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# Chapter 3

Vectors and
Two-Dimensional Motion
Quick Quizzes
1. (c). The largest possible magnitude of the resultant occurs when the two vectors are in the
s me direction. In this case, the magnitude of the resultant is the sum of the magnitudes of
JG
and B
J
: R = A + B = 20 units. The smallest possible magnitude of the resultant occurs
when the two vectors are in opposite directions, and the magnitude is the difference of the
magnitudes of A and B: R = |A B|= 4 units.

a
A
G
JG JG
2. (b). The resultant has magnitude A + B when A
JG
is oriented in the same direction as B
JG
.
3.
Vector x component y component

A
JG

+

B
JG

+

A
JG
+ B
JG

4. (b). If velocity is constant, the acceleration (rate of change in velocity) is zero. An object
may have constant speed (magnitude of velocity) but still be accelerating due to a change
in direction of the velocity. If an object is following a curved path, it is accelerating
because the velocity is changing in direction.
5. (a). Any change in the magnitude and/or direction of the velocity is an acceleration. The
gas pedal and the brake produce accelerations by altering the magnitude of the velocity.
The steering wheel produces accelerations by altering the direction of the velocity.
6. (c). A projectile has constant horizontal velocity. Thus, if the runner throws the ball
straight up into the air, the ball maintains the horizontal velocity it had before it was
thrown (that is, the velocity of the runner). In the runners frame of reference, the ball
appears to go straight upward and come straight downward. To a stationary observer, the
ball follows a parabolic trajectory, moving with the same horizontal velocity as the runner
and staying above the runners hand.
7. (b). The velocity is always tangential to the path while the acceleration is always directed
vertically downward. Thus, the velocity and acceleration are perpendicular only where
the path is horizontal. This only occurs at the peak of the path.
55
56 CHAPTER 3
Answers to Even Numbered Conceptual Questions
2. The magnitudes add when and A
JG
B
JG
are in the same direction. The resultant will be zero
when the two vectors are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.
4. The minimum sum for two vectors occurs when the two vectors are opposite in direction.
If they are unequal, their sum cannot add to zero.
6. The component of a vector can only be equal to or less than the vector itself. It can never
be greater than the vector.
8. The components of a vector will be equal in magnitude if the vector lies at a 45 angle with
the two axes along which the components lie.
10. They both start from rest in the downward direction and accelerate alike in the vertical
direction. Thus, they reach the ground with the same vertical speed. However, the ball
thrown horizontally had an initial horizontal component of velocity which is maintained
throughout the motion. Thus, the ball thrown horizontally moves with the greater speed.
12. The car can round a turn at a constant speed of 90 miles per hour. Its velocity will be
changing, however, because it is changing in direction.
14. The balls will be closest at the instant the second ball is projected. The first ball will always
be going faster than the second ball. There will be a one second time interval between their
collisions with the ground. The two move with the same acceleration in the vertical
direction. Thus, changing their horizontal velocity can never make them hit at the same
time.
16. Let v and
0x 0y
v represent its original velocity components. We know that the vertical
component of velocity is zero at the top of the trajectory. Thus,
0
0
y
v gt = and the time at
the top of the trajectory is
0y
g = t v .
(a)
0
0
y
x
v
x v
g
| |
=

\ .
|
and
2
0
2
y
v
y
g
=
(b) Its velocity is horizontal and equal to .
0x
v
(c) Its acceleration is vertically downward, g.
With air resistance, the answers to (a) and (b) would be smaller. As for (c) the magnitude
would be somewhat larger because the total acceleration would have a component
horizontally backward in addition to the vertical component of g.
18. The equations of projectile motion are only valid for objects moving freely under the
influence of gravity. The only acceleration such an object has is the free-fall acceleration, g,
directed vertically downward. Of the objects listed, only a and d meet this requirement.
20. The passenger sees the ball go into the air and come back in the same way he would if he
were at rest on Earth. An observer by the tracks would see the ball follow the path of a
projectile. If the train were accelerating, the ball would fall behind the position it would
reach in the absence of the acceleration.

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 57
Answers to Even Numbered Problems
2. (a) Approximately 484 km (b) Approximately 18.1 N of W
4. Approximately 83 m at 33 N of W
6. (a) Approximately 6.1 units at 113
(b) Approximately 15 units at 23
8. (a) Approximately 5.2 m at + 60 (b) Approximately 3.0 m at -30
(c) Approximately 3.0 m at + 150 (d) Approximately 5.20 m at -60
10. 1.31 km north, 2.81 km east
12. 358 m at 2.00 S of E
14. 42.7 yards
16. 788 mi at 48.1 N of E
18. (a) 185 N at 77.8 (b) 185 N at 258
20. (a) 74.6 N of E (b) 470 km
22. 2.68 ft (0.817 m)
24. 3.19 s, 36 at 60.1 below the horizontal .1 m s
26. 2.8 m from base of table; 5.0 m s, 5.4 m s
x y
v v = =
28.
3 3
7.23 10 m, 1.68 10 m x y = =
30. (a) clears the bar by 0.85 m (b) falling, 13.4 m s
y
v =
32. 18.7 m
34. 9.91 m s
36. 61 s
38. (a) 10.1 m s at 8.53 E of N (b) 45.0 m
40. ( 1. ), Yes 81 m s, 5.43 m s
42. 15.3 m
44. 7.87 N at 97.8 counterclockwise from a horizontal line to the right

58 CHAPTER 3
46. (a) 57.4m, 1.22 s (b) 57.4 m, 1.22 s
48. 0.344 m, 2.34 m
50. (a) 0.85 m s (b) 2.1 m s
52. 14 m s
54. See Solution Section
56. 29.4 m s
58. 10.7 m s
60. (a) ,
(b) ,
132 cm at 69.6 m = d
JG
146 cm at 69.6 m
= d
JG
111 cm at 70.0 f = d
JG
132 cm at 70.0 f

= d
JG
cm at 65.8

m 14.0 f = = d d d
JG JG JG
64. (a) 1.20 m s , 0 (b) 0.960 m (c) 0.500 m s
66. 3.96 m s
68. 26 knots at 50 south of east; 20 knots due south
70. (a) 26.6 (b) 0.950
72. 4.12 m

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 59
Problem Solutions
3.1 Your sketch should be drawn to scale, and be similar to that pictured below. The length
of R and the angle
JG
can be measured to find, with use of your scale factor, the
magnitude and direction of the resultant displacement. The result should be:
approximately 421 f at 3 below the horizontal t

q
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l
Horizontal
R
200 ft
1
3
5

f
t 40
30
1
3
5

f
t
ur

3.2 (a) The distance d from A to C is

2 2
d x y = +

where ( ) 200 x
(
km 300 km cos30.0 460 km = + =

and ) 0 300 y = + km sin30.0 150 km =

2 2
(460 km) (150 km) 484 km d = + =
(b)
1 1
150 km
tan tan 18.1 N of W
460 km
y
x

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
= =
3.3 The displacement vectors and
can be drawn to scale as at the right. The
vector represents the displacement that the man in the
maze must undergo to return to his starting point. The
scale used to draw the sketch can be used to find
8.00 m westward = A
JG
13.0 m north = B
JG
C
JG
C
JG
to be
15 m at 58 S of E

d
3
0
0

k
m
B 200 km
C
A
f
q
8.00 m
13.0 m
N
E
S
W
C
ur

60 CHAPTER 3
R
plane
A
B
Base
E
N
20.0
30.0
q
2
8
0
k
m
1
9
0

k
m
ur
q 15.0
R
=
1
7
5
m
100 m
N
W
S
E
B
ur
3.4 Your vector diagram should look like the
one shown at the right. The initial
displacement and the
resultant are
both known. In order to reach the end point
of the run following the initial
displacement, the jogger must follow the
path shown as B
100 m due west = A
JG
175 m at 15.0 N of W = R
JG
JG
. The length of B
JG
and the
angle can be measured. The results
should be 83 m at 33 N of W
3.5 Using a vector diagram, drawn to scale, like
that shown at the right, the final
displacement of the plane can be found to
be R . The
requested displacement of the base from
point B is
310 km at = 57 N of E plane =
JG
plane R
JG
plane = R
JG
, which has the same
magnitude but the opposite direction. Thus,
the answer is

