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LI NI U
Ch vi lch s hn 40 nm ra i v pht trin trong din bin nhanh nh v bo
ca cuc cch mng cng ngh Vin thng, thng tin v tinh ngy nay tr nn qu
quen thuc trn phm vi ton cu, trong c Vit Nam.
Trong tnh hnh chung ca th gii hin nay, cc quc gia u ch trng pht trin
theo xu hng hi nhp vi khu vc v ton cu ho, v l vai tr ca thng tin l
rt quan trng. iu ny t ra yu cu l phi c mt mng li thng tin hin i,
sc p ng nhng nu cu kt ni ng thng tin n mi ni, mi lc. Mt trong
nhng cng ngh vin thng mi hin nay l h thng thng tin s dng v tinh. Loi
hnh thng tin ny tuy mi bt u ng dng thc tin t nhng nm 60, nhng do c
nhiu u im cho h thng vin thng m n nay c s pht trin mnh m v s
lng v cht lng.
Trong bi cnh va cnh tranh khc lit va tha k nhng thnh tu vt bc vi
cc phng thc truyn dn khc (in hnh l cp si quang), thng tin v tinh ngy
nay vn gi vai tr quan trng trong lnh vc truyn thng, c bit tnh qung b ca
n v ang m nhim mt t trng khng nh trong vic chuyn ti nhiu loi
hnh dch v t mng vin thng Quc t cho ti tn tng h gia nh.
Tin trnh p dng cng ngh thng tin v tinh vo mng Vin thng nc ta c
bt u t nm 1980 n nay l mt yu t gp phn em li s phn vinh ca
ngnh Bu in Vit Nam ni ring v nn kinh t quc dn ni chung trong 25 nm
qua. H qu tt yu ca qu trnh pht trin ny l d n phng v tinh Vin thng
ring ca Vit Nam ang c trin khai mt cch khn trng v d kin s tr thnh
hin thc trong thi gian sp ti.
Trong bn lun vn ny em nghin cu tng quan v l thuyt thng tin v tinh
a tnh v ng dng phn tch v tnh ton ng truyn cho knh thu ring qua
v tinh.

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CHNG 1

THNG TIN V TINH A TNH

1.1. GII THIU CHUNG


1.1.1. S ra i ca h thng thng tin v tinh
Thng tin v tuyn qua v tinh l thnh tu nghin cu trong lnh vc truyn
thng nhm mc ch khc phc cc nhc im ca mng v tuyn mt t, t c
mc gia tng cha tng c v c ly v dung lng, em li cho khch hng nhiu dch
v mi vi chi ph thp nht c th c.
Trong chin tranh th gii ln th hai, to ra cc v kh, kh ti ngy cng hin
i, cc nc tham chin buc phi nghin cu hai k thut mi l: tn la tm xa v
truyn dn viba. Hai k thut ny lc u ch l nhng k thut ring r, xut pht t
nghin cu ny, v sau ngi ta tm cch kt hp hai k thut ny vi nhau v thng
tin v tinh bt u c cp n. Dch v cung cp qua thng tin v tinh b sung
mt cch hu ch cho cc dch v m trc duy nht ch do cc mng di t
cung cp, s dng v tuyn v cp.
K nguyn v tr c bt u vo nm 1957 vi vic phng v tinh nhn to u
tin (v tinh Sputnik ca Lin X c). Nhng nm tip sau li nhng n tng
bi rt nhiu cc cuc th nghim, trong phi k n cc s kin sau: Li chc
mng Ging sinh ca Tng thng M Eisenhower qua v tinh SCORE nm 1958,
phng thnh cng v tinh phn x ECHO nm 1960, truyn dn kiu lu tr v chuyn
tip bng v tinh COURIER nm 1960, cc v tinh chuyn tip bng rng TELSTAR
v RELAY nm 1962 v v tinh a tnh u tin SYNCOM nm 1963.
Trong nm 1965, v tinh a tnh thng mi u tin INTELSAT-1 (hay Early
Bird) c a ln qu o, nh du s m u cho hng lot cc v tinh
INTELSAT. Cng nm , Lin X c cng phng v tinh truyn thng u tin trong
hng lot v tinh truyn thng mang tn MOLNYA.
1.1.2. Qu trnh pht trin ca thng tin v tinh
Cc h thng v tinh u tin ch c kh nng cung cp mt dung lng thp vi
gi thu bao tng i cao. V d v tinh INTELSAT-1 nng 68kg khi phng v ch c
480 knh thoi vi gi thu bao 32.500USD mt knh mt nm. Gi thnh qu cao ny
l do thi im lc by gi kh nng ca tn la y cn thp nn ngi ta khng th
a ln c mt v tinh qu nng c dung lng ln ln qu o. Vic gim gi

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thnh l kt qu ca nhiu n lc, nhng n lc dn n vic to ra cc tn la
phng c kh nng a cc v tinh cng ngy cng nng hn ln qu o (3750kg khi
phng v tinh INTELSAT-6). Ngoi ra, nh kh nng pht trin trong k thut siu
cao tn cng ngy cng tng to iu kin thc hin cc anten nhiu tia c kh nng
to bin hnh m bp sng ca chng hon ton thch ng vi hnh dng ca lc a,
cho php ti s dng cng mt bng tn gia cc bp sng v kt hp s dng cc b
khuch i truyn dn cng sut cao hn. Dung lng v tinh tng ln dn n gim
gi thnh mi knh thoi (80000 knh trn INTELSAT-6 c gi thu bao mi knh l
380 USD trong mt nm).
Ngoi vic gim chi ph truyn thng, c im ni bt nht l tnh a dng ca
cc dch v m cc h thng thng tin v tinh cung cp. Lc u, cc h thng ny
c thit k thc hin truyn thng t mt im n mt im khc, nh i vi
cc mng cp v din bao ph rng ca v tinh c li dng thit lp cc tuyn
thng tin v tuyn c ly xa, nh v tinh Early Bird cho php thit lp cc trm bn
b i Ty Dng kt ni c vi nhau. Do hiu nng hn ch ca v tinh, ngi ta
thng s dng cc trm mt t c anten ln v do vy m gi thnh rt cao (khong
10 triu USD cho mt trm mt t c anten ng knh 30m). Kch thc v cng
sut ca cc v tinh cng tng ln th cng cho php gim kch thc ca trm mt t
v do vy gim gi thnh ca chng, ng thi tng s lng cc trm mt t. Bng
cch ny, c th khai thc mt tnh nng khc ca v tinh, l kh nng thu thp v
pht qung b cc tn hiu t hoc ti mt s im. Thay v pht cc tn hiu t im
ny ti im khc, by gi c th pht t mt my pht duy nht ti rt nhiu cc my
thu trong mt vng rng ln, hoc ngc li, c th pht t nhiu trm ti mt trm
trung tm duy nht c gi l mt HUB. Nh m cc mng truyn s liu a
im, cc mng pht qung b qua v tinh v cc mng thu thp d liu c khai
thc. C th pht qung b hoc ti cc my pht chuyn tip (hoc cc trm u cp)
hoc trc tip ti khch hng c nhn (trng hp ny c gi l pht qung b trc
tip qua cc h thng truyn hnh qua v tinh). Cc mng ny hot ng vi cc trm
mt t nh c ng knh anten t 0.6m n 3.5m vi gi thnh t 500 USD n
50000USD.
1.1.3. Cc dng qu o v tinh
Tu thuc vo cc mc ch khc nhau m v tinh c th bay cc qu o:

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1.1.3.1. Qu o trn
- Cc qu o thp (LEO): loi qu o ny v tinh bay cao trong khong 400 km
n 1200 km c chu k quay khong 90 pht. Thi gian quan st thy v tinh khong
30 pht hoc t hn. Dng qu o ny thng s dng cho v tinh quan trc c qun
s v dn dng. Nh qu o thp thi gian tr trong truyn tn hiu b nn cng
thch hp cho thng tin di ng s dng cc trm v tinh nh: cc chm v tinh
IRIDIUM, GLOBALSTAR.
- Qu o trung bnh (MEO): v tinh bay cao trong khong 10000 20000 km,
chu k bay ca v tinh t 5 12 gi, thi gian quan st thy v tinh t 2 4 gi. Qu
o loi ny c u im ch cn 10 v tinh l c th ph sng ton cu.
- Qu o a cc: l qu o trn i qua hai cc ca Tri t, c vng bao ph di
hn l ton cu. u im ca qu o ny l mi im trn mt t nhn thy v tinh
trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Vic ph sng ton cu ca dng qu o ny
l t c v qu o bay ca v tinh s ln lt qut tt c cc v tr trn mt t,
dng qu o ny c s dng cho cc v tinh d bo thi tit, hng hi, v tinh do
thm. N t c s dng cho thng tin v thi gian xut hin t.
- Qu o a tnh (GEO): l qu o trn nm trong mt phng xch o cao
khong 36786 km so vi ng xch o. V tinh qu o ny c tc bay ng
b vi tc quay ca Tri t (T=23g5604). Do , v tinh gn nh ng yn
ti mt im no so vi Tri t. Qu o a tnh thch hp hn cho cc loi
hnh thng tin qung b nh: pht thanh, truyn hnh Cn cho thng tin thoi (yu
cu thi gian thc cao) th khng c tt, v thi gian tr do truyn sng ln
(khong 0.25s).
1.1.3.2. Qu o elp
Qu o ny vi tm im ca Tri t l mt trong hai tiu im ca elp. u
im ca loi qu o ny l v tinh c th t c ti cc vng cc cao m cc v
tinh a tnh khng th t ti, dng qu o cng dt th cng th cng thun li cho
thng tin v cao. Qu o dng elp nghing c nhc im l hiu ng Doppler
ln v vn iu khin bm v tinh phi mc cao.
1.1.3.3. Qu o ng b mt tri (HEO)
L mt loi qu o gn nh a cc, mt phng qu o gi mt gc khng i
so vi trc Tri t Mt Tri, dng qu o ny c s dng cho v tinh quan trc
mt t.

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1.1.4. c im ca thng tin v tinh
Ni ti thng tin v tinh, chng ta phi k n 3 u im ni bt ca n so vi cc
h thng thng tin khc l:
- Tnh qung b rng ln cho mi loi a hnh.
- C di thng rng.
- Nhanh chng d dng cu hnh li khi cn thit.
i vi h thng thng tin v tuyn mt t nu hai trm mun thng tin cho nhau
th cc anten ca chng phi nhn thy nhau, gi l thng tin v tuyn trong tm
nhn thng. Tuy nhin do Tri t c dng hnh cu nn khong cch gia hai trm s
b hn ch m bo iu kin cho cc anten cn trng thy nhau. i vi kh nng
qung b cng vy, cc khu vc trn mt t khng nhn thy anten ca i pht s
khng thu c tn hiu na. Trong trng hp bt buc phi truyn tin i xa, ngi ta
c th dng phng php nng cao ct anten, truyn sng phn x tng in ly hoc
xy dng cc trm chuyn tip. Trn thc t th c ba phng php trn u c nhiu
nhc im. Vic nng cao ca ct anten gp rt nhiu kh khn v kinh t v k
thut m hiu qu th khng c bao nhiu. Nu truyn sng phn x tng in ly th
cn c cng sut pht rt ln v b nh hng rt mnh ca mi trng truyn dn nn
cht lng tuyn khng cao. Vic xy dng cc trm chuyn tip gia hai trm u
cui s ci thin c cht lng tuyn, nng cao tin cy nhng chi ph lp t cc
trm trung chuyn li qu cao v khng thch hp khi c nhu cu m thm tuyn mi.
Tm li, c th truyn tin i xa ngi ta mong mun xy dng c cc anten rt
cao nhng li phi n nh v vng chc. S ra i ca v tinh chnh l tho mn
nhu cu , vi v tinh ngi ta c th truyn sng i rt xa v d dng thng tin trn
ton cu hn bt c mt h thng thng tin no khc. Thng qua v tinh INTELSAT,
ln u tin hai trm i din trn hai b i Ty Dng lin lc c vi nhau.
Do kh nng ph sng rng ln nn v tinh rt thch hp cho cc phng thc truyn
tin a im n a im, im n a im (cho dch v qung b) hay a im n
mt im trung tm HUB (cho dch v thu thp s liu).
Bn cnh kh nng ph sng rng ln, bng tn rng ca h thng v tinh rt thch
hp vi cc dch v qung b hin ti nh truyn hnh s phn gii cao HDTV (High
Definition Television), pht thanh s hay dch v ISDN thng qua mt mng mt t
hoc trc tip n thu bao DTH (Direct To Home) thng qua trm VSAT(Very Small
Aperture Terminal). Cui cng do s dng phng tin truyn dn qua giao din v
tuyn cho nn h thng thng tin v tinh l rt thch hp cho kh nng cu hnh li nu

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cn thit. Cc cng vic trin khai mng mi, loi b cc trm c hoc thay i tuyn
u c th thc hin d dng, nhanh chng vi chi ph thc hin ti thiu.
Tuy nhin v tinh cng c nhng nhc im quan trng l:
- Khng hon ton c nh.
- Khong cch truyn dn xa nn suy hao ln, nh hng ca tp m ln.
- Gi thnh lp t h thng rt cao, nn chi ph phng v tinh tn km m vn cn tn
ti xc sut ri ro.
- Thi gian s dng hn ch, kh bo dng, sa cha v nng cp.
- Do ng i ca tn hiu v tuyn truyn qua v tinh kh di (hn 70.000 km i vi
v tinh a tnh) nn t im pht n im nhn s c thi gian tr ng k.
Ngi ta mong mun v tinh c vai tr nh l mt ct anten c nh nhng trong
thc t v tinh lun c s chuyn ng tng i i vi mt t, d l v tinh a tnh
nhng vn c mt s dao ng nh. iu ny buc trong h thng phi c cc trm
iu khin nhm gi v tinh mt v tr nht nh cho thng tin. Thm na do cc v
tinh bay trn qu o cch rt xa mt t cho nn vic truyn sng gia cc trm phi
chu s suy hao ln, b nh hng ca cc yu t thi tit v phi i qua nhiu loi
mi trng khc nhau. vn m bo c cht lng ca tuyn ngi ta phi s
dng nhiu k thut b v chng li phc tp.
Nh ta bit, chi ph phng v tinh l rt cao cho nn ni chung cc v tinh ch
c kh nng hn ch. B li, cc trm mt t phi c kh nng lm vic tng i
mnh nn cc thit b phn ln u t tin, nht l chi ph cho anten ln (v d mt
trm cng quc t c anten ng knh 18m gi khong 5-7 triu USD).
Cc v tinh bay trong khng gian cch xa mt t, nng lng ch yu dng cho
cc ng c phn lc iu khin l cc loi nhin liu lng hoc rn c v tinh
mang theo trn boong. Lng nhin liu d tr ny khng th qu ln v kh nng ca
cc tn la y c hn, ng thi n s lm cho kch thc v tinh tng ln ng k do
phi tng th tch thng cha. Nu nh v tinh dng ht lng nhin liu ny th
chng khng th iu khin v tinh c na tc l khng cn duy tr c n nh
ca tuyn. Khi , v tinh coi nh ht kh nng s dng v v th tui th ca v tinh
ni chung thng thp hn so vi cc thit b thng tin mt t khc. lm cho v
tinh hot ng tr li, ngi ta cn thu hi v tinh li sa cha v tip thm nhin
liu sau phng li ln qu o. Vic khi phc cc v tinh ht tui th ny ht
sc tn km v phc tp nn trn thc t ngi ta thng dng phng php thay th
bng mt v tinh hon ton mi v vt b v tinh c i.

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1.1.5. Cc ng dng ca thng tin v tinh
Mt h thng v tinh c th cung cp rt nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau v
ngy cng c pht trin a dng hn. Tuy nhin nhn chung thng tin v tinh em
li 3 lp dch v sau:
- Trung k trn phm vi ton cu cc knh thoi v cc chng trnh truyn hnh. y
l p ng cho cc dch v c bn nht i vi ngi s dng. N thu thp cc lung
s liu v phn phi ti cc trm mt t vi mt t l hp l. V d cho lp dch v
ny l cc h thng INTELSAT v cc EUTELSAT. Cc trm mt t ca chng
thng c trang b anten ng knh t 15 30m.
- Cung cp kh nng a dch v, thoi, s liu cho nhng nhm ngi s dng phn
tch nhau v mt a l. Cc nhm s chia s mt trm mt t v truy nhp ti n
thng qua mng. V d cho lp dch v ny l cc h thng v tinh TELECOM-1,
SBS, EUTELSAT-1, TELE-X v INTELSAT (cho mng SBS). Cc trm mt t
y c trang b anten ng knh t 3 10m.
- Kt ni cc thit b u cui vi anten c nh (VSAT/USAT) nhm truyn dn cc
lung s liu dung lng thp v qung b cc chng trnh truyn hnh, truyn
thanh s. Thng thng ngi dng s kt ni trc tip vi trm mt t c trang b
anten ng knh t 0.6 2.4m. Cc thu bao di ng cng nm trong lp dch v
ny. Tiu biu cho loi hnh ny l cc h thng EQUALTORIAL, INTELNET hoc
INTELSAT Cc dch v ca VSAT hin rt phong ph m ta c th k n nh
cp v t ng qun l th tn dng, thu thp v phn tch s liu, cung cp dch v
thoi mt tha, hi ngh truyn hnh
1.1.6. Xu hng pht trin ca k thut thng tin v tinh
Th h v tinh thng mi u tin l INTELSAT-1 hay Early Bird ra i vo
nm 1965. n u nhng nm 1970 cc h thng v tinh c th cung cp cc dch
v trao i thoi v truyn hnh gia hai lc a. Mi u v tinh ch p ng c cho
cc tuyn dung lng thp, sau nhu cu gia tng tc cng nh s lng thng tin
qua v tinh thc y nhanh chng vic hnh thnh cc h thng v tinh a bp sng
v cc k thut s dng li tn s cho sng mang. K thut u tin c dng cho h
thng v tinh l truyn dn tng t, s dng cng ngh FDM/FM/FDMA. Sau
p ng nhu cu gia tng thng tin, ngi ta tin n cc phng thc truyn dn
tin tin hn nh l SCPC/FM/FDMA (nm 1980) hay PSK/TDMA v PSK/CDMA.
Cc phng thc v sau da trn truyn dn s qua v tinh khai thc trit do k
thut s mang li. Trong tng lai khi dung lng ca tuyn v tinh cng nh s lng
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v tinh trn ton cu tng ln cc ln th vic s dng qu nhiu sng mang s lm cho
mc can nhiu gia cc h thng thng tin vi nhau vt qu mc cho php.
gii quyt bi ton ny, nhng nh ch to phi bt buc ngh ti vic p dng
cc cng ngh sau:
- X l ti ch: gii iu ch tn hiu ngay trn v tinh x l, sau iu ch li ri
truyn tn hiu x l xung cc trm mt t thu. y l trng hp ca cc v
tinh tch cc.
- Chuyn mch trn v tinh: hay cn gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian bng
chuyn mch v tinh (SS-TDMA).
- S dng mng kt ni trc tip gia cc v tinh.
- S dng cc bp sng qut hoc bp sng nhy bc cho cc t bo trn mt t.
- S dng ti nguyn tn s cao vi di thng ln (20/30 GHz v 40/50 GHz). Mc d
cc di tn ny khng nm trong di ca s ca sng v tuyn (300 MHz-10 GHz)
nn sng mang s phi chu cc tc ng ln ca mi trng truyn dn sng v
ma. N c b li bng cng sut pht v h thng t ng iu chnh.
- Qung b trc tip t v tinh ti ngi s dng. Khi thit b u cui ca ngi s
dng s c kt ni thng vi trm mt t m khng phi thng qua mng.
- Hin nay cc nc Chu u, M v Nht ang c rt nhiu chng trnh pht trin
thng tin v tinh nhm tng cng kh nng ca v tinh v dung lng, cng sut,
tui th v phng thc truyn dn. iu ny cho php kch c v gi thnh ca trm
mt t ny cng gim i v tr nn gn gi hn vi ngi s dng. Trong mt s
trng hp chng ch n gin l cc trm thu n thun TVRO m ph bin l cc
trm thu truyn hnh trc tip t v tinh. y l s tin b rt c ngha cho c hi
pht trin ca v tinh trong tng lai.
1.1.7. Phn cc ca sng mang trn tuyn thng tin v tinh
Sng in t bao gi cng c mt thnh phn in trng v mt thnh phn t
trng c hng vung gc vi nhau v vung gc vi phng truyn sng. Theo quy
c phn cc ca sng c nh ngha bi hng ca vect cng in trng.
Ni chung, hng ca cng in trng khng c nh v bin ca n cng
khng phi l hng s. Khi truyn sng in t , u mt ca vect cng in
trng vch ra mt hnh elp gi l phn cc elp.
Phn cc ca sng in t c 3 thng s c bn sau:
- Hng quay vect cng in trng: theo tay phi hoc theo tay tri (tc l cng
hoc ngc chiu kim ng h - Clockwise or Counter Clockwise).

