Está en la página 1de 123

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

MC LC
DANH MC HNH V......................................................................................................3 DANH MC BNG BIU.................................................................................................6 LI M U......................................................................................................................7 CHNG 1 GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K LTE.............9 1.1 Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE....................................................................................9 1.2 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax v nhng trin vng cho cng ngh LTE................................................................................................................................10 1.2.1 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax...............................................10 1.2.2 Nhng trin vng cho cng ngh LTE.............................................................13 1.3 Mc tiu thit k LTE.............................................................................................15 1.3.1 Tim nng cng ngh.......................................................................................15 1.3.2Hiu sut h thng.............................................................................................16 1.3.3 Cc vn lin quan n vic trin khai.........................................................18 1.3.3.1 linh hot ph v vic trin khai............................................................19 1.3.4 Kin trc v s dch chuyn (migration).........................................................21 1.3.5 Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn............................................................................21 1.3.6 phc tp......................................................................................................22 1.3.7 Nhng vn chung........................................................................................22 CHNG 2 TNG QUAN V TRUY NHP V TUYN TRONG LTE....................23 2.1H thng truyn dn: ng xung OFDM v ng ln SC-FDMA.....................23 2.2Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn v s thch ng tc (Channel-dependent scheduling and rate adaptation).....................................................................................25 2.2.1 Hoch nh ng xung..................................................................................26 2.2.2 Hoch nh ng ln.......................................................................................27 2.2.3 iu phi nhiu lin t bo (Inter-cell interference coordination)...................28 2.3 ARQ hn hp vi vic kt hp mm (Hybrid ARQ with soft combining)..............29 2.4 S h tr nhiu anten (Multiple antenna support)...................................................29 2.5 H tr multicast v broadcast..................................................................................30 2.6 Tnh linh hot ph...................................................................................................31 2.6.1 Tnh linh hot trong sp xp song cng............................................................32 2.6.2 Tnh linh hot trong bng tn hot ng...........................................................32 2.6.3 Tnh linh hot v bng thng............................................................................33 CHNG 3 KIN TRC GIAO DIN V TUYN LTE.............................................34 3.1 RLC: radio link control iu khin lin kt v tuyn...........................................37 3.2 MAC: iu khin truy nhp mi trng (medium access control)..........................38 3.2.2 Hoch nh ng xung..................................................................................41 3.2.3 Hoch nh ng ln.......................................................................................43 3.2.4 Hybrid ARQ......................................................................................................46 3.3 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l...............................................................................50 3.4 Cc trng thi LTE...................................................................................................53 3.5 Lung d liu...........................................................................................................54

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CHNG 4 LP VT L LTE......................................................................................56 4.1 Kin trc min thi gian ton phn (Overall time-domain structure).....................56 4.2 S truyn dn ng xung................................................................................58 4.2.1 Ti nguyn vt l ng xung........................................................................58 4.2.2 Cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung...............................................................63 4.2.2.1 Cc chui tn hiu tham kho v vic nhn dng t bo lp vt l (Reference signals sequences and physical layer cell identity).............................64 4.2.2.2 Nhy tn tn hiu tham kho (Reference signal frequency hopping)........65 4.2.2.3 Cc tn hiu tham kho cho truyn dn a anten (Reference signals for multi-antenna transmission)...................................................................................66 4.2.3 X l knh truyn ti ng xung..................................................................67 4.2.3.1 Chn CRC..................................................................................................70 4.2.3.2 M ha knh...............................................................................................70 4.2.3.3 Chc nng Hybrid-ARQ lp vt l...........................................................71 4.2.3.4 Ngu nhin ha mc bit........................................................................71 4.2.3.5 iu ch d liu........................................................................................73 4.2.3.6 nh x anten..............................................................................................73 4.2.3.7 nh x khi ti nguyn..............................................................................73 4.2.4 Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung.....................................................75 4.2.5 Truyn dn nhiu anten ng xung...........................................................77 4.2.5.1 Hai anten m ha khi khng gian-tn s (SFBC)....................................79 4.2.5.2 To dng tia (beam-forming).....................................................................79 4.2.5.3 Ghp knh khng gian...............................................................................80 4.2.6 Multicast/broadcast s dng MBSFN...............................................................81 4.3 Scheme truyn dn ng ln.................................................................................82 4.3.1 Ti nguyn vt l ng ln.............................................................................82 4.3.2 Tn hiu tham kho ng ln..........................................................................86 4.3.2.1 Nhiu tn hiu tham kho..........................................................................89 4.3.2.2 Tn hiu tham kho cho vic d knh........................................................90 4.3.3 X l knh truyn ti ng ln.......................................................................93 4.3.4 Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln..............................................................95 4.3.5 nh thi sm ng ln (Uplink timing advance)..........................................98 CHNG 5 CC TH TC TRUY CP LTE............................................................101 5.1 D tm t bo (cell search).....................................................................................101 5.1.1 Th tc d tm cell (cell search).....................................................................101 5.1.2 Cu trc thi gian/tn s ca cc tn hiu ng b........................................103 5.1.3 D tm cell ban u v k cn.........................................................................105 5.2 Truy cp ngu nhin...............................................................................................106 5.2.1 Bc 1: Truyn dn Preamble truy cp ngu nhin........................................107 5.2.2 Bc 2: p ng truy cp ngu nhin............................................................111 5.2.3 Bc 3: Nhn dng u cui...........................................................................112 5.2.4 Bc 4: Gii quyt tranh chp........................................................................113 5.3 Paging....................................................................................................................114 KT LUN......................................................................................................................116 CC THUT NG V T VIT TT.........................................................................117 TI LIU THAM KHO...............................................................................................122

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

DANH MC HNH V
1.1 Kin trc ca mng LTE 1.2 L trnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc 1.3 Phn b ph bng tn li ti 2 GHz ca nguyn bn IMT-2000 1.4 Mt v d v cch thc LTE thm nhp tng bc vo phn b ph ca mt h thng GSM c trin khai 2.1 Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn ng xung trong min thi gian v tn s 2.2 Mt v d v iu phi nhiu lin t bo, ni m cc phn ph b gii hn bi cng sut truyn dn 2.3 FDD vs. TDD 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung) 3.2 Phn on v hp on RLC 3.3 V d v s nh x cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn dn 3.4 Vic la chn nh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri) v ng ln (bn phi) 3.5 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b 3.6 Nhiu tin trnh hybrid-ARQ song song 3.7 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH 3.9 Cc trng thi LTE 3.10 Mt v d v lung d liu LTE 4.1 Cu trc min thi gian LTE
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 3 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

4.2 Cc v d v vic ch nh khung ph ng ln/ng xung trong trng hp TDD v s so snh vi FDD 4.3 Ti nguyn vt l ng xung LTE 4.4 Cu trc min tn s ng xung LTE 4.5 Cu trc khung ph v khe thi gian ng xung LTE 4.6 Khi ti nguyn ng xung dnh cho tin t chu trnh bnh thng 4.7 Cu trc tn hiu tham kho ng xung LTE dnh cho tin t chu trnh bnh thng 4.8 Cu trc tn hiu tham kho trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu anten ng xung 4.9 X l knh truyn ti ng xung 4.10 Chn CRC ng xung 4.11 Khi m ha Turbo LTE 4.12 Chc nng Hybrid-ARQ lp vt l 4.13 Ngu nhin ha ng xung 4.14 iu ch d liu 4.15 nh x khi ti nguyn ng xung 4.16 Chui x l cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung 4.17 Li thi gian/tn s LTE 4.18 Cc phn t knh iu khin v cc ng c knh iu khin 4.19 nh x anten LTE bao gm vic nh x lp sau qu trnh tin m ha 4.20 M ha hai anten khi khng gian-tn s trong kt cu khung nhiu anten LTE 4.21 To dng tia (beam-forming) trong kt cu khung nhiu anten LTE 4.22 Ghp knh khng gian trong kt cu khung nhiu anten LTE 4.23 Nhng k hiu tham kho ring t bo v chung t bo trong cc khung ph MBSN 4.24 Kin trc c bn ca truyn dn DFTS-OFDM 4.25 Kin trc min tn s ng ln LTE 4.26 Cu trc khe thi gian v khung ph ng ln LTE 4.27 Cp pht ti nguyn ng ln LTE

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

4.28 Nhy tn ng ln 4.29 Tn hiu tham kho ng ln c chn vo trong khi th t ca mi khe thi gian ng ln 4.30 S hnh thnh tn hiu tham kho ng ln min tn s 4.31 Phng php to ra tn hiu tham kho ng ln t chui Zadoff-Chu c di tt nht 4.32 Truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho thm d knh ng ln 4.33 X l knh truyn ti ng ln LTE 4.34 Ghp knh d liu v bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 trong trng hp truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH v iu khin L1/L2 4.35 Kin trc ti nguyn c s dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln trong trng hp khng truyn dn ng thi ULSCH 4.36 xut nh thi ng ln 5.1 Tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp 5.2 Vic pht tn hiu ng b trong min tn s 5.3 Tng quan ca th tc truy cp ngu nhin 5.4 Miu t nguyn l ca truyn dn preamble truy cp ngu nhin 5.5 nh thi Preamble eNodeB cho ngi s dng truy cp ngu nhin khc nhau 5.6 S hnh thnh phn m u truy cp ngu nhin 5.7 Vic d tm phn m u truy cp ngu nhin trong min tn s 5.8 Vic thu nhn khng lin tc (DRX) cho tm gi (paging)

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

DANH MC BNG BIU


1.1 Tin trnh pht trin cc chun ca 3GPP 1.2 LTE v WiMAX 1.3 Cc yu cu v hiu sut ph v lu lng ngi dng 1.4 Yu cu v thi gian gin on, LTE-GSM v LTE-WCDMA

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

LI M U
Thng tin di ng ngy nay tr thnh mt ngnh cng nghip vin thng pht trin rt nhanh v mang li nhiu li nhun cho cc nh khai thc. S pht trin ca th trng vin thng di ng thc y mnh m vic nghin cu v trin khai cc h thng thng tin di ng mi trong tng lai. H thng di ng th h th hai, vi GSM v CDMA l nhng v d in hnh pht trin mnh m nhiu quc gia. Tuy nhin, th trng vin thng cng m rng cng th hin r nhng hn ch v dung lng v bng thng ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th h th hai. S ra i ca h thng di ng th h th ba vi cc cng ngh tiu biu nh WCDMA hay HSPA l mt tt yu c th p ng c nhu cu truy cp d liu, m thanh, hnh nh vi tc cao, bng thng rng ca ngi s dng. Mc d cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 2.5G hay 3G vn ang pht trin khng ngng nhng cc nh khai thc vin thng ln trn th gii bt u tin hnh trin khai th nghim mt chun di ng th h mi c rt nhiu tim nng v c th s tr thnh chun di ng 4G trong tng lai, l LTE (Long Term Evolution). Cc cuc th nghim v trnh din ny chng t nng lc tuyt vi ca cng ngh LTE v kh nng thng mi ha LTE n rt gn. Trc y, mun truy cp d liu, bn phi cn c 1 ng dy c nh kt ni. Trong tng lai khng xa vi LTE, bn c th truy cp tt c cc dch v mi lc mi ni trong khi vn di chuyn: xem phim cht lng cao HDTV, in thoi thy hnh, chi game, nghe nhc trc tuyn, ti c s d liu v.v vi mt tc siu tc. chnh l s khc bit gia mng di ng th h th 3 (3G) v mng di
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ng th h th t (4G). Tuy vn cn kh mi m nhng mng di ng bng rng 4G ang c k vng s to ra nhiu thay i khc bit so vi nhng mng di ng hin nay. Xut pht t nhng vn trn, em la chn ti tt nghip ca mnh l: Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng rng. ti s i vo tm hiu tng quan v cng ngh LTE cng nh l nhng k thut v thnh phn c s dng trong cng ngh ny c th hiu r thm v nhng tim nng hp dn m cng ngh ny s mang li. ti ca em bao gm 5 chng:
Chng 1 Gii thiu v cng ngh v mc tiu thit k LTE Chng 2 Tng quan v truy cp v tuyn trong LTE Chng 3 Kin trc giao din v tuyn LTE Chng 4 Lp vt l LTE Chng 5 Cc th tc truy cp LTE

Tuy nhin do LTE l cng ngh vn ang c nghin cu, pht trin v hon thin cng nh l do nhng gii hn v kin thc ca ngi trnh by nn n ny cha cp c ht cc vn ca cng ngh LTE v khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st. Rt mong c s ng gp kin ca thy c v cc bn.

Sinh vin thc hin

Nguyn Minh Tm

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CHNG 1 GII THIU V CNG NGH V MC TIU THIT K LTE


1.1 Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE LTE l th h th t tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS th h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii. m bo tnh cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004 3GPP bt u d n nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng ngh di ng UMTS vi tn gi Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim chi ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng tn hin c v bng tn mi, n gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v gim ng k nng lng tiu th thit b u cui. c t k thut cho LTE ang c hon tt v d kin sn phm LTE s ra mt th trng trong 2 nm ti. Cc mc tiu ca cng ngh ny l: Tc nh tc thi vi bng thng 20 MHz: o Ti xung: 100 Mbps; Ti ln: 50 Mbps Dung lng d liu truyn ti trung bnh ca mt ngi dng trn 1 MHz so vi mng HSDPA Rel. 6: o Ti xung: gp 3 n 4 ln; Ti ln: gp 2 n 3 ln. Hot ng ti u vi tc di chuyn ca thu bao l 0 15 km/h. Vn hot ng tt vi tc t 15 120 km/h. Vn duy tr c hot ng khi thu bao di chuyn vi tc t 120 350 km/h (thm ch 500 km/h ty bng tn) Cc ch tiu trn phi m bo trong bn knh vng ph sng 5km, gim cht t trong phm vi n 30km. T 30 100 km th khng hn ch.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 1.1 - Kin trc ca mng LTE di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng 1.25 MHz, 1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz v 20 MHz c chiu ln v xung. H tr c 2 trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc khng. t c mc tiu ny, s c rt nhiu k thut mi c p dng, trong ni bt l k thut v tuyn OFDMA (a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao), k thut anten MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output - a nhp a xut). Ngoi ra h thng ny s chy hon ton trn nn IP (all-IP network), v h tr c 2 ch FDD v TDD. 1.2 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax v nhng trin vng cho cng ngh LTE 1.2.1 So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax V cng ngh, LTE v WiMax c mt s khc bit nhng cng c nhiu im tng ng. C hai cng ngh u da trn nn tng IP. C hai u dng k thut MIMO ci thin cht lng truyn/nhn tn hiu, ng xung t trm thu pht n thit b u cui u c tng tc bng k thut OFDM h tr truyn ti d liu a phng tin v video. Theo l thuyt, chun WiMax hin ti (802.16e) cho tc ti xung ti a l 70Mbps, cn LTE d kin c th cho tc n 300Mbps. Tuy nhin, khi LTE c trin khai ra th trng c th WiMax cng s c nng cp ln chun 802.16m (cn c gi l WiMax 2.0) c tc tng ng hoc cao hn.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

10

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 1.2 L trnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc. ng ln t thit b u cui n trm thu pht c s khc nhau gia 2 cng ngh. WiMax dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access mt bin th ca OFDM), cn LTE dng k thut SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access). V l thuyt, SC-FDMA c thit k lm vic hiu qu hn v cc thit b u cui tiu th nng lng thp hn OFDMA. LTE cn c u th hn WiMax v c thit k tng thch vi c phng thc TDD (Time Division Duplex) v FDD (Frequency Division Duplex). Ngc li, WiMax hin ch tng thch vi TDD (theo mt bo co c cng b u nm nay, WiMax Forum ang lm vic vi mt phin bn Mobile WiMax tch hp FDD). TDD truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 1 knh tn s (dng phng thc phn chia thi gian), cn FDD cho php truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 2 knh tn s ring bit. iu ny c ngha LTE c nhiu ph tn s dng hn WiMax. Tuy nhin, s khc bit cng ngh khng c ngha quyt nh trong cuc chin gia WiMax v TLE. Bng 1.1: Tin trnh pht trin cc chun ca 3GPP
Phin bn Release 99 Release 4

Thi im hon tt

Tnh nng chnh / Thng tin

Qu 1/2000

Gii thiu UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) v WCDMA (Wideband CDMA). B sung mt s tnh nng nh mng li da trn IP v c nhng ci tin cho UMTS.