310 km at = 57 S of W

3.6 (a) Using graphical methods, place the tail of vector B
JG
at the head of vector A. The
new vector has a magnitude of
JG
+ A B
JG JG
6.1 units 113 at from the positive x-axis.
(b) The vector difference A B
JG JG
is found by placing the negative of vector at the head
of vector . The resultant vector
B
JG
A
JG
A B
JG JG
has magnitude 15 units at 23 from the
positive x-axis.

x
y
A A B
B B
A + B
ur
ur ur ur ur ur
ur

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 61
3.7 (a) In your vector diagram, place the tail of vector B
JG
at the
tip of vector
JG
. The vector sum, A + A B
JG JG
, is then found as
shown in the vector diagram and should be

5.0 units at 53 + = A B
JG JG

(b) To find the vector difference, form the vector B
JG
(same
magnitude, opposite direction) and add it to vector A
JG
as
shown in the diagram. You should find that

5.0 units at 53 = + A B
JG JG

3.8 (a) Drawing these vectors to scale and maintaining their respective directions yields a
resultant of 5.2 m at +60 .
(b) Maintain the direction of A
JG
, but reverse the direction of B
JG
by 180. The resultant is
3.0 m at 30 .
(c) Maintain the direction of B
JG
, but reverse the direction of A
JG
. The resultant is
3.0 m at 150 + .
(d) Maintain the direction of A
JG
, reverse the direction of B
JG
, and multiply its magnitude
by two. The resultant is 5.2 m at 60 .
+x A
B
B
A B
A + B
ur ur ur
ur
ur ur ur
E
5
.
4
0

m
R
q
S
6.00 m
ur
3.9 Using the vector diagram given at the right, we find

( ) ( )
2 2
6.00 m 5.40 m 8.07 m R = + =

and ( )
1 1
5.40 m
tan tan 0.900 42.0
6.00 m
| |
= =
|
\ .

=

Thus, the required displacement is 8.07 m at 42.0 S of E

62 CHAPTER 3
3.10 The total displacement is D . The north and east components of
this displacement are:

3.10 km at 25.0 N of E =
JJG
( ) 3.10 km sin
y
D 25.0 = = 1.31 km north

and ( ) 3.10 km cos
x
D = 25.0 = 2.81 km east
3.11 (a) Her net x (east-west) displacement is 3.00 0 6.00 3.00 blocks + + =+
0 4.00 blocks
, while her net y
(north-south) displacement is 0 4.00 + + =+ . The magnitude of the
resultant displacement is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
3.00 R x y = + =
2 2
4.0 +
2
0 5.00 blocks =

and the angle the resultant makes with the x-axis (eastward direction) is

( ) 53.1
1 1
4.00
tan tan 1.33
3.00

| |
= =
|
\ .
=

The resultant displacement is then 5.00 blocks at 53.1 N of E
(b) The total distance traveled is 3.00 4.00 6.00 + + = 13.0 blocks
3.12 ,

eastward x + = northward y + =
( ) 250 x = m 125 m cos3 +
(
0.0 358 m =
) 75.0 y = m 125 m sin +
( ) ( )
30.0 150 m 12.5 m =

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
m 12.5 m 358 + = 358 y + = m d x =

1 -1
12
=tan
35
y
x

| |
|

\ .
.5
= 2.00
8
| |
=
|
\ .
tan 358 m at 2 d .00 S of E =
G

3.13 25.0
x
A = 40.0
y
A =

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
40.0
x y
A + 25.0 = A A = + = 47.2 units
58.0

From the triangle, we find that = ,
so that 122 =

25.0
x
y
A
4
0
.
0
q
f
ur
Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 63
3.14 Let be the vector corresponding to the 10.0 yd run, B A
JG JG
to the 15.0 yd run, and C
G
to the
50.0 yd pass. Also, we choose a coordinate system with the +y direction downfield, and
the + x direction toward the sideline to which the player runs.

The components of the vectors are then
0
x
A = 10.0 yds
y
A =
0
y
B

15.0
x
B = yds =
0
x
C = 50.0 yds
y
C = +

From these, 15.0 yds
x
R x = = , and 40.0 yd
y
R y s = = ,

and ( ) ( )
2 2
40.0 yds + =
2 2
x y
R = + 15.0 = yds R R 42.7 yards
3.15 After 3.00 h moving at 41.0 km/h, the hurricane is 123 km at 60.0 N of W from the
island. In the next 1.50 h, it travels 37.5 km due north. The components of these two
displacements are:
Displacement x-component (eastward) y-component (northward)
123 km -61.5 km +107 km
37.5 km 0 +37.5 km
Resultant -61.5 km 144 km

Therefore, the eye of the hurricane is now

( ) ( )
2 2
61.5 km 144 km 157 km from the island R = + =
3.16 Choose the positive x direction to be eastward and positive y as northward. Then, the
components of the resultant displacement from Dallas to Chicago are:

( ) ( ) 730 mi cos5.00 560 mi sin21.0 527 mi
x
R x = = =
(

and ) ( ) 730 mi sin5.00 560 mi cos21.0 586 mi
y
R y = = + =

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
527 mi 586 mi 788 mi
x y
R R R = + = + =

( )
1 1
tan tan 1.11 48.1
y
x

| |
= = =
|

\ .

Thus, the displacement from Dallas to Chicago is 788 mi at 48.1 N of E = R
JG

64 CHAPTER 3
3.17 The components of the displacements a
G
, b
JG
, and c
G
are:

and

Thus, , and
cos30.0 152 km
x
a a = = +
cos110 51.3 km
x
b b = =
cos180 190 km
x
c c = =
sin30.0 87.5 km
y
a a = = +
sin110 141 km
y
b b = = +
sin180 0
y
c c = =
89. km
x x x x
R a b c = + + =

7 228 km
y y y y
R a c b = + + =+
so
2 2
245 km
x y
R R R = + = , and ( )
1 1
tan 1.11
x
y
R
R

tan 21.4
| |
= = = |
|
\ .

City C is 245 km at 21.4 W of N from the starting point.
x east
y north
a
b
c
R
30.0
20.0
110
q
ur
ur
ur
ur
3.18 (a)
( ) ( ) 1
1 1
120 N 60.0 N 104 N
x y
F = = F F
JJG JJG
(
=

) ( ) 2
2 2
80.0 N 20.7 N 77.3 N
x y
F = = F F
JJG JJG
( ) ( )
=

( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
39.3 N 181 N 185 N
R x y
F F F = + = + =

and ( )
1 1
181 N
tan tan 4.61 77.8
39.3 N

| |
= = =
|
\ .

The resultant force is 185 N at 77.8 from the x-axi
R
=
JJG
s F
(b) To have zero net force on the mule, the resultant above must be cancelled by a force
equal in magnitude and oppositely directed. Thus, the required force is
185 N at 258 from the x-axis

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 65
3.19 The resultant displacement is = + R A B
JG JG JG
, where A
JG
is the 150 cm displacement at 120
and B is the required second displacement. Solving for B
G JG
:
( )
= = + B R A R A
JG JG JG JG JG

The components of are

and B R
B
JG
= 190 cm
x x x
B R A = + 49.6
y y
cm
y
A = =

Hence,
2 2
196 cm
x y
B B = + = B and ( ) .262 14.7
1 1
tan 0
y
x
B
B

tan
| |
= = =
|
\ .