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- T s trc AR (Axial Ratio): AR = EMAX/EMIN l t s trc ln v trc nh ca elp
phn cc. Khi AR = 1 (hay 0dB) th ng elip tr thnh ng trn v phn cc c
gi l phn cc trn. Khi AR = th ng elip tr thnh mt ng thng v phn
cc c gi l phn cc thng.
- nghing ca elp phn cc.
Y

EMAX

E
X
Hng
truyn sng

EMIN

Hnh 1.1. Phn cc Elp


Khi dng cng ngh truyn dn s dng li tn s (Reuse) th ngi ta phi dng
n hai sng mang c phn cc vung gc nhau v lc khng th phn bit c
sng mang qua tn s. Hai sng in t c gi l vung gc vi nhau khi chng c
cc elp phn cc vung gc nhau hay nghing ca 2 elp lch nhau 900. Nhiu
khi nhng tuyn gy xuyn cc ln ngi ta phi s dng thm s phn bit v
chiu quay vect cng in trng. Mt sng mang quay theo tay phi cn sng
mang vung gc vi n quay theo tay tri.
c bit khi s dng phn cc trn th ch c th phn bit v chiu quay vect
phn cc. Khi sng mang vct E quay theo tay phi gi l RHCP (Right Hand
Circular Polaristion) v sng mang c vect E quay theo tay tri gi l LHCP (Left
Hand Circular Polaristion). Cc phn cc trn LHCP v RHCP hin ang c dng
rt ph bin trong thng tin v tinh, c bit trong cc h thng s dng li tn s.
Hai phn cc thng gi l vung gc vi nhau khi c mt phn cc hng theo
chiu thng ng (Vertical), phn cc kia hng theo chiu nm ngang (Horizontal)
trong mt h quy chiu no .
1.1.8. Phn chia di tn cho thng tin v tinh
phn phi tn s ngi ta chia th gii ra lm 3 khu vc sau:
- Khu vc 1: gm Chu u, Chu Phi, vng Trung ng v Nga.
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- Khu vc 2: gm cc nc Chu M.
- Khu vc 3: gm cc nc Chu (tr vng Trung ng, Nga) v Chu i Dng
Tn s phn phi cho mt dch v no c th ph thuc vo khu vc. Trong
mt khu vc mt vng dch v c th c dng ton b bng tn ca khu vc ny
hoc phi chia s vi cc dch v khc. Cc dch v c nh s dng cc bng tn
sau:
- Bng C (khong 6 GHz cho tuyn ln v 4 GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng
6/4 GHz). Bng tn ny c cc h thng c s dng, v d nh h thng
INTELSAT, cc h thng ni a ca M v hin nay c xu hng bo ho.
- Bng X (khong 8 GHz cho tuyn ln v 7 GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l bng
8/7 GHz). Bng tn ny c dnh ring cho qun i s dng.
- Bng KU (khong 14 GHz cho tuyn ln v 11 hoc 12 GHz cho tuyn xung oc
gi l bng 14/12 GHz 14/11 GHz). Bng tn ny c cc h thng mi hin
nay s dng v d nh h thng EUTELSAT, TELECOM I v II.
- Bng Ka (khong 30 GHz cho tuyn ln v 20 GHz cho tuyn xung c gi l
bng 30/20 GHz). Bng tn ny hin nay mi ch s dng cho cc h thng cao cp,
cc cuc th nghim v dnh cho tng lai.
- Cc bng tn cao hn 30 GHz hin ang c nghin cu v chc chn s c
dng ph bin trong tng lai.
- Cc dch v di ng dng thng tin v tinh s dng bng tn khong 1.6 GHz cho
tuyn ln v 1.5 GHz cho tuyn xung. Bng tn ny c gi l bng 1.6/1.5 GHz
hay bng L.
- Cc dch v qung b qua v tinh ch c tuyn xung v s dng bng tn vo
khong 12 GHz.
i vi thng tin v tinh Quc t, tin cy l rt quan trng. Do , vic la
chn bng tn dng cho thng tin v tinh Quc t cn phi c la chn v thm d
k cng. Ngi ta chn bng C dng cho thng tin v tinh Quc t, cn bng KU
trc y dng cho thng tin v tinh ni a v hin nay c m rng cho khu
vc.
1.2. THNG TIN V TINH A TNH
1.2.1. Cc c im ca thng tin v tinh a tnh
H thng thng tin s dng v tinh a tnh c hnh thnh t tng ca
Arthur Clarke nm 1945, n nhng nm 60 tng tr thnh hin thc. Ngy
nay, vi nhng thnh tu t c ca khoa hc cng ngh, thng tin s dng
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v tinh a tnh pht trin rt ln mnh. Mt trong nhng iu kin to nn s thnh
cng ca thng tin s dng v tinh a tnh cn l do n c nhng u im sau:
- V tinh qu o a tnh c chu k bay ng b vi chu k quay ca Tri t, nn
nhn t Tri t v tinh a tnh nh nm c nh ti mt im trn tri. iu ny
c li cho vic ph sng c nh ti tng vng c v tinh cung cp.
- Di tn Doppler thp, v tinh gn nh c nh ti mt ch, anten trm mt t nh
khng cn bm st.
- Ch cn 3 v tinh l c th thit lp c mt h thng vin thng ton cu.
- Gc nhn t v tinh xung Tri t l 17.40 nn 42.4% din tch b mt Tri t
nm trong tm nhn ca v tinh.
- V tinh cho php nhng trm mt t nm ri rc trong mt khu vc rng c th kt
ni vi nhau.
1.2.2. Cu trc h thng thng tin v tinh a tnh
H thng thng tin v tinh c hnh thnh bng hai phn on chnh:
- Phn on khng gian: l khi nim ch mt phn ca h thng bao gm v tinh
v tt c cc thit b tr gip cho hot ng ca n nh cc trm iu khin v trung
tm gim st v tinh.
- Phn on mt t: l cc trm thu pht trn mt t.
PHN KHNG GIAN

Trm iu
khin (TT&C)

MOD

U/C

HPA

PHN MT T

LNA

D/C

DEMO

Hnh 1.2. Cu hnh h thng thng tin v tinh a tnh


Hot ng ca h thng thng tin v tinh c th c tm tt: Ti u pht trm
mt t, tn hiu bng tn c bn BB (BaseBand) nh: tn hiu thoi, video, telex,
fax c iu ch ln thnh trung tn IF (Intermediate Frequency) sau c
i ln thnh cao tn RF (Radio Frequency) nh b i tn tuyn ln U/C (Up
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Coverter), ri c b khuch i cng sut HPA (High Power Amplifier) khuch
i ln mc cng sut cao v a ra anten pht ln v tinh.
Tn hiu cao tn t trm mt t pht truyn dn qua khng gian t do ti anten
thu ca v tinh i vo b khuch i, sau c i tn, khuch i cng sut ri
pht xung trm mt t thu qua anten pht.
Ti trm thu mt t, sng pht t v tinh truyn dn qua khng gian t do ti
anten thu ri a qua b khuch i tp m thp LNA (Low Noise Amplifier), tn s
siu cao RF c bin i thnh trung tn IF nh b i tn xung D/C (Down
Converter), sau a sang b gii iu ch DEM (Demodulator) phc hi li tn
hiu nh li vo trm mt t.
1.2.2.1. Phn on khng gian
V tinh thc cht l mt trm pht lp tch cc trn tuyn thng tin siu cao tn:
trm mt t pht v tinh thng tin - trm mt t thu, cu trc gm 2 phn chnh:
- Ti hu ch (Payload).
- Phn thn (Bus).
1) Ti hu ch (Payload)
Ti hu ch hay cn gi l ti thng tin l mt b phn c bn ca v tinh thng
tin, m nhim vai tr pht lp ca mt v tinh thng tin. N thc hin cc chc nng
chnh sau:
- Thu tn hiu t cc trm mt t cho pht ln trong di tn v phn cc nh.
- Khuch i tn hiu thu t trm mt t pht v gim mc nhiu tn hiu ti a.
- i di tn tuyn ln thnh di tn tuyn xung.
- Cp tn hiu vi mc cng sut yu cu trong di tn nh ra anten pht.
- Truyn tn hiu cao tn trong di tn v phn cc nh n anten ca trm mt
t thu.
Ti hu ch cn m bo cc tnh nng sau:
- m bo thu v pht cc knh sng trong di tn v phn cc nh.
- m bo cc vng ph sng trn mt t theo yu cu.
- m bo cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng EIRP trn cc vng ph sng
ca v tinh.
- m bo h s phm cht G/T ca my thu vi tn hiu pht ca tng vng ph
sng ln.
- m bo yu cu v tuyn tnh.
- m bo mt tin cy ca knh truyn trong sut thi gian sng ca v tinh.
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Ti hu ch trn mt v tinh gm: b pht p v cc anten thu tn hiu
a) B pht p
B pht p l mt thit b quan trng nht ca mt v tinh thng tin, n thc
hin chc nng chnh thu sng v tuyn t trm mt t pht t tuyn ln, sau
khuch i v i tn tn hiu ri pht li xung trm mt t thu trn tuyn xung.

B lc

6 GHz
14 GHz

B
thu
bng
rng
B
thu
bng
rng

Amp (HPA)

Tch
knh

Ghp

knh

Coupler

4 GHz
11 GHz

Hnh 1.3. S cu to b pht p


B pht p ca v tinh thng tin bo m mt s cc chc nng nh mt b
pht p tch cc trn mt t: tn hiu t trm mt t ti (tuyn ln) i qua anten
vo my thu (gm mt b khuch i tp m thp LNA, b dao ng ni LO, b
khuch i cng sut cao HPA) ti b phn knh u vo IMUX, qua b tin khuch
i DRIVER n b khuch i cng sut cao HPA (dng n sng chy TWT
hoc Transistor trng) ri n b ghp knh u ra OMUX v ra anten pht xung
t (tuyn xung).
- Thit b thu bng rng
Thit b thu bng rng thc hin chc nng khuch i tn hiu v i tn s
tuyn ln thnh tn s tuyn xung. Yu cu c tuyn nhiu phi t sao cho t s
sng mang trn tp m phi tt nht cho tuyn ln. H thng thu bng rng thng
t h s khuch i 50 60dB b li suy hao trong b lc v i tn.
LNA

LO

AMP

B trn
Lc u vo

Couple
B trn
LNA

LO

AMP

Hnh 1.4. S b thu bng rng


Do yu cu tin cy cao nn h thng thu bng rng c mt b lm vic v mt b
d phng, khi c s c s t ng chuyn mch sang b d phng.
u vo b thu tn hiu bng rng l b khuch i tp m thp LNA. B khuch i
ny lm vic on tuyn tnh ca c tuyn cng tc, c tp m thp khi khuch i
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sng mang. Tn hiu sng mang c khuch i LNA s i vo b trn tn v
c i tn nh b dao ng ni LO. B i tn c thit k sao cho khi i tn s
sng mang thu c t mt t pht ln v tn s pht xung mt t vi mc tn
hao nh c -5 -6dB.
Thng thng v tinh thc hin dch 2225MHz gia tn s thu c t tuyn ln v
tn s pht xung mt t. B dao ng ni pht ra tn s 2225MHz c n nh
cao, cng sut t b dao ng ni ti u vo b trn c 10dB bng k thut nhn tn
v mch vng kho pha. B dao ng ni c n nhit rt cao m bo n
nh yu cu.
- B phn knh u vo IMUX
V tinh c b phn knh chia di tn 500MHz thnh cc bng tn nh hn c
rng bng ca cc b pht p. Cc bng tn nh ny c khuch i bng cc b
pht p sau chng c t hp li trc khi a ra anten pht xung mt t.
Thc cht b phn knh c cu to bi cc Circulator v cc b lc bng thng.
Tn hiu t u ra b khuch i bng rng a vo u vo b phn knh, cc sng
mang nm trong di bng tn 500MHz c chia thnh hai ng cung cp cho hai
nhm knh chn v l. Vic chia thnh hai nhm knh chn v l s to ra s phn
tch tn s gia cc knh tng mi nhm r rt hn, lm gim thiu nhiu gia cc
knh ln cn. B Circulator lm nhim v cung cp tn hiu cho tng knh, b lc c
rng bng rng bng ca cc b pht p v c tuyn ca b lc c c tnh
sn tt cho php loi b nh hng cc knh k bn.
Lc

u ra kn chn

Lc
Lc
Coupler
Circulator

u ra knh l

Lc

Hnh 1.5. S b phn knh u vo


- B khuch i cng sut cao
Tn hiu t b phn knh u vo IMUX sau khi i qua b suy gim iu khin
t xa chnh h s khuch i v b tin khuch i ri mi n b khuch i
cng sut cao HPA.
Cc b khuch i cng sut cao HPA c nhim v cung cp mt cng tn hiu
c cng sut ln trc khi a ra anten pht pht xung t trn tuyn xung.
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Cc b khuch i cng sut cao trn v tinh thng tin s dng cc n sng chy
TWT (Traveling Wave Tube). u im ca n sng chy l khuch i di tn
rng, hiu sut cao m bo yu cu cho vic truyn tn hiu cao tn. B tin khuch
i c th dng Diode Tunnel tn s 6GHz vi cc b pht p 6/4GHz v cho cc
b khuch i thng s tn s 14GHz trong cc b pht p 14/12GHz. Ngy nay,
b khuch i thng dng Transistor trng FET cho cht lng v n nh
cng sut cao c cng sut khong t 8 15W.
- B ghp knh u ra OMUX
Sau khi qua b khuch i cng sut cao HPA, tn hiu cc knh c tp hp
li ti u ra ca b pht p bng cc b ghp knh ti u ra.
Circualtor
Lc

Anten

B lc hi
Lc

Lc

Knh 1
Knh 2
T n sng chy ti

Lc

Knh 3

Hnh 1.6. S b ghp knh u ra OMUX


Tn hiu t cc knh i qua b lc bng thng n cc b Circulator v c tp hp
li. Lc ny tn hiu trong di tn 500 MHz cng sut v tn s sng mang tuyn
xung, trc khi a ra anten pht chng c a qua b lc cc sng hi khng
mong mun to ra bi hin tng xuyn iu ch cc b lock khuch i khng
hon ton tuyn tnh.
b) Anten trn v tinh thng tin
Anten trn v tinh thng tin thc hin chc nng nhn tn hiu cao tn truyn ln
t cc trm mt t pht v pht tn hiu cao tn xung trm mt t thu. Tu theo
chc nng v tinh c cc loi anten sau:
- Anten dng o xa v iu khin t xa, thng bng tn VHF.
- Anten siu cao tn dng cho h thng thng tin qua v tinh.
Cc v tinh a tnh thng dng loi anten pht tia bao trm (Global Beam) c
rng ti mc suy hao 3 dB l 170 180. Anten bp sng nhn chng vi dng
ph sng mt vng hp nht nh gi l Spot Beam, loi ny m bo cng sut
khng thay i trong vng bao ph. i vi vng ph ton cu s dng anten vi
phun di tn 6/4 GHz. Cc vi phun ny bc x trc tip ti b mt Tri t m
khng cn mt phn x.
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iu khin hnh dng vng ph trn mt t v cng sut pht ra theo
mun, cc anten trn v tinh c trang b u thu pht sng v kt cu b mt phn
x. Cng c th s dng anten mt phn x c nhiu vi phun tiu im to ra
nhng bp sng ri rc trn vng bao ph.
m bo yu cu cht lng trong vng ph sng v khng gy can nhiu ra
cc vng khc ngoi vng ph sng ca v tinh, cc anten trn v tinh c mt phn
x cu trc c bit m bo dng vng ph sng v cht lng trong vng ph sng
theo yu cu, ng thi phn ngoi bin mc gim 3dB tn hiu phi gim rt nhanh.
2) Phn thn (Bus)
Phn thn khng tham gia trc tip vo qu trnh pht lp ca h thng thng tin
v tinh. Nhng n m bo cc iu kin yu cu cho ti hu ch thc hin chc
nng ca mt trm pht lp. Phn thn c 6 h con:
a) H duy tr v tr v t th bay ca v tinh
- n nh t th bay ca v tinh
T th bay ca v tinh lin quan n vic nh hng trong khng gian, phn ln
cc thit b mang trn tu v tr l nhm h tr cho vic iu khin t th bay ca v
tinh. T th ca v tinh c th b thay i do nh hng bi trng hp dn ca Tri
t, ca mt trng, cc bc x mt tri v s va chm cc thin thch. Vic iu
khin t th v tinh cn phi bit cc thng s ca vic nh hng v tinh trong
khng gian v mt vi chiu hng dch chuyn. pht hin nhng sai lch t th
ngi ta dng mt h thng cc b cm bin (sensor) nh: cm bin Tri t (theo
bc x hng ngoi, sng v tuyn in), cm bin mt tri (theo nh sng), con quay
hi chuyn (pht hin nhng thay i so vi hng qun tnh ca trc quay). Bt k
s sai lch t th no u c pht hin bi cc b cm bin v tn hiu iu khin
c chuyn n h thng t iu khin ca v tinh v h thng iu khin mt t
x l.
Trong s cc bin php c hiu qu i vi s n nh t th v tinh, phng
php in hnh hin nay l n nh 3 trc v n nh quay.
- Phng php n nh 3 trc: T th v tinh c duy tr theo mt h thng 3 trc
to m gc to l trng tm ca v tinh.
Trc YaW hng vo tm Tri t.
Trc Pitch vung gc vi trc YaW v hng v pha Nam.

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Trc Roll vung gc vi mt phng cha 2 trc kia v hng dc theo vc t tc
chuyn ng ca v tinh.
Phng php n nh ny dng cc ng c phn lc trn v tinh iu chnh li
t th v tinh.
- Phng php n nh quay: phng php n nh quay s dng trn cc v tinh
hnh tr, dng nguyn l con quay tc cao duy tr mt trng thi khng i. V
tinh c cu to sao cho cn bng v mt c kh quanh mt trc c bit (trc quay)
v v tinh quay xung quanh trc . Momen xon to ra bi con quay c dng
hn ch tc ng ca cc nh hng bn ngoi v n nh t th v tinh. Do v tinh
n nh bng con quay s quay xung quanh trc quay, nn vi cc v tinh thng tin
cn c m t chng li s quay ca anten m bo hng ca anten lun c
nh. i vi v tinh a tnh trc quay c iu chnh sao cho song song vi trc
Bc Nam ca Tri t.
- n nh v tr v tinh
V tinh a tnh cn c duy tr v tr ng khe qu o. V tinh a tnh trn
qu o thng b x dch do nhng nguyn nhn: ng xch o ca Tri t
khng phi l trn l tng, tc ng trng trng ca mt tri - mt trng do vy
phi dng cc ng c phn lc a v tinh tr li ng v tr. Thng thng dung
sai cho php l 0.050 theo hng Bc Nam v 0.050 theo hng ng Ty.
xc nh s sai lch v tr v tinh dng cc anten bm st ti cc trm mt t.
Khi c s sai lch v tr cc trm iu khin mt t (TT&C) s a lnh iu khin
ln v tinh iu khin cc tn la y trn v tinh a n v ng v tr.
b) H gim st, o xa v iu khin (TT&C)
H TT&C rt cn thit cho s vn hnh c hiu qu ca v tinh thng tin, n l
mt phn trong nhim v qun l v tinh. N thc hin cc chc nng chnh sau:
- Cung cp cc thng tin kim tra cc phn h (hay cn gi l cc h con) trn v tinh
cho trm iu khin mt t.
- Nhn lnh iu khin v tr v t th ca trm iu khin mt t.
- Gip trm iu khin mt t theo di tnh trng thit b trn v tinh.
c) H cung cp in nng
Ngun in dng cung cp cho cc thit b trn v tinh c ly ch yu t
cc t bo pin mt tri. Pin mt tri c th lm bng Si hoc GaAs. C 2 dng pin
mt tri:
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- Pin mt tri dng hnh tr, thng s dng cho cc v tinh n nh trng thi bng
phng php trc quay.
- Pin mt tri dng cnh mng (gi l cnh pin mt tri) thng dng cho v tinh n
nh bng phng php 3 trc.
Cng sut ca pin cung cp ph thuc vo cng nh sang chiu vo, n t
cng sut cc i khi tia sng mt tri chiu ti vung gc vi mt pin, khi cc tia
sng i song song vi mt cnh pin th cng sut bng khng. cc cnh pin lun
hng v pha mt tri m bo cung cp nng lng cho cc thit b th phi dng
cc m t iu khin t th.
Ngoi ngun in nng do cc pin mt tri cung cp, trn v tinh cn c th s
dng in nng cung cp t cc ngun d tr l cc c quy (Nikel Cadium, Nikel Hydrogen). Ngun nng lng d tr ny s cung cp in nng cho cc thit b hot
ng trong thi gian cc tia sng mt tri chiu ti cc cnh pin b che khut.
d) H thng iu ho nhit
Khong khng v tr l mt mi trng nhit rt khc nghit, v tinh trn qu
o c chnh lch nhit rt ln gia mt bn chu nh hng ca bc x mt
tri v mt bn l vng b che khut tip xc vi khng gian. Thm vo v tinh
cng nng ln v nhit do cc thit b ca n to ra v cc bc x ca cc thin th
khc.
Nhim v ca h iu ho nhit l lun duy tr cho cc thit b trn v tinh c
lm vic trong di nhit thch hp, n nh. Ngi ta khng ch nhit cc phn
khc nhau trn v tinh bng cch cho trao i nhit gia cc im c nhit khc
nhau (s dng ng dn kh hoc cht lng dn nhit ti cc b to nhit) hoc tng
nhit (s dng cc b nung) hoc s dng cc b mt c tnh quang nhit (d phn x
nhit hoc hp th nhit).
e) H y
C hai loi b y phn lc trn v tinh:
- Nhng b y cng sut thp (t vi mN n v N) hiu chnh v tr v tinh trn
qu o. Loi b y ny thng l cc tn la y nh s dng nhin liu lng.
- Nhng b y cng sut trung bnh v ln (khong vi trm N n hng trc ngn
N) chng hn nh cc m t cn im v vin im. Cc b y ny thng l
nhng ng c dng nhin liu lng.

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f) H thng khung v
H thng khung c hc ca v tinh l ni g lp ti hu ch, bung cha nhin
liu, cc h c kh, in t, anten, dn pin mt tri, c quy
V ca v tinh bo v cc thit b i vi cc bc x v tr v bi v tr.
gim trng lng v tinh , khung v ht sc nh nhng phi chu cc iu kin
ht sc khc nghit:
- Lc phng gy chn ng v p lc ln.
- Trong thi gian v tinh trn qu o nhit thay i trong mt phm v rng
(pha mt tri chiu +2000C, pha trong bng rm -1500C) gy bin dng vt liu.
- S va p vi cc ht sn trong v tr khu v tinh bay vi tc rt ln.
3) H thng o xa, bm v iu khin v tinh trn trm mt t TT&C
V tinh
Anten TT&C
Anten thu

My thu
o xa

Anten pht

H bm
st

My thu iu
khin xa

B x l
s liu
S liu v tr

My tnh iu khin t
th v v tr qu o

B kim
tra

Hnh 1.8. Cu hnh trm mt t TT&C


H thng TT&C rt cn thit cho s vn hnh c hiu qu ca v tinh thng tin.
N l mt h thng c xy dng trn mt t thc hin nhim v qun l v tinh,
m bo cc iu kin cn thit cho v tinh trn qu o hot ng bnh thng trong
h thng thng tin v tinh. Chc nng ch yu trong vn qun l v tinh l gim
st qu o v t th v tinh, theo di trng thi ca cc cm bin v cc h con trn
v tinh. Trn cc v tinh a tnh c ln, c th nh hng li vi anten theo lnh ca
TT&C.
Cc hot ng ca h thng TT&C:
- Thu cc tham s o ca v tinh.
- Pht cc lnh iu khin ln v tinh.
- Cung cp cc s liu nh khong cch.
- iu khin v gim st cc thit b ca h thng v tinh thng tin.
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a) o xa (Telemetry)
H o xa thu thp s liu t nhiu b cm bin trn v tinh v chuyn cc s liu
ny v trm iu khin mt t. Cc trng thi ca tt c cc chi tit trn v tinh u
c h o xa bo co v trm mt t nh cc b cm bin. Khi c chi tit no hng
th trm iu khin lp tc ra lnh thay th bng cc thit b d phng m bo cho
v tinh hot ng bnh thng. S liu o xa c s ho v iu ch (FSK hay PSK)
ri dng k thut phn ng truyn theo thi gian (TDM) truyn v trm iu khin
mt t. Mt my tnh ti trm iu khin mt t lu tr v gii m cc s liu o xa
cho trm mt t bit ngay trng thi ca bt k cm bin hay h con no trn v
tinh.
b) Bm (Tracking)
Bng php phn tch s liu m cc b cm bin tc v gia tc trn v tinh c
th xc nh s thay i v tr ca v tinh trn qu o so vi v tr ti thi im gn
nht trc . Trm iu khin mt t c th thng qua di tn Doppler ca ti tn o
xa hay ti tn ca mt my pht tn hiu (Beacon) trn v tinh xc nh tc thay
i c ly. Dng gi tr c ly ny, cng vi kt qu nhng php o gc chnh xc bng
anten ca trm iu khin mt t, c th tnh ra cc thng s qu o. Cng c th
xc nh s thay i v tr ca v tinh bng cch o c ly t trm mt t pht n v
tinh v so snh vi ln o c ly trc. Nguyn l ca phng php ny l pht mt
xung hoc mt chui xung ln v tinh v o khong thi gian gia xung pht i v
xung tr li. Vi phng php ny phi bit chnh xc thi gian tr ca b pht p
trn v tinh v phi tin hnh bng vi trm mt t cng o c ly nh vy.
c) iu khin (Command)
m bo mt h iu khin hu hiu v tin cy l iu then cht cho vic phng
thnh cng v vn hnh c hiu qu v tinh thng tin trn qu o. H iu khin
dng thay i t th v hiu chnh v tr v tinh trn qu o, cng nh gim st
hot ng ca h thng thng tin. Khi phng v tinh ln, h ny iu khin vic im
ho mt vin im v lm quay v tinh hnh tr hoc trin khai cc cnh pin mt
tri ca v tinh. Cu trc iu khin phi c bin php phng nhng thao tc v l
do sai lm trong khu nhn lnh iu khin gy ra. Thit b u cui my tnh pht
lnh iu khin, m iu khin c i thnh t lnh gi theo khung TDM ln v
tinh. Sau khi v tinh nhn c v kim tra tnh xc thc, t lnh ny c gi tr tr
li trm iu khin di mt t my tnh kim tra li. Nu thy trn v tinh
nhn ng th s c mt lnh thi hnh c gi ln v tinh. Qu trnh c th ko di
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510 pht nhng loi tr c nhng lnh iu khin sai c th gy phng hi n
hot ng ca v tinh. Cc tuyn iu khin v o xa thng tch ring khi h thng
tin, tuy hot ng trong cng bng tn.
gim st ton b hot ng ca trm mt t ngi ta xy dng mt h thng
Control Monitoring and Alarm System H thng iu khin v gim st (CMA)
iu khin bng h thng my tnh tnh nng cao. Chng thc hin cc cng vic:
- Theo di v iu khin cng sut pht theo tiu chun.
- Theo di mc cng sut tn hiu thu.
- Theo di v iu khin h thng t ng bm st.
- Theo di cc thit b x l tn hiu.
1.2.2.2. Phn on mt t
Thit b
anten bm