Qu 2/2001

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

11

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng
Release 5 Release 6

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Qu 1/2002

Gii thiu IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystems) v HSDPA (High-Speed Download Packet Access). Kt hp vi Wireless LAN, thm HSUPA (High-Speed Upload Packet Access) v cc tnh nng nng cao cho IMS nh Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC). Tp trung gim tr, ci thin cht lng dch v v cc ng dng thi gian

Qu 4/2004

Release 7

Qu 4/2007

thc nh VoIP. Phin bn ny cng tp trung vo HSPA+ (High Speeed Packet Evolution) v EDGE Evolution.

Release 8

D kin cui nm 2008 hoc u nm 2009

Gii thiu LTE v kin trc li UMTS nh l mng IP th h th t hon ton da trn IP.

Hin ti WiMax c li th i trc LTE: mng WiMax c trin khai v thit b WiMax cng c mt trn th trng, cn LTE th sm nht cng phi n nm 2010 ngi dng mi c tri nghim. Tuy nhin LTE vn c li th quan trng so vi WiMax. LTE c hip hi cc nh khai thc GSM (GSM Association) chp nhn l cng ngh bng rng di ng tng lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th trng di ng ton cu vi khong 2,5 t thu bao (theo Informa Telecoms & Media) v trong 3 nm ti c th chim th phn n 89% (theo Gartner) nhng con s trong m i vi WiMax. Hn na, LTE cho php tn dng dng h tng GSM c sn (tuy vn cn u t thm thit b) trong khi WiMax phi xy dng t u. Bng 1.2: LTE v WIMAX
Tnh nng Ghp knh Bng tn d kin Tc ti a (Download/Upload) Di ng Phm vi ph sng S ngi dng VoIP ng thi 3GPP LTE RAN1 TDD, FDD 700MHz 2,6GHz 802.16e/Mobile WiMax R1 TDD 802.16m/Mobile WiMax R2 TDD, FDD

2,3GHz, 2,5GHz, 3,3-3,8GHz2,3GHz, 2,5GHz, 3,3-3,8GHz

300Mbps /100Mbps

70Mbps /70Mbps

300Mbps /100Mbps

350km/h 5/30/100km

120km/h 1/5/30km

350km/h 1/5/30km

80

50

100

Thi im hon tt chun

D kin cui nm 2008 hoc u nm 2009 2009-2010/2012

2005

D kin trong nm 2009

Trin khai ra th trng

2007-2008/2009

2010

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

12

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Thi th i thay, nhn thy li th ca LTE, mt s nh khai thc mng cn nhc li vic trin khai WiMax v c nh khai thc quyt nh t b con ng WiMax chuyn sang LTE, ng k trong s c hai tn tui ln nht ti M l AT&T v Verizon Wireless. Theo mt kho st do RCR Wireless News v Yankee Group thc hin gn y, c n 56% nh khai thc di ng chn LTE, ch c 30% i theo 802.16e. Kho st cho thy cc nh khai thc di ng Bc M v Ty u nghing v LTE, trong khi cc nc mi pht trin (c bit l khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng) th ng h WiMax. Nhiu hng sn xut thit b i nc i, mt mt tuyn b vn ng h WiMax, mt khc li dc tin u t cho LTE. Ngay nh Intel, u tu hu thun WiMax, cng i ging. C Siavash M. Alamouti, gim c k thut Wireless Mobile Group v Sean Maloney, gim c tip th ca Intel, trong cc pht biu gn y u cho rng WiMax c th ho hp vi LTE. Trong cuc ua 4G, WiMax v LTE hin l hai cng ngh sng gi nht. Liu hai cng ngh ny c th cng tn ti c lp hay s st nhp thnh mt chun chung? Hiu nng ca WiMax v LTE tng ng nhau, do vy vic quyt nh hin nay ph thuc vo yu t sn sng v kh nng thm nhp th trng. 1.2.2 Nhng trin vng cho cng ngh LTE - Cc i gia vin thng hng n LTE: Nhn thy tim nng to ln ca cng ngh ny, ngnh cng nghip di ng ang on kt xung quanh h thng LTE vi hu ht cc cng ty vin thng hng u th gii: Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, France Telecom/Orange, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, AT&T, T-Mobile, Vodafone, China Mobile, Huawei, LG Electronics, NTT DoCoMo, Samsung, Signalion, Telecom Italia, ZTE... K hoch th nghim v trin khai cng ngh ny ang c cc cng ty trn cng hp tc thc y, d kin vo khong nm 2009-2010 s c thng mi ha n vi ngi dng. Mng NTT DoCoMo ca Nht s i tin phong khi t mc tiu khai trng dch v vo nm 2009. Cc mng Verizon Wireless, Vodafone, v China Mobile tuyn b hp tc th nghim LTE vo nm nay. Vic trin khai c s hng tng cho LTE s bt u vo na sau ca nm 2009 v k hoch cung cp dch v s bt u vo nm 2010.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

13

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Vi vic dnh c s lng giy php s dng bng tn 700 MHz th 2 sau Verizon, mng AT&T cng ln k hoch s dng bng tn ny cho LTE. Hng ny tuyn b c bng thng 20 MHz dnh cho LTE ph sng 82% dn s ca 100 thnh ph hng u ca M. Nh vy 2 mng chim th phn ln nht ca M u chn LTE l gii php tin ln 4G. Mng Telstra ca c gn y cng xc nhn pht trin theo hng LTE. Hng TeliaSonera, nh cung cp ln nht cho th trng Bc u v vng Baltic cng cam kt s s dng cng ngh LTE cho cc th trng ca mnh. Ngy 11/6/2008, theo Financial Times, c phiu ca Nortel, nh sn xut vin thng ni ting ca Canada, tng 13% khi hng tuyn b tp trung cc n lc nghin cu khng dy vo cng ngh LTE thay v cng ngh i th WiMAX. - Tng lai khng cn xa Vo ngy 19/12/2007, hng Nokia Siemens Networks cng b th nghim thnh cng cng ngh LTE vi tc ln n 173 Mb/s trong mi trng th vi nhiu thu bao cng lc. Trn bng tn 2,6 GHz vi 20MHz bng thng, tc ny vt xa tc yu cu l 100 Mbps. Gim c k thut ca hng, ng Stephan Scholz pht biu: Khi th gii tin gn n con s 5 t thu bao vo nm 2015, theo tin on ca chng ti, cc nh cung cp dch v di ng s phi s dng tt c cc bng tn vi mt cu trc mng n gin nht v hiu qu chi ph cao nht phc v lu lng lin lc cao hn 100 ln. Cuc th nghim thc t ny l mt chng minh ban u quan trng cho khi nim v LTE. Cuc gi thoi u tin gia 2 in thoi LTE c trnh din vo Hi ngh Th gii di ng (Mobile World Congress) c t chc vo thng 2/2008 ti Barcelona, Ty Ban Nha. Vo thng 3 va qua, mng NTT DoCoMo th nghim LTE t n tc 250Mbps. Ti cc trin lm vin thng quc t gn y, cc nh sn xut Huawei, Motorola, Ericsson cng biu din LTE vi cc ng dng nh xem tivi cht lng cao HDTV, chi game online Cc cuc th nghim v trnh din ny chng t kh nng tuyt vi ca cng ngh LTE v kh nng thng mi ha LTE n rt gn.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

14

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Trc y, mun truy cp d liu, bn phi cn 1 ng dy c nh kt ni. Trong tng lai khng xa vi LTE, bn c th truy cp tt c cc dch v mi lc mi ni trong khi vn di chuyn: xem phim cht lng cao, in thoi thy hnh, chi game trc tuyn, ti c s d liu v.v V hy nh: vi tc siu tc. 1.3 Mc tiu thit k LTE Nhng hot ng ca 3GPP trong vic ci tin mng 3G vo ma xun nm 2005 xc nh i tng, nhng yu cu v mc tiu cho LTE. Nhng mc tiu v yu cu ny c dn chng bng ti liu trong vn bn 3GPP TR 25.913. Nhng yu cu cho LTE c chia thnh 07 phn khc nhau nh sau:

Tim nng, dung lng.

Hiu sut h thng Cc vn lin quan n vic trin khai Kin trc v s dch chuyn (migration) Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn phc tp Nhng vn chung 1.3.1 Tim nng cng ngh Yu cu c t ra l vic t tc d liu nh cho ng xung l 100 Mbit/s v ng ln l 50 Mbit/s, khi hot ng trong phn b ph 20 MHz. Khi m phn b ph hp hn th tc d liu nh cng s t l theo. Do , iu kin t ra l c th biu din c 5 bit/s/Hz cho ng xung v 2.5 bit/s/Hz cho ng ln. Nh s c tho lun di y, LTE h tr c ch FDD v TDD. R rng, i vi trng hp TDD, truyn dn ng ln v ng xung, theo nh ngha khng th xut hin ng thi. Do m yu cu tc d liu nh cng khng th trng nhau ng thi. Mt khc, i vi trng hp FDD, c tnh ca LTE cho php qu trnh pht v thu ng thi t c tc d liu nh theo phn l thuyt trn. Yu cu v tr c chia thnh: yu cu tr mt phng iu khin (the control-plane latency requirements) v yu cu tr mt phng ngi dng (the user-plane latency requirements). Yu cu tr control-plane xc nh tr ca vic chuyn t cc trng thi thit b u cui khng tch cc khc nhau sang
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 15 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

trng thi tch cc khi thit b u cui di ng c th gi v nhn d liu. C hai cch xc nh: cch xc nh th nht c th hin qua thi gian chuyn tip t trng thi tm tr (camped state) chng hn nh trng thi Release 6 idle mode, khi th th tc chim 100 ms; cch xc nh th hai c th hin qua thi gian chuyn tip t trng thi ng chng hn nh trng thi Release 6 Cell_PCH, khi th th tc chim 50 ms. Trong c hai th tc ny, th tr ch ng v vic bo hiu non-RAN u c loi tr. (Ch Release 6 idle l 1 trng thi m khi thit b u cui khng c nhn bit i vi mng truy nhp v tuyn, ngha l, mng truy nhp v tuyn khng c bt c thuc tnh no ca thit b u cui v thit b u cui cng khng c ch nh mt ti nguyn v tuyn no. Thit b u cui c th trong ch ng v ch lng nghe h thng mng ti nhng khong thi gian c th. Trng thi Release 6 Cell_PCH l trng thi khi m thit b u cui khng c nhn bit i vi mng truy nhp v tuyn. Tuy mng truy nhp v tuyn bit thit b u cui ang trong t bo no nhng thit b u cui li khng c cp pht bt c ti nguyn v tuyn no. Thit b u cui lc ny c th ang trong ch ng). Yu cu tr mt phng ngi dng c th hin quan thi gian truyn mt gi IP nh t thit b u cui ti nt bin RAN hoc ngc li c o t lp IP. Thi gian truyn theo mt hng s khng vt qu 5 ms trong mng khng ti (unloaded network), ngha l khng c mt thit b u cui no khc xut hin trong t bo. Xt v mt yu cu i vi tr mt phng iu khin, LTE c th h tr t nht 200 thit b u cui di ng trng thi tch cc khi hot ng khong tn 5 MHz. Trong mi phn b rng hn 5 MHz, th t nht c 400 thit b u cui c h tr. S lng thit b u cui khng tch cc trong t bo khng ni r l bao nhiu nhng c th l cao hn mt cch ng k. 1.3.2 Hiu sut h thng Cc mc tiu thit k cng nng h thng LTE s xc nh lu lng ngi dng, hiu sut ph, linh ng, vng ph sng, v MBMS nng cao. Nhn chung, cc yu cu c tnh LTE c lin quan n h thng chun s dng phin bn 6 HSPA. i vi trm gc, gi nh c mt anten pht v hai anten thu, trong khi th thit b u cui c ti a l mt anten pht v hai anten thu. Tuy nhin, mt iu quan trng cn lu l nhng c tnh nng cao nh l mt phn ca vic ci tin HSPA th khng c bao gm trong tham chiu chun. V th, mc d thit b u cui trong h thng chun c gi nh l c hai anten

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

16

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

thu th mt b thu RAKE n gin vn c p dng. Tng t, ghp knh khng gian cng khng c p dng trong h thng chun. Yu cu lu lng ngi dng c nh r theo hai im: ti s phn b ngi dng trung bnh v ti s phn b ngi dng phn v th 5 (khi m 95% ngi dng c c cht lng tt hn). Mc tiu hiu sut ph cng c ch r, v trong thuc tnh ny th hiu sut ph c nh ngha l lu lng h thng theo t bo tnh theo bit/s/MHz/cell. Nhng mc tiu thit k ny c tng hp trong bng 1.3. Bng 1.3 - Cc yu cu v hiu sut ph v lu lng ngi dng
Phng php o hiu sut Mc tiu ng xung so vi c bn Mc tiu ng ln so vi c bn

Lu lng ngi dng trung bnh (trn 1 MHz) Lu lng ngi dng ti bin t bo (trn 1 MHz, phn v th 5) Hiu sut ph (bit/s/Hz/cell)

3 ln 4 ln 2 ln 3 ln 3 ln 4 ln

2 ln 3 ln 2 ln 3 ln 2 ln 3 ln

Yu cu v linh ng ch yu tp trung vo tc di chuyn ca cc thit b u cui di ng. Ti tc thp, 0-15 km/h th hiu sut t c l ti a, v cho php gim i mt t i vi tc cao hn. Ti vn tc ln n 120 km/h, LTE vn cung cp hiu sut cao v i vi vn tc trn 120 km/h th h thng phi duy tr c kt ni trn ton mng t bo. Tc ti a c th qun l i vi mt h thng LTE c th c thit lp n 350 km/h (hoc thm ch n 500 km/h ty thuc vo bng tn). Mt yu t quan trong c bit l dch v thoi c cung cp bi LTE s ngang bng vi cht lng m WCDMA/HSPA h tr. Yu cu v vng ph sng ch yu tp trung vo phm vi t bo (bn knh), ngha l khong cch ti a t vng t bo (cell site) n thit b u cui di ng trong cell. i vi phm vi t bo ln n 5 km th nhng yu cu v lu lng ngi dng, hiu sut ph v linh ng vn c m bo trong gii hn khng b nh hng bi nhiu. i vi nhng t bo c phm vi ln n 30 km th c mt s gim nh cho php v lu lng ngi dng v hiu sut ph th li gim mt cch ng k hn nhng vn c th chp nhn c. Tuy nhin, yu cu v di ng vn c p ng. Khi m phm vi t bo ln n 100 km th khng thy c c tnh k thut v yu cu hiu sut no c ni r trong trng hp ny.
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