196 cm a 14.7 be = B
G
t low the x-axis
3.20 Let +x = East, +y = North,
Displacement x (km) y (km)
300 km, due E 300 0
350 km, 30 W of N 175 303
150 km, due N 0 150
Resultant
x = 125 y = 453
(a)
1
tan 74.6 N of E
y
x

| |

|

\ .
= = (b) ( ) ( )
2 2
470 km y = + = R x
3.21 (a) Your first displacement takes you to point A, so
1 A
= r r
G G
. In the second displacement,
you go one-half the distance from A toward B, so (
B A
1
2
r r r ) =
G G G
and your current
position vector is ( )
A B
2 1 A B A
1
=
2 2
+
= + + = r r r r r r
r r
G G
G G G G G G
. On the next leg of the hunt,
your displacement is ( )
C 2
1
3
= r r r
G G G
and your new position vector becomes
( )
A B
3 2 2 C
1
3
C
3
C 2 2
1 2
3 3
+ +
= + = + =
r r
r r r r r r = + r r
r
G G G
G G G G G G G G
. The next displacement is
( )
D 3
1
=
4
r r r
G G G
and your position vector changes to
( )
A B D
3 D
1
4
C
4
4 3 D 3 3
1 3
4 4
+ + + r r
= + = r r r + =
r r
r r = + r r r
G G G G
G G G G G G G G
. On the final leg of the hunt,
the displacement is ( )
E 4
1
=
5
r r r
G G G
. Therefore, the position vector of the treasure is

( )
5 4
4 1
5 5
= +
= +
r r r
r r
G G G
G G
4
E
4 E
= +
+
r
r
G
G
E 4
A B C D
1
5
5

+ + +
=
r r
r r r r
G G
G G G G

66 CHAPTER 3
To determine the coordinates of this location, we consider

A B C D
= + + + + R r r r r r
JG
G G G G G
E
Vector x component (m) y component (m)
A
r
G
G
30.0 20.0
B
r
G
60.0 80.0
C
r
G
10.0 10.0
D
r
G
40.0 30.0
E
r 70.0 60.0
R
JG

50.0 x = 80.0 y =
The position vector of the treasure is
5
5
=
R
r
JG
G
and its coordinates are then seen to be
1
10.0 m
5
x
x R = = + and
1
16.0 m
5
y
y R = = +
(b) From the solution of part (a), the position vector of the treasures location is seen to
depend on the sum of the position vectors of the individual trees:
A B C D E
5
5 5
+ + + +
= =
r r r r r R
r
G G G G G
G
JG
. Interchanging the trees would only change the order of
the vectors in this sum. Since a vector sum is independent of the order in which the
vectors are added, the answer found in part (a) does not depend on the order of the
trees.
3.22
0
101 mi h 45.1 m s
x
v = = and 60.5 ft 18.4 m x = =

The time to reach home plate is
0
18.4 m
45.1 m s
x
x
v
0.408 s t

= = =

In this time interval, the vertical displacement is

( )( )
2
2
9.80 m s 0.408 s 0. =
2
0
1 1
0 817 m
2 2
y y
y v t a t = + = +

Thus, the ball drops vertically
3.281 ft
17 m 2.68 ft
1 m
| |
=
|
\ .
0.8

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 67
3.23 The constant horizontal speed of the falcon is

0.447 m s mi
200 89.4 m s
h 1 mi h
x
v
| |
= =
|
\ .

The time required to travel 100 m horizontally is
100 m
1.12 s
89.4 m s
x
x
v
t

= = = . The vertical
displacement during this time is

( )( )
2
2 2
0
1 1
0 9.80 m s 1.12 s 6.13 m
2 2
y y
y v t a t = + = + =

or the falcon has a vertical fall of 6.13 m
3.24 We find the time of fall from
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t = +
y
with
0
0
y
v = :

( ) ( )
2
2 2 50.0 m
3.19 s
9.80 m s
y
t
a

= = =

At impact,
0
18.0 m s
x x
v v = = , and the vertical component is

( )( )
2
0 m s 3.19 s 3 =
0
0 9.8
y y y
v v a t = + = + 1.3 m s
Thus, ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
18.0 m s 31.3 m s 36.1 m s
x y
v = + = + = v v

and
1 1
31.3
tan tan 60.1
18.0
y
x
v
v

| |
| |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .

or 36.1 m s at 60.1 below the horizontal = v
G

68 CHAPTER 3
3.25 At the maximum height , and the time to reach this height is found from 0
y
v =
0 y y y
v v a = + t as
0
0
0 0 y y y y
y
v v v v
t
a g
=

( )
g

= =

The vertical displacement that has occurred during this time is

( )
2
0 0 0
x
av
0
2 2
0
2
ma
y y y y y
y
v v v v v
y v t
g g
+ + | | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ .\ .
t =

Thus, if ( )
max
12 ft 3.7 m
| |
= =
|
\ .
( )
1 m
3.281 ft
y , then

( )( )
2
max
2 9.80 m s 3.7 m 8.5 m s v g y = =
45
0y
2 =

and if the angle of projection is = , the launch speed is

0
8.5 m s
12 m s
n sin45
y
v

= = =

0
si
v
3.26 The time of flight for Tom is found from
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = + with v :

0
0
y
=
( ) ( )
2
2 2 1.5 m
0.55 s
9.80 m s
y
a

= = =

t

The horizontal displacement during this time is

( )( ) 5.0 m s 0.55 s 2.8 m
x
t = =
0
x v =

Thus, he lands 2.8 m from the base of the table
The horizontal component of velocity does not change during the flight, so
0
5.0 m s
x x
v v = = . The vertical component of velocity is found as

( )( )
2
0
0 9.80 m s 0.55 s 5.4 m s
y y y
v v a t = + = =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 69
3.27 When ( )
max
, 0
y
y y v = =
0
.

Thus,
y y y
v v a t = + 0 yields or
0
sin3.00 v g = t
0
sin3.00 v
t
g

=

The vertical displacement is
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t = +
( )
y
. At the maximum height, this becomes

( )
2
2 2
0 0 0
sin3.00 sin 3.00
2 2
v v v
g
g g
| |

=
|
\ .
0
max
sin3.00 y v =
sin3.00 1
| |

|
\ .
g

If ( )
max
0.330 m = y , the initial speed is

( ) ( )( )
2
s 0.330 m
48.6 m s
3.00
=

max
2 9.80 m
0 sin
= =
0
2
sin3.0
g y
v

Note that it was unnecessary to use the horizontal distance of 12.6 m in this solution.
3.28 The horizontal displacement at 42.0 s t = is

( ) ( )( )( )
3
0 0
cos 300 m s cos55.0 42.0 s 7.23 10 m
x
x v t v t = = = =
42.0 s t

The vertical displacement at = is

( )
2 2
0 0
1 1
sin
2 2
y y
y v t a t v t gt = + =

( )( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 3
1
9.80 m s 42.0 s 1.68 10 m
2
+ = 300 m s sin55.0 42.0 s =
3.29 We choose our origin at the initial position of the projectile. After 3.00 s, it is at ground
level, so the vertical displacement is y H =

To find H, we use
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = + , which becomes

( )( )( ) ( )(
2
2
15 m s sin25 3.0 s m s 3.0 s H = )
1
9.80
2
+ , or 25 m H =

70 CHAPTER 3
3.30 The components of the initial velocity are:

0 0
cos53.0 12.0 m s
x
v v = = , and
0 0
sin53.0 16.0 m s
y
v v = =
(a) The time required for the ball to reach the position of the crossbar is

0
36.0 m
3.00 s
12.0 m s
x
x
t
v

= = =

At this time, the height of the football above the ground is

( ) ( )
2
2
0 2
1 m 1 m
16.0 3.00 s 9.80 3.00 s 3.90 m
2 s 2 s
y y
y v t a t
| | | |
= + = + =
| |
\ . \ .