My thu tp m thp

LNA
Thit b
bm

D
I
V

D/C

B khuch
i IF

B gii
iu

LO

H thng
fi

Thit b a
truy nhp

My pht cng sut cao

HPA

C
O
M

U/C

B khuch
i IF

B iu
ch

LO

Hnh 1.7. Cu hnh trm mt t


Phn on mt t bao gm ton b h thng trm thu pht mt t. Khi mun
thit lp ng lin lc vi 2 im trc tip vi nhau trn Tri t thng qua trm
chuyn tip v tinh thng tin ngi ta phi thit lp 2 trm trn mt t. Do c tn
gi l trm mt t thng tin v tinh SES (Satellite Earth Station) lm chc nng pht
tn hiu ln v tinh v thu tn hiu t v tinh v - thc hin kt ni v tinh thng tin
vi cc mng v tinh mt t. Cc trm ny thng ni vi cc mng thng tin ni
a mt t cung cp cc dch v cho ngi s dng hoc c th trc tip cung cp
cc dch v cho ngi s dng.
C nhiu loi trm mt t khc nhau c s dng tu thuc vo lu lng m
n truyn ti trong khng gian hoc kiu dch v lin lc qua v tinh, v d nh: trm
cng mt t, cc trm mt t dng cho dch v thng tin v tinh c nh hay cc
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dch v di ng cn cc trm mt t di ng Cc trm mt t c th va thu va
pht, cng c nhng trm mt t ch c th thu hoc ch c th pht.
Mt trm mt t bao gm: thit b thng tin, thit b truyn dn mt t, thit b
cung cp ngun v h thng TT&C v tinh. Thit b thng tin trong trm mt t
nh: anten, thit b thu v pht sng siu cao tn, cc b bin i tn tuyn ln v
tuyn xung, h thng x l tn hiu, h thng thit b bng tn c bn, h thng bm
v tinh Tn hiu bng tn c bn trm mt t c chia lm 2 loi c bn:
- Tn hiu thoi, telex, data di dng tng t hay s c a n v ly ra t
trung tm bo tr trung k Quc t ITMC (International Truck Maintenance Center)
u ni n trm mt t bng h thng truyn dn cp ng trc hoc cp si
quang.
- Tn hiu hnh c u ni ti trm mt t t studio truyn hnh bng h thng
truyn dn cp ng trc hay cp si quang.
Vic xy dng trm mt t cn xem xt n cc yu cu:
La chn v tr trm mt t m bo gc ngng anten hng vo v
tinh cng cao cng tt.
m bo khong h trn ng chn tri hng gc ngng anten.
Cc yu cu ny l cn thit ngn nga can nhiu t, can nhiu gia cc sng v
tuyn in khc.
1.2.2.3. H thng cung cp ngun v iu ho nhit
m bo cho lin lc khng b gin on do cc s c ngun gy ra, trm mt
t phi c cung cp bng ngun in khng bao gi b ngt UPS (Uninterupted
Power Supply). UPS cung cp ngun vi n nh cho php, cng sut cho ton
b cc thit b trong trm.
m bo cc yu cu trn, b ngun UPS phi c d phng v bn thn n
l mt thit b c th iu khin c v mi mt. Khi mt in li th ngun cquy
c rung ln ri n nh v cp ngun cho h thng.
Cc thit b in t trong trm u bt buc lm vic trong iu kin mi trng
tt l nhit 200C vi m di 45% m bo an ton, duy tr tui th cng
nh cht lng thng tin.

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CHNG 2

K THUT TRM MT T

2.1. ANTEN CA TRM MT T


2.1.1. Cc loi anten trm mt t
C nhiu loi anten khc nhau c th s dng trm mt t. Tu theo tiu
chun tng loi trm m ng knh ca anten thu pht trm mt t thng thng
c ng knh t 0.6 30 m.
2.1.1.1. Anten Parabol c s cp t ti tiu im
Feed
horn

Gng chnh

Hnh 2.1. Anten phn x parabol


y l loi anten c cu trc n gin nht v gi thnh thp nht, n c dng
ch yu cho cc trm ch thu v cc trm nh c bit vi dung lng thp. Tuy
nhin, cc c tnh ca n nh h s tng ch, bp sng ph khng c tt. Mt
nhc im na l cp u ni t loa thu n my pht v my thu thng di. Bi
vy n khng c s dng cc trm mt t thng thng.
2.1.1.2. Anten Cassegrain
Gng ph

Gng chnh

Hnh 2.2. Cu hnh gng Cassegrain


Loi anten ny c thm mt gng phn x ph vo gng phn x chnh, h s
tng ch ca anten c nng ln v c tnh bp sng ph cng c ci thin cht
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t. Anten Cassegrain c s dng cho cc trm bnh thng va thu va pht c quy
m trung bnh. Loi ny c mt s u im l cc thit b in t c th c t sau
mt phn x chnh cho php n gn trc tip vo u thu pht sng lm cho khong
cch gia cc bc x c th rt ngn lm gim suy hao ng dn sng.
2.1.1.3. Anten lch (b)
Anten lch c b phn fi, gng phn x ph c t v tr lch mt t so
vi hng trc chnh ca gng phn x chnh cc b phn fi v gng phn x
ph khng che chn cc ng i ca sng phn x t gng chnh.
Anten lch c 2 loi chnh:
Loi anten parabol lch mt gng phn x.
Loi anten Gregorian c gng phn x ph dng elp hoc hypebol.
Cc anten ny c hiu qu c bit khi cn gim can nhiu t cc ng thng tin v
tuyn khc.
Loi anten lch cho hiu sut cao, tp m thp, bp sng ph nh, c tnh phn cc
tt. Chng thng c s dng cho cc trm mt t quy m nh cht lng cao.
Gng ph

Gng phn x

Anten Parabol lch

Gng chnh
Anten Casegrain lch

Hnh 2.3. Anten lch


2.1.2. H thng bm v tinh
Mc d v tinh c t trn qu o a tnh, nhng v tr ca chng lun thay
i 0.050 theo cc hng ng, Ty, Bc, Nam (trc y l 0.10). Bi vy, cn
iu khin anten trm mt t bm theo v tinh. Di y l cc h thng bm v
tinh:
- H thng xung n (hay cn gi l h thng bm lin tc): h thng ny lun lun
xc nh tm bp sng anten c hng ng vo v tinh hay khng iu khin
hng ca anten.
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- H thng bm tng nc: h thng ny dch chuyn nh v tr anten cc khong
thi gian nht nh iu chnh hng anten sao cho mc tn hiu thu c l cc
i.
- H thng iu khin theo chng trnh: h thng ny iu khin anten da trn c
s d on trc v qu o v tinh.
Trong h thng xung n, c th bit chc anten c hng rt ng hay khng
vo v tinh bng cch s dng bn ci bc x c hng bp sng hi khc vi hng
bp chnh hoc mt sng bc cao hn ca mt ng dn sng trn ly ra cc tn
hiu sai li. H thng ny yu cu c mt h thng fi phc tp v gi thnh cao
hn do s dng nhiu my thu. Tuy nhin c p dng cho trm mt t c anten
ng knh ln m rng bp sng mc mt na cng sut l 0.10 hoc nh hn
v phi bt c tn hiu v tinh tm bp sng. Ngy nay, do h thng n nh v
tr v tinh c ci thin ( chnh xc v tinh t gi tr l 0.050) nn vic s dng
bm tng nc cho anten ln c p dng nhiu nhm n gin h thng iu khin
anten v thit b ph tr.
H thng bm tng nc c kt cu vi thit b sp xp theo mt cu trc n
gin v c s dng cho cc trm mt t c anten kch thc trung bnh hoc nh
khi cht lng thu pht khng b nh hng nhiu nu v tr anten khng c iu
khin cht ch. i vi cc anten nh m rng bp sng mc mt na cng sut
l 0.20 0.30 hoc ln hn, s dng phng php c nh hng anten hoc thnh
thong iu khin bng tay cho ng hng cn khi xt thy mc tn hiu thu b nh
hng ln trong phm vi di chuyn bnh thng ca v tinh a tnh.
2.1.3. H s tng ch ca anten
H s tng ch ca anten l mt thng s quan trng, quyt nh khng nhng
cht lng ca anten m c cht lng v quy m ca trm mt t. H s tng ch
ca anten (G) c tnh theo cng thc:
G = 4.A./2
Trong A l din tch hiu dng ca anten.
l bc sng ca anten.
l hiu sut ca anten.
Biu thc ny cho thy, khi nhn t u pht, kh nng tp trung sng v tuyn
in vo mt hng xc nh, so vi trng hp sng bc x ng u theo mi
hng. Biu thc ny cho php u thu d on kh nng thu sng khuch tn yu.

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y, biu th hiu sut, vi mt anten kch thc ging nhau, nu c hiu
sut ln th h s tng ch cng ln hn. Vi anten parabol thng thng = 0.5
0.75.
Trong trng hp anten gng trn vi ng knh d(m).
A = d2/4
T rt ra:
G = (d/)2.
Hoc tnh theo dB:
GdBi = 10log + 20log + 20log d 20log
Mt biu thc thit thc hn l:
GdBi = 10log + 20log f + 20log d + 20.4dB
Trong :
l hiu sut ca anten.
d (m) l ng knh ca anten.
f (GHz) l tn s lm vic.
20.4dB l hng s c tnh t 10log (1*109*/c).
Vy h s tng ch ca anten t l vi bnh phng ng knh anten (d) v bnh
phng tn s lm vic (f).
2.1.4. Gc rng bp sng
l gc hp bi hng c mt h s tng ch cho vi hng h s tng ch
cc i. rng bp sng 3 dB l gc 3dB thng c s dng nhiu. rng bp
sng 3 dB l gc hp bi hai hng m h s tng ch gim i mt na so vi h
s tng ch hng cc i. rng bp sng 3 dB lin quan ti t s /d bi mt
h s c gi tr ph thuc vo vic la chn lut chiu x. Vi dng chiu x u th
h s c gi tr bng 58.50.
Vi cc lut chiu x khng u th dn n suy hao ti ra ca b chiu x lm
cho rng bp sng 3 dB tng v gi tr ca h s ph thuc vo cc tnh cht ring
ca lut chiu x. Gi tr s dng hin ti l 700, v rng bp sng s c biu
th:
3dB = 70(/d) = 70(c/fd) ()

hng so vi hng trc (hng cc i) th h s tng ch ca anten c


tnh theo cng thc:
G()dB = GdB 12(/3dB)2 (dB)

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2.2. B KHUCH I TP M THP (LNA - Low Noise Amplifier)
2.2.1. Gii thiu
Tn hiu thu t v tinh v rt yu, thng khong -150 dBW trn nn tp m
ln, v vy b khuch i tp m thp LNA c mt vai tr rt quan trng trong trm
mt t va khuch i tn hiu ln va khng lm gim cht lng tn hiu.
Cc yu cu k thut i vi b khuch i tp m thp:
- B LNA c nh hng quan trng n h s phm cht G/T ca trm mt t v b
LNA ng vai tr quyt nh to nn nhit tp m h thng, bi l n l tng
khuch i u tin trong tuyn thu. Mt trm mt t thng tin v tinh tiu chun
A phi c h s G/T 35 dB/K th h s khuch i ca anten trm mt t phi t
G=59 dB v nhit tp m LNA l TLNA < 200 K.
- Mc u ra tn hiu phi nh hn mc bo ho ca b khuch i ti thiu l 20 dB
nhm gim ti a cc thnh phn nhiu iu ch tng h trong LNA.
- Bng tn ca LNA phi rng c th bao ph bng tn cng tc ca v tinh.
V tr lp t LNA cng gn u thu cng c li v mc tn hiu v gim tp m v
suy hao do gim c chiu di ng dn sng.
2.2.2. Cc loi khuch i tp m thp LNA
Khuch i GaAsFET: khuch i dng Transistor trng loi bn dn hn
tp Gali Arsenic (GaAs-FET) c s dng rng ri vng tn s cao vi
c tnh bng tn rng, h s khuch i v tin cy cao.
Khuch i thng s: nguyn tc hot ng ca n khi mt tn hiu kch thch
t ln mt it in dung, cc thng s mch in ca n thay i v to ra
mt in tr m, do khuch i tn hiu vo. Nh vy, t s bin i in
dung ca it do tn hiu kch thch c dng cho khuch i. Vic gim
in tr ni ca it s to ra cc c tnh tp m thp.
B khuch i thng s c mt s hn ch so vi b khuch i GaAs-FET
nh sau:
- Cn c mt mch to ra tn hiu kch thch.
- Kh iu chnh v khng ph hp vi vic sn xut hng lot.
- Bng tn hp, bt li v tin cy v bo dng.
Khuch i HEMT (Transistor c linh ng in t cao) gn y c
a vo s dng trong thc t. Li dng hiu ng cht kh in t hai chiu
vi linh ng cao ph hp i vi khuch i tp m thp tn hiu tn s

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cao. u im ca n l bng thng rng, kch thc nh, d bo dng v
thun li cho sn xut hng lot.
2.3. B I TN (FC: Frequency Converter)
2.3.1. Gii thiu
Cc trm mt t v tinh thng tin thc hin nhim v thu tn hiu cao tn RF t
v tinh v pht li tn hiu cao tn RF ln v tinh, nn chng phi s dng cc b i
tn tuyn ln U/C (Up - Convertor) v i tn tuyn xung D/C (Down - Convertor).
Khi thc hin nhim v thu tn hiu cao tn, s dng b i tn tuyn xung D/C
bin i tn hiu cao tn RF thu t v tinh thnh tn hiu trung tn IF. S dng b
i tn ln khi thc hin nhim v pht tn hiu cao tn ln v tinh bin i tn
hiu trung tn IF thnh tn hiu cao tn RF.
Nguyn l ca b i tn l dng thit b trn (Mixer) trn tn hiu vo vi tn
hiu dao ng ni.
Yu cu i vi b i tn l:
B dao ng ni phi c tn s n nh rt cao v n quyt nh c tnh bin
v pha ca tn hiu ra.
rng bng tn ca b i tn ph thuc vo tn s trung tn IF n hoc t
n cung cp.
2.3.2. Cc b i tn kp
Thnh phn chnh ca b i tn tuyn ln U/C v b i tn tuyn xung D/C
gm:
- Mt b lc RF.
- Hai b trn tng.
- Hai b dao ng ni: mt tn s c nh v tn s khc th thay i.
- B khuch i IF, c th t ng iu khin h s khuch i.
- B lc IF.
- B cn bng tr nhm.
c im chnh ca b i tn tuyn ln U/C v b i tn tuyn xung D/C
c lit k di y:
2.3.2.1. Di thng
Di thng RF l kh nng ca b bin i bao ph bng RF hot ng, pht
(hoc thu) bng cch hiu chnh tn s dao ng ni LO bao ph y di thng
RF (khong 575 MHz).
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Di thng IF ph thuc vo tn s IF c la chn. Nu tn s IF l 70 MHz th
di thng l 36 MHz, cn nu tn s IF l 140 MHz th di thng s l 72 MHz. Vi
kiu bin i ny, tt c sng mang ca mt b pht p c th c bin i ln
hoc xung. Theo cch thc mi sng mang s khc vi tn s trung tm cho nn
tn s sng mang s c iu chnh v mang ti modem.
2.3.2.2. S thay i tn s
Tn s phi c thay i theo s thay i trong k hoch tn s khi lu lng
tng hoc khi thay i mt v tinh mi. Cho nn, cc b i tn ln v xung c th
sn sng c hiu chnh vt qu tn s ca ton b di thng RF. B dao ng ni
to ra cc tn s khc nhau c s dng p ng cc nhu cu thay i tn s. S
linh ng tn s l quan trng bi tnh hu ch ca cc b i tn kp U/C v D/C m
khng cn thit phi iu chnh cc b lc.
2.3.2.3. B cn bng
Bin tn s pht p v tr nhm ca on thu v pht ca cc trm mt
t c cn bng trong cc on IF tng ng ca chng. ( tr nhm cc b pht
p ca v tinh thng c cn bng trong on IF ca b i U/C).
2.3.2.4. Phn on tuyn tnh.
Trong cc h thng IDR, IBS v SCPC s lng cc sng mang l tn s c
bin i bng mt b bin i U/C hoc D/C v s thay i qua li gia cc sng
mang c th xy ra. Trong on pht, n thc s cn thit gi s thay i khng
mun sinh ra cc phn nh khng ng k vo trong HPA. Cho nn, b i tn
tuyn ln U/C c cn n tt cho phn on tuyn tnh.
2.3.2.5. Dung sai ca tn s sng mang.
Dung sai tn s RF cho truyn dn ca cc sng mang IDR, IBS v SCPC/QPSK
trong h thng INTELSAT c ch nh nh:
IDR: 0.025RHz. (nhng lun nh hn 3.5 KHz).
IBS: 0.025RHz. (nhng lun nh hn 10 KHz).
Trong : R l tc n truyn dn sng mang (bps).
SCPC l ln hn rt nhiu: 250 Hz
2.3.3. B dao ng ni
Cc b dao ng ni c s dng trong cc b i tn c th c iu khin
bi mt dao ng thch anh hoc mt b t hp tn s. Trong trng hp u tin, s
thay th tn s cn n s thay th ca tinh th thch anh hoc s chuyn mch ca
nhiu tinh th thch anh vi nhau. Trong trng hp th hai, s thay i tn s c th

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c thc hin rt n gin bi mt bnh xe thay i tn s hoc thm ch dng iu
khin t xa.
Cc b dao ng ni phi c c tnh l tn s tp m thp ti cc tn s tn hiu
di tn c s tun theo cc yu cu chung trong thit b tp m trm mt t. Cn
phi ch c cc yu cu ca tn s tp m thp v cc yu cu v s n nh tn s
c bit kh khn trong trng hp thu v truyn dn s. Tinh th thch anh hot
ng mc cao iu khin cc b dao ng hoc cc b t hp tn s phi
c s dng trong trng hp ny.
2.4. B KHUCH I CNG SUT CAO (HPA - High Power Amplifier)
2.4.1. Gii thiu
b vo suy hao truyn sng ln trong thng tin v tinh, u ra my pht cn
phi c cng sut cng ln cng tt, do vy trm mt t s dng b khuch i
cng sut cao HPA. Chc nng c bn ca mt b khuch i cng sut cao HPA
trong mt trm mt t l khuch i cc sng mang cao tn RF mc thp c
cung cp bi cc thit b truyn thng mt t pht thnh mc cng sut cao
a ra anten pht ln v tinh. Trong cc h thng v tuyn trn mt t, khong cch
gia cc trm chuyn tip ch vi chc km nn cng sut ra my pht khong 10 W.
So vi h thng thng tin v tinh do khong cch chuyn tip di khong 36000 km
nn mt trm mt t ln pht vi cng sut khong vi trm W n vi chc KW.
2.4.2. Phn loi cc b khuch i cng sut cao
Cc n sng chy (TWT), Klystron (KLY), transistor hiu ng trng (FET)
hin c trn th trng c th dng trong b khuch i cng sut cao tu theo cng
sut ra ca my pht v bng tn.
V n sng chy (TWT) c bng tn rng, c th ph tt c cc bng tn phn
nh cho truyn dn, iu c li cho vic s dng nhiu sng mang hn c ch
ra Hnh 2.4.a.
Mc d, Klystron (KLY) c rng bng tn tng i hp, tn s khuch i
c th iu chnh n bt k gi tr no trong khong tn s phn nh cho truyn dn
thng c th chn 5 10 knh trong mt b iu hng.
Transistor hiu ng trng c s dng trm dung lng thp, khi cng sut
ra nh. Ni chung c cng sut cao ngi ta u song song mt s transistor vi
nhau.

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2.4.3. Cu hnh ca b khuch i cng sut cao
My pht cng sut cao gm c mt b khuch i trung tn IF, mt b i tn
ln U/C v mt b khuch i cng sut cao HPA. B khuch i trung tn IF khuch
i tn hiu t b iu ch a ti, tn s trung tn sau c bin i ln tn s
sng cc ngn nh b i tn. Sau , tn hiu c b khuch i cng sut cao
khuch i ln mc cng sut yu cu a ra anten pht pht ln v tinh.
Mc d cu hnh ca mt my pht cng sut cao c quyt nh bi loi v s
sng mang, nhng ni chung c thc hin mt trong hai cch sau:
a- Mt my pht khuch i ng thi nhiu sng mang (Hnh 2.4.a.)
Trong trng hp ny cn phi tho mn cc yu cu sau: rng bng rng
khuch i mt sng mang vi bt k tn s no v cng sut ra c d tr
sao cho mo do iu ch pht sinh t s khuch i ng thi ca nhiu tn hiu
di mc quy nh. Mc d cu hnh ny s t khi s sng mang nh, nhng thng
thun li cho khai thc.
b- Mi sng mang c khuch i ring bng mt b khuch i cng sut cao
(Hnh 2.4.b.)
Trong trng hp ny mi b khuch i khng yu cu phi c bng tn rng,
ch cn rng iu chnh tn s khuch i i vi mi sng mang cho trc.
Cu hnh ny thch hp khi s sng mang t.