17

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Nhng yu cu MBMS nng cao xc nh c hai ch : broadcast (qung b) v unicast. Nhn chung, LTE s cung cp nhng dch v tt hn so vi nhng g c th trong phin bn 6. Yu cu i vi trng hp broadcast l hiu sut ph 1 bit/s/Hz, tng ng vi khong 16 knh TV di ng bng cch s dng khong 300 kbit/s trong mi phn b ph tn 5 MHz. Hn na, n c th cung cp dch v MBMS vi ch mt dch v trn mt sng mang, cng nh l kt hp vi cc dch v non-MBMS khc. V nh vy th ng nhin c tnh k thut ca LTE c kh nng cung cp ng thi c dch v thoi v dch v MBMS. 1.3.3 Cc vn lin quan n vic trin khai Cc yu cu lin quan n vic trin khai bao gm cc kch bn trin khai, linh hot ph, tri ph, s cng tn ti v lm vic vi nhau gia LTE vi cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc ca 3GPP nh GSM v WCDMA/HSPA. Nhng yu cu v kch bn trin khai bao gm: trng hp m h thng LTE c trin khai nh l mt h thng c lp v trng hp m LTE c trin khai ng thi vi WCDMA/HSPA hoc GSM. Do m yu cu ny s khng lm gii hn cc tiu chun thit k. Nhng yu cu v linh hot ph v trin khai s c phc tho chi tit hn trong phn 1.3.3.1. Vn cng tn ti v c th hot ng phi hp vi cc h thng 3GPP khc v nhng yu cu tng ng thit lp ra nhng iu kin v tnh linh ng gia LTE v GSM, v gia LTE v WCDMA/HSPA cho thit b u cui di ng h tr nhng cng ngh ny. Bng 1.4 lit k nhng yu cu v s gin on, l, thi gian gin on di nht trong lin kt v tuyn khi phi di chuyn gia cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nhau, bao gm c dch v thi gian thc v phi thi gian thc. C mt iu ng ch l nhng yu cu ny khng c cht ch cho lm i vi vn gin on trong chuyn giao v hy vng khi m trin khai thc t th s t c nhng gi tr tt hn ng k. Yu cu v vic cng tn ti v c th lm vic vi nhau cng xc nh vic chuyn i lu lng multicast t phng php broadcast trong LTE thnh phng php unicast trong c GSM hoc WCDMA, mc d khng c s lng cho trc. Bng 1.4 - Yu cu v thi gian gin on, LTE-GSM v LTE-WCDMA

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

18

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

1.3.3.1 linh hot ph v vic trin khai Nn tng cho nhng yu cu v linh hot ph l nhng iu kin LTE c th c trin khai trn nhng bng tn IMT-2000 hin hnh, ngha l kh nng cng tn ti vi cc h thng c trin khai trn nhng bng tn ny, bao gm WCDMA/HSPA v GSM. Mt phn lin quan n nhng yu cu LTE v mt linh hot ph l kh nng trin khai vic truy nhp v tuyn da trn LTE cho d phn b ph l theo cp hay n l, nh vy LTE c th h tr c Song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD) v song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD). S song cng hay vic qui hoch song cng l mt thuc tnh ca cng ngh truy cp v tuyn. Tuy vy, mt phn b ph cho trc th cng c lin kt vi mt qui hoch song cng c th. H thng FDD c trin khai theo mt cp phn b ph, vi mt di tn cho truyn dn ng xung v mt di tn khc dnh cho ng ln. Cn h thng TDD th c trin khai trong cc phn b ph n l. Ly mt v d l ph ca IMT-2000 ti tn s 2 GHz, gi l bng tn li IMT-2000. Nh trnh by trong hnh 1.3, n bao gm cp bng tn 1920-1980 MHz v 2110-2170 MHz dnh cho truy cp v tuyn da trn FDD, v hai bng tn l 1910-1920 MHz v 2010-2025 MHz dnh cho truy cp v tuyn da trn TDD. Ch l c th v nhng qui nh ca a phng v vng m vic s dng ph ca IMT-2000 c th khc so vi nhng g c trnh by y.

Hnh 1.3 Phn b ph bng tn li ti 2 GHz ca nguyn bn IMT-2000

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

19

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Cp phn b cho FDD trong hnh 1.3 l 2 x 60 MHz, nhng ph kh dng cho mt nh khai thc mng n l c th ch l 2 x 20 MHz hoc thm ch l 2 x 10 MHz. Trong nhng bng tn khc ph kh dng c th cn t hn na. Ngoi ra, s dch chuyn ca ph ang c s dng cho nhng cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc cn phi din ra mt cch t t chc chn rng lng ph cn li phi h tr cho nhng ngi dng hin ti. V vy, lng ph ban u c dch chuyn ti LTE c th tng i nh, nhng sau c th tng ln t t, c th hin trong hnh 1.4. S khc nhau ca nhng din tin ph c th xy ra s dn n mt yu cu v linh hot ph cho LTE di dng bng thng truyn dn c h tr.

Hnh 1.4 Mt v d v cch thc LTE thm nhp tng bc vo phn b ph ca mt h thng GSM c trin khai Yu cu v linh hot ph i hi LTE phi c kh nng m rng trong min tn s v c th hot ng trong nhiu bng tn khc nhau. Yu cu v linh hot trong ti liu tham kho c lit k thnh danh sch cc phn b ph ca LTE (1.25, 1.6, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 v 20 MHz). Ngoi ra, LTE cn c kh nng hot ng theo cp ph cng nh l n l. LTE cng c th trin khai trong nhiu bng tn khc nhau. Nhng bng tn c h tr c ch r da vo c lp phin bn (release independence), ngha l phin bn u tin ca LTE khng phi h tr tt c cc bng tn ngay t u.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

20

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hn na, ti liu tham kho cng xc nh v vn cng tn ti v lp t chung vi GSM v WCDMA trn nhng tn s ln cn, cng nh l s cng tn ti gia nhng nh khai thc v h thng mng ln cn trn nhng quc gia khc nhau nhng s dng ph chng nhau (overlapping spectrum). y cng c mt iu kin l khng c h thng no khc c yu cu hp l khi mt thit b u cui truy cp vo LTE, ngha l LTE cn phi c tt c tn hiu iu khiu cn thit c yu cu cho vic kch hot truy nhp. 1.3.4 Kin trc v s dch chuyn (migration) Mt vi nguyn tc ch o cho vic thit k kin trc LTE RAN c a ra bi 3GPP c lit k trong [86]: - Mt kin trc n LTE RAN c chp nhn. - Kin trc LTE RAN phi da trn gi (packet), tuy vy lu lng lp thoi v thi gian thc vn c h tr. - Kin trc LTE RAN c th ti thiu ha s hin din ca nhng h hng cc b (single points of failure) m khng cn tng chi ph cho ng truyn (backhaul). - Kin trc LTE RAN c th n gin ha v ti thiu ha s lng giao tip c gii thiu. - Tng tc lp mng v tuyn (Radio network layer: RNL) v lp mng truyn ti (Transport network layer: TNL) c th c loi tr nu ch cn quan tm n vn ci thin hiu sut h thng. - Kin trc LTE RAN c th h tr QoS end-to-end. TNL c th cung cp QoS thch hp khi c yu cu bi RNL. - Cc c cu QoS c th tnh ton n cc dng lu lng ang tn ti khc nhau mang li hiu sut s dng bng thng cao: lu lng mt phng iu khin (Control-Plane), lu lng mt phng ngi dng (User-Plane), lu lng O&M, v.v - LTE RAN c th c thit k theo li lm gim bin i tr (delay variation - jitter) i vi lu lng cn jitter thp, v d TCP/IP. 1.3.5 Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn Nhng yu cu v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c chia ra nh sau: h tr nng cao cho QoS end to end, h tr hiu qu cho truyn dn lp cao hn, v h tr cho vic chia s ti cng nh l qun l chnh sch thng qua cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nhau.
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

21

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Vic h tr nng cao cho QoS end to end yu cu ci thin s gia thch ng gia dch v, ng dng v cc iu kin v giao thc (bao gm bo hiu lp cao hn) vi ti nguyn RAN v cc c tnh v tuyn. Vic h tr hiu qu cho truyn dn lp cao hn i hi LTE RAN phi c kh nng cung cp c cu h tr truyn dn hiu sut cao v hot ng ca cc giao thc lp cao hn qua giao tip v tuyn, chng hn nh qu trnh nn tiu IP (IP header). Vic h tr chia s ti v qun l chnh sch thng qua cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nhau i hi phi xem xt n vic la chn li cc c cu nh hng cc thit b u cui di ng theo cc dng cng ngh truy cp v tuyn thch hp c ni r cng nh l h tr QoS end to end trong qu trnh chuyn giao gia cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn. 1.3.6 phc tp Yu cu v phc tp trong LTE xc nh phc tp ca ton h thng cng nh l phc tp ca thit b u cui di ng. V c bn th nhng yu cu ny cp n s lng nhng ty chn c th ti thiu ha vi nhng c tnh d tha khng bt buc. iu ny cng a n vic ti gin nhng trng hp kim th cn thit. 1.3.7 Nhng vn chung Phn ny cp n nhng yu cu chung trong LTE v nhng kha cnh lin quan n chi ph v dch v. R rng, mong mun t ra l gim thiu cc chi ph trong khi vn duy tr hiu sut yu cu cho tt c cc dch v. Cc vn v ng truyn, hot ng v bo dng cng lin quan n yu t chi ph. Nh vy khng ch giao tip v tuyn, m vic truyn ti n cc trm gc v h thng qun l cng phi c xc nh r. Mt yu cu quan trng v giao tip nhiu nh cung cp (multi-vendor interfaces) cng thuc vo loi yu cu ny. Ngoi ra th cc vn nh: phc tp thp, thit b u cui di ng tiu th t nng lng cng c i hi.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

22

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CHNG 2 TNG QUAN V TRUY NHP V TUYN TRONG LTE


Trong chng trc, chng ta tho lun v nhng mc tiu ca LTE v t nhng tho lun ny th r rng l LTE c pht trin vi nhng mc tiu hot ng mnh m ng ghi nh. V n chng ny th chng ta s c cung cp mt ci nhn tng quan v mt s c im v thnh phn quan trng ca LTE. Chng 3 5 s i vo chi tit hn na v vn truy cp v tuyn LTE mt cch tng qut cng nh l nhng c tnh ch yu c th ca n. 2.1 H thng truyn dn: ng xung OFDM v ng ln SC-FDMA H thng truyn dn ng xung ca LTE da trn cng ngh OFDM. Nh bit th OFDM l mt h thng truyn dn ng xung hp dn vi nhiu l do khc nhau. V thi gian k t OFDM tng i di trong vic kt hp vi mt tin t chu trnh, nn OFDM cung cp mnh chng li s la chn tn s knh (channel frequency selectivity). Mc d trn l thuyt th vic sai lch tn hiu do knh truyn chn lc tn s c th c kim sot bng k thut cn bng ti pha thu, s phc tp ca k thut cn bng bt u tr nn km hp dn trong vic trin khai i vi nhng thit b u cui di ng ti bng thng trn 5 MHz. V vy m OFDM vi kh nng vn c trong vic chng li fading la chn tn s s tr thnh s la chn hp dn cho ng xung, c bit khi c kt hp vi ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing). Mt s li ch khc ca k thut OFDM bao gm:

OFDM cung cp kh nng truy nhp vo min tn s, bng cch thit lp mt t do b sung (degree of fredom) cho khi hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn (channel dependent scheduler) so vi HSPA. OFDM d dng h tr cho vic phn b bng thng mt cch linh hot, bng cch bin i bng tn c s thnh cc sng mang ph truyn

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

23

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

i. Tuy nhin ch rng l vic h tr nhiu phn b ph i hi cn phi c b lc RF linh hot (flexible RF filtering) khi th s truyn dn chnh xc l khng thch hp. Tuy nhin, vic duy tr cu trc x l bng tn c s ging nhau (the same baseband processing structure), khng ph thuc bng thng s ni lng vic trin khai u cui.

H tr d dng cho vic truyn dn broadcast/mulitcast, khi m nhng thng tin ging nhau c truyn i t nhiu trm gc.

i vi ng ln LTE, truyn dn n sng mang da trn k thut DFTspread OFDM. Vic s dng iu ch n sng mang cho ng ln em li t s nh trn trung bnh (peak to average ratio) ca tn hiu c truyn thp hn khi m so snh vi k thut truyn dn a sng mang v d nh OFDM. T s nh trn trung bnh ca tn hiu c truyn cng nh th cng sut pht trung bnh i vi mt b khuch i cng sut nht nh cng cao. V vy m truyn dn n sng mang cho php s dng hiu qu hn b khuch i cng sut, ng thi lm tng vng ph sng. iu ny c bit quan trng i vi nhng thit b u cui b gii hn v nng lng. Ti cng mt thi im, vic cn bng cn thit kim sot li ca tn hiu n sng mang do fading la chn tn s l vn nh trong ng ln v t gii hn trong ngun to tn hiu ti trm gc hn so vi thit b u cui di ng. Tng phn vi ng ln khng trc giao ca WCDMA/HSPA (cng da trn truyn dn n sng mang), th ng ln LTE li da trn k thut phn tch trc giao gia nhng ngi dng trong min thi gian v tn s (Trn l thuyt, vic phn chia ngi dng trc giao c th thc hin c trong min thi gian ch bng cch n nh ton b bng thng truyn dn ng ln cho mt ngi dng ti 1 thi im, iu ny c th thc hin c vi ng ln nng cao). K thut phn tch ngi dng trc giao trong nhiu tnh hung mang li li ch trong vic trnh c nhiu trong t bo (intra cell interference). Tuy nhin, vic phn b mt lng ti nguyn bng thng tc thi rt ln cho ngi dng li khng phi l mt chin lc hiu qu trong nhng tnh hung m chnh tc d liu b gii hn bi cng sut truyn dn hn l bng thng. Trong nhng tnh hung nh vy, mt thit b u cui s ch c phn b mt phn ca tng bng thng truyn dn v nhng thit b u cui khc c th truyn song song trn phn ph cn li. V vy m ng ln LTE s bao gm mt thnh phn a truy nhp min tn s (frequency domain multiple access component), h thng truyn dn ng

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

24

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ln LTE nhiu khi cng c xem nh l h thng Single Carrier FDMA (SCFDMA). 2.2 Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn v s thch ng tc (Channeldependent scheduling and rate adaptation) Trung tm ca h thng truyn dn LTE l vic s dng k thut truyn dn chia s knh truyn (shared channel transmission), khi ti nguyn min tn s thi gian c chia s t ng gia nhng ngi dng. K thut ny tng t vi phng php c dng trong HSDPA, mc d cng thy r s khc nhau trong vic chia s ti nguyn gia thi gian v tn s trong trng hp ca LTE v gia thi gian v m phn knh (channelization codes) trong trng hp ca HSDPA. Vic s dng truyn dn chia s knh truyn rt ph hp vi nhng yu cu t ra ca d liu gi do ti nguyn cn phi thay i nhanh chng cng nh l cho php nhiu cng ngh quan trng khc c dng bi LTE. Khi hoch nh (scheduler) s iu khin vic phn pht ti nguyn chia s cho ngi dng ti mi thi im. N cng quyt nh tc d liu c s dng cho mi ng truyn, l gi l thch ng tc v n l c th xem l mt phn ca b scheduler. Scheduler l thnh phn chnh v mang tnh quyt nh ln i vi hiu sut ca ton b ng xung, c bit trong nhng mng c ti trng cao. C truyn dn ng ln v ng xung u phi c hoch nh cht ch. tng ch thc cht trong kh nng h thng c th t c nu c tnh knh truyn c lu n trong vic quyt nh phn b, v c gi l hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn. K thut ny hin ang c khai thc trong HSPA, khi scheduler ng xung s truyn ti ngi dng vi tc d liu ti a nu iu kin knh truyn gp thun li v trong mt chng mc no th k thut ny cng c p dng cho ng ln nng cao (enhanced uplink). Tuy nhin, ngoi min thi gian th LTE cng truy cp ti min tn s, do vic s dng OFDM cho ng xung v DFTS-OFDM cho ng ln. V vy i vi mi min tn s, b scheduler c th la chn cho ngi dng knh truyn c c tnh tt nht. Mt khc, vic hoch nh trong LTE c th quan tm n s bin i knh truyn khng ch trong min thi gian, nh HSPA, m cn trong c min tn s. iu ny c minh ha trong hnh 2.1. Kh nng ca k thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn trong min tn s c bit hu ch khi m tc ca thit b u cui l thp, ni cch khc ngha l knh truyn thay i chm theo thi gian. K thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn da trn s thay i cht lng knh gia nhng ngi dng t c
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 25 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

tng ch trong hiu sut h thng. i vi nhng dch v nhy cm vi tr, scheduler min thi gian c th c hoch nh cng bc cho mt ngi dng ring bit, cho d cht lng knh truyn khng t c gi tr nh. Trong nhng tnh hung nh vy, vic khai thc s thay i cht lng knh truyn trong min tn s s gip ci thin hiu sut ca ton h thng. i vi LTE, vic quyt nh phn b (scheduling decisions) c th c a ra vi nh k sau mi 1ms v chi tit trong min tn s l 180 KHz. iu ny cho php nhng s thay i knh truyn tng i nhanh c th c theo di bi b scheduler. 2.2.1 Hoch nh ng xung Trong ng xung, mi thit b u cui s bo co mt nh gi v cht lng knh truyn tc thi cho trm gc. Nhng nh gi ny c c bng cch o lng mt tn hiu tham kho, c truyn t trm gc v n cng c s dng cho mc ch gii iu ch. Da trn nhng nh gi v cht lng knh truyn, scheduler ng xung c th n nh lng ti nguyn cp pht cho cc ngi dng v cht lng knh truyn vn c m bo. Trn l thuyt, mt thit b u cui c phn b c th c ch nh mt t hp bt k ca cc khi ti nguyn rng 180 KHz trong mi khong thi gian phn b 1ms. (1ms scheduling interval).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

26

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 2.1 Hoch nh ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v tn s. 2.2.2 Hoch nh ng ln ng ln LTE da trn s phn cch trc giao gia cc ngi dng v nhim v ca scheduler ng ln l phn pht ti nguyn c v thi gian v tn s (kt hp TDMA/FDMA) cho cc ngi dng khc nhau. Quyt nh phn b c a ra sau mi 1 ms, c nhim v iu khin nhng thit b u cui no c php truyn i thuc phm vi 1 cell trong sut mt khong thi gian cho trc, v quyt nh ti nguyn tn s no c dng cho qu trnh truyn dn cng nh l tc d liu no ang c s dng. Ch rng ch mt min tn s k nhau c th c cp cho nhng thit b u cui trong ng ln nh l mt h qu ca vic s dng truyn dn n sng mang cho ng ln LTE. Trng thi knh truyn cng cn c quan tm trong qu trnh hoch nh ng ln, tng t nh hoch nh ng xung. Tuy nhin, nh s c tho lun chi tit hn trong chng 3, vic thu thp thng tin v trng thi knh truyn
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 27 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ng ln khng phi l mt tc v n gin. Do , mt s phng php khc thu phn tp ng ln tr nn quan trng nh mt phn b sung cho nhng tnh hung khi m ti k thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn khng c s dng.