Thus, the ball clears the crossbar by 3.90 m 3.05 m 0.85m =
(b) The vertical component of the velocity of the ball as it moves over the crossbar is
( ) ( )( )
2
0
16.0 m s 9.80 m s 3.00 s 13.4 m s
y y y
v v a t = + = + = . The negative sign
indicates the ball is moving downward or falling .
3.31 The speed of the car when it reaches the edge of the cliff is

( ) ( )( )
2 2
0
2 0 2 4.00 m s 50.0 m 20.0 m s v v a x = + = + =
( )

Now, consider the projectile phase of the cars motion. The vertical velocity of the car as
it reaches the water is

( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
0
2 20.0 m s sin24.0 2 9.80 m s 30.0 m
y y y
v v a y ( = + = +

or 25.6 m s
y
v =
(b) The time of flight is

( )
0
2
25.6 m s 20.0 m s sin24.0
1.78 s
9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
t
a
(

= = =

(a) The horizontal displacement of the car during this time is

( ) ( )
0
20.0 m s cos24.0 1.78 s 32.5 m
x
x v t ( = = =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 71
3.32 The components of the initial velocity are

( )
0
40.0 m s cos 30.0 34.6 m s
x
v = = , and

( )
0
40.0 m s sin30.0 20.0 m s
y
v = =

The time for the water to reach the building is

0
50.0 m
1.44 s
34.6 m
x
x
t
v

= = =

The height of the water at this time is

( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
0
.80 m s 1.44 s 18.7 m y v = =
1 1
20.0 m s 1.44 s 9
2 2
y y
t a t + = +
4
0
.
0

m
/
s
30.0
y
50.0 m
3.33 (a) At the highest point of the trajectory, the projectile is moving horizontally with
velocity components of and

0
y
v =
( ) = =
0 0
cos 60.0 cos30.0 52.0 m s
x x
v v v = = m/s
(b) The horizontal displacement is ( )( )
0
52.0 m s 4.00 s 208 m
x
x v t = = = and, from
( )
2
0
1
sin
2
y
y v t a t = + , the vertical displacement is

( )( )( ) ( )( )
2
2
1
60.0 m s sin30.0 4.00 s 9.80 m s 4.00 s 41.6 m
2
y = + =
( ) ( )

The straight line distance is

( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
208 m 41.6 m 212 m d x y = + = + =

72 CHAPTER 3
3.34 The horizontal kick gives zero initial vertical velocity to the ball. Then, from
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = + , the time of flight is

( ) ( )
2
2 2 40.0 m
8.16 s
9.80 m s
y
y
t
a

= = =

The extra time 3.00 s 8.16 s 0.143 s t = =
( ) ( )
is the time required for the sound to travel
in a straight line back to the player. The distance the sound travels is
2
sound
y v t = x
2
d x = + where represents the horizontal displacement of the ball
when it hits the water. Thus,

( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
343 m 0.143 s 40.0 m 28.3 m x d y ( = = =

s

The initial velocity given the ball must have been

0 0
28.3 m
9.9 s
8.16 s
x
x
v v
t

= = = = 1 m
3.35 The velocity of the plane relative to the ground is the vector sum of the velocity of the
p the air and the velocity of the air relative to the ground, or
.
lane relative to
PG PA AG
= + v v v
G G G

30.0
q
east
north
v
PA
= 300 mph
v
AG
= 100 mph
v
PG
ur
ur
ur

The components of this velocity are

( ) ( )
PG
300 mi h 100 mi h cos30.0 387 mi h
east
= + = v
JG
(

and
) ( )
PG
0 100 mi h sin30.0 50.0 mi h
north
= + = v
JG

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 73
Thus,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
PG PG PG
2 2
387 50.0 mi h 390 mi h
east north
= + = v v
JG JG
(
v = +

and
)
( )
PG
1 1
PG
50.0
tan tan 7.37
387
north
east

| |
| |
|
= = =
|
|
\ .
\ .
v
v
JG
JG

The plane moves at 390 mi h at 7.37 N of E re lative to the ground
3.36 We use the following notation:
velocity of boat relative to the shore
velocity of boat relative to the water,
and velocity of water relative to the shore.

If we take downstream as the positive direction, then
BS
= v
JG
BW
= v
JG
WS
= v
JG
WS
1.5 m s = + v
JG
for both parts of
the trip. Also,
BW
10 m s = + v
JG
while going downstream and
BW
10 m s = v
G
for the
upstream part of the trip.

The velocity of the boat relative to the shore is given by
BW WS
= + v v v
BS
JG JG JG

While going downstream,
BS
10 m s 1.5 m s v = + and the time to go 300 m downstream
is
( )
300 m
26 s
.5 m s
down
t = =
10+1

When going upstream,
BS
10 m s 1.5 m s 8.5 m = + = s v and the time required to
move 300 m upstream is
300 m
35 s
8.5 m s
up
t

= =

( )

The time for the round trip is 26
down up
t = + = 35 s + 61 s = t t

74 CHAPTER 3
3.37 Prior to the leap, the salmon swims upstream through water flowing at
speed
WE
1.50 m s = v
JG
relative to Earth. The fish swims at
FW
6.26 m s = v
JG

relative to the water in suc ake its velocity relative to
Earth, v , vertical. Since as shown in the diagram at the
right, we find that

h a direction to m
FE
JG
WE FE FW
= + v v v
JG JG JG
WE
FW
cos 76.1
| |
|
= = =
|
\ .
v
v
JG
JG
1 1
1.50 m s
cos
6.26 m s

| |
|
\ .

and the vertical velocity of the fish as it leaves the water is

( )
0y
v
FE FW
sin 6.26 m s sin76.1 6.08 m s = = = = v v
JG JG

The height of the salmon above the water at the top of its leap (that is, when v 0
y
= ) is
given by

( )
( )
2
2 2
0
2
0 6.08 m s
1.88 m
2 2 9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
a

= =

y =
v
FW
v
FE
v
WE
ur
ur
ur
q
q
3.38
BW
10 m s = v
JG
, directed northward, is the velocity of the boat
relative to the water.

WS
1.5 m s = v
G
BS
v
JG
BS
v v
G G
J
, directed eastward, is the velocity of the water
relative to shore.

is the velocity of the boat relative to shore, and directed at an
angle of , relative to the northward direction as shown.

BW WS
= + v
G
v
BW
q
east
north
v
BS
v
WS
ur
ur
ur
The northward component of
BS
v
JG

is
BS BW
cos 10 m s v v = = (1)

The eastward component is
BS WS
sin 1.5 m s v v = = (2)

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 75
(a) Dividing equation (2) by equation (1) gives

1 1 WS
BW
1.50
tan tan 8.53
10.0
v
v

| |
| |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .

From equation (1),
BS
10 m s
10.1 m s
cos8.53
v = =

Therefore,
BS
10.1 m s at 8.53 E of N =
JG
v
(b) The time to cross the river is
BS
300 m 300 m
30.0 s
cos 10.0 m s v
= = = t and the downstream
drift of the boat during this crossing is

( ) ( )( )
BS
sin 1.50 drift v t = = m s 30.0 s 45.0 m =
3.39 velocity of boat relative to the water,

velocity of water relative to the shore

and velocity of boat relative to the shore.

as shown in the diagram.

The northward (that is, cross-stream) component of
BW
= v
JG
WS
= v
JG
v
JG
BS
=
BS BW WS
= + v v v
G G G
BS
v
JG
is

( ) ( ) ( )
BS BW
north
v sin62.5 0 3.30 mi h sin 0 2.93 mi h = + = + = 62.5 v
G

The time required to cross the stream is then
0.5 i
0.173 h
2.9 h
= =
v
05 m
3 mi
BS
t

The eastward (that is, downstream) component of
JG
is

( ) ( )
BW BS
east
=
WS
cos62.5 v v + v
JG

( ) 3.30 = mi h cos62.5 1.25 mi h 74 mi h + 0.2 =
v
WS
62.5
north
east
v
BW
v
BS
ur
ur
ur

76 CHAPTER 3
Since the last result is negative, it is seen that the boat moves upstream as it crosses the
river. The distance it moves upstream is

( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
BS
5280 ft
0.274 mi h 0.173 h 4.72 10 mi 249 ft
1 mi
east
d t
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
v
G

3.40 If the salmon (a projectile) is to have 0
y
v = when 1.50 m y = +
2 2
0
2
y y y
a y
, the required initial
velocity in the vertical direction is given by v v = + as

( )( )
2 2
s +
0
2 0 2
y y y
v v a y = + = 9.80 m 1.50 m = 5.42 m s

The elapsed time for the upward flight will be

0
2
0 5.42 m s
9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
t
a

= = =

0.553 s

If the horizontal displacement at this time is to be .00 m x = +1 , the required constant
horizontal component of the salmons velocity must be

0
1.00 m
0.553 s
x
x
v
t

= = =

1.81 m s

The speed with which the salmon must leave the water is then

( ) ( )
2 2
m s
2 2
0 0 0
1.
x y
v v v = + = 81 m s 5.42 + 5.72 m s =

Yes , since
0
6.26 m s v < the salmon is capable of making this jump.
3.41 Choose the positive direction to be the direction of each cars motion relative to Earth.
The velocity of the faster car relative to the slower car is given by
FS FE ES
= + v v v
JG JG JG
, where
FE
60.0 km h = + v
JG
is the velocity of the faster car relative to Earth and
ES SE
40.0 km h = = v v
G G
is the velocity of Earth relative to the slower car.