HPA

C
O
B
I
N
E
R

U/C

MOD

U/C

MOD

U/C

MOD

a-Khi s dng mt HPA

C
O
M
B
I
N
E
R

HPA

U/C

MOD

HPA

U/C

MOD

HPA

U/C

MOD

b-Khi s dng nhiu HPA

Hnh 2.4. Cu hnh ca b khuch i cng sut cao


2.5. K THUT IU CH V GII IU CH TN HIU
2.5.1. Gii thiu
iu ch tn hiu l bin i tin tc cn truyn sang mt dng nng lng mi c
quy lut bin i theo tin tc v thch hp vi mi trng truyn dn. Qu trnh iu
ch l qu trnh dng tn hiu tin tc thay i mt hay nhiu thng s ca phng
tin mang tin. Phng tin mang tin trong thng tin v tinh thng l sng in t
cao tn (RF). Vic iu ch phi m bo sao cho tn hiu t b can nhiu nht khi
sng mang i qua mi trng trung gian.
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Ngi ta phn bit hai loi iu ch l iu ch tng t cho cc tn hiu
tng t v iu ch s cho cc tn hiu s. i vi tn hiu tng t th kiu iu
ch thng dng trong thng tin v tinh l iu tn FM (dng cho thoi, s liu v
truyn hnh). Cc phng php iu bin AM v iu bin pha QAM (iu ch cu
phng) rt t dng bi khong cch truyn dn rt ln ca tuyn v tinh cng vi
cc tp m ng truyn s lm cho bin sng mang b thay i rt mnh gy
nhiu kh khn cho qu trnh gii iu ch. Cn cc k thut iu ch s da trn c
s dng cc bin php ti cc dng bt tin tc ln sng mang. Tn hiu bng gc
bao gi cng l tn hiu tng t nn chng phi c chuyn thnh tn hiu s nh
phng thc PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) trc khi em iu ch. K thut iu
ch s c s dng trong thng tin v tinh thng l iu ch dch mc pha PSK
(Phase Shift Keying) v iu ch dch mc pha vi sai DE-PSK (Different Encode
PSK). u im ca k thut iu ch s l n khai thc c cc mt mnh ca tn
hiu s so vi tn hiu tng t, t b can nhiu ca mi trng v d kt hp vi cc
qu trnh x l nh: m ho, bo mt, chng li, sa li Ni chung, nguyn tc ca
vic iu ch tn hiu s v tn hiu tng t l ging nhau.
2.5.2. K thut iu ch tn s (FM)
Nguyn l ca k thut iu ch tn s (FM): gi s v(t) l in p i din cho
tn hiu iu ch v fc l tn s sng mang thng thng. iu ch tn s (iu tn)
kt hp s lch tn s (di tn) ca sng mang F(t) = f(t) fc ( lch ny t l thun
vi v(t)), vi in p v(t) ta c:
F(t) = f(t) fc =kFM.v(t) (Hz)
Trong : - kFM (Hz/V) c trng cho b iu ch.
- f(t) (Hz) l tn s tn hiu cn iu ch.
Nh vy, s bin i bin ca in th v(t) c trng cho tin tc cn truyn i
c ti ln sng mang theo hm F(t). Khi truyn sng sang trm thu, b gii
iu ch s cn c vo i lng F(t) khi phc tin tc ban u.
2.5.3. K thut gii iu ch sng mang iu tn (FM)
Nguyn l ca k thut gii iu ch sng mang (FM): sng mang ti u vo b
gii iu ch c mt t s tn hiu trn tp m (C/N0)T. B gii iu ch nhn bit
di tn tc thi F(t) ca sng mang v khi phc mt in p u(t) sao cho:
u(t) = FM.F(t) (V)
trong FM (V/Hz) c trng cho b gii iu ch.
2.5.4. iu ch s
Hnh 2.5. trnh by nguyn l ca mt b iu ch. N bao gm:
- Mt b tao k t.
- Mt b m ho.
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-

Mt b to tn hiu (sng mang) tn s v tuyn.


M = 2m
Tn hiu knh

B gii iu ch

S liu
vo

B to k t
knh th m

B m ho

B to tn
hiu knh M

Hnh 2.5. Nguyn l ca mt b iu ch s


B to k t to ra cc k t vi M trng thi, trong M=2m, t m bit lin tip
ca dng nh phn u vo. B m ho thit lp mt s tng ng gia M trng thi
ca cc k hiu ny v M trng thi c th c ca sng mang pht. C hai loi m
ho thng dng:
- M ho trc tip - mt trng thi ca k t xc nh mt trng thi ca sng mang.
- M ho chuyn tip (m ho vi sai) - mt trng thi ca k t xc nh mt chuyn
tip gia hai trng thi k tip nhau ca sng mang.
iu ch pha (kha dch pha PSK Phase Shift Keying) c bit thch hp i
vi cc tuyn v tinh. Trong thc t n s dng li th ca mt ng bao khng i
nn n cung cp hiu qu ph tt hn.
2.5.5. K thut gii iu ch sng mang PSK
Vai tr ca b gii iu ch l nhn bit pha (hoc s dch pha) ca sng mang
nhn c v t suy ra gi tr cc bit ca dng nh phn c pht i. Gii iu
ch c th l:
- Nht qun (coherent): b gii iu ch s dng tn hiu chun hnh sin ti ch c
cng tn s v pha nh sng mang c iu ch ti my pht. B gii iu ch
thng dch pha ca sng mang thu c bng vic i chiu n vi pha ca tn hiu
chun. Gii iu ch nht qun cho php dng nh phn c ti cu trc cho c hai
trng hp m ho truyn dn - trc tip (BPSK v QPSK) v vi sai (DE-PSK v
DE-QPSK).
- Vi sai: b gii iu ch i chiu pha ca sng mang thu c trong thi gian
truyn dn mt k t v pha ca n trong thi gian ca k t trc . Do vy, b
gii iu ch pht hin c nhng bin i pha. Thng tin pha pht ch c th
c khi phc nu n c cha trong cc bin i pha, iu ch vi sai lun lun
kt hp vi m ho vi sai khi truyn dn.

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2.6. K THUT A TRUY NHP
Trong phn ny chng ta s cp ti cc k thut cho php mt s trm mt t
trn mng c th truy cp ng thi ln v tinh (s dng chung mt b pht p trn
v tinh). Nh vy, cc sng mang pht bi cc trm mt t truy cp n cng anten
thu v tinh v ng thi cc trm mt t c th thu c tt c cc sng mang pht
li bi v tinh. Nu bp sng ln ( rng bp sng = 170) th v tinh c th bao
ph mi vng ca bn cu nhn t v tinh. Vi gc m nh th v tinh ch bao ph
mt phn Tri t.
2.6.1. Cc vn v lu lng
2.6.1.1. nh tuyn lu lng
Vn t ra y l ta cn a ra yu cu v lu lng ca mt mng N trm,
lm th no nh tuyn lu lng trong mng. thc hin iu ny ta cn phi
thit lp mt dung lng chuyn ti thng tin thch hp gia hai trm. Thng thng
dung lng ny xc nh theo nhu cu lu lng v xc sut chn c th chp nhn
(gi tr tiu biu l t 0.5 n 1%). Gi s Cxy l dung lng c biu th nh s
lng knh thoi hoc bit/s cho nhu cu chuyn thng tin fXY t trm X n trm Y.
Tp hp cc dung lng sn c trao i gia N trm m t bng mt ma trn
vung N*N vi ng cho chnh bng 0 (CXY=0). Th d, i vi mt mng cha 3
trm (X=A, B, C; Y=A, B, C):
T
trm

CAB

CAC

CBA

CBC

CCA

CCB

Ti trm

Vic chuyn giao thng tin xy ra theo cc k thut truyn dn cho mt knh qua
v tinh v hm s iu ch sng mang ca tn s v tuyn do knh v tinh chuyn
tip. C th c hai gii php:
- Thit lp mi sng mang mt tuyn.
- Thit lp mi sng mang mt trm pht
2.6.1.2. Mi sng mang trn mt tuyn

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TX

A
tAB

tAC

tCA

C
tCB

V tinh
RX

(a)
TX

A
tAB+tAC

B
tBA+tBC

C
tCB+tCA

V tinh
RX

(b)

Hnh 2.6. nh tuyn lu lng a) Mi sng mang mt tuyn


b) Mi sng mang mt trm pht
Mi sng mang vn chuyn lu lng thng tin fXY t trm X ti trm Y. S
lng cc sng mang bng vi s lng cc h s khc khng trong ma trn ni trn,
c ngha l N(N-1). Cc h s ca ma trn xc nh dung lng ca mi sng mang.
2.6.1.3. Mi sng mang trn mt trm pht
Tnh qung b ca v tinh c s dng: n cho php mi trm thu c tt c
cc sng mang pht ti v tinh. Trong cc iu kin nh vy c th thy l nhim v
vn chuyn ton b lu lng t trm X n tt c cc trm khc c th c gn cho
mt sng mang duy nht. S lng cc sng mang bng vi s trm N. Dung lng
ca mi sng mang c tnh bng tng cc h s ca hng trong ma trn ni trn
tng ng vi trm pht.
2.6.1.4. nh gi chung
Trong phng php nh tuyn mt sng mang trn mt tuyn dn n nhiu
sng mang hn so vi phng php mi sng mang trn mt trm pht v mi
sng mang c dung lng nh hn. Tuy nhin, trm thu ch nhn c dung lng
d nh dnh cho n, khi trong phng php mi sng mang trn mt trm pht,
trm thu Y phi tch lu lng X ti Y ra khi sng mang thu c t trm X khi
lu lng tng do trm X pht trn sng mang ny.
Vic la chn gia hai phng php ny l s la chn kinh t. N ph thuc
vo nhng iu kin cn nhc khc, chng hn nh s lng cc knh v tinh, di
thng ca knh v tinh v k thut a truy nhp c s dng. Ni chung mt s
lng ln sng mang c v tinh chuyn tip s gy ra nhiu phin h hn so vi
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vic phi pht cc sng mang c dung lng cao hn. Phng php mi sng mang
trn mt trm pht thng c s dng nhiu nht.
2.6.2. K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA)
Di thng ca knh ca mt b chuyn tip c chia thnh cc di con, mi di
con c phn b cho cc sng mang do trm mt mt t pht i. Vi kiu truy
nhp ny trm mt t pht i lin tc v knh s pht i ng thi mt sng mang
ti cc tn s khc nhau. Nht thit phi cung cp cc khong bo v gia mi di m
mt sng mang chim b tr li s khng hon ho ca cc b lc v cc b dao
ng. My thu ca tuyn xung chn lc cc sng mang cn thit ph hp vi tn s
thch hp. B khuch i trung tn IF s bo m vic ny.
Tu thuc vo cc k thut ghp knh v iu ch c s dng m ta c th
xem xt mt s c ch truyn dn. Trong mi trng hp, knh s vn chuyn mt s
sng mang cng mt lc v c tnh chuyn ti tuyn ca knh s l nguyn nhn ca
mt vn ln l xuyn iu ch gia cc sng mang.
a)FDM/FM/FDMA

Ngi dng
Ngi dng
Ngi dng

B ghp
knh
FDM
(SSB/SC)

F1
TX

B iu ch FM

F2

T cc trm khc

F3

b)TDM/PSK/FDMA

Ngi dng

A/D

Ngi dng (s liu)


Ngi dng

A/D

B
ghp
knh
TDM

B iu ch PSK

TX

SL

c)SCPC/FDMA
SCPC/FM/FDMA

Ngi dng
Ngi dng
Ngi dng

TX

B iu ch FM
A/D
B iu ch PSK

B iu ch PSK

TX
TX

Hnh 2.7. Cu hnh truyn dn FDMA a) FDM/FM/FDMA


b) TDM/PSK/FDMA c) SCPC/FDMA
2.6.2.1. Cc c ch truyn dn
a- FDM/FM/FDMA (Hnh 2.7a.)

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Cc tn hiu bng tn gc t cc thu bao hoc t mng l cc tn hiu tng t,
chng c t hp li hnh thnh mt tn hiu ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
(FDM). Tn s tn hiu tng t c ghp knh ny dng iu ch mt sng
mang theo kiu iu tn (FM), sau sng mang ny truy cp ln v tinh vi mt tn
s ring ti cng mt thi im vi cc sng mang khc nhau trn cc tn s khc
nhau pht i t cc trm khc trn mng. gim thiu cc thnh phn xuyn iu
ch cng nh s lng sng mang pht i trong mng th vic nh tuyn lu lng
c thc hin theo phng php mi sng mang trn mt trm pht. Do vy, tn
hiu ghp knh FDM bao gm tt c cc tn s ca tn hiu i ti cc trm khc.
b- TDM/PSK/FDMA (Hnh 2.7b.)
Cc tn hiu bng tn gc t cc thu bao hoc t mng l cc tn hiu s, chng
c t hp li hnh thnh mt tn hiu ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian
(TDM). Dng nh phn biu th tn hiu c ghp knh ny s iu ch mt sng
mang theo kho dch pha (PSK), sng mang ny truy nhp v tinh ti mt tn s
ring ti cng mt thi im vi sng mang khc, trn cc tn s khc t cc trm
khc. gim thiu cc sn phm xuyn iu ch, v do vy s lng cc sng mang
vic nh ngha tuyn lu lng c thc hin theo phng php mi sng mang
trn mt trm pht. Nh vy, tn hiu ghp knh TDM bao gm tt c cc tn hiu
theo thi gian hng ti cc trm khc.
c- SCPC/FDMA (Hnh 2.7c.)
Mi tn hiu bng tn gc t cc thu bao hoc t mng iu ch trc tip mt
sng mang di dng tng t hoc s tu thuc vo bn cht ca tn hiu ang xt
(SCPC). Mi sng mang truy nhp v tinh trn tn s ring ca n ti cng mt thi
im nh cc sng mang khc trn cc tn s khc nhau t cng mt trm hoc t
cc trm khc.
Do vy, vic nh tuyn thng tin c nh tuyn theo phng php mi sng
mang trn mt tuyn.
2.6.2.2. Can nhiu ca knh ln cn
Di thng ca knh c mt s sng mang chim ti nhng tn s khc nhau.
Knh s pht chng ti tt c cc trm mt t nm trong vng ph sng ca anten v
tinh. Cc sng mang phi c my thu lc ti mi trm mt t v vic lc ny c
thc hin d dng hn khi ph ca sng mang tch bit nhau bi mt di bo v
rng. Tuy nhin, vic s dng cc di bo v rng dn n s dng khng hiu qu
di thng ca knh v chi ph khai thc ca on khng gian cho mi sng mang s
cao hn. Do vy, cn phi c s dung ho kinh t - k thut. Bt k s dung ho c
chn nh th no th mt phn cng sut ca mt sng mang nm bn cnh sng
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mang cho trc cng s b bt bi my thu iu hng tn s ca sng mang
ny. y l nguyn nhn s gy ra can nhiu ca knh ln cn.
2.6.2.3. Xuyn iu ch
Ta thy mt knh ca mt b chuyn tip v tinh c mt c tnh truyn t
khng tuyn tnh. Nh tnh cht ca a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s, b khuch
i ny khuch i ng thi nhiu sng mang ti cc tn s khc nhau. Bn thn
trm mt t cng c mt b khuch i phi tuyn v n cng c th c cp nhiu
sng mang ti cc tn s khc nhau. Ni chung, khi N tn hiu hnh sin ti cc tn s
f1, f2fN i qua mt b khuch i phi tuyn, th u ra ca n khng ch cha N tn
hiu ti cc tn s gc m cn cha cc tn hiu khng mong mun, gi l cc sn
phm xuyn iu ch. Cc sn phm xut hin ti cc tn s fIM, vn l cc t hp
tuyn tnh ca cc tn s u vo, nh vy:
fIM=m1f1 + m2f2 ++mNfN (Hz)
trong m1, m2 mN l cc s nguyn dng hoc m.
i lng X c gi l bc ca mt sn phm xuyn iu ch, sao cho:
X= |m1| + |m2| ++|mN|
Khi tn s trung tm ca di thng ca b khuch i l ln so vi di thng ca
b chuyn tip ca knh v tinh, th ch cc sn phm xuyn iu ch bc l mi ri
vo di thng ca knh. V li, bin ca cc sn phm xuyn iu ch ny s gim
theo bc ca sn phm ny. Trong thc t, ch nhng sn phm bc 3 v mc nh
hn 5 l ng k.
2.6.2.4. Hiu sut ca FDMA
Gia hiu sut v s lng cc knh thoi ca dung lng tng cng ca mt
knh v tinh c rng 36 MHz bao ph ton cu bi v tinh INTELSAT IV hoc
IVA c mi quan h vi nhau. Trong c ch truyn dn kiu FDM/FM/FDMA th
cc sng mang c iu ch bi cc tn hiu ghp knh. S cc sng mang tng th
di thng n nh cho mi sng mang phi gim, tng dung lng thc t trn cc
sng mang s gim i so vi trng hp ch c mt sng mang. V dung lng tng
cng c to ra t dung lng ca mi sng mang v s cc sng mang th ta c th
hnh dung l dung lng tng cng s l hng s tuyt i. Nhng khng phi vy,
dung lng tng cng gim khi s sng mang tng. Kt qu ny l do mi sng mang
lm suy gim gi tr (C/N0)T khi s cc sng mang ln.
2.6.2.5. Kt lun
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA) c c trng bi s truy nhp lin
tc ti v tinh trong mt bng tn cho trc. K thut ny c li th l tnh n gin
v da vo cc thit b c kim nghim. Tuy nhin, n c mt s nhc im:
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- Thiu linh hot trong trng hp ti cu hnh; thch ng vi s thay i dung
lng, nht thit phi thay i k hoch tn s v iu ny i hi thay i cc tn
s pht, cc tn s thu v cc di thng b lc ca cc trm mt t.
- Tn tht dung lng khi s lng truy nhp tng ln do pht sinh cc sn phm
xuyn iu ch i hi phi hot ng ti mt cng sut pht ca v tinh b gim
bt.
- Cn phi iu khin cng sut pht ca cc trm mt t theo mt cch sao cho cc
cng sut sng mang ti u vo v tinh l nh nhau. Vic iu khin ny phi
c thc hin theo thi gian thc v phi thch ng vi suy hao do ma gy ra
trn cc tuyn ln.
2.6.3. K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA)
Mt ph
cng sut

F
Bng thng ca b chuyn tip

Tn s F

TF
TB

Pha pht

Pha thu

Cc trm A,B,C

Hnh 2.8. Hot ng ca mt mng theo nguyn l TDMA


Hnh 2.8. ch ra hot ng ca mt mng theo nguyn l (TDMA). Cc trm mt
t pht mt cch gin on trong khong thi gian TB. Truyn dn ny gi l truyn
dn tng khi (burst). Mt khi truyn c chn vo trong cu trc gii hn thi
gian TF gi l chu k mt khung v iu ny tng ng vi cu trc thi gian tun
hon trong tt c cc trm pht. Mi sng mang m t mt khi chim tt c cc di
thng ca knh. V vy mt knh ch mang mt sng mang ti mt thi im.
2.6.3.1. To khi bit
Khi bit tng ng vi vic chuyn lu lng t mt trm ang xem xt. Vic
chuyn ny c th thc hin theo phng php mi sng mang trn mt tuyn;
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trong trng hp ny, trm s pht i N-1 khi trong mt khung, trong N l s
lng cc trm trong mng v s lng cc khi P trong khung s l P=N(N-1). Vi
phng php mi sng mang trn mt trm, trm s pht i mt khi duy nht mi
khung v s lng cc khi P trong khung s bng N. Do vy, mi khi s di chuyn
trong dng cc khi con ca lu lng gia hai trm. Do gim bt lu lng thot
ca knh khi s lng cc khi tng ln cho nn ni chung phng php mi sng
mang trn mt trm vn c s dng.
Trm mt t thu c thng tin di dng mt dng nh phn lin tc c tc
Rb t giao din mng hoc mt giao din khch hng. Thng tin ny phi c lu
tr trong mt b nh m trong khi ch i n lt truyn dn khi. Khi thi im
ny xut hin, cc ni dung ca b nh c pht i trong mt khong thi gian bng
vi TB. Do vy tc bit R, dng iu ch sng mang s l:
R=Rb(TF/TB) (bit/s)
Gi tr R s ln khi di khi l nh v do vy chu k phin truyn dn (TF/TB)
ca trm s thp. Nh vy, th d nu Rb=2 Mbit/s v (TF/TB)=10 th iu ch xut
hin vi tc 20 Mbit/s. Lu rng R biu th tng dung lng mng, ngha l tng
cc dung lng trm tnh theo bit/s. Nu tt c cc trm c cng mt dung lng th
chu k phin (TF/TB) biu th s lng cc trm trn mng.
2.6.3.2. Cu trc khung
Khung c to thnh ti mc v tinh n bao gm ton b cc khi bit do mi
trm mt t t lin tip nhau pht i nu ch ng b ho truyn dn ca cc
trm l ng. tnh n nhng khim khuyt ca ng b ho, mt chu k ngoi
truyn dn, gi l thi gian bo v c cung cp gia mi khi. Hnh 2.9. ch ra
khung dng trong cc mng INTELSAT v EUTELSAT. di ca khung l 2 ms.
Thi gian bo v chim 64 k t hoc 128 bit v n tng ng vi mt khong thi
gian l 1 s. Hy ch s hin din ca hai loi khi:
- Cc khi bit ca cc trm lu lng, vi mt mo u gm 280 k t hoc 560 bit
v vi mt trng ti c cu trc theo cc bi s ca 64 k t, tng ng vi
dung lng ca mi trm.
- Cc khi bit ca cc trm tham chiu vi mt mo u gm 288 k t hay 576 bit
v khng c trng ti. Trm tham chiu l trm xc nh ng h khung bng vic
pht i cc khi chun ca n; tt c cc trm lu lng ca mng phi t ng b
ho vi trm tham chiu ch t khi ca chng vi mt thi gian tr khng i so
vi khi ca trm tham chiu gi l khi chun. Do vai tr ca n trong hot ng
hiu chnh mng, trm tham chiu s c trang b kp. iu ny gii thch ti sao
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mi khung c hai khi chun, mi khi do mt trong hai trm tham chiu ng b
vi nhau pht i.
2ms
120832 k t

Khung TDMA

RB1

TBa

RB2

Thi gian bo v

64

TBb

RB1

Cc k t

Khi chun
Khi phc sng mang
v nh thi bit

176

T
n

TTY

24

SC

VO
W

VO
W

CD
C

32

32

RBx: Khi chun t trm chun x


TBx: Khi lu lng t trm x
T n: Mt mu bit c bit trong mo u cho php
ng b ho chnh xc (phn u s liu) v phn gii
tnh mp m v pha ti my thu (i vi gii m
khng phi vi sai)
SC: Knh dch v cha thng tin cnh bo v qun l
Khi lu lng
mng
CDC: Knh iu khin v tr (CDC) cha thng tin
tr (Dn) ng b ho vi khi pht
TTY, VOW: Khu lnh mch ca bo v thoi dng
cho lin lc ni trm

