chung Ch th cht lng knh Kim tra vng d Chuyn mch knh Chc nng iu khin phin cuc gi Knh ring Knh iu khin vt l dnh ring Knh vt l ring Knh d liu vt l ring Pht khng lin tc Tc s liu tng cng pht trin GSM Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u. Knh truy nhp ng xung Ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s

GGSN Gi GMSC Gn Gp Gr Gs

GSM GTP-U Gx HARQ HLR HSCSD HSDPA HS-DSCH HSPDSCH HSS HS-SCCH HS-SICH IMS IP M3UA MAC MCS MEHO MGCF MGW MIMO MRFC

Gateway GPRS Support Node Interface Between GGSN and External Network Gateway MSC Interface Between Two GSNs Interface Between Two GGSNs Interface Between SGSN and HLR/AuC Interface Between SGSN and Serving MSC/VLR Global System for Mobile communication User Plane Part of the GPRS Tunelling Protocol Any G Interface Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Home Location Register High Speed Circuit Switched Data High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel Home Subscriber Server Shared Control Channel for HS-DSCH Shared Information Channel for HS-DSCH Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem Internet Protocol MTP3-User Adaptation Layer Medium Access Control Modulation and Coding scheme

Nt h tr GPRS cng Giao din gia GGSN v mng bn ngoi. Trung tm chuyn mch di ng cng Giao din gia hai GSN Giao din gia hai GGSN Giao din gia SGSN vi HLR/AuC Giao din gia SGSN vi MSC/VLR phc v H thng thng tin di ng ton cu Pha ngi s dng ca giao thc Tunel GPRS Giao din G Yu cu pht li t ng nhanh B ghi nh v thng tr S liu chuyn mch knh tc cao Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao Knh chia s ng xung tc cao Knh chia s ng xung vt l tc cao Knh iu khin chia s cho HS DSCH Knh thng tin chia s cho HS-DSCH Giao thc Internet Lp thch ng ngi s dng-MTP3 iu khin truy nhp mi trng Lc iu ch v m ha

Mobile Evaluated Handover Media Gateway Control Function Media Gateway Multi Input Multi Output Multimedia Resource Function Controller

Chuyn giao quyt nh bi thu bao Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin Cng a phng tin a u vo a u ra iu khin chc nng ti nguyn a

MRFP

Multimedia Resource Function Processor Mobile Switching Centre Message Transfer Part Level 3 Network Evaluated Handover Network Packet Data Network Protocol Data Unit Physical Random Access Channel Packet Switching Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Link Budget Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Round Robin Radio Resource Control Signalling Connection Control Part Simple Control Transmission Protocol

phng tin X l chc nng ti nguyn a phng tin Trung tm chuyn mch di ng Mc 3 ca phn truyn bn tin Chuyn giao quyt nh bi mng Mng Mng d liu gi n v s liu giao thc Knh truy nhp ngu nhin vt l Chuyn mch gi iu ch bin cu phng Cht lng dch v Kha dch pha cu phng Knh mang truy nhp v tuyn Knh truy nhp ngu nhin Mng truy nhp v tuyn Phn ng dng mng truy nhp v tuyn Qu ng truyn iu khin lin kt v tuyn B iu khin mng v tuyn Phn h mng v tuyn Phng php vng iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn Phn iu khin ni thng bo hiu Giao thc truyn dn iu khin n gin

MSC MTP3b NEHO NW PDN PDU PRACH PS QAM QoS QPSK RAB RACH RAN RANAP

RLB RLC RNC RNS RR RRC SCCP SCTP

SDU SEG SGSN SGW SMS SSCFNNI

Service Data Unit Security Gateway Serving GPRS Support Node Signalling Gateway Short Message Service Service Specific Co-ordination FunctionNetwork Node Interface

n v s liu phc v Nt h tr GPRS phc v Dch v tin ngn Chc nng iu phi c th dch vgiao din nt mng

SSCOP TCH TCP TDD

Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol Traffic Channel Transmission Control Protocol Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiple Access Terminal Equipment Transport Format Combination Indicator Transport Format Resource Combination Transport Format and Resource Indicator Transmit Power Control Transmission Sequence Number User Datagram Protocol User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Subcriber Identity Module Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Radio Interface for UTRA Visitor Location Register Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

Giao thc nh hng theo ni thng c th dch v Knh lu lng Giao thc iu khin pht Ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian Thit b u cui Ch th t hp khun dng pht T hp ti nguyn khun dng pht iu khin khun dng v ti nguyn pht iu khin cng sut pht S chui pht Giao thc datagram ngi s dng Thit b ngi dng H thng vin thng di ng ton cu Mun ch th thu bao ton cu Truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton cu Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton cu Giao din v tuyn dng cho UTRA Thanh ghi nh v tm tr a truy nhp phn chia theo m bng rng