Thus,
FS
60.0 km h 40.0 km h 20.0 km h = + =+ v
JG
and the time required for the faster
car to move 100 m (0.100 km) closer to the slower car is

3
FS
0.100 km 3600 s
5.00 10 h 18.0 s
20.0 km h 1 h
d
t
v
| |
= = = =
|
\ .

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 77
3.42 the velocity of the ball relative to the car

J
velocity of the car relative to Earth
BC
= v
JG
CE
= v
G
10 m s =

the velocity of the ball relative to Earth

These velocities are related by the equation
BE
= v
JG
BE
v v
CE BC
= + v
JG JG JG

as illustrated in the diagram.

Considering the horizontal components, we see that

or
BE CE
cos60.0 v v =
CE
BC
.0 m s
cos60.0
v
v = = =
10.0 m s
20
cos60.0

From the vertical components, the initial velocity of the ball relative to Earth is
BE
v v
BC
sin60.0 17.3 m = =
(
s

Using )
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + , with 0
y
v = when the ball is at maximum height, we find

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
.3 m s
0
15.3 m
2 2 .80 m s
v
a g

= =

2
0
max
0
y
y
v
y

=
2
BE
17
2 9
=

as the maximum height the ball rises.
3.43 Since R A , then B R and the components of the
second displacement are:

= + B
JG JG JG
x
B R =
(
= A
JG JG JG
x x
A
) ( ) 140 cm cos35.0
( )
150 cm cos120 190 cm =+ =

and

( ) n35.0 150 cm sin120
y y
A 140 cm si = 49.6 cm =
y
B R =

Thus,
2 2
x y
B 196 cm = B B = + , and ( ) 62 14.7
1 1
tan tan 0.2
y
x
B
B

| |
= =
|
\ .
=

The second displacement is 196 cm at 14.7 below the positive - x = axis B
JG

60.0
v
BE
v
BC
v
CE
ur
ur
ur
A
B
R
35.0
120
x
y
q
ur
ur ur

78 CHAPTER 3
3.44 Observe that when one chooses the x and y axes
as shown in the drawing, each of the four forces
lie along one of the axes. The resultant, R
JG
, is easily
computed as

12.0 N 8.40 N 3.60 N
x x
R F = = + = +
31.0 N 24.0 N 7.00 N
y y
R F = = + = +
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
3.60 N 7.00 N
x y
R R R = + = + 7.87 = N

1
tan 62.8
y
x
R
R

| |
= =
|
\ .
62.8 35.0 + , or

= fr 97.8 om the horizontal
7.87 N at 97.8 counterclockwise f = R r e om th horizontal line to the right
JG

3.45 the velocity of the car relative to Earth

J
the velocity of the water relative to the car

the velocity of the water relative to Earth

These velocities are related as shown in the diagram at the right

CE
= v
JG
WC
= v
G
WE
= v
JG
horizontal
x
y
31.0 N
8.40 N
24.0 N
12.0 N
R
q
35.0
ur
60.0
v
CE
v
WE
= v
CE
+ v
WC
v
WC
v
WE
ur
ur
ur
ur ur ur
(a) Since v

is vertical,
WE
JG
WC CE
sin60.0 50.0 km h = = v v

or
WC
57.7 km h at 60.0 west of vertical = v
JG

(b) Since v has zero vertical component,

CE
JG
( )
WE
v v
WC
cos60.0 57.7 km h cos60.0 28.9 km h downward = = =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 79
3.46 The vertical displacement from the launch
point (top of the building) to the top of
the arc may be found from
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = +
with v at the top of the arc. This yields

0
y
=
( )
( )
2
2
s
7.35 m
s
= +
7.35 m +
2 2
0
2
y y
y
v v
a

=
max
0 12.0 m
2 9.80 m
y

= =

max 0
y y y
0 0
y y y y = + =

and gives

50.0 m
+x
v
0y
v
0x
h
max
v
0y
= 12.0 m/s
v
0x
= 9.0 m/s
(a) If the origin is chosen at the top of the building, then
0 max
0 and 7.35 m y y = =

Thus, the maximum height above the ground is

max max
50.0 m 50.0 m 7.35 m 57.4 m h y = + = + =
0

The elapsed time from the point of release to the top of the arc is found from
y y y
v v a t = + as

0
2
0 12.0 m s
1.22 s
9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
t
a

= = =

(b) If the origin is chosen at the base of the building (ground level), then
and , giving

0
50.0 m y = +
max max
h y =
max 0
h y = + 50.0 m 7.35 m 57.4 m y = + =

The calculation for the time required to reach maximum height is exactly the same
as that given above. Thus, 1.22 s t =

80 CHAPTER 3
3.47
( )( )
1
90.0 km h 2.50 h 225 km AC v t = = =

cos 40.0 80.0 km=92.4 BD AD AB AC = = km

From the triangle BCD,

( ) ( )
2 2
BC BD DC = +
( )

( )
2
2
92.4 km sin40.0 =172 k AC m = +

Since Car 2 travels this distance in 2.50 h, its constant speed is

2
172 km
68.6 km h
2.50 h
v = =
A B 80.0 km
C
D
40.0
3.48 After leaving the ledge, the water has a constant horizontal component of velocity.

2
0
1.50 m s
x x
v v = =

Thus, when the speed of the water is 3.00 m s v = , the vertical component of its velocity
will be

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
3.00 m s 1.50 m s 2.60 m s
y x
v v v = = =

The vertical displacement of the water at this point is

( )
( )
2
2 2
0
2
2.60 m s 0
0.344 m
2 2 9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
y
a

= = =

or the water is 0.344 m below the ledge.
If its speed leaving the water is 6.26 m s , the maximum vertical leap of the salmon is

( )
( )
2
2
0
0 0 6.26 m s
2.00 m
2 2 -9.80 m s
y
leap
y
v
y
a

= = =

Therefore, the maximum height waterfall the salmon can clear is

max
0.344 m 2.34 m
leap
h y = + =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 81
3.49 The distance, s, moved in the first 3.00 seconds is given by

( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
0
100 m s 3.00 s 30.0 m s 3.00 s 435 m
2 2
s v t at = + = + =
1 1
cos53.0 262 m, and sin53.0 347 m x s y s = = = =
1 1

At the end of powered flight, the coordinates of the rocket are:

The speed of the rocket at the end of powered flight is

( )( )
2
1 0
100 m s 30.0 m s 3.00 s 190 m s v v at = + = + =

so the initial velocity components for the free-fall phase of the flight are
0 1 x
cos53.0 114 m s = = v v and
0 1
sin53.0 152 m s
y
v v = =
(a) When the rocket is at maximum altitude, 0
y
v = . The rise time during the free-fall
phase can be found from
0 y y y
v v a t = + as

0
0
0 15
9.80 m
y
rise
y
v
t
a

= =

2
2 m
15.5 s
s
=

The vertical displacement occurring during this time is

( ) s 1 =
0
3
0 152 m s
15.5 .17 10 m
2 2
y y
rise
v v
y t
+
| | +
| |
= =
| |
\ .
\ .