Khi phc sng mang


v nh thi bit

176

T
n

TTY

24

SC

VO
W

VO
W

32

32

S liu lu
lng

Cc k t
Mo u

Hnh 2.9. Cu trc khung TDMA


2.6.3.3. Hiu sut ca TDMA
Hiu sut (thng lng) ca truyn dn TDMA c th c o bng t s ca
dung lng knh trong ch hot ng n sng mang (ch c mt trm truy nhp)
trn dung lng ca cng knh trong trng hp a truy nhp. Gi s rng ton
b di thng c chim ht trong c hai trng hp. Trong ch hot ng n
sng mang, dung lng chuyn ti l R=B, trong B(Hz) l di thng ca knh v
(bit/s Hz) l hiu qu ph iu ch. Trong trng hp a truy nhp, dung lng ny
l R(1-ti/TF), trong ti biu th tng cc thi gian khng dnh cho truyn dn lu
lng (cc thi gian bo v cng vi cc mo u). Do vy, hiu sut l:
= 1- ti/TF
N biu th thi gian dnh cho truyn dn lu lng (m l ngun li nhun
cho nh khai thc mng) v tng thi gian s dng knh (m nh khai thc mng phi
tr tin). Hiu sut s cng ln khi di khung TF ln v khi ti l nh.
Hiu sut ph thuc vo s lng P ca cc khi bit trong khung. Cho p l s
lng bit trong mo u v g l di tng ng tnh bng bit ca thi gian bo
v. Gi s rng khung c cha hai khi chun, iu ny dn n:
= 1 (P+2)(p+g)/RTF
trong R(bit/s) l tc bit ca khung.
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Hiu sut l mt hm ca s lng cc truy nhp, c ngha l s lng cc trm
N trong mng ph thuc vo c ch nh tuyn c chp nhn cu trc mng.
- Trong trng hp mi sng mang trn mt tuyn th P=N(N-1).
- Trong trng hp mi sng mang trn mt trm th P=N.
Do hiu sut s thp khi P cao, cho nn c th thy r li th ca vic chp nhn
phng php mi sng mang trn mt trm.
Hiu sut lin quan trc tip n vic tnh ton lu lng ca mt mng, tc l
s lng cc knh thoi. Cho r l tc bo hiu lin quan n mt knh thoi v n
l s lng cc knh thoi, iu ny s dn n:
n = R/r
N biu th s lng knh thoi trong khung. S lng cc knh thoi di t
gn ti mng ph thuc vo vic s dng b tp trung c th c theo ni suy ting
ni s v li tng ng.
2.6.3.4. Kt lun
a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) c c trng bng vic truy
nhp knh trong mt khe thi gian. iu ny c nhng u im nht nh:
- Ti mi thi im knh ch khuch i mt sng mang duy nht, sng mang ny
chim ton b di thng knh; khng c cc sn phm xuyn iu ch v sng
mang c li nh cng sut bo ho ca knh. Tuy nhin, s c mt ca tnh phi
tuyn kt hp vi cc hiu ng lc khi truyn dn v khi thu s lm xung cp ch
tiu truyn dn s l tng.
- Hiu sut truyn dn vn cao d s lng truy nhp l rt ln.
- Khng cn phi khng ch cng sut pht ca cc trm.
- Tt c cc trm u pht v tn hiu trn cng mt tn s bt k ngun v ch ca
cc khi bit; iu ny lm n gin ho vic iu hng.
Tuy nhin, TDMA cng c nhng nhc im nht nh:
- Cn phi ng b ho m bo hot ng ca ton mng.
- Cn m rng kch thc ca trm pht ti hiu sut cao.
Ni chung, TDMA i hi cc trang thit b t tin hn ti cc trm mt t.
Tuy nhin, gi thnh t ca trang thit b ny c b li bng vic tn dng tt hn
on khng gian do hiu sut ca truyn dn cao hn trong trng hp c nhiu truy
nhp. Hn na, vic x l s dn n s n gin ho vn hnh.
2.6.4. a truy nhp phn chia theo m (CDMA)
Vi a truy nhp phn chia theo m (CDMA) cc trm ca mng pht lin tc v
cng pht trn mt bng tn nh nhau ca knh. Do vy, c can nhiu gia cc qu
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trnh truyn dn ca cc trm khc nhau v can nhiu ny c my thu phn gii,
my thu nhn bit c ch k ca mi my pht; ch k ny c trnh by di
mt dy nh phn, gi l mt m, c t hp vi thng tin hu ch ti mi my pht.
Tp hp cc m cn dng phi c cc thuc tnh tng quan sau y:
- Mi m phi c th c phn bit mt cch d dng vi mt bn sao ca chnh n
b dch chuyn theo thi gian.
- Mi m phi c th c phn bit mt cch d dng bt chp cc m khc c s
dng trn mng.
Vi vic truyn dn m c kt hp vi thng tin hu ch i hi sn sng ca
di thng tn s cao ln hn rt nhiu so vi yu cu ca truyn dn ch ring trong
thng tin. l ti sao ngi ta gi l truyn dn tri ph.
C hai k thut c s dng trong CDMA:
- Tri ph trc tip (DS Direct Sequence).
- Tri ph nhy tn (FH).
2.6.4.1. Tri ph trc tip (DS-CDMA)
Hnh 2.10. minh ho nguyn l ny, bn tin nh phn cn pht m(t) c tc bit
Rb=1/Tb c m ho theo NRZ sao cho m(t) = 1 v c nhn vi mt chui bit
nh phn p(t) = 1, c tc bit Rc=1/Tc ln hn nhiu (t 102 n 106 ln) so vi Rb.
Phn t nh phn ca chui bit c gi l mt chip phn bit n vi phn t nh
phn (bit) ca bn tin. Sau , tn hiu hn hp iu ch mt sng mang theo BPSK
m tn s ca n l nh nhau cho tt c cc trm ca mng. Tn hiu pht s(t) c th
c biu th bi:
s(t)=m(t)p(t)cosct (V)
Ti my thu, tn hiu c gii iu ch nht qun bng cch nhn tn hiu thu
c vi mt bn sao ca sng mang ny. B qua nhit tp m, tn hiu r(t) ti
u vo b lc thng thp (LPF) ca b tch sng s l:
r(t) = m(t)p(t)cosct(2cosct)
= m(t)p(t) + m(t)p(t)cos2ct (V)

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B pht p
Tc bit
ca tn hiu
s liu
Rb=1/Tb
m(t)

s(t)

r(t)

u(t)
1/Tb(.)dt

p(t)

2cosct
2cosct

B m
ho

Tc chip Rc=1/Tc

ng
b
m

Tn
hiu s
liu thu
c
v(t)

p(t)
B m
ho

Hnh 2.10. Tri ph trc tip (DS-CDMA)


B lc thng thp ca b tch sng loi b cc thnh phn tn s cao v ch gi
li thnh phn tn s thp u(t) = m(t)*p(t). Sau , thnh phn ny c nhn vi m
ni ti p(t) cng pha vi m thu c. Trong kt qu ny, p2(t) = 1. Ti u ra ca b
nhn ta s c:
x(t) = m(t)*p(t)*p(t) = m(t)*p2(t) = m(t) (V)
loi b hon ton tp m, x(t) c a qua b tch phn trong mt chu k t
0 n Tb ti u ra ca b tch phn pha thu, tn hiu pha pht c hi phc hon
ton.
2.6.4.2. Tri ph nhy tn
B pht p
Tc bit
ca tn hiu
s liu
Rb=1/Tb

B iu ch

s(t)

B gii iu ch
LPF

cosc(t) t
fc=f1.f2fn

cosc(t) t
fc=f1.f2fn

B tng hp
tn s

B tng hp
tn s

p(t)

p(t)

B to m

Tc chip Rc=1/Tc

m(t)

B to m

B to m

Tc chip Rc=1/Tc

Hnh 2.11. Tri ph nhy tn (FH-CDMA)


Hnh 2.11. minh ho nguyn l ny. Bn tin nh phn m(t) cn pht c tc
Rb=1/Tb v c m ho theo NRZ. N iu ch mt sng mang m tn s ca n
fc(t)=c(t)/2 c to ra bi b tng hp tn s c iu khin bi mt b to
chui nh phn hoc m. B to dao ng s to ra cc chip c tc bit Rc. iu ch

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bng BPSK, mc d cc kiu iu ch khc nhau cng c th c s dng, c bit
l iu ch dch tn (FSK). Nh vy, tn hiu pht c dng:
s(t)=m(t)cosc(t)t
Tn s sng mang c xc nh theo mt tp hp ca log2N chip, trong N l
s lng cc tn s sng mang c th c. Mi ln n thay i l m to ra log2N
chip lin tip. Do vy, tn s sng mang thay i theo cc bc. Bc ca tn s l
RH=Rc/log2N.
Ti my thu, sng mang c nhn vi mt sng mang cha iu ch c to
ra trong cng cc iu kin nh ti my pht. Nu m ti ch cng pha vi m thu
c th tn hiu u ra ca b nhn s l:
r(t) = m(t)cosc(t)t.2cosc(t)t
= m(t) + m(t)cos2c(t)t
Tn hiu ny khi qua b lc thng thp LPF th thnh phn tn s cao b gi li
v u ra ca b gii iu ch ta c tn hiu m(t) cn thu v c phc hi.
2.6.4.3. Hiu sut ca CDMA
Hiu sut ca CDMA c th c kho st nh l t s gia tng dung lng m
mt knh cung cp trong trng hp truy nhp n, c ngha l mt sng mang n
c iu ch ng thi theo CDMA. Khi , tng dung lng ca knh l tch ca
dung lng mt sng mang vi s lng cc sng mang, c ngha l s lng cc
truy nhp. Dung lng ca mt sng mang l Rb th s lng truy nhp ti a bng
bao nhiu?
a) S lng ti a cc truy nhp
Xt trng hp tri ph trc tip (DS-CDMA). n gin, gi thit rng N
sng mang thu c u c cng sut bng C. Cng sut hu ch ti u vo my thu
do vy s l C. Nu tc thng tin m sng mang ny vn chuyn l Rb th nng
lng tnh cho mi bit thng tin l Eb = C/Rb. B qua tp m nhit trong cng sut tp
m ti u vo my thu v ch gi li phn tp m can nhiu gp vo, th mt ph
cng sut tp m N0 ti u vo my thu l N0 = (N-1)C/BN, trong BN l di thng
tp m tng ng ca my thu. iu ny dn n:
Eb/N0 = BN/Rb(N-1)
Hiu qu ph = Rc/BN ca iu ch s ang dng c th c a vo biu
thc ny. Khi :
Eb/N0 = Rc/Rb(N-1)
Khi cht lng ca tuyn do mt t l li no xc nh th gi tr Eb/N0 l bt
buc. T , cht lng ti a cc truy nhp Nmax = 1 + (Rc/Rb)/(Eb/N0)
2. Biu thc hiu sut
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Dung lng tng ti a ca mng bng vi NmaxRb. Dung lng ca mt sng
mang n c iu ch m khng c tri ph v chim dng mt di thng BN c
th l Rc. Hiu sut ca CDMA do vy c tnh theo cng thc:
= NmaxRb/Rc
2.6.4.4. Kt lun
a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA c cc u im sau y:
- Hot ng n gin, do n khng i hi bt k s ng b truyn dn no gia cc
trm. ng b duy nht l ng b ca my thu vi chui ca sng mang thu c.
- N cung cp cc thuc tnh hu ch chng li can nhiu t cc h thng khc v
can nhiu do hin tng a ng truyn. iu ny lm cho n hp dn i vi cc
mng c cc trm nh vi rng chm tia anten ln v i vi truyn thng v
tinh vi cc my di ng.
Nhc im chnh l hiu sut thp; mt di thng rng ca on khng gian
c s dng cho mt tng dung lng mng thp so vi dung lng ca mt sng
mang n khng c gin ph.
2.7. CC THIT B TRUYN DN S CA TRM MT T
Truyn dn s lin quan n cc tuyn thng tin v tuyn m cc u cui khch
hng ca chng to ra cc tn hiu s. Nhng cng c th pht cc tn hiu gc tng
t trong dng s. Mc d s la chn ny hm mt s gia tng bng tn gc, nhng
n cng cho php cc tn hiu t cc ngun khc nhau c pht i trn cng mt
knh v tinh v tuyn thng tin v tinh c kt ni vo mng s a dch v tch hp.
iu ny hm s dng cc k thut ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM).
Tc bit Rb
(bit/s)

Ngun s

M ho s liu

B TDM

Ngun tt

Tc bit Rc
(bit/s)
M ho knh

Xo trn

Tc k t
R (baud)
iu ch s

B m ho

Gii iu ch

B xo trn

Tc bit Rc
H s li bit Pc

Gii m knh

Gii m kho s liu

Gii iu
ch
TDM

Ngi
dng

Tc bit Rb
H s li bit Pb

Hnh 2.12. Cc thnh phn ca mt chui truyn dn s qua v tinh

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2.7.1. S ho tn hiu tng t
S ho tn hiu tng t bao gm 3 giai on:
- Ly mu.
- Lng t ho.
- M ho ngun.
2.7.1.1. Ly mu
Vic ly mu phi c thc hin ti mt tn s Fs t nht bng hai ln tn s cc
i fmax ca ph tn hiu tng t. Tn hiu ti u ra b ly mu l mt dy xung
iu bin (PAM). i vi ting ni trn mt knh thoi, fmax = 3400 Hz v Fs=8KHz.
i vi chng trnh pht thanh fmax=15KHz v Fs=32KHz.
2.7.1.2. Lng t ho
Sau , mi mu c lng t ho thnh mt s lng xc nh M mc ri rc.
Qu trnh lng t ho s to ra mt sai li c m t nh tp m lng t ho.
Lng t ho c th ng nht hoc khng ng nht tu theo bc lng t ho;
bc ny c th c lp hoc l mt hm s ca gi tr mu. Trong trng hp lng
t ho khng ng nht, c th chp nhn s dng lut lng t ho cho phn cp
bin ca cc mu nhm duy tr mt t s tn hiu trn tp m lng t ho khng
i cho tt c cc bin mu. Hot ng ny c gi l nn. i vi cc mu ca
ting ni, hin nay c hai lut nn c s dng l nn theo quy lut A v quy
lut .
2.7.1.3. M ho ngun
Cc mu lng t ho c mt s lng M mc, cc mc c th c i din
bi mt bng k t xc nh ca mt tn hiu s c pht i trn tuyn. Hot ng
ny c gi l m ho ngun (PCM) nhm phn bit n vi m ho knh v nhim
v chnh l chng li truyn dn. Phn t thng thng ca bng k t ny l tn hiu
nh phn v do vy n nht thit phi pht i m = log2M bit cho mi mu v l tc
bit:
Rq = Fslog2M
V d i vi in thoi, nu M=28=256 th cn c 8 bit cho mt mu. Vi
Fs=8KHz, tc bit s l Rq=64Kbps. i vi mt chng trnh pht thanh m ho
ngun c nn c s dng s cung cp mt tc bit l 384Kbps. Cc k thut
khc nhau s c s dng gim tc bit. Cc k thut ny li dng s d tha
hin din gia cc mu k tip nhau. Theo cch ny mt tc bit Rb Rq c th t
c v l tc thng tin cn c pht. Cc k thut ny cn c gi l m
ho tc thp (LRE Low Rate Encoding). Chng c th p dng cho ting ni v
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hnh nh. i vi in thoi, thit b thng dng nht s dng m ho vi phn thch
ng (ADPCM Adaptive Differential PCM) cung cp mt gi tr Rq=32Kbps.

2.7.2. Thit b ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian TDM
Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) bao gm vic t xen ng nhp cc
bit lin quan n cc tn hiu khc nhau. i vi ghp knh in thoi s, hai knh
m CCITT G.732 v G.733 khuyn ngh c s dng rng ri nht tiu chun
Chu u ca CEPT v tiu chun sng mang T c s dng Nht Bn v Bc
M (Hoa K v Canada).
2.7.2.1. Phn cp CEPT
Tiu chun CEPT da trn mt khung gm 256 phn t nh phn. di khung
l 125 s. Tc bit l 2.048 Mbps. Dung lng ghp l 30 knh thoi, 16 bit mi
khung c s dng cho bo hiu v ng b khung. Cc dung lng cao nht t
c bng vic php knh lin tip cc b ghp knh dung lng bng nhau. Theo
cch nh vy, mt h thng th bc ghp knh c thit lp gm mt s mc; mi
mc c cu trc bng vic ghp 4 knh vi dung lng bng dung lng ca mc
thp hn.
2.7.2.2. Phn cp sng mang T (T - carrier)
Tiu chun ny da vo mt khung 192 bit c c nh ghp 24 mu, mi mu
gm 8 bit, mi khung li c b sung mt bit chnh khung. Do vy, m mi khung
cha 193 bit. di khung l 125s. Tc bit l 1.544Mbps. Dung lng ghp
knh l 24 knh (23 + 1 cho bo hiu). Phn cp ghp knh c khc nhau gia Nht
Bn v Bc M.
2.7.3. Thit b bo mt (Encryption)
Thit b bo mt c s dng khi mun ngn chn vic khai thc, hoc can
thip vo cc tin tc c pht ca nhng ngi dng khng c php. N l php
thc hin mt php thut gii theo tng bit theo thi gian thc trn dng nh phn.
Tp trung cc tham s dng xc nh php bin i c gi l kho. Mc d
vic s dng thit b bo mt thng lin quan n thng tin qun s, song cc h
thng v tinh thng mi cng ang c ngy cng nhiu khch hng ngh c
cc tuyn c bo mt, c bit l cc mng thng mi v qun tr. Trong thc t,
do vng bao ph v tinh rt rng v c th truy nhp ti cc v tinh bng cc trm
nh, cho nn vic nghe nn v ngy to tin tc l rt cao.

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Hnh 2.13. Minh ho nguyn l truyn dn bo mt. Cc khi bo mt v gii
bo mt hot ng vi mt cha kho do cc khi to kho cung cp. Vic c c
mt cha kho chung hm mt phng php an ton cho phn phi kha.
Vn bn r

Khi m kho

Vn bn
m ho

M kho

Knh v tinh
K xm nhp?

Phn b kho (Phn b


kho cng khai)

Vn bn
m ho

Khi gii m
kho

Vn bn r

M kho

Hnh 2.13. Nguyn l truyn dn bo mt


Bo mt bao gm hai kha cnh:
- Kha cnh bo mt: trnh khng nhng ngi khng c php khai thc tin tc.
- Kha cnh xc thc: cung cp vic bo v khng cho k thm nhp c bt k s
thay i tin tc no.
Hai k thut c s dng trong thit b bo mt l:
- Bo mt trc tuyn (mt m lung) mi bit ca mt dng nh phn gc (vn bn r)
c kt hp, nh s dng mt php tnh n gin (chng hn nh cng modun 2)
vi mi bit ca mt dng nh phn (dng kho) do mt thit b kho to ra. Dng
ny, c th l mt b to chui gi ngu nhin m cu trc ca n do m kho
quyt nh.
- Bo mt theo khi (mt m ho khi) chuyn mt dng nh phn gc thnh mt dy
mt ho c thc hin theo tng khi theo mt logic do kho m xc nh.
2.7.4. B m ho knh (Channel Encoder)

K t s liu
thng tin
N=2n
Tc vo Rb

Cc bit d tha r

B m ho knh

K t s liu
m ho
N=2n
Tc ra Rc

H s m ho =n/n+r

Hnh 2.14. Nguyn l m ho knh


M ho knh c mc ch cng thm cc bit d tha vo cc bit thng tin. Cc
bit d tha ny s c dng ti my thu pht hin v sa sai. Vic thm cc bit
ny c thc hin theo cc khi hoc bng php nhn chp. T l m c nh
ngha l: = n/n+r; trong r l s lng cc bit c cng vo vi n bit thng tin.
Tc bit ti u vo b m ho l Rb. Ti u ra n s ln hn v bng Rc c
xc nh theo cng thc: Rc=Rb/ (bps)
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2.7.5. B tiu tn nng lng
Khuyn ngh do CCIR son tho v vic s dng cc k thut tiu tn nng
lng nhm hn ch can nhiu gia cc h thng thng tin v tuyn dng chung cc
bng tn nh nhau. Trong truyn dn s, khi m dng nh phn l ngu nhin, nng
lng sng mang c dn tri khp ph tn ca tn hiu iu ch. Bng vic gii
hn EIRP pht ca v tinh, ngi ta c th duy tr di mc gii hn i vi mt
cng sut b mt ti mc di t. Ngc li, nu lung nh phn cha mt m hnh
c nh lp i lp li th cc dng s xut hin trong ph ca sng mang c iu
ch v bin ca chng c th dn n s gii hn mt cng sut b mt ti mc
di t s b vt qu. Nguyn tc tiu tn nng lng l to ra mt lung nh phn
iu ch c cc thuc tnh ngu nhin, bt chp cu trc ca lung nh phn cha
thng tin ny. Hot ng ny c thc hin ti my pht trc khi iu ch, gi l
s xo trn (scrambling). Khi thu, hot ng ngc li, c thc hin sau khi gii
iu ch, gi l b xo trn (descrambling). Hnh 2.15. trnh by mt v d ca vic
thc hin xo trn v b xo trn. Mi bit ca dng bit vn chuyn thng tin c t
hp li nh php cng modun 2, vi mi bit do b to chui gi ngu nhin to ra.
B to chui gi ngu nhin bao gm mt b ghi dch vi cc ng hi tip khc
nhau. B phc hi (descrambler) gm mt b to chui gi ngu nhin ging nh vy
v do cc tnh cht ca php cng modun 2 dng nh phn gii iu ch vi cc bit
ca chui ngu nhin bo m s phc hi ni dung thng tin. iu ny hm ch
ng b ca hai b to chui gi ngu nhin.

a1

S
liu
vo

a2
2

u ra
xo trn
S liu thu

r-1

B ghi dch
(r tng)

r
(a)

2
a1

u ra b phc
hi trn

ar-1

B ghi dch
(r tng)

r-1

a2

r
ar-1

a1=0 hoc 1

(b)

Hnh 2.15. a) B xo trn b) B b xo trn (phc hi xo trn)


C ch ca Hnh 2.15. t n bo m ch ng b ny: sau khi r bit c pht
i m khng c sai li, cc trng thi r ca b ghi dch pha xo trn u vo cng
mt trng thi. Tuy nhin, mt sai li trong mt bit to ra nhiu li trong mt khong
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r bit sao cho c cc h s ai khc khng trong cc ng hi tip. Thm mt u im
na do qu trnh xo trn to ra l ch ng c cc chui gm cc s logic 0 hoc 1,
m theo m ho NRZ chng c th dn n lm mt ng b mch phc hi nh
thi bit v lm cho cc li pht hin ti u ra b gii iu ch c v ging nh do
kt qu ca mt li nh thi vo thi im quyt nh.

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CHNG 3

PHN TCH V TNH TON NG TRUYN

3.1. PHN TCH NG TRUYN


3.1.1. Gii thiu chung
Phn ny trnh by qu trnh truyn dn ca sng v tuyn gia hai trm mt
t, mt trm l trm pht v mt trm l trm thu thng qua mt v tinh. Trong
ng truyn nh vy bao gm hai tuyn: tuyn ln t trm mt t pht n v tinh
v tuyn xung t v tinh n trm mt t thu.
Mc ch ca phn ny l xc nh t s tn hiu trn tp m ti u vo my thu.
T s ny ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca my pht, mi trng truyn dn v my
thu. Tuyn ln v tuyn xung trc tin c xem xt mt cch ring bit. Sau s
xc lp biu thc cho t s tn hiu trn tp m ca mt tuyn hon chnh gia hai
trm mt t.
3.1.2. Phn tch ng truyn tuyn ln
3.1.2.1. H s tng ch anten (G - Gain)
H s tng ch ca anten l mt thng s quan trng, quyt nh khng nhng
cht lng ca anten m c cht lng v quy m ca trm mt t.
T chng 2, chng ta c h s tng ch ca anten c cho bi cng thc sau:
GdBi = 10log + 20log d + 20log f + 20.4dB
H s tng ch ca anten c din tch b mt 1m2 vi hiu sut 100% l:
G1m2 dBi = 20log f + 20.4dB
Trong :
l hiu sut ca anten.
d (m) l ng knh ca anten.
f (GHz) l tn s lm vic.
20.4dB l hng s c tnh t 10log(1*109*/c).
Phng trnh trn ch ra rng kch thc anten cng ln th h s tng ch ca
anten cng ln v nu tn s lm vic thay i th h s tng ch ca anten cng thay
i. Cc anten ging nhau th h s tng ch ca ng truyn tuyn ln s ln hn
h s tng ch ca ng truyn tuyn xung cho bng C v KU.