Hnh 2.2 Mt v d v iu phi nhiu lin t bo, ni m cc phn ph b gii hn bi cng sut truyn dn 2.2.3 iu phi nhiu lin t bo (Inter-cell interference coordination) LTE cung cp s trc giao gia nhng ngi dng trong mt t bo trong c ng ln v ng xung. V vy, hiu nng ca LTE v mt hiu sut ph v tc d liu kh dng ni mt cch tng i th c nhiu gii hn bi nhiu t nhng t bo khc (inter-cell interference) hn so vi WCDMA/HSPA. Do , cc phng php lm gim v iu khin nhiu lin t bo c kh nng mang li nhng li ch tht s cho hiu sut ca h thng LTE, c bit v mt cc dch v (tc d liu, v.v) c th c cung cp cho ngi dng ti bin t bo (cell edge). iu phi nhiu lin t bo l mt chin lc hoch nh m trong tc d liu ti bin t bo c tng ln bng cch gim st nhiu lin t bo. V c bn, vic iu phi nhiu lin t bo s a n nhng gii hn chnh xc i vi scheduler ng ln v ng xung trong t bo kim sot nhiu lin t bo. Bng vic hn ch cng sut pht ca cc thnh phn ph (parts of the spectrum) trong t bo, m nhiu xut hin trong nhng t bo ln cn thuc thnh phn ph ny s c gim bt. Thnh phn ph ny c th c s dng cung cp tc d liu cao hn cho nhng ngi dng thuc t bo ln cn. Thc ra th h s ti s dng tn s l khc nhau i vi nhng phn khc nhau ca t bo. Ch rng vic iu phi nhiu lin t bo l mt chin lc hoch nh quan trng m trong cn quan tm n v tr ca nhng t bo ln cn. Do ,
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

28

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

vic iu phi nhiu lin t bo l mt vn trin khai vi phm vi ln v kh c th nhn thy c trong cc chi tit k thut. iu ny cng c ngha l vic iu phi nhiu ch c th c p dng vi mt nhm cc t bo c la chn, da trn nhng yu cu trin khai ring bit c t ra. 2.3 ARQ hn hp vi vic kt hp mm (Hybrid ARQ with soft combining) K thut ARQ hn hp nhanh vi vic kt hp mm (Fast hybird ARQ with soft combining) c s dng cho LTE v nhng l do tng t nh trong HSPA, c th l kh nng cho php thit b u cui nhanh chng yu cu truyn li nhng khi truyn ti thu c b li v cung cp cng c cho vic thch ng tc n (implicit rate adaptation). Giao thc c bn cng tng t vi ci c s dng cho HSPA, l phng php s dng nhiu stop and wait ARQ hn hp song song (multiple parallel stop and wait hybrid ARQ). Vic truyn li c th c yu cu nhanh chng sau mi gi truyn, do c th gim thiu c nhng nh hng n hot ng ca ngi dng cui do nhng gi tin thu c b li gy ra. S d tha gia tng (incremental redundancy) c s dng nh l chnh sch kt hp mm (the soft combining strategy) v u thu s nh m (buffer) nhng bit mm c th thc hin vic kt hp mm gia nhng ln truyn. 2.4 S h tr nhiu anten (Multiple antenna support) LTE ngay t u h tr k thut nhiu anten ti c trm gc v thit b u cui nh l mt phn khng th thiu trong c im k thut. Xt trn nhiu mt th vic s dng nhiu anten l mt k thut quan trng t c nhng mc tiu mnh m cho hiu nng ca LTE. Nh bit th vic s dng nhiu anten c p dng cho nhiu trng hp vi nhiu mc ch khc nhau:

Nhiu anten thu c th c s dng cho vic thu phn tp (receive diversity). i vi truyn dn ng ln, k thut ny c s dng cho cc h thng t bo t nhiu nm trc. Tuy nhin, khi m cu hnh hai anten thu tr thnh c s cho tt c cc thit b u cui LTE th hiu sut ng ln cng c ci thin ng k. Phng php n gin nht ca vic s dng nhiu anten l k thut phn tp thu c in kh fading, nhng li ch thm c l vic gii hn c nhiu nu cc anten c s dng khng ch cung cp s phn tp chng fading, m cn dng trit nhiu.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

29

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Nhiu anten pht ti trm gc c th c s dng cho phn tp pht v cc dng to chm tia khc (beam forming). Mc tiu chnh ca vic to chm tia l ci thin t s SNR hoc SIR thu c, ng thi ci thin nng sut h thng v tm ph sng. Ghp knh khng gian, i khi cng c xem nh l MIMO, vic s dng nhiu anten cho c my pht v my thu c h tr bi LTE. Vic ghp knh khng gian dn n vic cho php tng tc trong nhng tnh hung m iu kin knh truyn c bng thng b gii hn bng cch to ra nhiu knh song song.

Ni chung, cc k thut a anten u mang li li ch trong nhng hon cnh khc nhau. V d, ti t s SNR v SIR tng i thp, chng hn nh khi ti trng cao hoc ti bin t bo, vic ghp knh khng gian s em li mt s li ch nht nh. ng l, trong nhng trng hp ny, phi dng nhiu anten ti u pht nng SNR/SIR bng phng php to chm tia (beam forming). Mt khc, trong trng hp khi m SNR v SIR tng i cao, v d nh trong nhng t bo nh, vic nng cao cht lng tn hiu mang li nhng li ch ph khi m tc d liu thu c b gii hn ch yu bi bng thng hn l do gii hn v SIR/SNR. Trong nhng trng hp nh vy, ng l ra phi dng k thut ghp knh khng gian khai thc trit nhng trng thi knh truyn tin cy. H thng a anten c s dng di s iu khin ca trm gc t c th la chn c s ph hp cho mi ng truyn. 2.5 H tr multicast v broadcast Pht qung b nhiu t bo (multi-cell broadcast) ngha l vic truyn i nhng thng tin ging nhau t nhiu t bo. Bng vic khai thc k thut ny ti thit b u cui, vic s dng hiu qu nng lng tn hiu t nhiu vng t bo ti b pht hin (the detection) cng ci thin ng k vng ph sng. K thut ny c khai thc i vi trng hp broadcast/multicast nhiu t bo trong WCDMA, khi mt thit b u cui c th nhn tn hiu t nhiu t bo v kch hot vic kt hp mm (soft combine) nhng tn hiu ny ti b thu. LTE s tin thm mt bc nng cao hiu qu broadcast nhiu t bo. Bng vic truyn i khng ch nhng tn hiu ng nht t nhiu site t bo (vi s iu ch v m ha ng nht) m cn ng b thi gian truyn dn gia nhng t bo, tn hiu ti thit b u cui di ng s c ti hin chnh xc nh tn hiu c truyn i t mt site t bo n l v gii quyt c hin tng truyn a

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

30

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ng. Do kh nng chng li hin tng truyn a ng mnh m ca OFDM, vic truyn dn nhiu t bo nh vy (multi cell transmission), cng c xem nh l truyn dn Mng n tn s Multicast-Broadcast (MBSFN: MulticastBroadcast Single Frequency Network), khi s khng ch ci thin cng tn hiu thu c m cn loi tr c nhiu lin t bo. V vy, vi OFDM, lu lng broadcast/multicast ch b gii hn bi tp m v trong trng hp vi nhng t bo nh, c th t n nhng gi tr rt cao. Cn phi ch rng vic s dng truyn dn MBSFN cho broadcast/multicast nhiu t bo i hi s cht ch trong vn v lin kt thi gian v ng b (synchronization and time alignment) ca nhng tn hiu c pht t nhng site t bo khc nhau. 2.6 Tnh linh hot ph Nh c tho lun trong chng 1, mc linh hot ph cao l mt trong nhng c tnh ch yu ca cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn LTE. Mc tiu ca tnh linh hot ph l vic cho php trin khai truy nhp v tuyn LTE trong nhiu ph tn vi nhng c tnh khc nhau, bao gm nhng s khc nhau v sp xp song cng (duplex arrangements), bng tn hot ng, v kch thc ca ph tn kh dng.

Hnh 2.3 - FDD vs. TDD. FDD: Frequency Division Duplex; TDD: Time Divison Duplex; DL:Downlink; UL: Uplink

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

31

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

2.6.1 Tnh linh hot trong sp xp song cng Mt phn quan trng trong nhng yu cu ca LTE v mt tnh linh hot ph l kh nng trin khai truy nhp v tuyn da trn LTE trong c ph tn theo cp hoc khng theo cp, nh vy LTE c th h tr sp xp song cng phn chia theo c thi gian v tn s. FDD c minh ha trong hnh 2.3a, theo truyn dn ng ln v ng xung xut hin trong nhng bng tn khc v hon ton tch bit. TDD theo nh minh ha trong hnh 2.3b, th truyn dn ng ln v ng xung xut hin trong nhng khe thi gian khng trng nhau. Do vy, TDD c th hot ng vi ph khng theo cp (unpaired spectrum), trong khi FDD li yu cu ph theo cp (paired spectrum). Vic h tr c ph theo cp v khng theo cp l mt phn trong c im k thut ca 3GPP t phin bn 99 (Release 99) thng qua vic s dng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA da trn FDD i vi phn b theo cp v truy nhp v tuyn TD-CDMA/TDSCDMA i vi phn b khng theo cp. Tuy nhin, iu ny t c bng cch s dng nhiu cng ngh truy cp v tuyn tng i khc nhau v v th m nhng thit b u cui c kh nng hot ng vi c FDD v TDD vn cn cha c ph bin. Mt khc, LTE c th h tr c FDD v TDD vi ch mt cng ngh truy cp v tuyn, dn n vic ti thiu lch gia FDD v TDD cho nhng truy nhp v tuyn da trn LTE. Nh l mt h qu ca iu ny, phn tng quan v truy nhp v tuyn h tr c FDD v TDD ca LTE s c bn n chi tit hn trong nhng chng tip theo, trong trng hp c s khc nhau gia FDD v TDD th s khc nhau ny s c trnh by r rng. 2.6.2 Tnh linh hot trong bng tn hot ng LTE c trin khai da trn c s theo nhu cu, c th to ra ph tn kh dng bng cch n nh ph tn mi cho thng tin di ng, chng hn bng tn 2.6 GHz, hoc bng cch dch chuyn cho LTE ph tn hin ang c s dng cho cng ngh thng tin di ng khc, v d nh nhng h thng GSM th h th hai, hoc thm ch l nhng cng ngh v tuyn khng phi ca di ng (non mobile radio technologies) v d nh nhng ph tn broadcast hin nay. H qu l n yu cu truy nhp v tuyn LTE phi c kh nng hot ng trong mt di bng tn rng, t nht l t bng tn thp nh 450 MHz cho n bng tn 2.6 GHz. Kh nng vn hnh mt cng ngh truy cp v tuyn trong nhiu bng tn khc nhau, t bn thn n khng c g l mi. V d, nhng thit b u cui 3 bng tn l rt ph bin, c kh nng hot ng trn c bng tn 900, 1800, v

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

32

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

1900 MHz. T mt trin vng v chc nng truy cp v tuyn, iu ny khng c hoc tc ng rt hn ch v c im k thut ca LTE khng gi nh bt c mt bng tn c th no. Nhng ci c th khc v c im k thut, gia nhng bng tn khc nhau ch yu l vic yu cu nhiu RF c th hn nh cng sut pht ti a cho php, nhng yu cu/gii hn v pht x ngoi bng (out of band emission) v.v Mt nguyn nhn cho vic ny l do nhng rng buc bn ngoi, c p t bi nhng khung quy nh (regulatory bodies), c th khc nhau gia nhng bng tn khc nhau. 2.6.3 Tnh linh hot v bng thng C lin quan n kh nng trin khai truy nhp v tuyn LTE trn nhiu bng tn khc nhau l vic c th vn hnh LTE vi nhng bng thng truyn dn khc nhau trn c ng xung v ng ln. L do chnh ca vic ny l s lng ph tn kh dng cho LTE c th khc nhau ng k gia nhng bng tn khc nhau v cng da trn tnh trng thc t ca nh khai thc. Hn na, vic c th vn hnh trn nhiu phn b ph tn khc nhau cng mang li kh nng cho vic dch chuyn dn dn ph tn t nhng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc cho LTE. LTE c th hot ng trong mt di phn b ph tn rng, do tnh linh hot trong bng thng truyn dn l mt phn trong c tnh k thut ca LTE. h tr hiu qu cho tc d liu rt cao khi ph tn kh dng th mt bng thng truyn dn rng l cn thit. Tuy nhin, mt lng ph tn ln v y c th khng phi lc no cng t c, hoc do bng tn hot ng hoc do s dch chuyn dn dn t mt cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc, khi LTE c th hot ng vi mt bng thng truyn dn hp hn. Hin nhin, trong nhng trng hp nh vy, tc d liu ti a c th t c s v l m b gim xung. c im k thut lp vt l LTE khng cp n vn bng thng v khng a ra bt c gi nh c th no v bng thng truyn dn h tr ngoi mt gi tr ti thiu. Nh s c bit trong phn tip theo, c im k thut v truy nhp v tuyn c bn bao gm lp vt l v cc tiu chun giao thc, cho php bt c bng thng truyn dn no nm trong khong t 1 MHz ln ti hn 20 MHz theo tng bc 180 KHz. ng thi, ti giai on ban u, nhng yu cu v tn s v tuyn ch c ch nh cho mt nhm nh bng thng truyn dn gii hn, tng ng vi nhng d on lin quan n cc kch thc phn b ph v cc din tin dch chuyn (migration scenarios). Nh vy, trong thc t truy nhp v tuyn LTE h tr mt nhm gii hn cc bng thng truyn dn, tuy nhin nhng

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

33

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

bng thng truyn dn b sung c th d dng c h tr bng cch cp nht li c im k thut ca RF.