The maximum altitude reached is then

3 3
.52 10
1
347 m 1.17 10 m 1 m H y y = + = + =
(b) After reaching the top of the arc, the rocket falls to the ground, starting
with zero vertical velocity
3
1.52 10 m
( )
0
0
y
v = . The time for this fall is found from
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = +
( )
as

( )
3
2
2 1.52 10 m 2
17.6 s
-9.80 m s
fall
y
y
t
a

= = =
( )

The total time of flight is

3.00 15.5 17.6 s
powered rise fall
t t t t = + + = + + 36.1 s =

82 CHAPTER 3
(c) The free-fall phase of the flight lasts for

( )
2
15.5 17.6 s 33.1 s
rise fall
t t t = + = + =

The horizontal displacement occurring during this time is

( )( )
0 2
114 m s 33.1 s 3.78
x
x v t = = =
3
10 m

and the full horizontal range is

3 3
1
262 m 3.78 10 m 4.05 10 R x x = + = + = m
3.50 The velocity of a canoe relative to the shore is given by
CS CW WS
= + v v v
JG JG JG
, where
CW
v
JG
is
the velocity of the canoe relative to the water and
WS
v
JG
is the velocity of the water
relative to shore.

Applied to the canoe moving upstream, this gives

CW WS
1.2 m s v v = + (1)

and for the canoe going downstream

CW WS
2.9 m s v v + = + + (2)
(a) Adding equations (1) and (2) gives

WS
2 1.7 m v = s , so
WS
0.85 m s v =
(b) Subtracting (1) from (2) yields

CW
2 4.1 m v = s , or
CW
2.1 m s v =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 83
3.51 The time of flight is found from
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t = +
y

with 0 y = , as
0
2
y
v
g
= t . This gives the
range as
0 0
0
2
x y
x
v v
R v t
g
= =

On Earth this becomes
0 0
2
x y
Earth
Earth
v v
R
g
= , and on the moon,
0 0
2
x y
Moon
Moon
v v
g
= R

Dividing
Moon
R by , we find
Earth
R
Earth
Moon Earth
Moon
g
R R
g
| |
=
|
\ .
. With
1
6
Moon Earth
g
| |
=
|
\ .
g , this gives
( ) 6 6 m 18
Moon
R R = 3.0 m
Earth
= =

Similarly,
3.0 m
7.9 m
0.38
Earth
R R = = =
Earth
Mars
g
g
| |
|
\ .
Mars

3.52 The time to reach the opposite side is
0 0
10 m
cos15
x
x
v v
t

= =

When the motorcycle returns to the original level, the vertical displacement is .
Using this in the relation
0 y =
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t +
y
= gives a second relation between the takeoff
speed and the time of flight as:

( ) ( )
2
0
1
0 sin15
2
v t = + g t or
0
2sin15
g
v t
| |
=
|

\ .

Substituting the time found earlier into this result yields the required takeoff speed as

( )( )
( )( )
2
0
9.80 m s 10 m
14 m s
2 sin15 cos15
v = =

3.53 (a) If A is in the first quadrant, then
JG
0 and 0
x y
A A > >
(b) When B is in the second quadrant, then
JG
0 and 0
x y
B B < >

84 CHAPTER 3
Let C A , then = + B
JG JG JG
and
x x x y y y
C A . Since B C A B = + = + 0 and 0
x x
A B >
or
x x
<
x
C , may be either
positive or negative (depending on whether A B has the larger absolute value.
Because 0 and 0
y y
A B > >
y
C > , then . Therefore the vector C 0
JG
must be in either the first or second quadrant
3.54 (a) Velocity vector at several points (b) Acceleration vector at several points

3.55 (a) The time to reach the fence is
0 0 0
130 m 159 m
cos35
x
x
v v v
t

= = =

At this time, the ball must be 20 m above its launch position.

2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t = +
y
gives

( ) ( )
2
2
0
0 0
159 m 159 m
20 m sin35 4.90 m s v
v v
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .

From which,
0
42 m s v =
(b) From above,
0
159 m 159 m
3.8 s
42 m s v
= t = =
(c) ( )
0
42 m s cos35 34 m s
x x
= = = v v

( ) ( )( )
2
0
42 m s sin35 9.80 m s 3.8 s 13 m s
y y y
v v a t = + = =

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
34.1 m s 13.4 m s 37 m s
x y
v v v = + = + =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 85
3.56 We shall first find the initial velocity of the ball thrown vertically upward. At its
maximum height, and 0
y
v = 1.50 s t = . Hence,
0 y y y
v v a t = + gives

( )( ) 1.50 s
2
0
0 9 s
y
v = .80 m , or
0
14
y
v .7 m s =

In order for the second ball to reach the same vertical height as the first, the second must
have the same initial vertical velocity. Thus, we find as

0
v
0
0
14.7 m s
29.4
sin30.0 0.500
y
v
v = = =

m s
3.57 The time of flight of the ball is given by
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t = +
y
, with 0 y = , as

( ) (
2 2
1
0 20 m s sin30 9.80 m s
2
t t ( = +

)

or t = 2.0 s

The horizontal distance the football moves in this time is

( ) ( )
0
20 m s cos30 2.0 s 35 m
x
x v t ( = = =

Therefore, the receiver must run a distance of (35 m 20 m) = 15 m away from the
quarterback, in the direction the ball was thrown to catch the ball. He has a time of 2.0
s to do this, so the required speed is

15 m
7.5 m s
2.0 s
x
v
t

= = =
3.58 The horizontal component of the initial velocity is v v
0 0
cos 40 0.766
x
v
0
= = and the time
required for the ball to move 10.0 m horizontally is

0 0
10.0 m 13.1 m
0.766
x
x
t
v v

= = =
(
0
v

At this time, the vertical displacement of the ball must be

) 3.05 2.00 m 1.05 y = = m

86 CHAPTER 3
Thus,
2
0
1
2
y
y v t a t +
y
= becomes

( ) ( )
( )
2
2
0 2
0 0
13.1 m 13.1 m 1
1.05 m sin40.0 9.80 m s
2
v
v v
= +

or
3 2
2
0
835 m s
1.05 m 8.39 m
v
=

which yields
0
10.7 m s v =
3.59 Choose an origin where the projectile leaves the gun
and let the y-coordinates of the projectile and the target
at time t be labeled and
p T
y y , respectively.

Then, ( ) ( )
2
0 0
n
2
p
p
g
y y t =
( )
0 si v = t , and

2
0
2
g
h =
T
T
y y = t or
2
2
T
g
y h t =

The time when the projectile will have the same x-
coordinate as the target is
0
0 0
cos
x
x x
v v
0
t

= =
q
0
v
0
x
0
h
Target
ur
For a collision to occur, it is necessary that
p T
y y = at this time, or

( )
2 0
0 0
0 0
sin
cos 2 2
g x
v
v

| |
=
|
\ .
2
g
t h t which reduces to
0
0
tan
h
x
=

This requirement is satisfied provided that the gun is aimed at the initial location of the
target. Thus, a collision is guaranteed if the shooter aims the gun in this manner.
3.60 (a) The components of the vectors are
Vector x-component (cm) y-component (cm)
1m
d
G

0 104
2m
d
G
G

46.0 19.5
1f
d
G

0 84.0
2f
d
38.0 20.2

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 87
The sums d d and d d
m 1m 2
= + d
G G G
m 2f f 1f
= + d
G G G
)
are computed as:

( ) (
2 2
132 cm an =
)
1
m
104 19.5
0 19.5 d tan 69.6
0 46.0
d

+
| |
= + + = =
|
+ \ .
46.0 104 +
( ) (

2 2
111 cm an =
1
f
84.0 20.2
0 20.2 d tan 70.0
0 38.0
d

+
| |
= + + = =
|
+ \ .
38.0 84.0 +

or
m f
111 cm = d d
G G
132 cm at 69.6 = and at 70.0
(b) To normalize, multiply each component in the above calculation by the appropriate
scale factor. The scale factor required for the components of d d
1m 2m
and
G G
is
m
200 cm
1.11
180 cm
s = = , and the scale factor needed for components of d d is
1f
and
2f
G G
f
200 cm
1.19
168 cm
s = = . After using these scale factors and recomputing the vector sums,
the results are:

m f
at 69.6 and 132 cm at 70.0 = = d d
G G
146 cm

The difference in the normalized vector sums is
m f
- d d d =
G G G

vector x-component (cm) y-component (cm)
m
d
G

50.9 137
- d
f

G
45.1 124
d
G

x =5.74 y =12.8

Therefore, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
5.74 12.8 cm 14.0 cm d x y = + = + = , and

1 1
12.8
tan 65.8
5.74
y
x

| | | |
= = =
| |

\ . \ .
tan , or 14.0 cm at 65.8 = d
G

88 CHAPTER 3
v
0
45
R
ur
3.61 To achieve maximum range, the projectile should
be launched at 45 above the horizontal. In this
case, the initial velocity components are:

0
0 0
2
x y
v
v v = =

The time of flight may be found from
0 y y
v v gt =
0
by recognizing that when the
projectile returns to the original level,
y y
v v = . Thus, the time of flight is
0 0 0
0 0
2
2 2
2
y y y
v v v
v v
t
g g g

| |
= = = =
|

\ .
g
. The maximum horizontal range is then
2
0 0 0
0
2
2
x
v v v
R v t
g g
| |
| |
= = =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
0
y
v =
0
0 v gt =
(1)

Now, consider throwing the projectile straight upward at speed . At maximum
height, , and the time required to reach this height is found from as
which yields
0
v
0 y y
v v g = t
0
v
g
=
( ) ( )
t . Therefore, the maximum height the projectile will reach
is

2
0
2 2
v
g g
| |
=
|
\ .
0 0
v v
| |
|
\ .
max
av
0
y
y v t = =
( )
+

Comparing this result with the maximum range found in equation (1) above reveals that
max
2
R
y = provided the projectile is given the same initial speed in the two tosses.

If the boy takes a step when he makes the horizontal throw, he can likely give a higher
initial speed for that throw than for the vertical throw.
3.62 (a) At the top of the arc v , and from 0
y
=
0 y y
v v gt = , we find the time to reach the top
of the arc to be
0 y y
v v
0 0 0
in
sin
v
g

0
0 s v
t
g g

= =
| |
=
|
\ .

The vertical height, h, reached in this time is found from

( )
0
2
y y
v v +
| |
|
\ .
av
y
y v = t t = to be
2 2
0 0 0
sin sin
2 2
v v v
h
g g
0 0
0 sin
0
| |
= =
|
\ .
+
| |
|
\ .

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 89
(b) The total time of flight,
f
t , is double the time required to reach the top of the arc, or
0
0
2
sin
f
v
t
g

| |
=
|
\ .
. The horizontal range is given by

( )
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
2sin cos sin 2
cos sin
x f
v v
v
R v t v
g g
0
g
0
2

| |
= = = =
|
\ .

3.63 The velocity of the boat relative to the shore is
BS BW WS
= + v v v
JG JG JG
WS
, where is the
velocity of the boat relative to the water and
BW
v
JG
v
G
is the velocity of the water relative to
shore.

In order to cross the river (flowing parallel to the banks) in minimum time, the velocity
of the boat relative to the water must be perpendicular to the banks. That is, v must
be perpendicular to v . Hence, the velocity of the boat relative to the shore must be

BW
G
WS
JG
( ) ( )
2 2
km h 13 km =
2 2
WS
v
BS BW
12 km h 5.0 h v v = + = +

at
1 1
tan
BW
WS
12 km h
tan 67
5.0 km h
v
v

| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
= to the direction of the current in the river
(which is the same as the line of the riverbank).

The minimum time to cross the river is

BW
width of 1.5 km 60 min
7.5 min
12 km h 1 h
t
v
= = =
river
| |
|
\ .

During this time, the boat drifts downstream a distance of

( )( )
3
WS
1 h 10 m
h 7.5 min
60 1 km
d v t
| |
= =

\ .
2
6.3 10 m =
|
5.0 km
min
| |
|
\ .

3.64 Taking upstream as positive, the velocity of the water relative to the ground is
WG
0.500 m s = v
G J
. The velocity of the skater relative to shore is
SG
0.560 m
0.700 m s
0.800 s
+
= = + v
G
while moving upstream, and
SG WG
0.500 m s = = v v
JG JG

while drifting back downstream.
(a) At any time, , or the velocity of the skater relative to the water is

SG SW WG
= + v v v
JG JG JG
WG
v
SW SG
= v v
JG JG JG

90 CHAPTER 3
(i) While going upstream, ( )
SW
0.700 m s 0.500 m s 1.20 m s = + = v
JG

(ii) While drifting down stream, ( )
SW
0.500 m s 0.500 m s 0 = = v
JG

(b) ( )( )
SW SW
1.20 m s 0.800 s 0.960 m t = = = d v
(c) The time to go upstream t 0.800 s
up
= and the time to drift back downstream is
0.560 m
1.12 s
0.500 m s
down
t = =
( )
, giving the cycle time as 1.92 s.

Therefore,
SW
SW
av
0.500 m s
cycle
d
v
t
=
0.960 m
1.92 s
= =
3.65 The initial velocity components for the daredevil are

0
0 0
25.0 m s
2 2
x y
v
v v = = =

The time required to travel 50.0 m horizontally is

( )
0
50.0 m 2
2 2 s
25.0 m s
x
x
t
v

= = =

The vertical displacement of the daredevil at this time, and the proper height above the
level of the cannon to place the net, is

( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
0
25.0 m s 1
2 2 s 9.80 m s 2 2 s 10.8 m
2 2
y y
y v t a t
| |
= + = =
|
\ .

3.66 The vertical component of the salmons velocity as it leaves the water is

( )
0 0
sin 6.26 m s sin45.0 4.43 m s
y
v v = + = + = +

When the salmon returns to water level at the end of the leap, the vertical component of
velocity will be
0
4.43 m s
y y
v v = =

The time the salmon is out of the water is given by

0
1 2
4.43 m s 4.43 m s
0.903 s
9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
t
a

= = =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 91
The horizontal distance traveled during the leap is

( ) ( ) ( )
0 1 0 1
cos 6.26 m s cos 45.0 0.903 s 4.00 m
x
L v t v t = = = =

To travel this same distance underwater, at speed 3.58 m s v = , requires a time of

2
4.00 m
1.12 s
3.58 m s
L
t
v
= = =

The average horizontal speed for the full porpoising maneuver is then

( )
av
1 2
2 4.00 m 2
3.96 m s
0.903 s 1.12 s
total
total
x L
v
t t t

= = = =
+ +

3.67 (a) and (b)
Since the shot leaves the gun horizontally, the time it takes to reach the target is
0 0 x
x x
t
v v

## = = . The vertical displacement occurring in this time is

2
2
0
0
1 1
0
2 2
y y
x
y y v t a t g
v
| |
= = + =
|
\ .
, which gives the drop as

2
2
0 2
0 0
1
with , where is the muzzle velocity
2 2
g x
y g Ax A v
v v
| |
= = =
|
\ .

(c) If x = 3.00 m, and y = 0.210 m, then
( )
2 -
2 2
0.210 m
2.33 10 m
3.00 m
y
A
x

= = =
1

and
( )
2
0
2 -1
9.80 m s
2 2 2.33 10 m
g
v
A

= =

= 14.5 m s
3.68 We are given that:

(velocity of boat relative to Earth)

and

J
(velocity of wind relative to Earth)
BE
20 knots due north = v
JG
WE
17 knots due east = v
G
n
o
r
t
h
east
v
WE
ur
v
WB
ur
v
EB
ur
q

92 CHAPTER 3
The velocity of the wind relative to the boat is

where is the velocity of Earth relative to the boat. The vector
diagram above shows this vector addition.