TDMA TE TFCI TFRC TFRI

TPC TSN UDP UE UMTS USIM UTRA UTRAN

Uu VLR WCDM A

Ti

liu

tham

kho

1. 1. Thng tin di ng th h 3 Tc gi: TS Nguyn Phm Anh Dng Nh xut bn bu in 2001. 2. 2. H thng thng tin di ng 3G v xu hng pht trin Tc gi: TS. ng nh Lm, TS. Chu Ngc Anh, ThS. Nguyn Phi Hng, ThS. Hong Anh Nh xut bn khoa hc k thut 2004. 3. 3. The IMSIP Multimedia Concepts and Services in the Mobile Domain Cc tc gi: Miikka Poikselka, Georg Mayer, Hisham Khartabil, Aki Niemi 4. 4. WCDMA mobile communications system Tc gi: Keiji Tachikawa, Ti liu ca NTT DoCoMo, Nht Bn 5. 5. 4G Mobile Cc tc gi: D.Rouffet, S. Kerboeuf, L. Cai, V. Capdevielle, Ti liu ca Alcatel 6. 6. An Architecture Supporting Adaptation and Evolution in Fourth Generation Mobile Communication Systems Cc tc gi: Christian Prehofer, Wolfgang Kellerer, Robert Hirschfeld, Hendrik Berndt, Katsuya Kawamura. 7. 7. Mobility Aspects in 4G Networks Cc tc gi: Frederic Paint, Paal Engelstad, Erik Vanem, Thomas Haslestad, Anne Mari Nordvik, Kjell Myksvoll, Stein Svaet

8. 8. Packet Scheduling and Quality of Service in HSDPA Tc gi: Pablo Jos, Ameigeiras Gutirrez. 9. 9. Tnh ton mng thng tin di ng s cellular Tc gi: V c Th - Nh xut bn Gio Dc 2003. 10. 10. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA): Higher Data Rates for UMTS, Naveen Shankpal. 11. 11. HSDPA for Improved Downlink Data Transfer, QUALCOMM 12. 12. http://www.3GPP.org 13. 13. http://www.3GPP2.org 14. 14. http://www.4g.co.uk/ 15. 15. http://www.3g.co.uk/

MC LC
LI M U Chng 1: Xu hng pht trin cng ngh v dch v ca cc mng di ng 1 1.1. Gii thiu h thng thng tin di ng 4G 1 1.2. Lch s v xu hng pht trin 1
Chng 2.2. 2.2.1. u 2.2.2. 2.3.Chc 1.3. Cc ng dng v dch v trong 4G M hnh cu trc mng 4G 2.1 Ccyu cu v cu trc mng mi M hnh mng 4G nhc im ca cu trc mng 3G v 3,5G M hnh mng thng tin di ng 4G nng cc phn t trong m hnh 2 9 16 16 21 21 23 25

2.3.1.Cc 2.3.2. 2.3.3. 2.3.4. 2.4. Chng 3.1.

phn t mng truy nhp v tuyn 25 Cc phn t ca mng li 29 Chc nng iu khin 31 Dch v: 34 Cng ngh trn IP v IP di ng 35 3 Dch v v cht lng dch v trong mng 4G 37 Dch v trong mng 4G 37 3.1.1. Gii thiu 37 3.1.2. Cc loi dch v cung cp 37 3.2. Cht lng dch v trong mng di ng 4G 44 3.2.1 Khi nim QoS 44 3.2.2 Kin trc QoS 48 3.2.3 Cc tham s QoS trong mng di ng 4G 51 3.2.4 Thch thc v cht lng dch v trong mng di ng 4G 53 3.2.5 Bo mt dch v 54 Chng 4 L trnh tin ln mng di ng th h 4 cho mng Viettel 57 4.1. c im mng thng tin di ng Viettel 57 4.2. Tin trnh trin khai ln 4G t 2.5G ca mng Viettel 58 4.3 Kt lun 65 KT LUN 66

PH TI

LC: LIU

CC

THUT THAM

NG

VIT KHO

TT 71

67

DANH SCH HNH V

Hnh

1.1:

Cc

th

di

ng

3 th nghim 8

Hnh

1.2:

trnh

hiu

nng

do

Alcatel

Hnh 1.3: nh hng qua li gia cc lp v ti u lin quan

Hnh

1.4:

Cc

dch

ng

dng

trong

4G

12

Hnh

1.5:

hnh

cc

dch

trong

mng

4G

15

Hnh 2.1: S pht trin ca cc mng khc nhau dn n 4G Hnh 2.2: S kt hp cc mng khc nhau

16 17

Hnh 2.3: Ngi dng cc mng khc nhau c th truy nhp vo h thng 18 Hnh 2.4: Tnh di ng ca mng 20 Hnh 2.5: Tc truyn d liu trong mng 4G 21 Hnh 2.6: M hnh cu trc mng 4G 24 Hnh 2.7: Nguyn l OFDM 28 Hnh 2.8: Cu trc chc nng ca khi IP multimedia 33 Hnh 4.1: M hnh pht trin ln 4G t h thng GSM 58 Hnh 4.2: Cu trc mng GSM-GPRS 60 Hnh 4.3: M hnh trin khai mng UMTS 61 Hnh 4.4: Mng li c s IP 62 Hnh 4.5: M hnh mng 3.5G Viettel Mobile 63 Hnh 4.6: Thay i RNC v Node B 64 Hnh 4.7: M hnh cu trc mng 4G Viettel Mobile 64