CHNG 3 KIN TRC GIAO DIN V TUYN LTE


Tng t vi WCDMA/HSPA cng nh l hu ht nhng h thng truyn thng hin i khc, quy trnh k thut dnh cho LTE c cu trc thnh nhiu lp vt l khc nhau. Mc d c mt s lp trong nhng lp ny th tng t vi nhng lp c s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA nhng vn c mt s khc bit, chng hn nh s khc nhau v kin trc tng th gia WCDMA/HSPA v LTE. Chng ny gm c nhng m t cho cc lp giao thc bn trn lp vt l, s tng tc gia chng, v s giao tip vi lp vt l. Tng quan v kin trc giao thc LTE cho ng xung c minh ha trong hnh hnh 3.1 . C mt vn s tr nn r rng hn trong phn tho lun tip theo l khng phi tt c nhng phn t c minh ha trong hnh 3.1 u c p dng trong mi trng hp. V d nh trong trng hp broadcast thng tin h thng th MAC scheduling v hybrid ARQ u khng c s dng. Hn na,

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

34

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

kin trc giao thc LTE lin quan n ng ln th tng t vi kin trc ng xung trong hnh 3.1, mc d cng c mt s s khc bit v s la chn nh dng truyn ti (transport format selection) v truyn dn a anten (multi-antenna transmission) v vn ny cng s c tho lun. D liu c truyn trn ng xung di dng cc gi IP trn mt trong nhng ti tin SAE (SAE bearers). Trc khi truyn i qua giao din v tuyn, nhng gi IP n (incoming IP packets) s i qua nhiu phn t, c tng kt di y v c m t chi tit hn trong nhng phn sau:

Giao thc hi t s liu gi (Packet Data Convergence Protocol -PDCP): thc hin vic nn tiu IP (IP header) lm gim s lng bit cn thit cho vic truyn dn thng qua giao din v tuyn. C ch nn tiu da trn ROHC, mt thut ton nn tiu tiu chun c s dng trong WCDMA cng nh l trong cc tiu chun thng tin di ng khc. PDCP cng m nhim vic m ha v bo v tnh ton vn ca d liu c truyn i. Ti pha thu, giao thc PDCP s thc hin cng vic gii nn v gii m thng tin. Ch c mt phn t PDCP trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng.

iu khin lin kt v tuyn (Radio Link Control - RLC): m nhim vic phn on / ghp ni, iu khin vic truyn li, v phn pht ln cc lp cao hn theo th t. Khng ging nh WCDMA, giao thc RLC c nh v trong eNodeB v ch c mt loi node n trong kin trc mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE (LTE radio access network architecture). RLC cung cp cc dch v cho PDCP di dng cc ti tin v tuyn. Ch c mt phn t RLC trn mt ti tin v tuyn c cu hnh cho mt thit b u cui di ng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

35

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 3.1 Kin trc giao thc LTE (ng xung)

iu khin truy cp mi trng (Medium Access Control - MAC): iu khin vic truyn li hybrid-ARQ v hoch nh ng ln, ng xung. Chc nng hoch nh c nh v trong eNodeB, v n ch c mt phn t MAC cho mt t bo, cho c ng ln v ng xung. Phn giao thc hybrid ARQ c mt trong c u cui pht v thu ca giao thc MAC. Khi MAC cung cp cc dch v cho RLC di dng cc knh logic. Lp vt l (Physical layer PHY): iu khin vic m ha / gii m, iu ch / gii iu ch, nh x a anten (multi antenna mapping), v cc chc nng lp vt l tiu biu khc. Lp vt l cung cp dch v cho lp MAC di dng cc knh chuyn ti (transport channels).

Nhng phn sau s cung cp nhng m t chi tit hn v cc giao thc RLC v MAC ca LTE cng nh l tng quan v lp vt l khi c nhn t lp MAC,
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

36

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

trong khi nhng chi tit y ca lp vt l LTE s c cp n trong chng 4. Nhng thng tin khc c th c tm thy trong c tnh k thut ca LTE v nhng tham kho trong . 3.1 RLC: radio link control iu khin lin kt v tuyn RLC LTE, tng t nh WCDMA/HSPA, m nhim vic phn on (nn tiu ) cc gi IP, cn c xem nh l RLC SDUs, t PDCP thnh nhng n v nh hn, RLC PDUs (Nhn chung, cc phn t d liu n/t mt lp giao thc cao hn th c xem nh l mt n v d liu dch v SDU Service Data Unit v phn t tng ng n/t mt lp giao thc thp hn c biu th nh n v d liu giao thc PDU Protocol Data Unit). N cng iu khin vic truyn li cc PDUs b nhn nhm, cng nh l xa b nhng PDUs b nhn i (duplicate removal) v ghp ni cc PDUs nhn c. Cui cng, RLC s m bo vic phn pht theo trnh t cc RLC SDUs ln cc lp bn trn. C ch truyn li RLC c trch nhim cung cp d liu phn pht khng b li cho cc lp cao hn. lm c iu ny, s c mt giao thc truyn li hot ng gia cc phn t RLC ti u thu v u pht. Bng vic gim st cc s th t i n (incoming sequence numbers), RLC thu c th pht hin ra nhng PDUs b thiu. Cc bo co trng thi s c phn hi tr v RLC pht, yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu. Khi phn hi mt trng thi bo co c cu hnh, mt bo co c trng ch cha thng tin v nhiu PDUs v t khi c truyn i. Da trn bo co trng thi thu c, phn t RLC ti u pht c th a ra nhng hnh ng thch hp v truyn li nhng PDUs b thiu nu c yu cu. Khi RLC c cu hnh yu cu truyn li cc PDUs b thiu nh c m t trn, n c gi l ang hot ng trong ch bo nhn (Acknowledged Mode AM). iu ny cng ging nh c ch tng ng c dng trong WCDMA/HSPA. Thng thng AM c s dng cho cc dch v da trn TCP nh khi truyn tp tin m yu t phn pht d liu khng b li c t ln hng u.

Hnh 3.2 Phn on v hp on RLC

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

37

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Tng t nh WCDMA/HSPA, RLC cng c th c cu hnh theo ch khng bo nhn (Unacknowledged Mode UM) v ch trong sut (Transparent Mode TM). Trong ch UM, s cung cp vic phn pht ng th t ln cc lp cao hn, nhng s khng truyn li cc PDUs b thiu. Thng thng UM c s dng cho nhng dch v nh VoIP khi m vic phn pht khng li khng quan trng bng thi gian phn pht ngn. TM, mc d c h tr, nhng ch c s dng cho nhng mc ch ring bit nh truy cp ngu nhin. Mc d RLC c kh nng kim sot li truyn dn do nhiu, s bin i knh truyn khng th d on (unpredictable channel variations), v.v, nhng trong hu ht trng hp nhng li ny c kim sot bi giao thc hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC. Vic s dng c ch truyn li trong RLC c th v vy m tr nn khng cn thit. Tuy nhin, nh s c tho lun trong phn 3.2.4 di y, khng phi trng hp no cng vy v vic s dng c hai c ch truyn li da trn MAC v RLC trn thc t cng c mt tch cc khi m c s khc nhau trong vic truyn tn hiu phn hi. Ngoi vic iu khin vic truyn li v phn pht theo trnh t, RLC cng chu trch nhim vic phn on v ghp ni theo nh minh ha trong hnh 3.2. Da trn quyt nh ca scheduler (scheduler decision), mt lng d liu no c la chn truyn i t b m RLC SDU v cc SDUs s c phn on/ghp ni to thnh RLC PDU. Do , i vi LTE th kch thc RLC PDU thay i mt cch ng (varies dynamically), trong khi WCDMA/HSPA trc phin bn 7 li s dng kch thc PDU bn tnh (semi-static PDU size). Khi m tc d liu cao, kch thc PDU ln dn n phn mo u nh hn tng ng, cn khi m tc d liu thp, i hi kch thc PDU phi nh nu khng th ti trng s tr nn qu ln. V vy, khi tc d liu nm trong khong t mt vi kbit/s ti trn mt trm Mbit/s, kch thc PDU ng (dynamic PDU sizes) s c iu chnh bi LTE. T RLC, scheduler v c ch thch ng tc u c nh v ti eNodeB, v kch thc PDU ng s d dng c h tr cho LTE. 3.2 MAC: iu khin truy nhp mi trng (medium access control) Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC qun l vic ghp knh lun l (logical channel multiplexing), vic truyn li hybrid-ARQ, v hoch ch ng ln, ng xung. Trong khi cng ngh HSPA s dng phn tp v m ng ln (uplink macro diversity) v v th n xc nh c nhng t bo phc v v khng

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

38

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

phc v (serving and non-serving cells), th LTE ch xc nh mt t bo phc v v khng c phn tp v m ng ln. T bo phc v (serving cell) l t bo m thit b u cui di ng c kt ni ti v t bo m chu trch nhim cho vic hoch nh v iu khin hybrid-ARQ. 3.2.1 Knh logic v knh truyn ti (logical channels and transport channels) MAC cung cp cc dch v cho RLC di dng cc knh logic. Mt knh logic c nh ngha bi dng thng tin m n mang theo v thng c phn loi thnh cc knh iu khin, c dng cho vic truyn dn cc thng tin v cu hnh v iu khin cn thit cho hot ng ca h thng LTE, v cc knh lu lng (traffic channels), c s dng cho d liu ngi dng. Tp hp cc loi knh logic c ch nh cho LTE bao gm: Knh iu khin qung b (Broadcast Control Channel - BCCH): c s dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin h thng t mng ti tt c cc thit b u cui di ng trong mt t bo. Trc khi truy nhp vo h thng, mt thit b u cui di ng cn phi c nhng thng tin c truyn trn knh BCCH tm ra cch thc h thng c cu hnh, v d nh bng thng ca h thng. Knh iu khin tm gi (Paging Control Channel PCCH): c s dng cho vic tm gi ca cc thit b u cui di ng m mng khng bit c v tr ca n v mc t bo (cell level) v v vy tin nhn tm gi cn c truyn trong nhiu t bo. Knh iu khin dnh ring (Dedicated Control Channel DCCH): c dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin ti hoc t thit b u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho vic cu hnh ring l tng thit b u cui di ng v d nh nhng tin nhn chuyn giao khc nhau. Knh iu khin multicast (Multicast Control Channel - MCCH): c dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin iu khin c yu cu cho vic tip nhn ca MTCH, xem phn di y. Knh lu lng dnh ring (Dedicated Traffic Channel - DTCH): c dng cho vic truyn d liu ngi dng n hoc t mt thit b u cui di ng. y l 1 loi knh logic c dng truyn d liu ngi dng ng ln v ng xung phi-MBMS (non-MBMS). Knh lu lng multicast (Multicast Traffic Channel MTCH): c dng cho truyn dn ng xung nhng dch v MBMS.
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

39

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Tng t vi kin trc knh logic c dng cho WCDMA/HSPA. Tuy nhin, khi so snh vi WCDMA/HSPA, th kin trc knh logic LTE c phn n gin hn, vi vic gim bt s lng cc loi knh logic. T lp vt l, lp MAC s dng cc dch v di dng cc knh truyn ti (Transport Channels). Mt knh truyn ti c nh ngha bi nhng c tnh m thng tin c truyn i qua giao din v tuyn. Theo nhng ghi ch t HSPA, nhng phn c k tha cho LTE, d liu trn 1 knh truyn ti c t chc thnh cc khi truyn ti. Trong mi khong thi gian truyn ti (Transmission Time Interval TTI), mt khi truyn ti vi kch thc no c truyn i qua giao din v tuyn khi khng c s hin din ca ghp knh khng gian. Trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian (MIMO), c th ln ti 2 khi truyn ti trn mi TTI. Lin kt vi mi khi truyn ti l mt nh dng truyn ti (Transport Format - TF), xc nh cch thc m khi truyn ti c truyn i thng qua giao din v tuyn. nh dng truyn ti bao gm thng tin v kch thc khi truyn ti, s iu ch (the modulation scheme), nh x anten (the antenna mapping). Cng vi vic phn b ti nguyn, lu lng m cui cng c th nhn c t nh dng truyn ti. Bng vic thay i cc nh dng truyn ti, lp MAC c th v vy m nhn ra c cc tc d liu khc nhau. Vic iu khin tc v vy m cn c xem nh vic la chn nh dng truyn ti. Tp hp cc loi knh truyn ti c ch nh cho LTE bao gm:

Knh qung b Broadcast Channel (BCH): c mt nh dng truyn ti c nh, c cung cp bi cc c tnh k thut. N c dng cho vic truyn dn nhng thng tin trn knh logic BCCH. Knh Paging Paging channel (PCH): c dng cho vic paging thng tin trn knh logic PCCH. Knh PCH h tr vic thu nhn khng lin tc (discontinous reception DRX) nhm cho php thit b u cui di ng tit kim nng lng pin bng cch ng (sleeping) v ch thc (wake up) khi nhn PCH ti nhng thi im xc nh trc. C ch paging c m t c phn chi tit hn trong chng 5. Knh chia s ng xung Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH): l knh truyn ti c dng cho truyn dn d liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr nhng c tnh ca LTE nh c ch thch ng tc ng (dynamic rate adaption) v hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn (channel-dependent scheduling) trong min thi gian v tn s, hybrid
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

40

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ARQ, v ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing). N cng h tr DRX nhm lm gim nng lng tiu th thit b u cui di ng trong khi vn cung cp tri nghim lun m (always-on experience), tng t nh c ch CPC trong HSPA. DL-SCH TTI l 1 ms. Knh multicast Multicast Channel (MCH): c dng h tr MBMS v c c trng bi nh dng truyn ti bn tnh v hoch nh bn tnh (semi-static transport format and semi-static scheduling). Trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu t bo (multi-cell transmission) s dng MBSFN, cu hnh nh dng truyn ti v hoch nh c iu phi gia nhng t bo lin quan trong truyn dn MBSFN. Knh chia s ng ln Uplink shared channel (UL-SCH): l ng ln tng ng vi DL-SCH.

Hnh 3.3 V d v s nh x cc knh logic vi cc knh truyn dn Mt trong nhng chc nng ca MAC l vic ghp cc knh logic khc nhau v nh x cc knh logic vi cc knh truyn ti tng ng. Khng ging vi MAC-hs trong HSDPA, MAC trong LTE h tr ghp knh cc RLC PDUs t nhiu truyn ti v tuyn khc nhau (radio bearers) vo cng khi truyn ti. V c mt vi mi quan h gia loi thng tin v cch thc m n c truyn i cho nn vn tn ti nhng gii hn no trong vic nh x cc knh logic vi cc knh truyn ti. Mt v d v nh x cc knh logic vi cc knh truyn ti c a ra trong hnh 3.3. Nhng nh x khc cng c hnh dung. 3.2.2 Hoch nh ng xung. Mt trong nhng nguyn l c bn ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE l vic truyn dn chia s knh truyn trn DL-SCH v UL-SCH, ngha l ti nguyn thi gian v tn s c chia s ng gia nhng ngi dng trong c ng ln v ng xung. Scheduler l mt phn ca lp MAC v n iu khin vic phn b ti nguyn ng ln v ng xung. Hoch nh ng ln v ng xung
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