Since the vector triangle is a 90 triangle, we find the magnitude of to be

WB WE EB
= + v v v
JG JG JG
EB BE
20 k = = v v
JG JG
nots south
WB
v
JG
( ) ( )
2 2
17 knots 20 knots 26 knots v = + =
2 2
WB WE EB
v v = +

and the direction is given by

1 1
20 knots
tan 50
17 knots
| |
=
|
\ .
EB
WE
tan
v
v

| |
= =
|
\ .

Thus,
WB
26 knots a = v
JG
t 50 south of east

From the vector diagram above, the component of this velocity parallel to the motion of
the boat (that is, parallel to a north-south line) is seen to be
EB
20 knots south = v v
BE
=
JG JG

3.69 The components of the three displacements are:
Displacement x-component (paces) y-component (paces)
75.0 paces @ 240 37.5 65.0
125 paces @ 135 88.4 +88.4
100 paces @ 160 94.0 +34.2
Resultant 220 paces x = 57.6 paces y = +

The resultant displacement is then

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
220 paces 57.6 paces 227 paces R x y = + = + + =

1 1
57.6
tan tan 165
220
y
x

| | +
| |
= = =
|
|

\ .
\ .

or 227 paces at 165 from the positive axis x = R
JG

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 93
3.70 For the ball thrown at 45.0, the time of flight is found from

2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = + as
2 0
1 1
0
2 2
g v
t t
| |
=
|
\ .

which has the single non-zero solution of
0
1
2 v
g
= t

The horizontal range of this ball is
2
0 0 0
1 0 1
2
2
x
v v v
R v t
g g
| |
| |
= = =
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

Now consider the first arc in the motion of the second ball, started at angle with initial
speed . Applied to this arc,
0
v
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t = + becomes

( )
2
0 21
0 sin
2
g
v t =
21
t

with non-zero solution
0
21
2 sin v
t
g

=
Similarly, the time of flight for the second arc (started at angle with initial speed
0
2 v )
of this balls motion is found to be

( )
0 0
22
2 2 sin sin v v
t
g g

= =
The horizontal displacement of the second ball during the first arc of its motion is

( )
( ) ( )
2 2
0 0 0
21 0 21 0
2sin cos sin 2
2 sin
cos
x
v v
v
R v t v
g g g

| |
= = = =
|
\ .

Similarly, the horizontal displacement during the second arc of this motion is
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
0 0
22
2 sin 2 sin 2
1
4
v v
R
g g

= =
The total horizontal distance traveled in the two arcs is then

( )
2
0
2 21 22
sin 2
5
4
v
R R R
g

= + =

94 CHAPTER 3
(a) Requiring that the two balls cover the same horizontal distance (that is, requiring
that ) gives

2
R R =
1
( )
2
0
sin 2 v
2
0
5
4
v
g g

=

This reduces to ( )
4
sin 2
5
= which yields 2 53.1 = , so 26.6 = is the required
projection angle for the second ball.
(b) The total time of flight for the second ball is

0 0 0
2 21 22
2 sin sin 3 sin v v v
t t t
g g g

= + = + =

Therefore, the ratio of the times of flight for the two balls is

( )
( )
0
2
1
0
3 sin
3
sin
2
2
v g
t
t
v g

= =

With = 26.6 as found in (a), this becomes

( )
2
1
3
sin 26.6 0.950
2
t
t
= =
3.71 (a) Applying
2
0
1
2
y y
y v t a t + = to the vertical motion of the first snowball gives
( ) (
2 2
1
1
0 25.0 m s sin70.0 9.80 m s
2
t ( = +

)
1
t which has the non-zero solution of
( )
1 2
2 25.0 m s sin70.0
4.79 s
9.80 m s
t

= = as the time of flight for this snowball.

The horizontal displacement this snowball achieves is

( ) ( )
0 1
25.0 m s cos70.0 4.79 s 4
x
x v t ( = = =

1.0 m

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 95
Now consider the second snowball, also given an initial speed of
0
25.0 m s v = ,
thrown at angle , and is in the air for time . Applying
2
t
2
1
2
y y
t a t +
0
y v = to its
vertical motion yields

( ) ( )
1
0 25.0 m s sin 9.80 m s
2
t t ( = +

2 2
2 2

which has a non-zero solution of

( )
( )
2 2
2 25.0 m s sin
5.10 s sin
9.80 m s
t

= =

We require the horizontal range of this snowball be the same as that of the first ball,
namely ( ) ( ) s
0 2
25.0 m s cos 5.10
x
x v t ( = =

sin 41.0 = m (

## . This yields the

equation

( )( )
41.0 m
sin cos 0.321
25.0 m s 5.10 s
= =
sin2 =2si

From the trigonometric identity n cos , this result becomes

( ) sin2 =2 0.321 0.642 = 2 40.0 , so =

and the required angle of projection for the second snowball is

20.0 above the horizontal =
(b) From above, the time of flight for the first snowball is t
1
4.79 s = and that for the
second snowball is ( ) ( )
2
5.10 s sin 5.10 s sin20.0 t 1.74 s = = = .

Thus, if they are to arrive simultaneously, the time delay between the first and
second snowballs should be

1 2
4.79 t t t = = s 1.74 s= 3.05 s

96 CHAPTER 3
3.72 First, we determine the velocity with which the dart leaves the gun by using the data
from when the dart is fired horizontally (
0
0
y
v = ) from a stationary gun. In this case,
2
1
0 2 y y
y v t a t = + gives the time of flight as

( )
2
2 1.00 m s 2
0.45
9.80 m s
y
y
t
a

= = =

2 s

Thus, the initial speed of the dart relative to the gun is

DG
5.00 m
11.1 m s
0.452 s
x
v
t

= = =
When the dart is fired horizontally from a moving gun,
the initial velocity of the dart relative to Earth is

where is the initial velocity of dart relative to gun

and is the velocity of the gun relative to Earth
0 DE DG G
= = + v v v v
JG JG JG JG
DG
v
JG
GE
v
JG
v
DG
ur
45.0
v
GE
ur
v
0
= v
DE
ur ur
E
From the vector diagram, observe that

( )
0 GE
sin45.0 2.00 m s sin45.0 1.41 m s
y
v v = = =

and ( )
0 DG GE
cos 45.0 11.1 m s 2.00 m s cos 45.0 12.5 m s
x
v v v = + = + =
The vertical velocity of the dart after dropping 1.00 m to the ground is

( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
0
2 1.41 m s 2 9.80 m s 1.00 m 4.65 m s
y y y
v v a y = + = + =

and the time of flight is
( )
0
2
4.65 m s 1.41 m s
0.330 s
9.80 m s
y y
y
v v
t
a

= = =

The displacement during the flight is ( )( )
0
12.5 m s 0.330 s 4.12 m
x
x v t = = =

Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motion 97
3.73 (a) First, use
2
1
0 2 x x
x v t a t + = to find the time for the coyote to travel 70 m, starting
from rest with constant acceleration
2
15 m s
x
a =

( )
1 2
2 70 m 2
3.1 s
15 m s
x
x
t
a

= = =

The minimum constant speed the roadrunner must have to reach the edge in this
time is

1
70 m
23 m s
3.1 s
x
v
t

= = =
(b) The initial velocity of the coyote as it goes over the edge of the cliff is horizontal and
equal to

( )( )
2
0 0 1
0 15 m s 3.1 s 46
x x
v v a t = = + = = m s

From
2
1
0 2 y y
y v t a t = + , the time for the coyote to drop 100 m with v is

0
0
y
=
( )
2 2
2 100 m 2
4.52 s
9.80 m s
y
y
t
a

= = =

The horizontal displacement of the coyote during his fall is

( )( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
1 1
2 2
15 m s 4.52 s 3.6 + =
2
0 2 2 x x
x v t a t = + = 46 m s 4.52 s 10 m

98 CHAPTER 3