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3.1.2.2. Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP)
Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP Equivalen Isotropic
Radiated Power) c nh ngha l tch s ca cng sut u vo anten v h s tng
ch ca anten v c gi tr tnh bi cng thc:
EIRP = PTGT (W)
Hoc tnh theo dBW:
EIRPdBW = 10log PT + GT dBi
Trong :
PT (W) l cng sut u vo anten.
GT dBi (dBi) l h s tng ch ca anten pht.
Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP) phi c iu chnh chnh
xc, bi v EIRP ln s l nguyn nhn gy nhiu cng knh v nhiu knh ln cn
ca cc sng mang; ngc li EIRP nh s lm gim cht lng ca cc dch v.
3.1.2.3. Suy hao ng truyn
a) Suy hao trong khng gian t do
Nu mt anten ng hng bc x mt cng sut PT th chm cng sut ny s
tri ra c hnh dng nh l mt mt cu vi anten l tm. Cng sut to bi vng b
mt ti mt khong cch D s c tnh theo cng thc sau:
W = PT/4D2 (W/m2)
Vi mt anten pht nng lng (khi c h s tng ch ca anten) thay i theo
phng trnh:
W = GT.PT/4D2 (W/m2)
Hoc tnh theo dBW/m2:
WdBW/m2 = EIRPdBW 20log D 71dB
Trong :
GT.PT l cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng.
W l chiu x.
D l khong cch (km).
71dB l hng s tnh t 10log (4*106).
Vi mt anten thu thu thp tn hiu, s lng ca tn hiu c thu thp s
ph thuc vo kch thc ca anten thu. Cng sut ca anten thu s c tnh theo
cng thc:
PR = W*Ae (W)
trong Ae l gc m hiu dng ca anten thu (Ae = (2/4)/GR).
Do , cng sut ca anten thu l:
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PR = [GT.PT/4D2]*[(2/4)/GR]
PR = [GT.PT]* [4D/]2*[1/GR]
Biu thc L0 = [4D/]2 l suy hao trong khng gian t do.
Hoc tnh theo dB:
L0 = 20log D + 20log f + 92.5dB
Trong :
D (km) l khong cch gia u thu v u pht ca v tinh v trm mt
t.
f (GHz) l tn s lm vic.
92.5dB l hng s c tnh t 20log {(4*109*103)/c}.
Phng trnh m t cng sut ca anten thu theo dB l:
PR dBW = EIRP L0 + GR
Trong phng trnh ny, nu GR l h s tng ch ca anten 1m2 vi hiu sut 100%,
PR s tr thnh chiu x trn mt n v (dBW/m2), do chiu x c th c
tnh theo cng thc:
WdBW/m2 = EIRP L0 + G1m2
b) Khong cch t trm mt t n v tinh
Khong cch S t v tinh a tnh ti trm mt t c tnh theo cng thc sau:
D = {r2 + S2 2rS(cosC)}1/2
Trong :
r l bn knh tri t (6378 km).
S l bn knh qu o v tinh a tnh (42164 km).
C = cos-1{cos1.cos(s - e)} l gc tm.
1 l v ca trm mt t .
s l kinh ca v tinh .
e l kinh ca trm mt t.
3.1.3. Phn tch ng truyn tuyn xung
3.1.3.1. Nhit tp m
Nhit tp m l in p tp m xut hin t s chuyn ng ngu nhin ca sng
mang, thng l cc in t. S chuyn ng ngu nhin cc mc nng lng
nguyn t ca cc in t l mt c im chung ca cc nguyn t ti nhit trn
00 tuyt i.
Cng sut tp m c th c tnh theo cng thc:
Pn = KTB (W)
-23
Trong : K = 1.374*10 (J/K) l hng s Boltzmann.
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T(K) l nhit tp m tng ng.
B(Hz) l rng bng tn.
T cng thc trn n c th cc ch sau:
- Mt ti cho mt cng sut tp m ln nht l KTB ti mt thit b thu.
- Cng sut tp m sn c nh hng trc tip ti nhit tuyt i ca ngun tp
m.
- Nu nhit tng ng c bit th ta cng c th bit c cng sut tp m.
Cho nn, mt anten c tr khng Za s cung cp ti thit b thu mt cng sut tp
m l KTB. Nhng chnh cc thit b thu cng s sinh ra mt tp m N trong u
vo ca n, nh vy tng tp m sn c ti u ra thit b thu s l:
NT = (KTB)G + N
Trong : (KTB)G l tp m u vo my thu c h s tng ch G.
N = KTeB l tp m trong thit b thu.
Te l nhit tp m tng ng ca thit b thu.
Nu bit nhit tp m tng ng (Te) ca mt thit b ta c th bit c h
s tp m ca thit b . H s tp m ca thit b (F) c tnh theo cng thc sau:
F = 1 + (Te/T0)
V nhit tp m tng ng cng c th bit c t h s tp m ca thit
b bi cng thc:
Te = (F - 1)T0
Trong : F l h s tp m ca thit b.
Te(K) l nhit tp m tng ng ca thit b thu.
T0 = 290 K l nhit mi trng.
3.1.3.2. Nhit tp m anten
C hai trng hp c xem xt:
- Anten v tinh (tuyn ln).
- Anten trm mt t (tuyn xung).
a) Anten v tinh (tuyn ln)
Tp m nhn c bi anten v tinh l tp m t trm mt t v tp m t
khng gian bn ngoi. rng bp sng ca anten v tinh bng hoc nh hn gc
quan st t v tinh xung Tri t, vi v tinh a tnh l 17.50. Vi cc iu kin
nh vy nh hng ch yu l t trm mt t. Vi anten c rng bp sng
3dB=17.50 th nhit tp m ca anten ph thuc vo tn s v v tr qu o ca v
tinh. Khi rng nh hn (mt bp sng hp) nhit tp m ph thuc vo tn s

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v vng ph sng; trn t lin th bc x tp m ln hn ngoi i dng. Thng
ly gi tr tp m anten l 290 K.
b) Anten trm mt t (tuyn xung)
Tp m gy ra cho anten ca trm mt t bao gm tp m t bu tri v tp m
do bc x t mt t. N khc nhau khi tri trong v tri c ma.
1) Trng hp tri trong.
nhng tn s ln hn 2 GHz nh hng khng phi vng ion ca kh quyn
m l mi trng hp th, l mt ngun tp m. Khi khng xy ra cc hin tng kh
tng (c gi l bu tri trong) nhit tp m anten bao gm nhit tp m ca bu
tri v mt t xung quanh.
Trong thc t, ch c mt phn ca bu tri trong hng m anten c h s tng
ch ln. Nh vy, nh hng ca tp m bu tri trong TSKY ch c th c tc dng
nhit vng ph sng i vi gc ngng ca anten. Nhit tp m bu tri trong nh
l mt hm s ca tn s v gc ngng.
Bc x t mt t vng ln cn trm mt t gy ra bi cc bp sng ph ca
anten v mt phn bi bp chnh khi gc ngng nh. nh hng ca mi bp sng
ph c tnh bi Ti = Gi/(i/4)Tg, trong Gi l gi tr h s tng ch ca bp ph
c gc c i v Tg l nhit vng chiu sng ca mt t. Tng ca cc nh hng
ny l gi tr Tground . Ta c th ly cc gi tr gn ng:
- Tg = 290 K i vi cc bp ph c gc ngng E nh hn -100.
- Tg = 150 K i vi -100 < E < 00.
- Tg = 50 K i vi 00 < E < 100.
- Tg = 10 K i vi 100 < E < 900.
Nhit tp m anten s l:
Ta = Tsky + Tground (K)
Tp m ny c th tng thm bi cc ngun ring l nm trong khu vc ln cn
ca tnh hng anten. i vi mt ngun v tuyn ng knh gc v nhit tp m
Tn tn s kho st v o mc mt t sau suy hao bi kh quyn th nhit tp m
ph Ta i vi mt anten c rng bp sng 3dB c cho bi:
Ta = Tn(/3dB)2 nu 3dB >
nu 3dB <
Ta = Tn
Ch c mt tri v mt trng c k n i vi cc trm mt t hng v tinh
a tnh. Mt tri v mt trng c mt ng knh gc tng ng 0.50. Nhit tp
m s tng ln khi c cc vt th trn bu tri nm thng hng vi mt t v v tinh.
iu kin c bit ny c th bit trc. r hn, ti tn s 12 GHz mt anten 13 m
nhit tp m tng ln do mt tri ti thi im c gi tr Ta = 12000 K. Cc iu
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khin xy ra v gi tr ca Ta l hm ca ng knh anten v tn s. i vi mt
trng, s gia tng khong 250 K ti 4 GHz.
2) Trng hp c ma.
Nhit tp m anten do iu kin kh tng nh my v ma, do hp th nc v
do pht x vo mi trng. Khi ta c th tnh nhit tp m ca anten theo cng
thc sau:
Ta = Tsky/Arain + Tm(1 1/Arain) + Tground (K)
Trong Arain l suy hao v Tm l gi tr ca nhit trung bnh hiu dng. Tm c gi
tr t 260280 K.
Tm li, nhit tp m anten Ta l mt hm ca:
- Tn s.
- Gc ngng.
- iu kin kh quyn (tri trong hay ma).
Do vy, h s phm cht ca mt trm mt t cn phi c xc nh r iu
kin thc t v tn s, gc ngng v tnh trng ca kh quyn.
3.1.3.3. Nhit tp m ca h thng
Nhit tp m h thng ca mt trm mt t gm c: nhit tp m ca my thu,
nhit tp m ca anten. Do , nhit tp m ca h thng c tnh theo cng thc
sau:
Tsystem = Ta/L + (1 1/L)T0 + Te
Trong : L l suy hao ng dn sng.
Te l nhit tp m my thu.
T0 = 290K l nhit mi trng.
Ta l nhit tp m ca anten.
Phng trnh trn cho ta bit suy hao ca ng dn sng c tc ng quan trng
trong nhit tp m ca h thng. V d, dc theo thit b ng dn sng suy gim
0.3dB gia anten v b khuch i s ng gp 19 K ti nhit tp m ca h thng.
Suy hao fi phi c gi mc nh, nu khng th tc dng ca anten tp m thp
v b LNA s khng cn na. V l do m ti sao b LNA c t v tr gn
vi u thu pht sng ca anten.
3.1.3.4. H s phm cht (G/T)
Trong mi h thng truyn dn, tp m l h s c nh hng ln ln cht lng
ca tuyn truyn dn. H s (G/TdBK) c bit nh l php o phm cht ca mt
h thng thu. INTELSAT quy nh mt h s (G/T) c trng cho tt c cc trm mt
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t tiu chun. iu c ngha l trm mt t s p ng cc c im k thut
quy nh ca G/T, INTELSAT s cung cp cng sut t v tinh ti p ng c
cho cc dch v khc nhau.
T cc cng thc c tnh trn, h s phm cht G/T d dng c tnh theo
cng thc sau:
G/TdB/K = GdBi 10logTsystem
Trong GdBi l h s tng ch ca trm mt t tuyn xung.
Tsystem l nhit tp m ca h thng.
3.1.3.5. T s sng mang trn tp m (C/N)
Cht lng ca mt tuyn thng tin v tuyn c nh gi bng t s sng
mang trn tp m (C/N) v lng mo tn hiu thu tuyn thng tin, nh hng tn
hiu gy ra mo tn hiu thu l nh, v th cht lng ng truyn ch cn xc nh
bng t s C/N ca ng truyn.T s C/N c tnh theo cng thc sau:
C/N = PR/Pn
Trong : PR l cng sut thu ca anten v Pn l cng sut nhit tp m. Do , ta c
th tnh C/N theo cng thc sau:
C/N = {EIRP.GR}/{KTsystemB}.L0
Tnh theo dB:
C/NdB = EIRPdB L0dB + G/TdB/K 10log K* - 10log B
Trong : L0 l suy hao trong khng gian t do.
G/T l h s phm cht ca my thu.
K* l hng s Boltzmann (hoc bng 228.6dBW/K).
B l rng bng tn (vi sng mang s B = 06*tc truyn dn).
Ta c mi lin h gia cng sut tp m (N) v mt ph cng sut tp m (N0)
trong rng bng tn (B) c th hin trong cng thc: N = N0B. Do , t s
sng mang trn mt ph cng sut tp m (C/N0) c nh ngha:
C/N0 dBHz = EIRPdB L0 dB + G/TdB/K 10log K
Mt biu thc n gin hn c th c suy ra l t s sng mang trn nhit
tp m ca h thng (C/T):
C/TdB/K = EIRPdB L0 dB + G/TdB/K
T t s sng mang trn mt ph cng sut (C/N0) ta cng tnh c t s
nng lng bt trn mt ph cng sut ca tuyn thng tin s:
Eb/N0 = C/N0 dB/K 10log R
Trong R l tc truyn dn s.

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3.1.3.6. Tng t s sng mang trn tp m (C/TT)
Gi tr ca tng t s sng mang trn tp m (C/TT) ca tuyn thng tin v tinh
c tnh bi phng trnh sau:
(C/TT)-1 = (C/TU)-1 + (C/TD)-1
Trong : (C/TT) l C/T tng.
(C/TU) l C/T ng ln.
(C/TD) l C/T ng xung.
Cn ch rng t s C/T trong cng thc trn l cc gi tr bng s v tng C/T
phi c bin i t mi tng quan logarit, hn na tng t s C/T s thp hn t
s C/T bc thp.
Do vy, trong mt tuyn thng tin v tinh ng ln phi c gi chnh xc
trong mc bnh thng, mc EIRP thp ngha l C/N0 thp, nhng mc EIRP cao
khng cn thit C/N0 tt hn.
3.1.4. B pht p v tinh
Cc b pht p trn v tinh thc hin chc nng ging vi chc nng ca mt
rle chuyn tip v tuyn; chng nhn s chuyn giao t trm mt t pht v pht
li chng xung trm mt t thu sau khi khuch i v i tn. Cc ti nguyn ca
v tinh c chia s ti nhiu trm mt t; vi hng mc khc nhau ca cc tiu
chun A, B, C, D, E v F cho nn vi nhu cu khc nhau ca v tinh t 51.2KHz ca
di tn (cho mt sng mang 64Kbps vi FEC=3/4) ti mt b pht p hon ton.
3.1.4.1. im hot ng b pht p
B khuch i cng sut u ra b pht p khng l mt thit b tuyn tnh, n
phi c hot ng thp hn im bo ho. Do , li u vo (IBO Input
Back Off) v li u ra (OBO Output Back Off) s c quy nh t c
im . l mt s hao ph cng sut trong mt TWTA in hnh.
li u vo (IBO) c nh ngha l t s ca mt thng lng bo ho
v mt thng lng hot ng do mt sng mang em li.
li u ra (OBO) c nh ngha l t s ca cng sut bc x ng hng
tng ng (EIRP) bo ho v cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng (EIRP)
hot ng do mt sng mang em li.
li u vo v li u ra lin h vi nhau theo biu thc sau:
OBO = IBO X
Trong X l t s nn h s tng ch gia li u vo v u ra, gi tr ny khc
nhau vi s hot ng n sng mang v a sng mang.
X = 5.5dB cho TWTA trong INTELSAT VI HEMI/HEM.
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X = 1.8dB cho SSPA trong INTELSAT VII HEM/ZONE.
X = 1.7dB cho LTWTA trong INTELSAT VII-A Ku.
3.1.4.2. EIRP hot ng ca b pht p
Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng ca v tinh c tnh t phng
trnh OBO = IBO X l:
EIRPop = EIRPsaturation OBO
Trong : EIRPsaturation l cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng bo ho.
OBO l li u vo.
EIRPop l cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng ca v tinh.
3.1.5. Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng tuyn truyn dn
C tuyn ln v tuyn xung, sng mang i qua mt lp kh quyn vi tn s lm
vic t 130 GHz. Khi xem xt qu trnh truyn lan sng cc tn s ny ch c hai
tng kh quyn l c nh hng, l tng in ly v tng i lu. Tng i lu ri
t mt t n cao khong 15 km. Tng in nm trong khong t 701000 km.
Cc vng c nh hng cc i l vng gn mt t ca tng i lu v cao
khong 400 km i vi tng in ly.
nh hng ca kh quyn LA do suy hao kh quyn v trong u ni cng vi
nhit tp m anten. l nhng vn quan trng ca bng tn ln hn 10GHz. nh
hng ca lng ma c tnh theo % mc cng vt qu. Cng thp vi
cc cng khng ng k tng ng vi % thi gian cao (in hnh 20%); iu
ny c m t iu kin bu tri trong. Cng cao vi cc nh hng quan
trng tng ng vi % thi gian nh (in hnh 0.01%); l trong iu kin c
ma. Cc nh hng ny c th lm gim cht lng ca tuyn xung di ngng
c th chp nhn c. Sau y ta xem xt cc yu t nh hng n cht lng
tuyn truyn dn trong thng tin v tinh.
3.1.5.1. Suy hao
a) Suy hao trong khng gian t do v suy hao do kh quyn
1) Suy hao trong khng gian t do
Nh trnh by phn trn, phng trnh L0 = (4D/)2 gi l suy hao trong
khng gian t do v biu th cho t s cng sut pht v cng sut thu trong mt
tuyn thng tin gia hai anten v hng. Trong R l khong cch gia hai anten
v hng v l bc sng ca sng v tuyn. T ta thy gi tr ca L0 ph thuc
vo khong cch gia hai anten v hng D(km) v tn s f(GHz).
2) Suy hao do kh quyn
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Suy hao ca sng trong kh quyn, biu th bng LA do c cc thnh phn cc
cht kh trong tng i lu, nc (my, ma, tuyt v bng) v tng in ly. nh
hng trn ln cng sut ca tn hiu thu c th thay L0 bng L gi l suy hao ng
truyn v c tnh bng cng thc:
L = L0.LA
b) Suy hao do ma v cc hin tng kh hu khc
1) Suy hao do ma
Gi tr suy hao do ma ARAIN xc nh bi gi tr suy hao c th R (dB/km) v
chiu di ca on ng thc t sng i trong ma Le(km), v vy:
ARAIN = RLe (dB)
Gi tr R ph thuc vo tn s v cng ma Rp (mm/h). Kt qu gi tr suy
hao c biu th trong sut phn trm thi gian p.
Cc gi tr in hnh ca suy hao do ma vt qu 0.01% ca mt nm trung
bnh c th c suy ra t th tc trc ca cc vng tc ma vt qu 0.01% ca
mt nm trung bnh R0.01 vi gi tr t 3050 mm/h. iu cho khong 0.1 dB 4
GHz; t 510 dB 12 GHz; t 1020 dB 20 GHz v t 2540 dB 30 GHz.
Suy hao do cc m my ma hoc sng m c th c tnh ton, suy hao c
th C c tnh theo cng thc:
C = KM (dB/km)
Trong K = 1.1*10-3f1.8; f = 130GHz, K(dB/km)/(g/m3) v M(g/m3) l nng
nc trong m my.
Suy hao do cc m my ma v sng m th nh hn so vi lng ma, tr
trng hp my ma v sng m c mt hi nc cao. Vi gc ngng E = 200
suy hao c th ti 0.51.5 dB 15 GHz v 24.5 dB 30 GHz. Suy hao ny d sao
c quan st vi phn trm thi gian ln hn.
Suy hao do cc m my bng th nh hn. Tuyt kh c nh hng t. Mc d
tuyt ri m c th gy ra suy hao ln tng ng vi ma, tnh trng ny rt him
v t nh hng ln php thng k suy hao. S gim st cc c tnh anten do tuyt
ri chng cht v bng c th nh hng ng k hn ca tuyt dc theo tuyn.
2) Cc hin tng kh hu khc
- Suy hao do cc cht kh trong kh quyn ph thuc vo tn s, gc ngng, cao
t trm v nng hi nc. N khng ng k cc tn s nh hn 10 GHz v
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khng vt qu 12dB tn s 22GHz (tn s tng ng vi di hp th hi nc)
vi m trung bnh ca kh quyn v gc ngng ln hn 100.
Bng sau m t s suy gim ca kh quyn theo tn s:
Suy hao kh quyn

Tn s (GHz)

0.25
0.33
0.53
0.73

2<f<5
5 < f < 10
10 < f < 13
13 < f

- Suy hao bi bo ct: suy hao c th t l nghch vi tm nhn thy v ph thuc vo


mc m ca cc ht. 14 GHz l 0.03 dB/km vi cc ht kh v 0.65 dB/km
vi cc ht c m 20%. Nu di on ng l 3 km th suy hao c th ti
12 dB.
3.1.5.2. S phn cc
a) Khi nim
Sng in t bao gi cng c mt thnh phn in trng v mt thnh phn t
trng c hng vung gc vi nhau v vung gc vi phng truyn sng. Theo
quy c, phn cc ca sng c nh ngha bi hng ca vect cng in
trng. Ni chung hng ca in trng khng c nh v bin ca n cng
khng phi l hng s. Khi truyn sng in t, u mt ca vect cng in
trng vch ra mt hnh elp do gi l phn cc elp.
b) Phn cc do ma
Nhim v pht nng lng trong mt phn cc c chuyn thnh trng thi
phn cc trc giao. Phn cc cho xy ra nh kt qu ca cc suy hao khc nhau v
s trt pha gia hai phn cc trc giao. nh hng ny nguyn nhn do hnh th
ca git ma khng phi hnh cu. Thng thng nhn c hnh dng ca mt git
nc ri l hnh cu dt vi trc chnh nghing i so vi phng nm ngang v vi
s bin dng ph thuc bn knh qu cu th tch nh nhau. Thng nhn c
nghing cc gc thay i ngu nhin theo khng gian v thi gian. Gc phn cc c
trng l nm ngang v thng ng (ngha l hng vung gc c phng nm ngang
v tuyn truyn sng) thng c gi l nh hng ca gc nghing. Gi tr in
hnh ca phn cc cho XPD nh hn 20 dB i vi 0.01% thi gian.
c) Phn cc do cc tinh th bng
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Cc m my bng, cao cc tinh th bng gn vi vng ng nhit 00C cng
gy ra phn cc cho. Tuy nhin, khc vi ma v nng hi nc khc, nh
hng ny khng km theo suy hao. N gy ra gim gi tr phn cc cho i mt
gi tr Cice(dB) = 0.3 + 0.1 logp; trong p l % thi gian. Gim khong 2dB vi
0.01% thi gian.
3.1.5.3. Hiu ng quay phn cc Faraday
Tng in ly lm cho mt phng phn cc ca sng phn cc ng thng b
quay. Gc quay t l nghch vi bnh phng tn s. N l mt hm ca mt in
t tng in ly v bin i lin tc theo thi gian, ma v chu k mt tri. C ln
mt hoc vi tn s 4 GHz. V cc thay i tun hon c th d on trc, nh
hng ny c th b p bng vic quay hp l phn cc anten. Tuy nhin, mt vi
t bin (v d nh bo a t) l hin tng t bin v khng th d on trc
c. Kt qu vi % thi gian nh c suy hao LPOL = 20 log cos() (dB) ca tn hiu
thu v xut hin thnh phn phn cc cho lm gim gi tr phn cc cho XPD.
Vi gc quay , gi tr XPD cho bi XPD(dB) = 20 log(tan). Trng hp gc quay
90 tn s 4 GHz cho LPOL = 0.1dB v XPD = 16 dB.
3.1.5.4. S khc x tia sng
Trong tng i lu v tng in ly c h s khc x khc nhau. H s khc x
ca tng i lu gim theo cao, l mt hm ca iu kin kh tng v khng ph
thuc vo tn s. Vi tng in ly h s khc x ph thuc vo tn s v mt in
t. C hai u bin i bt thng nhanh. nh hng khc x gy ra qu o b un
cong, thay i tc v thi gian truyn sng. S bin i h s khc x, gi l s
thng ging lm thay i gc ti, bin v pha ca sng pht i. Hu ht cc hin
tng gy ra do s thng ging ca tng in ly; n ln hn khi tn s thp v trm
mt t gn xch o. Tn hiu thu bin i v bin v bin nh n nh
tn s 11GHz v v trung bnh c th vt qu 1dB trong 0.01% thi gian. Cc
hin tng ch ng k khi gc ngng thp (< 100) hoc khi sng mang c s dng
cho cc o lng khong chnh xc.
3.1.5.5. Hiu ng a ng
Khi anten trm mt t nh v vy c bp sng vi rng bp sng ln tn hiu
thu c th l mt tia sng thu trc tip v mt tia phn x t mt t hoc t cc
chng ngi vt xung quanh. Trong trng hp cc tia giao thoa (c pha ngc