41

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

c tch ri trong LTE v nhng quyt nh phn b ng ln, ng xung c th c a ra c lp ln nhau (trong nhng gii hn c thit lp bi s phn chia UL/DL i vi hot ng TDD). Hoch nh ng ln s c bn n trong mc 3.2.3, trong khi phn cn li ca mc ny s tp trung vo hoch nh ng xung. Nguyn tc c bn cho scheduler ng xung l quyt nh ng (dynamically determine), trong mi khong thi gian 1 ms, nhng thit b u cui no c php thu truyn dn DL-SCH v trn nhng ti nguyn g. Nhiu thit b u cui c th c hoch nh song song, trong mi trng hp ch c 1 DLSCH trn mi thit b u cui c hoch nh, v n s c nh x ng (dynamically mapped) ti mt tp hp ti nguyn tn s duy nht. n v thi gian-tn s c bn trong scheduler cn c gi l khi ti nguyn (resource block). Cc khi ti nguyn c m t chi tit hn trong chng 4 cng vi vic nh x d liu ti ti nguyn vt l, nhng v nguyn tc c bn th mt khi ti nguyn l 1 n v rng 180 kHz trong min tn s. Trong mi khong thi gian hoch nh 1ms, scheduler s phn b cc khi ti nguyn cho mt thit b u cui tip nhn vic truyn dn DL-SCH, mt s phn b c s dng bi tin trnh lp vt l s c m t trong chng 4. Scheduler cng m trch vic la chn kch thc khi truyn ti (transport-block). Nh l mt h qu ca vic scheduler iu khin tc d liu, m s phn on RLC v ghp knh MAC cng s b nh hng bi quyt nh phn b (scheduling decision). u ra t scheduler ng xung c th c nhn thy trong hnh 3.1. Mc d chin lc hoch nh (scheduling strategy) l mt c trng b sung v khng c ch nh bi 3GPP, mc tiu chung ca hu ht nhng scheduler l li dng s thay i knh truyn gia nhng thit b u cui di ng v u tin hoch nh truyn dn cho thit b u cui di ng trn nhng ti nguyn c iu kin knh truyn thun li. V mt ny, hot ng ca scheduler LTE v c bn th tng t vi scheduler ng xung trong HSDPA. Tuy nhin, v s dng s truyn dn ng xung OFDM, LTE c th khai thc s bin i knh truyn trong c min thi gian v tn s, trong khi HSDPA ch c th khai thc s bin i trong min thi gian. iu ny c cp n trong chng 2 v c minh ha qua hnh 2.1. i vi nhng bng thng ln hn c h tr bi LTE, khi m lng fading la chn tn s (frequency-selective fading) s thng xuyn xy ra, kh nng khai thc s bin i knh ca min tn s ca scheduler s tr nn cng quan trng khi so vi vic ch khai thc s bin i trn min thi gian. c bit ti nhng tc thp, khi m s bin i trong min thi

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

42

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

gian l tng i chm so vi yu cu v tr c t ra bi nhiu dch v, lc ny kh nng khai thc c s bin i min tn s s tr nn c li. Thng tin v trng thi knh truyn ng xung, cn thit cho vic hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn, c phn hi t thit b u cui di ng ti eNodeB thng qua nhng bo co cht lng knh truyn (channel-quality reports). Bo co cht lng knh truyn, cn c bit nh B ch th cht lng knh truyn (Channel-Quality Indicator), bao gm nhng thng tin khng ch v cht lng knh truyn hin thi trong min tn s, m cn nhng thng tin cn thit cho vic a ra nhng quyt nh x l anten thch hp trong trng hp phn knh khng gian. C s cho nhng bo co CQI l vic o lng nhng tn hiu tham chiu ng xung (the downlink reference signals). Tuy nhin, nhng ngun ph v hin trng knh truyn, v d nh s trao i knh truyn trong hot ng TDD, cng c khai thc bng cch ci t mt scheduler ring bit nh mt s b sung cho nhng bo co CQI. Ngoi cht lng knh truyn, mt scheduler hiu nng cao cng phi cn nhc n tnh trng b m (buffer status) v mc u tin trong quyt nh phn b (decision scheduling). C nhng khc nhau v loi dch v cng nh l loi thu bao (subscription type) c th gy nh hng n u tin khi hoch nh. V d, mt ngi dng voice-over-IP vi mt ng k thu bao t tin phi lun c duy tr cht lng dch v cho d ti trng h thng ang mc cao, trong khi mt ngi dng ng k thu bao chi ph thp (a low-cost subscription) ang ti v mt file c th phi c tha mn vi nhng ti nguyn m khng c yu cu h tr cho nhng ngi dng khc. S iu phi nhiu, s thc hin vic iu khin nhiu lin t bo trn c s chm (slow basis) c cp n trong chng 2, cng l mt phn ca scheduler. Khi chin lc hoch nh khng c y nhim bi nhng c tnh k thut, s iu phi nhiu (nu c s dng) l c th ca nh khai thc v c th nm trong phm vi t nhng trin khai ti s dng bc cao n gin (simple higher-order reuse deployments) ti nhng s tin tin hn. 3.2.3 Hoch nh ng ln. Chc nng c bn ca scheduler ng ln th tng t vi ng xung, c th l vic quyt nh ng (dynamically determine) cho mi khong thi gian 1 ms, lc nhng thit b u cui di ng truyn d liu trn knh UL-SCH ca

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

43

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

n thuc ti nguyn ng ln (uplink resources). Hoch nh ng ln cng c dng cho HSPA, nhng v c s khc nhau gia nhng s a truy nhp c s dng (the different multiple-access schemes), cho nn v kha cnh ny th HSPA v LTE c mt vi s khc bit ng k. Trong HSPA, ti nguyn chia s ng ln chnh l giao thoa cho php ti trm gc. Scheduler ng ln HSPA ch thit lp mt gii hn pha trn cho s lng giao thoa ng ln m thit b u cui di ng c php to ra. Da trn s gii hn ny, thit b u cui di ng s t ng la chn mt nh dng truyn dn thch hp. Chin thut ny r rng to ra s nhy cm cho ng ln khng trc giao m trong trng hp ny l HSPA. Mt thit b u cui di ng khng s dng tt c ti nguyn m n c cp s truyn ti mc nng lng thp hn, bng cch y c th lm gim c nhiu ni t bo (intra-cell interference). Do , ti nguyn chia s khng c s dng bi mt thit b u cui di ng c th c khai thc bi mt thit b u cui di ng khc thng qua vic ghp knh theo thng k (statistical multiplexing). V c ch la chn nh dng truyn ti c kt hp trong thit b u cui di ng i vi ng ln HSPA, cho nn cn phi c bo hiu ngoi bng khai bo cho eNodeB bit v s la chn c to ra. i vi LTE, ng ln th trc giao v ti nguyn chia s c iu khin bi scheduler eNodeB l nhng n v ti nguyn thi gian tn s. Mt ti nguyn c ch nh m khng c s dng trit bi mt thit b u cui di ng no th phn ti nguyn cn li cng khng th cung cp cho mt thit b u cui di ng khc s dng. V th, do ng ln trc giao, m li gim i ng k trong vic cho thit b u cui di ng la chn nh dng truyn ti khi c so snh vi HSPA. Cho nn, ngoi vic cp pht ti nguyn thi giantn s cho thit b u cui di ng, scheduler eNodeB cn chu trch nhim vic iu khin nh dng truyn dn (kch thc ti trng, s iu ch) m thit b u cui di ng s s dng. Khi scheduler bit c nh dng truyn ti m thit b u cui di ng s dng lc n pht i th khng cn phi bo hiu ngoi bng t thit b u cui di ng ti eNodeB. Li nhun c c t phi cnh vng ph sng (coverage perspective) khi tnh n chi ph trn mi bit pht i ca thng tin iu khin ngoi bng c th cao hn ng k so vi chi ph truyn d liu khi tn hiu iu khin cn c thu vi mt tin cy cao hn.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

44

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 3.4 Vic la chn nh dng truyn dn trong ng xung (bn tri) v ng ln (bn phi) Mc d s tht l scheduler eNodeB s quyt nh nh dng truyn ti cho u cui di ng, nhng c mt iu quan trng cn lu l quyt nh hoch nh ng ln c a ra cho mi u cui di ng ch khng phi cho mi ti tin v tuyn (radio bearer). Nh vy, mc d scheduler eNodeB iu khin ti trng ca mt u cui di ng c hoch nh, th u cui vn chu trch nhim la chn t nhng ti tin v tuyn no m d liu c mang theo. Cho nn, u cui di ng s t ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic (logical-channel multiplexing). iu ny c minh ha trong phn bn phi ca hnh 3.4, ni m scheduler eNodeB iu khin nh dng truyn ti cn u cui di ng iu khin vic ghp knh logic. so snh, trong tnh hung ng xung tng ng, khi m eNodeB iu khin c nh dng truyn dn v ghp knh logic, c miu t bn tri hnh v. Ghp knh ti tin v tuyn (radio-bearer) trong u cui di ng c thc hin theo nhng quy tc, thng qua cc thng s m c th c cu hnh bi bo hiu RRC t eNodeB. Mi ti tin v tuyn c ch nh s u tin v tc bit u tin (prioritized bit rate). Sau u cui di ng s thc hin ghp knh sng mang v tuyn, nh vy cc sng mang v tuyn c x l theo th t u tin ty tc bit u tin ca chng. Nhng ti nguyn cn li, nu c, sau khi hon thnh tc bit u tin s c a n nhng sng mang v tuyn theo th t u tin.
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

45

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

tr gip cho scheduler ng ln trong mi quyt nh ca n, u cui di ng c th pht i thng tin hoch nh (scheduling information) ti eNode bng cch s dng mt tin nhn MAC. R rng, thng tin ny ch c th c truyn i nu u cui di ng va c cp mt chn nhn hoch nh hp l (a valid scheduling grant). i vi nhng trng hp khc, mt ch th khi m u cui di ng cn ti nguyn ng ln s c cung cp nh mt phn ca kin trc bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 (the uplink L1/L2 control-signaling structure), xem thm trong chng 4. Hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn thng c s dng cho ng xung. Trn l thuyt, k thut ny cng c th c s dng cho ng ln. Tuy nhin, vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln th khng n gin nh trng hp i vi ng xung. Tnh trng knh truyn ng xung c th c o lng bi tt c u cui di ng trong t bo ch n gin bng vic theo di tn hiu tham kho c truyn bi eNodeB v tt c cc u cui di ng c th chia s cng tn hiu tham kho cho mc ch nh gi cht lng knh truyn. Tuy nhin vic nh gi cht lng knh truyn ng ln li yu cu mt tn hiu tham kho thm d (a sounding reference signal) c truyn i t mi u cui di ng cho nhng eNodeB no mun nh gi cht lng knh truyn. Mt tn hiu tham kho thm d nh vy c h tr bi LTE s c m t thm trong chng 4, nhng iu ny li i km vi vn tng chi ph. V vy, nhng phng php c cung cp cho phn tn ng ln s tr nn quan trng nh l mt phn b sung hoc thay th cho k thut hoch nh ph thuc knh truyn ng ln. 3.2.4 Hybrid ARQ Hybird ARQ vi kt hp mm trong LTE p ng mt mc ch tng t vi c ch hybird-ARQ trong HSPA l cung cp sc chu ng chng li cc li truyn dn. N cng l mt cng c nng cao nng sut. Khi m nhng c ch truyn li hybird-ARQ l nhanh, nhiu dch v cho php mt hoc nhiu s truyn li, bng cch thit lp mt c ch iu khin tc n (vng lp kn) (an implicit (closed loop) rate-control mechanism). Tng t vi phng php trong HSPA, giao thc hybrid-ARQ l mt phn ca lp MAC, trong khi hot ng kt hp mm c iu khin bi lp vt l.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

46

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

R rng, hybrid ARQ khng c p dng cho tt c cc dng lu lng. V d, truyn dn broadcast, khi m nhng thng tin ging nhau c dnh cho nhiu ngi dng, thng thng khng ph thuc vo hybrid ARQ. V vy, hybrid ARQ ch c h tr cho DL-SCH v UL-SCH. Giao thc hybrid ARQ trong LTE ging vi giao thc tng ng c s dng cho HSPA, l vic s dng nhiu tin trnh stop-and-wait song song. Trong lc tip nhn nhng khi truyn ti, u thu s tm cch gii m khi truyn ti v khai bo cho u pht v kt qu ca hot ng gii m thng qua mt bit n ACK/NAK ch th vic gii m c thnh cng hay khng hoc truyn li khi truyn ti nu c yu cu. Nhng chi tit khc v truyn dn ACK/NAK trong ng xung v ng ln s c tm thy trong chng 4. ti thiu ha chi ph, mt bit n ACK/NAK c s dng. R rng, u thu phi bit bit ACK/NAK thu c c lin kt vi tin trnh hybid-ARQ no. Hn na, iu ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng cng mt phng php nh trong HSPA khi thi im ca ACK/NAK c s dng kt hp ACK/NAK vi mt tin trnh hybrid-ARQ no . iu ny c minh ha trong hnh 3.6. Ch rng, i vi trng hp hot ng TDD, mi quan h v thi gian gia vic tip nhn d liu trong mt tin trnh hybrid-ARQ no v vic truyn dn ACK/NAK th khng b nh hng bi s phn b ng ln/ng xung. Tng t vi HSPA, mt giao thc khng ng b l c s cho hot ng hybrid-ARQ ng xung. V vy, s truyn li ng xung c th xy ra ti mi thi im sau khi vic truyn dn c khi to v mt con s tin trnh hybrid-ARQ tng minh (an explicit hybrid-ARQ process number) c s dng ch th tin trnh no ang c nh a ch (addressed). S truyn li ng ln, mt khc, li da trn mt giao thc ng b v s truyn li xy ra ti mt thi gian xc nh trc sau khi khi to qu trnh truyn dn v s tin trnh (process number) c th nhn c hon ton. Hai trng hp c minh ha trong hnh 3.5. Trong giao thc hybrid-ARQ khng ng b, s truyn li trn l thuyt c hoch nh tng t vi vic khi to qu trnh truyn dn. Mt khc trong giao thc ng b, thi im truyn li c c nh mt ln khi khi u qu trnh truyn dn c hoch nh, phi c tnh n cho hot ng hoch nh. Tuy nhin, ch rng scheduler s phn bit t phn t hybrid-ARQ trong eNodeB u cui di ng no s thc hin truyn li hay khng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

47

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 3.5 Giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng b v khng ng b.

Hnh 3.6 Nhiu tin trnh hybrid-ARQ song song. Vic s dng nhiu tin trnh hybird-ARQ song song, c minh ha trong hnh 3.6, cho mi ngi dng c th dn n s khng lin tc v d liu c phn phi t c ch hybrid-ARQ. V d, khi truyn ti th 5 trong hnh c gii m thnh cng trc khi truyn ti th 3, khi m vic truyn li c yu cu. V vy, i hi phi c mt vi dng c ch sp xp li (some form of reordering mechanism). Sau khi gii m thnh cng, khi truyn ti c phn knh thnh cc knh logic thch hp v thc hin vic sp xp li trn mi knh logic bng cch s dng cc s th t (sequence numbers). Ngc li, HSPA dng mt con s th t MAC ring bit cho vic sp xp li. Nguyn nhn ca vic ny l do s ph tr cho WCDMA v nhng l do v vn tng thch ngc, kin trc RLC hoc MAC vn c gi nguyn khi gii thiu HSPA. Mt khc, i vi LTE, cc lp giao thc c thit k ng thi, dn n c t gii hn hn trong

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

48

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

thit k. Tuy nhin, nguyn l ng sau s sp xp li th tng t i vi cc h thng, ch c s th t c s dng l khc nhau. C ch hybrid-ARQ s sa nhng li truyn dn do nhiu hoc do nhng bin i knh truyn khng d on c (noise or unpredictable channel variations). Nh c tho lun trn, RLC cng c kh nng yu cu truyn li, m khi mi nghe ln u th c v l khng cn thit. Tuy nhin, mc d s truyn li RLC him khi cn thit khi m c ch hybrid-ARQ da trn MAC c kh nng sa hu ht cc li truyn dn, nhng hybrid-ARQ i khi c th tht bi trong vic phn phi cc khi d liu m khng b li ti RLC, gy ra mt khong trng (gap) trong th t ca cc khi d liu khng li (error-free data blocks) c phn phi ti RLC. iu ny thng xy ra do tn hiu phn hi b sai, v d, mt NAK c th hin sai thnh mt ACK bi u pht, l nguyn nhn ca vic mt mt d liu. Xc sut xy ra iu ny c th trong khong 1%, mt xc sut li rt cao i vi nhng dch v da trn TCP yu cu vic phn phi cc gi TCP gn nh l khng c li. Mt cch c th hn, ngha l i vi nhng tc d liu c duy tr trn 100 Mbit/s th xc sut mt gi d liu chp nhn c phi thp hn 10-5. V c bn, TCP xem tt c cc li v gi d liu l do s tt nghn. Cc li v gi d liu v vy s kch hot c ch trnh tc nghn, vi mt s tng ln tng ng v tc d liu, v duy tr cht lng tt ti nhng tc d liu cao, RLC-AM s p ng mt mc tiu quan trng cho vic m bo phn phi d liu khng b li ti TCP. V vy, t nhng tho lun trn, l do c hai c ch truyn li nh trn c th c hiu r trong phn tn hiu phn hi. Tuy c ch hybrid-ARQ thc hin vic truyn li rt nhanh, n cng cn thit phi gi mt bit bo co tnh trng ACK/NAK ti u pht cng nhanh cng tt mt ln cho mi chu k TTI. Mc d trn l thuyt c th t c mt xc sut li thp theo mong mun v phn hi ACK/NAK, nhng nhng xc sut li rt thp li i km vi chi ph tng i cao v mt cng sut truyn dn ACK/NAK. Vic gi chi ph ny mt cch hp l thng thng dn n mt t l li phn hi (a feedback error rate) trong khong 1% v nh vy s quyt nh n t l li d hybrid-ARQ (the hybrid-ARQ residual error rate). Tuy nhng bo co trng thi RLC c pht i t thng xuyn ng k so vi ACK/NAK hybrid-ARQ, nhng chi ph ca vic t c tin cy 10-5 hoc thp l kh nh. V vy, vic phi hp hybrid ARQ vi RLC mang li mt s kt hp tt gia thi gian kh hi (roundtrip time) nh v chi ph phn hi va phi khi m hai thnh phn ny b sung cho nhau.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