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nhau) c mt suy hao ln. nh hng ny khng ng k khi trm mt t c anten
tnh hng cao loi tr sng phn x t mt t.
3.1.6. Cc bin php khc phc cc nh hng
3.1.6.1. B hiu ng phn cc
Phng php b hiu ng phn cc da vo s thay i c tnh phn cc ca
trm mt t. Qu trnh b c thc hin nh sau:
- i vi tuyn ln, hiu chnh phn cc ca anten pht bng d on trc sao cho
sng n ph hp vi anten v tinh.
- i vi tuyn xung, iu chnh phn cc anten ph hp vi sng thu.
Vic b cn phi t ng; cc tn hiu pht bi v tinh cn phi to ra c gi tr
(nh i hiu) sao cho nh hng ca mi trng truyn sng c th c pht hin
v tn hiu iu khin yu cu suy din.
3.1.6.2. B suy hao
Nhim v a ra mt gi tr t s C/N0 ln hn hoc bng (C/N0)required trong
sut phn trm thi gian bng (100 - p)%. Suy hao A RAIN do ma lm gim t s
C/N0 cho bi cng thc:
- Tuyn ln:
(C/N0)RAIN = (C/N0)clear sky ARAIN (dBHz)
- Tuyn xung:
(C/N0)RAIN = (C/N0)clear sky ARAIN - (G/T) (dBHz)
(G/T) = (G/T)clear sky (G/T)RAIN (dB) c trng cho vic gim ca h s phm cht
trm mt t do tng nhit tp m.
t c yu cu t ra cn t c (C/N0)RAIN = (C/N0)required iu ny c
th t c bng mt s d tr pha inh M(p) qu ng truyn bu tri trong vi
M(p) cho bi:
M(p) = (C/N0)clear sky (C/N0)required
= (C/N0)clear sky (C/N0)RAIN
Gi tr ARAIN c s dng nh l hm ca phn trm thi gian p, chng tng khi
p gim.
a ra d tr pha inh M(p) bu tri trong i hi tng EIRP ngha l yu
cu cng sut pht ln cao hn. i vi suy hao cao cng sut cn thit thm vo c
th vt qu kh nng ca thit b pht.

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3.1.6.3. Bin php thch ng
Thch ng cn phi thay i mt t cc thng s ca tuyn trong khong thi gian
suy hao bng cch duy tr cc gi tr yu cu ca t s C/N0.
Mt vi php tnh gn ng c th c p dng nh sau:
- S chuyn i trn tuyn ca mt ti nguyn ph c bo tn mt cch bnh
thng, c nh hng n suy hao. Ngun ti nguyn ph c th l:
+ Tng thi gian truyn (nh khe thi gian ca khung khng b chim trong trng
hp TDMA) nh vic khng s dng cc m sa li.
+ S dng bng tn c tn s thp hn, t b nh hng bi suy hao.
+ S dng EIRP cao hn trn tuyn ln.
- Gim dung lng, tuyn nh hng bi suy hao gim dung lng ca n. Trong
trng hp truyn dn s, gim tc thng tin cho php bi m sa li s dng
mt tc truyn dn khng i. Kt hp hiu qu vic gim tc thng tin v
mt tng ch ca gii m cho php cung cp mt d tr.
3.2. TNH TON NG TRUYN
3.2.1. t vn
Trm mt t H Ni (tiu chun A) mun thit lp mt ng truyn vi trm
u cui Hng Kng cung cp mt knh thu ring, trm mt t H Ni truyn
d liu qua v tinh Thaicom3 ti v tr 78.50E trn bng tn tiu chun C (ng ln
6.225 Ghz/ ng xung 4Ghz).
Cc thng s ca phn khng gian.
EIRPsaturation ca b pht p: 38 dBW.
rng di tn (bandwidth): 36Mhz.
Trng thi bo ho (SFD): -87dBW/m2.
G/T ca anten v tinh: 0 dB/K.
X(t s nn h s tng ch ca b pht p): 1.8dB.

Cc thng s trm mt t.

V tr

Trm H Ni

Trm Hng Kng

21.010 N

22.30 N

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105.530 E

114.10 E

ng knh anten

18 m

6m

Hiu sut anten

75 %

70 %

Kinh

Cc thng s sng mang.


Sng mang s IDR:

1.024 Mbps

Tc FEC:

1/2

BER(t l li bit):

10-9

C/N ti im hot ng:

10 dB

sn sng tuyn l 99.98% do ta c th cho php trm hai trm mt lin lc


trong 0.02%; mt khc Vit Nam nm trong vng ma N c lng ma trung bnh
trong nm l 95 mm/h nn theo khuyn co ca ITU suy hao d phng cho ma l:
3dB cho ng ln v 2dB cho ng xung.
S ng truyn:
V tinh Thaicom3
Up Link

Down Link

Trm mt t H Ni

Trm u cui Hng Kng

Hnh 3.1. S ng truyn


3.2.2. Tnh cng sut pht ti thiu ca trm mt t H Ni
Cng sut pht ti thiu ca trm mt t H Ni l cng sut trm mt t H
Ni pht ln v tinh Thaicom3 v tinh ny nhn c vi t s C/N no . Sau
tn hiu ny c khuch i, i tn ri pht xung trm u cui Hng Kng,
tn hiu t v tinh Thaicom3 ti trm u cui Hng Kng phi c mt t l Eb/N0 ti
thiu no trm u cui Hng Kng cn c th thu c d liu v x l vi
mt t l li bit nht nh (tu theo yu cu ca ngi dng). Nh vy t l Eb/N0 ca
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my thu trn trm u cui Hng Kng lin quan trc tip ti cng sut pht ca
trm mt t H Ni pht. Cc anten ca trm mt t c th thu nhn c nhng
tn hiu s c m ho theo phng php B-PSK c m sa li trc l FEC 1/2 c
t s Eb/N0 danh nh l 8 dB nu chp nhn t l li bit l 10-9. Vy t s C/T danh
nh m cc trm mt t c th nhn ng c tnh nh sau:
Ta c:
C/N0 = C/T + 228.6dB
C/N0 = Eb/N0 + 10log R
Suy ra:
C/T = Eb/N0 + 10log R 228.6dB
y Eb/N0 = 8 dB.
R = 2.048 Mbps = 2.048*106 bps l tc truyn dn s.
C/T = 8dB + 10log 2.048*106 228.6dBW/K
C/T = -157.48 (dBW/K)
tnh c cng sut pht ti thiu ca cc trm mt t th trc ht phi tnh
c cc tham s lin quan sau:
* H s tng ch ca anten:
GdB = 10log + 20log d + 20log f + 20.4dB
Trong l hiu sut ca anten.
d(m)l ng knh ca anten.
F(GHz) l tn s.
- H s tng ch ca anten trm mt t H Ni khi pht:
Ta c
= 0.75
dhn = 18 m
fu = 6.225 GHz
Ghnu dB = 10log 0.75 + 20log 18 + 20log 6.225 + 20.4dB
Ghnu dB = 60.13 (dB)
- H s tng ch ca anten trm u cui Hng Kng khi thu:
Ta c
= 0.7
dhk = 6 m
fd = 4 GHz
Ghkd dB = 10log 0.7 + 20log 6 + 20log 4 + 20.4dB
Ghkd dB = 46.45 (dB)
* Nhit tp m h thng
Tsystem = Ta/L + (1 1/L)T0 + Te (3.22)
Trong : L = 1dB l suy hao ng dn sng.
Te = 65 K l nhit tp m my thu.
T0 = 290 K l nhit mi trng.
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Ta = 35 K l nhit tp m ca anten.
Tsystem = 35K/1dB + (1 1/1dB)290K + 65K
Tsystem = 100 (K)
* H s phm cht ca anten:
G/TdB/K = GdBi 10logTsystem
H s phm cht anten ca trm u cui Hng Kng:
Ta c
Ghkd = 46.45 dB
Tsystem = 100 K
G/Thk = 46.45dB 10log 100K
G/Thk = 26.45 (dB/K)
* Khong cch t cc trm mt t n v tinh Thaicom3:
D = (r2 + S2 2rScosC)1/2
Trong r = 6378 km l bn knh Tri t.
S = 42164 km l bn knh qu o v tinh a tnh.
cosC = cos1.cos(S E) l gc tm.
1 l v trm mt t.
E l kinh trm mt t.
S l kinh v tinh Thaicom3.
- Khong cch t trm mt t H Ni n v tinh Thaicom3:
Ta c
1 = 21.010 N l v trm mt t H Ni.
E = 105.530 E l kinh trm mt t H Ni.
S = 78.50 E l kinh v tinh Thaicom3.
cosC = cos 21.010cos(78.50 105.530)
cosC = 0.83
Dhn = (63782 + 421642 2*6378*42164*0.83)1/2
Dhn = 37041 (km)
- Khong cch t trm u cui Hng Kng n v tinh Thaicom3:
Ta c
1 = 22.30 N l v trm u cui Hng Kng.
E = 114.10 E l kinh trm u cui Hng Kng.
S = 78.50 E l kinh v tinh Thaicom3.
cosC = cos 22.30cos(78.50 114.10)
cosC = 0.75
Dhk = (63782 + 421642 2*6378*42164*0.75)1/2
Dhk = 37617 (km)
* Suy hao trong khng gian t do:
L0 = 20log D + 20log f + 92.5dB
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Trong D (km) l khong cch t trm mt t ln v tinh.
f (Ghz) l tn s.
- Suy hao do khng gian t do ca tn hiu pht i t trm mt t H Ni ln v tinh
Thaicom3:
Ta c
Dhn = 37041 km
fu = 6.225 Ghz l tn s tuyn ln.
L0 hnu = 20log 37041 + 20log 6.225 + 92.5dB
L0 hnu = 199.75(dB)
- Suy hao do khng gian t do ca tn hiu pht i t v tinh Thaicom3 xung trm
u cui Hng Kng:
Ta c
Dhk = 37617 km
fu = 4 Ghz l tn s tuyn xung.
L0 hkd = 20log 37602 + 20log 4 + 92.5dB
L0 hkd = 196.04 (dB)

EIRP ca v tinh Thaicom3.


Gi EIRPsat l cng sut pht ca b pht p trn v tinh Thaicom3, C/Thk l t
s sng mang trn tp m m ti trm u cui Hng Kng nhn c.
T phng trnh: C/T = EIRP L0 + G/T, EIRP ca v tinh c th c tnh:
EIRPsat = C/Thk + L0 hkd + Ladd G/Thk
Trong C/Thk = -157.48 dBW/K.
L0 hkd = 196.04 dB.
G/Thk = 26.45 dB/K.
Ladd =3dB (suy hao do ma ng xung 2dB v cc suy hao khc 1dB).
EIRPsat = -157.48dBW/K + 196.04dB + 3dB 26.45dB/K
EIRPsat = 15.11 (dBW)
li u vo v u ra c tnh nh sau:
li u ra (OBO):
OBO = EIRPsaturation EIRPoperation
OBO = 38dBW 15.11dBW
OBO = 22.89 (dB)
li u vo (IBO):
IBO = OBO + X
IBO = 22.89dB + 1.8dB
IBO = 24.69(dB)
Cng sut tn hiu u vo ti thiu HPA ri vo trng thi bo ho (Saturation
Flux Density) l: SFD = -87 dBW/m2.
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Mc cng sut ti thiu t trm mt t H Ni pht ln v tinh Thaicom3 l:
W = SFD IBO
W = -87dBW/m2 24.69dB
W = -111.69 (dBW/m2)
EIRP ca trm mt t H Ni pht.
Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng ca trm mt t H Ni pht l:
EIRPdBW = W + L0 hnu + Ladd G1m2
Trong W = -111.69 dBW/K.
L0 hnu = 199.75 dB.
G1m2 = 35.03 dBm2 cho tn s 6.225GHz.
Ladd = 4 dB (suy hao do ma ng ln 3dB v cc suy hao khc 1dB).
EIRPdBW = -111.69dBW/K + 199.75dB + 4dB 35.03dBm2
EIRPdBW = 57.03 (dBW)
Cng sut ti thiu ca b HPA trong trm mt t H Ni s l:
PHPA = EIRP Ghnu + Lfeed
Trong Ghnu = 60.13 dB.
EIRP = 57.03 dBW.
Lfeed = 1 dB l suy hao trong ng dn sng.
PHPA = 57.03dBW 60.13dB + 1dB
PHPA = -2.1 (dBW) hay PHPA = 0.616 (W)
Cht lng ng truyn.
Ta c th kim tra cht lng ng truyn bng cch tnh t s C/Tt m trm
u cui Hng Kng nhn c khi trm mt t H Ni pht d liu.
T s sng mang trn tp m m v tinh Thaicom3 nhn c ca trm mt t H
Ni c tnh nh sau:
C/Tu = EIRPdBW L0 hnu - Ladd + G/Tsat dB/K
Trong EIRP = 57.03 dBW l cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng ca trm
mt t H Ni.
L0 hnu = 199.75 dB.
Ladd = 4 dB (suy hao do ma ng ln 3dB v cc suy hao khc 1dB).
G/Tsat = 0 db/K l h s phm cht ca anten trn v tinh Thaicom3.
C/Tu = 57.03dBW 199.75dB - 4dB + (0dB)
C/Tu = -146.72 (dB/K) hay C/Tu = 10-14.672 (W/K)
T s sng mang trn tp m m trm u cui Hng Kng nhn c t v tinh
Thaicom3:
C/Td = EIRPsat L0 hkd - Ladd + G/Thk
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Trong EIRPsat = 15.11 dBW.
L0 hkd = 196.04 dB.
Ladd = 3 dB (suy hao do ma ng xung 2dB v cc suy hao khc
1dB).
G/Thk= 26.45 dBW/K
C/Td = 15.11dB 196.04dB 3dB + 26.45dB
C/Td = -157.48 (dB/K) hay C/Td = 10-15.748 (W/K)
Cht lng ng truyn ph thuc vo tuyn ln cao tn v tuyn xung cao tn.
Gi t s C/Tt l t s sng mang trn tp m m trm u cui Hng Kng nhn
c ca trm mt t H Ni, t s ny c xc nh bi phng trnh sau:
(C/Tt)-1 = (C/Tu)-1 + (C/Td)-1
Trong C/Tu = 10-14.672 W/K.
C/Td = 10-15.748 W/K.
(C/Tt)-1 = (10-15.197W/K)-1 + (10-15.748W/K)-1
C/Tt = 1.83*10-16 (W/K) hay C/Tt = -157.37 (dBW/K)
Ta c t s sng mang trn cng tp m ca c tuyn l:
C/N0 = C/Tt + 228.6dB
C/N0 = -157.37dBW/K + 228.6dB
C/N0 = 71.23 (dBHz)
Ta c t s sng mang trn tp m ca c tuyn l:
C/N = C/N0 10log BOCC (BOCC(bps) l bng tn chim dng)
C/N = 71.23 10log 1.2288*106 (BOCC = 0.6*Rb)
C/N = 10.34 (dB) (ln hn C/N danh nh l 10 dB)
Ta c t s nng lng bt trn cng tp m ca c tuyn l:
Eb/N0 = C/N0 - 10log R
Eb/N0 = 71.23dBW/K - 10log 2.048*106
Eb/N0 = 8.12 (dB) (ln hn Eb/N0 danh nh l 8 dB)
Ta nhn thy cng sut pht ti thiu ca b HPA trong trm mt t H Ni ln v
tinh Thaicom3 l 0.616(W) th v tinh nhn c vi t s C/N = 10.34 dB (ln hn
C/N danh nh l 10dB), sau tn hiu ny c khuch i, i tn ri pht xung
trm u cui Hng Kng, tn hiu t v tinh Thaicom3 pht xung c t s
Eb/N0=8.12dB (ln hn Eb/N0 danh nh l 8dB). Do , trm u cui Hng Kng
s thu c tn hiu v x l n vi mt t l li bt t ra cho knh thu ring l 10-9.
Vy cng sut pht ti thiu ca trm mt t H Ni l 0.616 (W).
Kt qu ca bi ton tnh ton ng truyn cho knh thu bao ring vi cc
tham s u vo cho c th hin s di y:
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S in hnh tnh ton ung truyn cho knh thng tin


V tinh Thaicom3

Thit b t hp u vo
My thu

G/Ts=0dB/K

EIRP=38dBW
(C/T)u= -146.72dB/K

Suy hao
Lo ~ 199.75dB

Suy hao
Lo ~ 196.04dB

75%

1.024Mbps
B-PSK FEC 1/2
BER 10-9

EIRP=55.03dBW
F=6.225GHz
D=18m
HPA
PHPA = 0.616 W G=60.13dB
-1dB

Trm mt t H Ni

70%

D=6m
(C/T)D= -157.48dB/K

G/T=26.45dB/K
f=4GHz
G=46.45dB

(C/T)T= -157.37dB/K
LNA
(C/N)T =10.34dB
Trm u cui Hng Kng

Hnh 3.2. S tnh ton ng truyn cho knh thng tin

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CHNG 4

TNH HNH S DNG V TINH VIT NAM

4.1. HIN TRNG S DNG THNG TIN V TINH VIT NAM


Hin ti mng vin thng quc t ca Vit Nam ang s dng c hai phng
thc thng tin bao gm cp quang bin v thng tin v tinh. Thi k i mi u
nhng nm 90 ca th k trc thng tin ra quc t ca Vit Nam ch yu da vo
thng tin v tinh gm cc trm mt t v tinh theo h thng INTELSAT v
INTERSPUTNIK. T thng 8/1980 Vit Nam a vo s dng h thng v tinh
thng tin qua mng v tinh thng tin INTERSPUTNIK. n nm 1990 Tng cng ty
Bu chnh Vin thng xy dng mt h thng cc trm mt t thng tin v tinh
ln gm 6 trm theo tiu chun A, B qua mng v tinh INTELSAT, phc v nhu cu
truyn dn thng tin quc t.
Cc trm mt t v tinh INTELSAT c xy dng ti cc trung tm vin
thng quc t ti H Ni v Tp.H Ch Minh. T l s dng v tinh cho truyn dn
ng trc quc t ca Vit Nam trc khi c h thng cp quang bin l 100%,
nhng ti nm 1996 t l ny gim dn do a vo khai thc s dng cc h thng
cp quang bin v n nay vn cn chim khong 15-20 % tng dung lng. Mc d
t l s dng so vi cc phng thc truyn dn khc n nay l thp, nhng v gi
tr tuyt i vn tng v khng th thiu trong mng vin thng quc gia. Tng s
knh quc t qua v tinh l 887 knh.
4.1.1. H thng VSAT/SCPC
Mng VSAT DAMA/SCPC c thit lp cung cp thng tin cho cc vng
thng tin min ni vng su, vng xa. Cu trc phn mt t ca h thng VSAT bao
gm: trm HUB t ti trung tm quc t khu vc 2 Tp.H Ch Minh, cc trm u
cui gm c hai loi trm TES nhiu knh (4 knh) v trm QDS mt knh.
Tng s trm u cui hin nay ca mng c khong hn 100 trm, trong
trm TES l 70 trm, QDS l hn 30 trm. Tng s knh v tinh l trn 180 knh.
Trm HUB c kt ni vi tng i ca quc t gip cho mng VSAT/DAMA c
th m rng v kt ni vi mng vin thng Vit Nam v quc t. Ti trm HUB, h
thng iu khin mng NCS (Network Control System) c kh nng iu khin, kim
sot v qun l mng.

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4.1.2. VSAT knh thu ring (VSAT/PAMA)
VSAT knh thu ring ch yu phc v cho cc cng ty, c quan nh: cc dn
khoan trn bin ca ngnh du kh, cc trm kh tng thu vn, ngn hng, c quan
i din, cng ty lin doanh nc ngoi nhm phc v thng tin lin lc ring ca
tng c quan, n v. S trm u cui hin nay khng nhiu khong 25 trm. Cc
dch v VSAT/PAMA c cung cp theo cu hnh im ni im, tc knh cao.
4.1.3. VSAT TDM/TDMA
Hin ti h thng VSAT TDM/TDMA c s dng cung cp cc thng tin
d liu cho khch hng. H thng cng s dng cu hnh dng sao, c trm HUB lp
t ti trung tm vin thng quc t khu vc 1 ti H Ni, s dng anten 4.5 m. H
thng s dng bng tn C v hin ti kt ni vi v tinh Thaicom3 c rng bng
tn thu l 2 Mhz. Thit b ca h thng do Hughes Network System cung cp.
Mng VSAT TDM/TDMA c trin khai p ng cc yu cu trc mt ca
khch hng v dch v chuyn mch gi, truy nhp Internet ti nhng khu vc m
mng cng cng cha p ng c. Hin nay, cng ty VTI u t sn sng 20
trm u cui phc v khch hng.
4.1.4. Thu pht thanh quc t
Dch v thu pht thanh quc t qua v tinh c dng phc v cho cc hi
ngh quc t, cc s kin th thao, vn ho v c truyn dn qua cc trm tiu
chun A, B v cc trm lu ng ca truyn hnh Vit Nam. Ngoi ra knh truyn
hnh VTV4 cng c truyn hnh qua v tinh khu vc i khp th gii.
4.1.5. Truyn hnh hi ngh
y l dch v gn nh knh thu ring v khng thng xuyn. Knh thu ring
ny ti cc tn hiu video hnh ln ting vi mc ch phc v hi ngh nhiu a
im khc nhau nhng c th nhn thy din gi hoc bi trnh by ca din gi, cc
kin pht biu tham lun Knh thu ring ny ch din ra trong thi gian hi ngh
v gii phng knh khi hi ngh kt thc.
4.1.6. Thu pht hnh lu ng
phc v vic pht hnh t xut cho cc a im c cc s kin ti cc a
phng, hin nay Tng cng ty (VTI) c cc thit b pht hnh lu ng (Flyaways).
S thit b hin ti c l 3 thit b hot ng theo ch 1+1.