49

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

V RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v trong cng mt node, cho nn kh nng tng tc gia chng tr nn cht ch hn. V d, nu c ch hybrid-ARQ pht hin c mt li khng th phc hi, vic truyn mt bo co trng thi RLC c th ngay lp tc c kch hot thay v phi i pht i mt bo co trng thi theo nh k. iu ny s khin cho RLC truyn li cc PDUs b mt nhanh hn. Cho nn, trong mt mc no , vic kt hp hybrid ARQ v RLC c th xem nh l mt c ch truyn li vi hai c ch phn hi trng thi. Trn l thuyt, c cng mt s tranh lun c to ra i vi trng hp tng ng trong HSPA. Tuy nhin, vic RLC v hybrid ARQ c nh v ti nhng node khc nhau trong HSPA nhn chung s lm cho s tng tc gia chng tr nn khng cht ch. 3.3 PHY: physical layer - lp vt l Lp vt l chu trch nhim cho vic m ha, x l hybrid-ARQ lp vt l (physical-layer hybrid-ARQ processing), iu ch, x l a anten (multi-antenna processing), v nh x tn hiu ti nhng ti nguyn thi gian-tn s vt l thch hp. Mt ci nhn n gin v vic x l DL-SCH c a ra trong hnh 3.7. .Cc khi lp vt l c iu khin ng (dynamically controlled) bi lp MAC c th hin bng mu xm, cn nhng khi vt l c cu hnh bn tnh c th hin bng mu trng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

50

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 3.7 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho DL-SCH Khi mt u cui di ng c hoch nh trong mt chu k TTI trn knh DL-SCH, lp vt l s nhn mt khi truyn ti (hai khi truyn ti trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian) mang d liu truyn i. Vi mi khi truyn ti, mt CRC s c nh km v mi khi truyn ti c nh km CRC nh vy c m ha ring bit vi nhau. Tc m ha knh, bao gm tc ph hp cn thit, hon ton c quyt nh bi kch thc khi truyn ti, s iu ch (the modulation scheme), v lng ti nguyn c cp pht cho vic truyn dn. Tt c nhng i lng ny c la chn bi scheduler ng xung. Phin bn d tha (redundancy version) c dng c iu khin bi giao thc hybridARQ v n s tc ng n qu trnh x l thch ng tc (the rate matching processing) to ra tp hp cc bit c m ha chnh xc. Cui cng, trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian, vic nh x anten cng c iu khin bi scheduler ng xung.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

51

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 3.8 M hnh x l lp vt l n gin cho UL-SCH u cui di ng c hoch nh thu tn hiu c pht i v thc hin tin trnh lp vt l ngc li. Lp vt l ti u cui di ng cng thng bo cho giao thc hybrid-ARQ bit vic truyn dn c c gii m thnh cng hay khng. Thng tin ny c s dng bi mt phn ca chc nng MAC hybrid-ARQ trong u cui di ng quyt nh c yu cu truyn li hay khng. Vic x l lp vt l i vi knh UL-SCH gn ging vi vic x l DL-SCH. Tuy nhin, ch rng scheduler MAC trong eNodeB chu trch nhim la chn nh dng truyn ti cho u cui di ng v ti nguyn c s dng cho truyn dn ng ln nh c miu t trong mc 3.2.3. Vic x l lp vt l UL-SCH c th hin di dng n gin qua hnh 3.8. Cc knh truyn ti ng xung cn li cng da trn cng mt quy trnh x l lp vt l chung nh DL-SCH, mc d c mt s gii hn trong tp hp nhng tnh nng c s dng. i vi vic qung b thng tin h thng trn knh BCH, mt u cui di ng phi c kh nng thu c knh thng tin ny nh l mt trong nhng bc u tin trc khi truy cp vo h thng. Do , nh dng truyn ti phi c u tin gi ti cc thit b u cui, v s khng c mt s

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

52

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

iu khin ng t ng (dynamic control) no ti cc tham s truyn dn t lp MAC trong trng hp ny. i vi truyn dn cc thng ip nhn gi (paging messages) trn knh PCH, s thch ng ng ca cc tham s truyn dn c th c s dng trong mt vi phm vi. Ni chung, vic x l trong trng hp ny th tng t vi vic x l DL-SCH thng thng. MAC c th iu khin vic iu ch, lng ti nguyn, v nh x anten. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp ng ln cha c thit lp khi mt u cui di ng c tm gi, th hybrid ARQ khng th c s dng v lc ny u cui di ng khng th pht i mt thng bo ACK/NAK. Knh MCH c dng cho truyn dn MBMS, in hnh l nhng hot ng mng n tn s bng vic truyn t nhiu t bo trn cng ti nguyn vi nh dng ging nhau ti cng 1 thi im. V vy, vic hoch nh truyn dn MCH phi c iu phi gia nhng t bo lin quan v c ch la chn t ng tham s truyn dn bi MAC l khng th thc hin c. 3.4 Cc trng thi LTE Trong LTE, mt u cui di ng c th tn ti trong nhiu trng khc nhau nh c minh ha trong hnh 3.9. Khi bt ngun, u cui di ng vo trng thi LTE DETACHED (tch bit LTE). Trong trng thi ny, u cui di ng khng c bit i vi h thng mng. Trc khi din ra bt c s lin lc no gia u cui di ng v mng th u cui di ng cn phi ng k h thng mng bng cch s dng th tc truy cp ngu nhin vo trng thi LTE ACTIVE (tch cc LTE), LTE DETACHED l trng thi c s dng ch yu khi bt ngun, mt khi u cui di ng c ng k vi h thng mng, n thng chuyn sang mt trong nhng trng thi khc nh LTE ACTIVE hoc LTE IDLE (ri LTE).

Hnh 3.9 Cc trng thi LTE.


GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

53

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

LTE ACTIVE l trng thi c s dng khi u cui di ng sn sng cho vic pht v thu d liu. Trong trng thi ny, u cui di ng c kt ni vi mt t bo c th trong mng. Mt hoc nhiu a ch IP c gn cho thit b u cui di ng, cng nh l Ch s nhn dng tm thi mng v tuyn t bo (Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier CRNTI) nhn dng thit b u cui, nhng thng s ny c dng cho mc ch bo hiu gia u cui di ng v mng. LTE ACTIVE c th c chia thnh hai trng thi con l IN SYNC v OUT OF SYNC, ph thuc vo ng ln c c ng b vi h thng mng hay khng. T khi LTE s dng ng ln trc giao trn c s FDMA/TDMA, th vic ng b truyn dn ng ln t nhiu u cui di ng l cn thit sao cho chng n eNodeB ti cng mt thi im (xp x). Th tc t c v duy tr s ng b ha ng ln c m t trong chng 4, tm li eNodeB s o thi gian n ca cc phin truyn dn t mi u cui di ng trng thi truyn tch cc (actively transmitting) v gi nhng mnh lnh hiu chnh thi gian (timingcorrection commands) trong ng xung. Min l ng ln trong trng thi IN SYNC th vic truyn dn ng ln d liu ngi dng v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 u c th thc hin c. Trong trng hp khng c s truyn dn no din ra trong mt ca s thi gian xc nh, s sp xp thi gian hin nhin l khng thc hin c, v ng ln s c thit lp trng thi OUT OF SYNC. Trong trng hp ny, u cui di ng cn thc hin mt th tc truy cp ngu nhin khi phc li s ng b ng ln. LTE IDLE l mt trng thi tch cc thp, m khi u cui di ng trong trng thi ny n s ng trong phn ln thi gian lm gim s tiu hao ngun pin. Lc ny s ng b ng ln khng c duy tr v v vy hot ng truyn dn ng ln duy nht c th xy ra l s truy cp ngu nhin chuyn sang trng thi LTE ACTIVE. Trong ng xung, u cui di ng c th nh k thc dy c page cho nhng cuc gi n nh c miu t trong chng 5. Thit b u cui di ng vn gi a ch IP ca n v nhng thng tin ni b (internal information) khc c th nhanh chng chuyn sang trng thi LTE ACTIVE khi cn thit. V tr ca thit b u cui di ng s c cung cp cc b cho h thng mng sao cho t nht mng cng c th bit n nhm t bo no m trong vic paging ca u cui di ng c thc hin. 3.5 Lung d liu tm tt v lung d liu ng xung xuyn qua tt c cc lp giao thc, mt v d minh ha c a ra trong hnh 3.10 cho trng hp vi 3 gi IP, hai gi trn mt ti tin v tuyn v mt gi trn mt ti tin v tuyn khc. Lung d

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

54

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

liu cho trng hp truyn dn ng ln l tng t. PDCP s thc hin (ty chn) vic nn tiu IP, sau l m ha. Mt tiu PDCP c thm vo, mang theo thng tin cn thit cho vic gii m thit b u cui di ng. u ra ca PDCP c cung cp ti RLC. Giao thc RLC thc hin vic hp on hoc phn on cc PDCP SDUs v thm vo mt tiu RLC. Tiu ny c s dng cho vic phn phi theo trnh t (trn mi knh logic) ti u cui di ng v vic nhn dng cc RLC PDUs trong trng hp cn truyn li. Cc RLC PDUs c chuyn tip ti lp MAC, lp ny c c s lng cc RLC PDUs, sau kt hp chng li vo trong 1 MAC SDU v nh km mt tiu MAC to thnh mt khi truyn ti. Kch thc khi truyn ti ph thuc vo tc d liu tc thi c la chn bi c ch thch ng ng truyn (the link adaptation mechanism). Do , c ch thch ng ng truyn tc ng n c hai tin trnh x l MAC v RLC. Cui cng, lp vt l s nh thm 1 m CRC vo khi truyn ti vi mc ch pht hin li, thc hin m ha v iu ch, sau l pht i tn hiu thnh qu vo khng gian.

Hnh 3.10 - Mt v d v lung d liu LTE

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

55

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CHNG 4 LP VT L LTE
Trong chng trc, chng ta tho lun v kin trc giao din v tuyn LTE vi phn tng quan v nhng chc nng v c tnh ca cc lp giao thc khc nhau. Chng ny s cung cp nhng thng tin chi tit hn v tnh trng hin ti ca phn thp nht trong nhng lp giao thc ny, lp vt l LTE. Chng tip theo s i su hn vo nhng th tc truy nhp LTE c th, bao gm truy cp ngu nhin v d tm t bo (cell search). 4.1 Kin trc min thi gian ton phn (Overall time-domain structure) Hnh 4.1 minh ha v kin trc min thi gian bc cao (high level time domain structure) trong truyn dn LTE vi mi khung (v tuyn) c chiu di T frame= 10 ms bao gm 10 khung ph c kch thc bng nhau vi di mi khung ph Tsubframe = 1 ms. cung cp s xc nh v thi gian nht qun v chnh xc, mi khong thi gian khc nhau bn trong c im k thut truy nhp v tuyn LTE c th c trnh by thnh nhiu n v thi gian c bn Ts= 1/30720000. Nhng khong thi gian c phc ha trong hnh 4.1 v vy cng c th c din t thnh Tframe= 307200.Ts v Tsubframe= 30720.Ts

Hnh 4.1 Cu trc min thi gian LTE Trong cng mt sng mang, nhng khung ph (subframes) khc nhau ca mt khung c th c s dng cho truyn dn ng xung hoc truyn dn ng ln. Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.2a, i vi trng hp FDD hot ng trong ph theo cp (paired spectrum), tt c cc khung ph ca mt sng mang c s dng cho truyn dn ng xung (mt sng mang ng xung a downlink carrier) hoc truyn dn ng ln (mt sng mang ng ln an uplink carrier). Mt khc, i vi trng hp hot ng ca TDD trong ph khng theo cp (Hnh 4.2b), khung ph th nht v th su ca mi khung (khung ph 0 v khung ph 5) lun lun c ch nh cho truyn dn ng xung trong khi

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

56

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

nhng khung ph cn li c th c ch nh mt cch linh hot dng cho c truyn dn ng ln hoc ng xung. L do ca vic n nh sn khung ph th nht v th su cho truyn dn ng xung l v nhng khung ph ny cha cc tn hiu ng b LTE. Cc tn hiu ng b c truyn i trn ng xung ca mi t bo v c dng vo mc ch d tm t bo khi to (initial cell search) cng nh d tm t bo ln cn (neighbor cell search). Nguyn l ca vic d tm t bo, bao gm cu trc ca cc tn hiu ng b, s c m t chi tit hn trong Chng 5. Theo nh minh ha trong hnh 4.2, vic ch nh mt cch linh hot cc khung ph trong hot ng TDD cho php tn ti tnh khng i xng khc nhau v mt lng ti nguyn v tuyn (cc khung ph) c n nh cho truyn dn ng xung v ng ln mt cch tch bit. V vic n nh khung ph cn phi ging nhau i vi cc t bo ln cn trnh nhiu nghim trng xy ra gia truyn dn ng ln v ng xung gia cc t bo, tnh bt i xng ng xung/ng ln khng th thay i t ng, v d, trn nn tng khung lin tip (frame by frame basis). Tuy nhin, n c th thay i trn mt nn tng chm hn thch nghi vi cc c tnh lu lng khc nhau chng hn nh s thay i v s khc nhau trong lu lng bt i xng ng xung/ng ln.

Hnh 4.2 Cc v d v vic ch nh khung ph ng ln/ng xung trong trng hp TDD v s so snh vi FDD
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

57

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Nhng g c minh ha trong hnh 4.1 i lc c xem nh cu trc khung tng qut hay cu trc khung dng 1 LTE. Cu trc khung ny c p dng cho c FDD v TDD. Ngoi cu trc khung tng qut, khi LTE hot ng vi TDD, cn c mt cu trc khung thay th hay cu trc khung dng 2, c thit k dnh ring cho vic cng tn ti (coexistence) vi nhng h thng da trn tiu chun 3GPP TD-SCDMA hin thi. 4.2 S truyn dn ng xung 4.2.1 Ti nguyn vt l ng xung Nh c cp trong phn tng quan v truy nhp v tuyn chng 2, truyn dn ng xung LTE da trn vic ghp knh phn chia tn s trc giao (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex OFDM). Theo nh m t th ti nguyn vt l ng xung LTE c th c xem nh mt mng li ti nguyn thi gian-tn s (xem hnh 4.3), ni m mi phn t ti nguyn (resource element) tng ng vi mt sng mang OFDM trong sut mt khong k t OFDM (OFDM symbol interval) (trong trng hp truyn dn a anten, s ch c mt mng li ti nguyn cho mt anten).