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4.1.7. V tinh s dng trong mng vin thng quc t Vit Nam
VTI c 3 tng i cng quc t loi AXE-105 ca Ericsson do Telstra lp t
H Ni, Tp.H Ch Minh v Nng, 5 trm mt t qua INTELSAT v mt trm
mt t qua INTERSPUTNIK. VTI c 109 lung E1, trong c 40 lung E1 qua h
thng v tinh v 69 lung E1 qua h thng cp bin, kt ni ti gn 30 nc khc
nhau vi 5013 knh thoi trc tip v chuyn n hn 200 nc vo cui nm 1998.
n cui nm 1997, tng s knh v tinh 2972 knh, kt ni trc tip vi 26
nc trn th gii. T l gia v tinh v cp l 4:6 (40% trn v tinh v 60% trn
cp). VTI c 5 trm mt t INTELSAT v mt trm mt t INTERSPUTNIK.
Mng INTELSAT bao gm mt trm mt t tiu chun A Sng B (SBE-1A) hot
ng t nm 1995 qua v tinh 1740 E. Trm mt t tiu chun A th 2 Sng B
(SBE-2A) hot ng t thng 3/1996 qua v tinh 660 E. Trm mt t tiu chun B
Nng hot ng t nm 1990 qua v tinh 1770 E v trm mt t tiu chun A
H Ni (HAN-1A) khai thc t nm 1990 qua v tinh 600 E. Trm mt t tiu chun
A Sng B (SBE-3A) truy nhp v tinh INTELSAT 1570 E dng cho mc ch
khi phc trong trng hp cp bin T-V-H c s c. Mng INTERSPUTNIK gm
c trm Hoa Sen 1 (HS1) H Ni, khai thc t nm 1990 v trm Hoa Sen 2 (HS2)
Tp.H Ch Minh khai thc t nm 1994 trn v tinh vin thng Nga ti 800 E. T
nm 1998 trm Hoa Sen 2 ngng khai thc v chuyn cc knh khai thc trn v
tinh INTERSPUTNIK sang mng cp.
Vit Nam s dng v tinh INTELSAT, ASIASAT II v INTERSPUTNIK cho
truyn hnh ton quc, pht qung b 18 gi/ngy v c trn 200 trm TVRO
thu cc chng trnh truyn hnh t cc knh v tinh ni trn.
Mng thng tin v tinh trong nc truy nhp qua v tinh ASIASAT II c cu
hnh gm nhng thit b u cui VSAT v trm trung tm HUB iu khin mng
nm ti Tp.H Ch Minh.
Hin ti VTI ang cung cp knh thoi qua v tinh nhm ci thin dch v vin
thng cc vng nng thn nhng vn gi c gi h nh tnh kinh t ca cng
ngh VSAT. Nh khai thc mng vin thng Telstra ca c da trn hp ng BCC
vi VNPT ang khai thc mng VSAT, cung cp c 24 trm u cui TSE vi 39
knh v trm trung tm HUB t ti Tp.H Ch Minh to thnh trc ca mng
in thoi c nh.
Nm 1996, dch v VSAT bt u kt ni mng vin thng quc gia vi cc o
Trng Sa, Ph Qu v ca khu Ko Na. VSAT cng cho php kt ni vi o
Bch Long V.
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Trm mt t HAN-1A v HS-1 c ni vi ITC-1 ti H Ni. Trm mt t
INTERSPUTNIK cch ITC-1 70 km, c ni bng viba s dung lng 34 Mbps.
Trm mt t ny truyn lu ng i Nga, Xlo-va-ki-a, Lo, Cam-pu-chia. Mt trm
mt t INTELSAT tiu chun B c ni vi ITC-3 Nng. Trm mt t ny
cung cp ng ni i M, c, Hn Quc v i Loan to ra trung k trc trong
nc gia H Ni v Tp.H Ch Minh.
4.2. XU HNG S DNG THNG TIN V TINH VIT NAM
4.2.1. Vai tr ca thng tin v tinh trong mng vin thng
Tim nng s dng v tinh thng tin cho mc ch thng tin ni a ca Vit
Nam cn rt ln. Cng vi s pht trin ca cc phng thc thng tin khc nh cp
quang v vi ba, thng tin v tinh gp phn nng cao nng lc mng li vin
thng trong nc v quc t, nhm p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng v lu lng v
loi hnh dch v cung cp cho khc hng. Mt khc thng tin v tinh cn c kh
nng nhanh chng cung cp dch v cn thit ti nhiu i tng khc nhau, nhng
vng a l khc nhau, ni m cc phng thc thng tin khc nh cpquang hay vi
ba gp kh khn khi thc hin. Mng thng tin v tinh ni a ca Vit Nam l mt
h thng a chc nng, phc v cho nhu cu thng tin a dng ca nhiu i tng.
Do m Vit Nam cn phi c mt v tinh ring chnh l v tinh VINASAT.
Hin nay d n v tinh vin thng Vit Nam VINASAT ang trong qu trnh chun
b v d nh n nm 2008 s c phng ln qu o.
4.2.2. Nhng thun li v kh khn khi Vit Nam s dng v tinh ring
Mt cch tng qut, mt s nhn nh rt ra khi phn tch thng tin v tinh th
trng ni a v khu vc c nh gi l c tc ng rt tch cc n kh nng
thc thi ca h thng VINASAT, bao gm:
- Ngnh vin thng Vit Nam ang trong qu trnh tip tc thc y tng trng v
c tnh cnh tranh mnh.
- Cc th trng chnh nh dch v truyn hnh, vin thng nng thn v dch v
Internet vn rt ph bin i vi cc h thng v tinh trn th gii trong khi Vit
Nam cn cha pht trin s gp phn em li ngun nhu cu rt tim nng.
- Cc chnh sch v cp php v cc quy nh hin hnh cng to iu kin tch cc
cho s pht trin ca ngnh v tinh.
- Ngnh cng nghip v tinh ang chng kin tc tng trng mc 10% n
15% mi nm v hy vng tc ny s c duy tr trong thi gian di sp ti.
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- Nhng lnh vc nh cung cp dch v Internet qua v tinh t c mc tng
trng vt bc trn 100%/nm.
- Ngnh v tinh khu vc chu Thi Bnh Dng c kh nng s t mc tng
trng mnh.
- Dung lng v tinh cha khai thc ca khu vc ang c chiu hng gim st.
- K thut tin tin cng vi khi lng t hang ln tip tc gp phn gim gi
thnh cc thit b v tinh.
- Tnh cht linh hot ca cc h thng v tinh gp phn lm tng v th ca v tinh
trong vic p ng nhanh chng cc c hi th trng ang pht trin nh dch v
Internet.
Bn cnh , cng cn tn ti mt s ro cn c nguy c nh hng n tc
tng trng ca v tinh Vit Nam, c th l:
- Kh nng ngun vn p ng hiu qu v kp thi vic trin khai mng li v cc
dch v v tinh trong bi cnh phn ln cc khch hng trong nc c nhu cu s
dng dung lng v tinh u da vo ngun vn ban u ca cc t chc ti chnh
nh nc.
- Thi hn lp k hoch Vit Nam vi nhiu cung on lin tip bao gm: nghin
cu tin kh thi, nghin cu kh thi v cc d n th nghim c th lm gim tc
khai thc dung lng cng nh c hi s dng v tinh ca h thng VINASAT.
- VINASAT l i tng sau cng tham gia vo th trng khai thc cc dch v v
tinh khu vc, VINASAT s phi i mt vi mc cnh tranh gay gt t pha cc
hng khai thc k cu ca khu vc ginh c mt th phn, d l rt khim tn
trong th trng khu vc.
4.2.3. Xu hng s dng thng tin v tinh Vit Nam
Mng thng tin v tinh ni a Vit Nam s p ng nhu cu s dng ca nhiu
i tng, do vy mng vin thng bao gm nhiu thnh phn mng khc nhau ph
hp vi mc ch s dng v yu cu ring ca tng i tng.
a) Mng thng tin v tinh phc v thng tin nng thn: cung cp cc dch v truyn
thng nh: thoi, fax, s liu, hnh nh tc thp cho nhng vng c lp v mt a
l nh nhng vng nng thn, min ni, bin gii, hi o hoc nhng vng m h
tng vin thng cn hn ch.
- Mng VSAT phc v thng tin nng thn c xy dng thnh nhiu mng khc
nhau trn khp c nc, cc trm thu bao c lu lng va v nh, gi thnh thp
c t ti cc vng c lp v mt a l, nhng ni h tng v tinh cn thp v
cha pht trin nh ti cc lng bn, vng ni, bin gii, hi o
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- Do c th dn c ti cc vng ni trn l khng tp trung, mt dn c thp, nhu
cu thng tin c nhng khng cao. Do vy, mng thng tin nng thng c t
chc theo cu hnh nhiu mng sao, mi mng gm nhiu trm thu bao nh kiu
VSAT vi mt trm ch ng thi l trm cng ni thng cc trm thu bao v
mng PSTN thng qua tng i cp tnh ni t trm ch.
- V lu lng ti mi trm con trong mng thng nh v kh xc nh trc, dung
lng mng s lng ph nu dng k thut truy nhp c nh. Do vy, cc mng ny
s s dng k thut SCPC/DAMA l ph hp trong iu kin s lng trm v
dung lng mi trm c th thay i theo tng giai on.
- Cc dch v chnh ca mng vn l cc dch v c bn nh thoi, ngoi ra c th
truyn fax, s liu hoc hnh nh vi tc thp.
b) Mng thng tin v tinh d phng cho tuyn thng tin ng trc: nhm nng cao
dung lng truyn dn ca tuyn thng tin ng trc Bc Nam. Trong trng hp
tuyn thng tin ng trc dng phng thc truyn dn vi ba v cp quang bo
dng hoc b gin on khai thc th mng thng tin v tinh s ng vi tr d
phng v phn ti lu lng cho nhng tuyn cn thit.
c) Mng thng tin v tinh h tr v b sung dung lng truyn dn gia cc tnh nm
ngoi tuyn ng trc Bc Nam, nng cao nng lc truyn dn v pht trin mng
ti cc tnh ny.
d) Mng thng tin v tinh phc v nhu cu ring ca cc c quan trung ng, b,
ngnh, cc cng ty, cc c nhn v cc t chc hot ng trn lnh th Vit Nam.
Cung cp cc knh thu ring theo yu cu ca khch hng.
- Mng VSAT hnh sao phc v truyn s liu theo phng thc TDM/TDMA.
- Mng cung cp dch v Internet.
- Mng gio dc v o to t xa.
- Mng khm cha bnh t xa.
- Mng cung cp dch v DTH, chuyn tip chng trnh pht thanh truyn hnh gia
cc i pht trung ng v a phng. Truyn hnh trc tip bng xe lu ng.
- Dch v thu thp, phn phi d liu theo kiu qung b hoc trong phm vi mt
nhm khch hng.
- T chc cc knh thu ring, mng ring cung cp dch v thoi, s liu, video, hi
ngh truyn hnh theo yu cu ring ca cc b ngnh, cc c quan chnh ph, cc
cng ty t nhn

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KT LUN
p ng yu cu cng nghip ha - hin i ha nn kinh t, vai tr ca
ngnh vin thng ni chung v thng tin v tinh ni ring ngy cng quan trng.
Vic pht trin c s h tng vin thng mnh khng ch to iu kin thun li cho
pht trin kinh t m cn gp phn m bo phn phi phc li x hi mt cch cng
bng. Khi thng tin lin lc pht trin v cc dch v vin thng c cung cp rng
khp trn ton quc khng ch ngi dn thnh th m c nng thng cng s c
hng nhng li ch v y t, gio dc v vn ho. Vic s dng cc dch v vin
thng s lm tng nng sut lao ng v ci thin cht lng cuc sng ca ngi
dn.
Do c im ca a hnh Vit Nam rt phc tp, c nhiu khu vc i ni
him tr, ho lnh v cc qun o xa xi nn vic thit lp cc tuyn thng tin tm
thp truyn thng nh cp ng trc, cp quang, vi ba gp rt nhiu kh khn.
Vic trin khai mng thng tin v tinh c thc hin nc ta t nm 1995 gp
phn quan trng i vi s pht trin kinh t cng nh m bo an ninh chnh tr v
ch quyn lnh th quc gia.
Thng tin v tinh l mt h thng thng tin kh ln so vi cc loi thng tin
khc. Vic nm bt cc vn v thng tin v tinh cn hn ch v cha su sc
nhng em cng tm hiu c mt s vn sau:
-

u tin em bit c mt ci nhn tng quan v thng tin v tinh a tnh,


lch s v xu hng pht trin ca k thut thng tin v tinh, cc c im v
ng dng ca thng tin v tinh, cu trc ca mt h thng thng tin v tinh a
tnh.

Th hai l cc k thut trm mt t thng tin v tinh. Mi phn t ca


trm mt t cng vi nhng cng ngh ni ti ca n l nhng i tng k
thut trc tip i vi v tinh v cc thng tin v chng l nhng u vo rt
quan trng bi ton thit lp tuyn truyn dn cho ra kt qu chnh xc. Cc
k thut, cng ngh c lin quan trc tip ti thng tin v tinh nh mt s k
thut iu ch/ gii iu ch, cc phng php a truy nhp hin ang c
s dng trong cc h thng thng tin v tinh.

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-

M t cch thc c bn phn tch v tnh ton cc thng truyn dn cho


mt sng mang s cho knh thu ring ca tuyn thng tin v tinh. Cc yu t
chnh nh hng ti cht lng ng truyn ca mt tuyn thng tin v tinh
a tnh nh cc loi suy hao, can nhiu gy ra do tp m, ma, xuyn cc,
giao thoa trn mt khong cch khng l m chng ta phi tnh n trong
qu trnh nh gi v phn tch.

Cui cng l tnh hnh s dng thng tin v tinh Vit Nam: hin trng s
dng thng tin v tinh Vit Nam v xu hng s dng thng tin v tinh
Vit Nam.

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Mc lc
LI NI U ......................................................................................................................... 1
CHNG 1 THNG TIN V TINH A TNH 1
1.1. GII THIU CHUNG .................................................................................................. 2
1.1.1. S ra i ca h thng thng tin v tinh ................................................................ 2
1.1.2. Qu trnh pht trin ca thng tin v tinh .............................................................. 2
1.1.3. Cc dng qu o v tinh....................................................................................... 3
1.1.3.1. Qu o trn........................................................................................................ 4
1.1.3.2. Qu o elp ........................................................................................................ 4
1.1.3.3. Qu o ng b mt tri (HEO) ....................................................................... 4
1.1.4. c im ca thng tin v tinh .............................................................................. 5
1.1.5. Cc ng dng ca thng tin v tinh ....................................................................... 7
1.1.6. Xu hng pht trin ca k thut thng tin v tinh ............................................... 7
1.1.7. Phn cc ca sng mang trn tuyn thng tin v tinh ........................................... 8
1.1.8. Phn chia di tn cho thng tin v tinh .................................................................. 9
1.2. THNG TIN V TINH A TNH ........................................................................... 10
1.2.1. Cc c im ca thng tin v tinh a tnh......................................................... 10
1.2.2. Cu trc h thng thng tin v tinh a tnh......................................................... 11
1.2.2.1. Phn on khng gian ....................................................................................... 12
1.2.2.2. Phn on mt t ............................................................................................. 21
1.2.2.3. H thng cung cp ngun v iu ho nhit ..................................................... 22
CHNG 2
K THUT TRM MT T ........................................................... 23
2.1. ANTEN CA TRM MT T .............................................................................. 23
2.1.1. Cc loi anten trm mt t.................................................................................. 23
2.1.2. H thng bm v tinh ........................................................................................... 24
2.1.3. H s tng ch ca anten ...................................................................................... 25
2.1.4. Gc rng bp sng .......................................................................................... 26
2.2. B KHUCH I TP M THP (LNA - Low Noise Amplifier) ........................ 27
2.2.1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................................. 27
2.2.2. Cc loi khuch i tp m thp LNA ................................................................. 27
2.3. B I TN (FC: Frequency Converter) ................................................................. 28
2.3.1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................................. 28
2.3.2. Cc b i tn kp................................................................................................ 28
2.3.3. B dao ng ni ................................................................................................... 29
2.4. B KHUCH I CNG SUT CAO (HPA - High Power Amplifier) ................. 30
2.4.1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................................. 30
2.4.2. Phn loi cc b khuch i cng sut cao .......................................................... 30
2.4.3. Cu hnh ca b khuch i cng sut cao .......................................................... 31
2.5. K THUT IU CH V GII IU CH TN HIU....................................... 31
2.5.1. Gii thiu ............................................................................................................. 31
2.5.2. K thut iu ch tn s (FM) ............................................................................. 32
2.5.3. K thut gii iu ch sng mang iu tn (FM)................................................. 32
2.5.4. iu ch s........................................................................................................... 32
2.5.5. K thut gii iu ch sng mang PSK................................................................ 33
2.6. K THUT A TRUY NHP.................................................................................. 34
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2.6.1. Cc vn v lu lng ...................................................................................... 34
2.6.2. K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA)......................................... 36
2.6.3. K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA).................................... 39
2.6.4. a truy nhp phn chia theo m (CDMA)........................................................... 42
2.7. CC THIT B TRUYN DN S CA TRM MT T................................. 46
2.7.1. S ho tn hiu tng t....................................................................................... 47
2.7.2. Thit b ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian TDM .............................................. 48
2.7.3. Thit b bo mt (Encryption).............................................................................. 48
2.7.4. B m ho knh (Channel Encoder) .................................................................... 49
2.7.5. B tiu tn nng lng......................................................................................... 50
CHNG 3 PHN TCH V TNH TON NG TRUYN.................................... 52
3.1. PHN TCH NG TRUYN............................................................................... 52
3.1.1. Gii thiu chung.................................................................................................... 52
3.1.2. Phn tch ng truyn tuyn ln ......................................................................... 52
3.1.3. Phn tch ng truyn tuyn xung .................................................................... 54
3.1.4. B pht p v tinh ............................................................................................... 59
3.1.5. Cc yu t nh hng n cht lng tuyn truyn dn....................................... 60
3.1.6. Cc bin php khc phc cc nh hng .............................................................. 64
3.2. TNH TON NG TRUYN .............................................................................. 65
3.2.1. t vn ............................................................................................................. 65
3.2.2. Tnh cng sut pht ti thiu ca trm mt t H Ni ........................................ 66
CHNG 4
TNH HNH S DNG V TINH VIT NAM ............................... 73
4.1. HIN TRNG S DNG THNG TIN V TINH VIT NAM.......................... 73
4.1.1. H thng VSAT/SCPC.......................................................................................... 73
4.1.2. VSAT knh thu ring (VSAT/PAMA)................................................................ 74
4.1.3. VSAT TDM/TDMA ............................................................................................. 74
4.1.4. Thu pht thanh quc t.......................................................................................... 74
4.1.5. Truyn hnh hi ngh............................................................................................. 74
4.1.6. Thu pht hnh lu ng......................................................................................... 74
4.1.7. V tinh s dng trong mng vin thng quc t Vit Nam .................................. 75
4.2. XU HNG S DNG THNG TIN V TINH VIT NAM ............................ 76
4.2.1. Vai tr ca thng tin v tinh trong mng vin thng ............................................ 76
4.2.2. Nhng thun li v kh khn khi Vit Nam s dng v tinh ring ...................... 76
4.2.3. Xu hng s dng thng tin v tinh Vit Nam.................................................. 77
KT LUN............................................................................................................................ 79

Ti liu tham kho.

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Kho lun tt nghip
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Trng H Cng Ngh - H Quc gia H Ni


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LI CM N
Li u tin ca bn kho lun ny cho php em gi li cm n ti cc thy c
trong b mn Vin thng, cc thy c trong khoa in t - Vin thng - trng i
hc Cng Ngh - i hc quc gia H Ni, nhng ngi dy d ch bo, to mi
iu kin thun li gip em trong thi gian hc tp v lm kho lun.
c bit em xin by t lng bit n chn thnh v su sc n thy gio
KS.Hong Minh Thng Ph trng Ban chun b u t d n v tinh vin
thng Vit Nam VINASAT - Tng Cng ty Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam,
giao ti v tn tnh hng dn gip ch bo em trong sut qu trnh lm kho
lun, bng kinh nghim ca mnh thy gip em tip cn v gii quyt c nhng
vn thng gp trong thc t, l nhng kinh nghim qu bu m em hc tp
c trc khi ra trng.
Xin gi li cm n n ton th cc bn sinh vin lp K46B, nhng ngi bn
gip v ng vin ti trong sut qu trnh hc tp cng nh lm kho lun tt
nghip.

H Ni, ngy 30 thng 5 nm 2005


Sinh vin
L nh Dng

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Tm tt ni dung
Thng tin v tuyn qua v tinh l thnh tu nghin cu trong lnh vc truyn
thng nhm khc phc cc nhc im ca mng v tuyn mt t , t c mc
gia tng cha tng c v c ly v dung lng, em li cho khch hng nhiu dch v
mi vi nhng chi ph thp nht c th. Thng tin v tinh c rt nhiu u im so vi
cc h thng thng tin khc nh l: tnh qung b rng ln cho mi loi a hnh, c
di thng rng v nhanh chng d dng thit lp li cu hnh khi cn thit.
Thng tin v tinh v c bit l m hnh thng tin v tinh a tnh c cu trc
gm 2 phn khng gian v phn mt t. Cng vi n l cc k thut trong trm mt
t c lin quan v ng dng phn tnh v tnh ton ng truyn cho knh thu
ring qua v tinh. Cui cng em cp n tnh hnh s dng v tinh Vit Nam.

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Ti liu tham kho


[1] Nguyn nh Lng. Cng ngh thng tin v tinh. Nh xut bn khoa hc v k
thut. H Ni 1997.
[2] Nguyn nh Lng & Nguyn Thanh Vit. Cc h thng thng tin v tinh. H
thng k thut v cng ngh, Tp 1. Nh xut bn Bu in. H Ni 2001.
[3] INTELSAT. Earth Station Technology Handbook. Revision 4, March 1995.
[4] John Wiley & Sons. Satellite communications. NewYork, Chichester, Brisbance,
Toronto, Singapo. Copyright 2001.
V cc ti liu c lin quan.

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I HC QUC GIA H NI
TRNG I HC CNG NGH

L nh Dng

L THUYT THNG TIN V TINH A TNH


V NG DNG TNH TON NG TRUYN
CHO KNH THU RING QUA V TINH

KHO LUN TT NGHIP I HC CHNH QUY


Ngnh: in t - Vin thng

H NI
86 - 2005
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Kho lun tt nghip
L nh Dng

Trng H Cng Ngh - H Quc gia H Ni


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I HC QUC GIA H NI
TRNG I HC CNG NGH

L nh Dng

L THUYT THNG TIN V TINH A TNH


V NG DNG TNH TON NG TRUYN
CHO KNH THU RING QUA V TINH

KHO LUN TT NGHIP I HC CHNH QUY


Ngnh: in t - Vin thng

Cn b hng dn: KS.Hong Minh Thng

H NI - 2005
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