Hnh 4.3 Ti nguyn vt l ng xung LTE i vi ng xung LTE, khong cch sng mang OFDM c chn vi f = 15 kHz. Gi thit mt thc thi u pht/u thu da trn FFT (an FFTbased transmitter/receiver implementation), iu ny tng ng vi mt tn s ly mu fs = 15000 . NFFT, vi NFFT l kch thc FFT. n v thi gian Ts c nh ngha trong phn trc v vy c th c xem nh thi gian ly mu ca mt thc thi u pht/u thu da trn FFT (an FFT-based transmitter/receiver implementation) vi NFFT = 2048. iu quan trng cn phi hiu l mc d n v thi gian Ts c gii thiu trong c tnh truy nhp v tuyn LTE ch nh mt cng c xc nh nhng khong thi gian khc nhau v n khng p t bt c mt rng buc v thc thi u pht/u thu c th no, chng hn mt tn s ly
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

58

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

mu xc nh. Trong thc t, mt thc thi u pht/u thu da trn FFT vi N FFT = 2048 v mt tn s ly mu tng ng fs = 30.72 MHz l thch hp cho nhng bng thng truyn dn LTE rng hn, chng hn nhng bng thng khong 15MHz v cao hn. Tuy nhin, i vi nhng bng thng truyn dn nh hn, mt kch thc FFT nh hn v mt tn s ly mu nh hn tng ng cng c th c s dng rt tt. V d, i vi cc bng thng truyn dn trong khong 5 MHz, mt kch thc NFFT = 512 v mt tn s ly mu tng ng fs=7.68 MHz c th s . Mt l lun chp nhn mt khong cch sng mang ph 15 KHz cho LTE l n c th n gin ha vic trin khai cc thit b u cui a ch WCDMA/HSPA/LTE. Gi s c hai kch thc FFT v mt khong cch sng mang ph f = 15 kHz, tn s ly mu f s= f. NFFT s l mt bi s (multiple) hoc c s (submultiple) ca tc chip WCDMA/HSPA fcr = 3.84 MHz. Cc thit b u cui a ch WCDMA/HSPA/LTE (multi mode WCDMA/HSPA/LTE terminals) khi c th c trin khai d dng vi mt mch ng h n (a single clock circuitry). Ngoi khong cch sng mang ph 15 kHz, mt khong cch sng mang ph rt gn flow=7.5 kHz cng c xc nh cho LTE. Mc tiu c th ca khong cch sng mang ph rt gn l truyn dn multicast/broadcast da trn MBSFN m s c tho lun su hn trong phn 4.2.6. Nhng tho lun cn li trong phn ny v nhng chng tip theo s gi thit khong cch sng mang 15 kHz tr khi c trnh by r rng theo cch khc.

Hnh 4.4 Cu trc min tn s ng xung LTE Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.4, trong min tn s, cc sng mang ph ng xung c tp hp li vo trong nhng khi ti nguyn (resource blocks), ni m mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang ph lin tip nhau tng ng
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

59

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

vi mt bng thng khi ti nguyn danh nh rng 180 kHz. Ngoi ra, cn c mt sng mang ph DC khng s dng nm gia ph tn ng xung. Nguyn nhn ti sao sng mang ph DC khng c s dng cho bt c truyn dn no l v n c th trng vi tn s b to dao ng ni (local oscillator frequency) ti u pht trm gc hoc u thu ca thit b u cui di ng. H qu l n c th phi chu nhiu cao khng t l (it may be subject to unproportionally high interference), v d, do b dao ng ni b r in. Tng s sng mang ph trn mt sng mang ng xung, bao gm sng mang ph DC, v vy bng Nsc = 12. NRB + 1, vi NRB l s lng cc khi ti nguyn. c im k thut lp vt l LTE tht ra cho php mt sng mang ng xung c th bao gm bt c s lng khi ti nguyn no, trong khong t 6 khi ln ti trn 100 khi ti nguyn. iu ny tng ng vi mt bng thng truyn dn ng xung danh nh t khong 1 MHz ln ti t nht khong 20 MHz vi mt chi tit rt nhuyn. Nh c bn n trong chng 2, iu ny mang li mt mc rt cao v tnh linh hot trong bng thng/ph tn ca LTE, t nht t gc c tnh lp vt l. Tuy nhin, nh cng c cp trong chng 2, nhng yu cu v tn s v tuyn LTE, t nht ngay t u, cng ch c xc nh cho mt nhm nhng bng thng truyn dn gii hn, tng ng vi mt nhm gii hn cc gi tr c th i vi s lng ca cc khi ti nguyn NRB. Hnh 4.5 s phc tho chi tit hn cu trc min thi gian-tn s cho truyn dn ng xung LTE. Mi khung ph 1ms bao gm hai khe vi kch thc bng nhau c di Tslot=0.5ms (15360.Ts). Mi khe li bao gm mt s lng cc k hiu OFDM (OFDM symbols) km theo tin t chu trnh (cyclic prefix).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

60

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.5 Cu trc khung ph v khe thi gian ng xung LTE. Mt khung ph bao gm hai khe thi gian kch thc bng nhau. Mi khe bao gm su hoc by k hiu OFDM ln lt tng ng vi trng hp tin t chu trnh bnh thng v tin t chu trnh m rng Nh bit, mt khong cch sng mang ph f =15 kHz tng ng vi mt thi gian k hiu hu dng Tu=1/ f 66.7s (2048.Ts). Theo ton b thi gian k hiu OFDM l tng ca thi gian k hiu hu dng v chiu di tin t chu trnh TCP. Theo nh minh ha trong hnh 4.5, LTE xc nh hai chiu di tin t chu trnh, mt tin t chu trnh bnh thng v mt tin t chu trnh m rng, tng ng vi 7 v su k hiu OFDM trn 1 khe. Chiu di ca tin t chu trnh chnh xc, c trnh by qua n v thi gian c bn Ts, c a ra trong hnh 4.5. Cn phi ch rng, trong trng hp tin t chu trnh bnh thng, chiu di tin t chu trnh cho k hiu OFDM u tin ca mt khe th ln hn mt cht, so vi nhng k hiu OFDM cn li. Nguyn nhn ca vic ny ch n gin l lp y ton b khe 0.5 ms khi s lng n v thi gian T s trn mt khe (15360) khng chia ht cho 7. Nguyn nhn ca vic xc nh hai chiu di tin t chu trnh cho LTE bao gm hai phn:

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

61

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

1. Mt tin t chu trnh di hn, mc d l km hiu nu xt v mt chi

ph, nhng n li tr nn c li trong mt s mi trng c bit khi m tr lan truyn l rt rng, v d trong nhng t bo kch thc rt ln. Mt iu quan trng cn phi nh l mt tin t chu trnh di hn khng phi lc no cng c li i vi nhng t bo ln, cho d tr lan truyn l rt rng trong nhng trng hp nh vy. Trong nhng t bo ln, nu hiu sut ng truyn b gii hn bi nhiu hn l bi sai lch tn hiu do phn tn thi gian d (residual time dispersion) khng c bo v bi tin t chu trnh, mt sc mnh b sung cho phn tn thi gian knh v tuyn, do vic s dng mt tin t chu trnh di hn, c th s khng b p c s tn tht v mt nng lng tn hiu thu c. 2. Nh bit, trong trng hp truyn dn multicast/broadcast da trn MBSFN, tin t chu trnh khng ch bao ph phn chnh ca phn tn thi gian knh tht s m cn bao ph phn chnh ca s khc nhau v thi gian gia nhng truyn dn thu c t cc t bo lin quan trong vic truyn MBSFN. Trong hot ng MBSFN, tin t chu trnh m rng v vy m thng c cn n. V vy, vic s dng ch yu tin t chu trnh m rng LTE l trong truyn dn da trn MBSFN. Cn phi ch rng cc chiu di tin t chu trnh khc nhau c th c s dng cho nhiu khung ph khc nhau trong cng mt khung. Theo mt v d, truyn dn multicast/broadcast da trn MBSFN c th b hn ch trong nhng khung ph no i vi nhng trng hp s dng tin t chu trnh m rng, cng vic n lin kt vi mo u tin t chu trnh b sung (additional cyclic prefix overhead), s ch c p dng vi nhng khung ph ny. Khi xem xt v cu trc min thi gian ng xung, cc khi ti nguyn c cp trn bao gm 12 sng mang ph trong sut mt khe thi gian 0.5 ms, nh minh ha trong hnh 4.6. V vy mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 12.7 = 84 phn t ti nguyn i vi trng hp tin t chu trnh bnh thng v 12.6 = 72 phn t ti nguyn i vi trng hp tin t chu trnh m rng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

62

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.6 Khi ti nguyn ng xung dnh cho tin t chu trnh bnh thng, ngha l, c 7 k hiu OFDM trn 1 khe. Vi tin t chu trnh m rng th c 6 k hiu OFDM trn 1 khe v nh vy, tng cng c 72 phn t ti nguyn trong mt khi ti nguyn.

Hnh 4.7 Cu trc tn hiu tham kho ng xung LTE dnh cho tin t chu trnh bnh thng, ngha l c 7 k hiu OFDM trn 1 khe 4.2.2 Cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung. thc hin gii iu ch ng xung mt cch nht qun (downlink coherent demodulation), thit b u cui di ng cn phi nh gi knh truyn ng xung. Nh cp , mt phng php n gin cho php nh gi knh truyn trong truyn dn OFDM l chn thm nhng k hiu tham kho (known reference symbols) bit vo trong mng li ti nguyn thi gian-tn s OFDM. Trong LTE, nhng k hiu tham kho ny u c quy thnh nhng tn hiu tham kho ng xung LTE. Theo minh ha trong hnh 4.7, cc k hiu tham kho ng xung c chn vo bn trong nhng k hiu OFDM th nht v th ba cui cng ca mi khe v vi mt khong cch min tn s gm 6 sng mang ph. Hn na, c mt s xen k min tn s (a frequency domain staggering of three subcarriers) gm 3 sng mang ph gia tn hiu tham kho u tin v tn hiu tham kho th hai. Trong mi khi ti nguyn, bao gm 12 sng mang ph trong sut mt khe thi
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

63

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

gian, v vy m y c 4 k hiu tham kho. iu ny ng cho tt c cc khung ph ngoi tr nhng khung ph c s dng cho truyn dn da trn MBSFN (xem thm phn 4.2.6). nh gi knh truyn qua ton b mng li mng li thi gian-tn s cng nh l lm gim tp m trong nhng nh gi knh truyn, thit b u cui di ng phi thc hin php ni suy/ly trung bnh thng qua nhiu k hiu tham kho. V vy, khi thc hin nh gi knh truyn cho mt khi ti nguyn no , thit b u cui di ng c th khng ch s dng nhng k hiu tham kho trong khi ti nguyn m cn trong nhng khi ti nguyn ln cn min tn s, cng nh l nhng k hiu tham kho ca nhng khe thi gian hay khung ph thu c trc . Tuy nhin, phm vi thit b u cui di ng c th thc hin php tnh trung bnh qua nhiu khi ti nguyn trong min tn s hay thi gian da trn nhng c tnh knh truyn. Trong trng hp chn lc tn s knh truyn cao (high channel frequency selectivity), kh nng thc hin php bnh qun trong min tn s l gii hn. Tng t, kh nng tnh bnh qun trong min thi gian, l kh nng s dng cc k hiu tham kho trong nhng khe thi gian hay khung ph thu c trc , cng b gii hn trong trng hp s bin i knh truyn din ra nhanh (fast channel variatons), v d, do vn tc cao ca thit b u cui di ng. Cng cn phi ch rng, trong trng hp TDD, kh nng tnh bnh qun thi gian c th b gii hn, v nhng khung ph trc thm ch c th khng c ch nh cho truyn dn ng xung. 4.2.2.1 Cc chui tn hiu tham kho v vic nhn dng t bo lp vt l (Reference signals sequences and physical layer cell identity) Ni chung, cc gi tr phc hp (complex values) ca cc k hiu tham kho s thay i gia cc v tr k hiu tham kho khc nhau cng nh gia nhng t bo khc nhau. V vy, tn hiu tham kho ca mt t bo c th c xem nh l mt chui hai chiu, trong c im k thut LTE c gi l mt chui tn hiu tham kho hai chiu. Tng t vi m ngu nhin ha trong WCDMA/HSPA, chui tn hiu tham kho LTE c th c xem nh mt ch th nhn dng t bo lp vt l LTE. C 510 chui tn hiu tham kho c nh ngha trong c im k thut LTE, tng ng vi 510 nhn dng t bo khc nhau. V mt chi tit, mi chui tn hiu tham kho c th c xem nh sn phm ca mt chui gi ngu nhin hai chiu (a two dimensional pseudorandom sequence) v mt chui trc giao hai chiu (a two dimensional orthogonal
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 64 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

sequence). C tng cng 170 chui gi ngu nhin c nh ngha trong c im k thut LTE, mi chui tng ng vi mt trong s 170 nhm nhn dng t bo. Ngoi ra, cn c 3 chui trc giao c nh ngha, mi chui tng ng vi mt nhn dng t bo ring bit trong mi nhm nhn dng t bo. Cc chui tn hiu tham kho v cu trc ca n l sn phm ca mt chui gi ngu nhin v mt chui trc giao c th c s dng nh l mt phn ca vic d tm t bo LTE (xem thm Chng 5). Cc chui tn hiu tham kho thng c p dng thch hp vi nhng t bo thuc cng mt eNodeB, nhng t bo ny c ch nh cng nhiu cng tt cc nhn dng t bo lp vt l (physical layer cell identities) trong cng mt nhm nhn dng t bo, ngha l c ch nh nhng tn hiu tham kho da trn cng mt chui gi ngu nhin nhng khc cc chui trc giao. Bng cch lm nh vy, s can nhiu gia nhng tn hiu tham kho ca cc t bo khc nhau ca cng mt eNodeB c th c gim thiu. 4.2.2.2 Nhy tn tn hiu tham kho (Reference signal frequency hopping) Trong cu trc tn hiu tham kho c phc ha trong hnh 4.7, cc v tr min tn s ca cc k hiu tham kho l ging nhau gia cc khung ph lin tip. Tuy nhin, cc v tr min tn s ca cc k hiu tham kho cng c th khc nhau gia nhng khung ph lin tip, cn c xem nh l s nhy tn k hiu tham kho. Trong trng hp nhy tn k hiu tham kho, nhng v tr lin quan ca cc k hiu tham kho trong mt khung ph l ging nhau nh trong hnh 4.7. V vy, vic nhy tn c th c m t nh vic thm mt chui cc lch tn (frequency offsets) vo m hnh mu k hiu tham kho c bn c phc ha trong hnh 4.7, vi lch ging nhau cho tt c cc k hiu tham kho trong mt khung ph, nhng khc nhau gia cc khung ph lin tip. V tr k hiu tham kho p trong khung ph k v vy c th c trnh by nh sau: Cc k hiu tham kho u tin: p(k) = (p0+6.i+offset(k)) mod 6 Cc k hiu tham kho th hai: p(k) = (p0+6.i+3+offset(k)) mod 6 Vi i l mt s nguyn. Chui cc lch tn hay m hnh nhy tn (the frequency hopping pattern) c mt chu k vi di l 10, ngha l m

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

65

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

hnh nhy tn c lp li gia cc khung lin tip. C 170 m hnh nhy tn khc nhau c nh ngha, v mi m hnh tng ng vi mt nhm nhn din t bo. Bng vic p dng cc m hnh nhy tn khc nhau cho nhng t bo ln cn, c th trnh c nguy c cc k hiu tham kho ca cc t bo ln cn va chm nhau lin tip. iu ny c c bit quan tm khi nhng k hiu tham kho c truyn i vi mt nng lng cao hn so vi cc phn t ti nguyn cn li, v cn c gi l vic tng cng nng lng tn hiu tham kho (reference signal energy boosting). 4.2.2.3 Cc tn hiu tham kho cho truyn dn a anten (Reference signals for multi-antenna transmission) Trong truyn dn a anten ng xung, thit b u cui di ng phi c kh nng nh gi knh truyn ng xung tng ng vi mi anten pht. lm c iu ny, s c mt tn hiu tham kho ng xung c pht i t mi anten. Cn phi ch rng c tnh truy nhp v tuyn LTE thc ra l ni n cc cng anten (antenna ports) hn l ni n anten nhn mnh rng nhng g c cp n khng nht thit l tng ng vi mt anten vt l n (a single physical antenna). Thc ra, mt cng anten c nh ngha bi s hin din ca mt tn hiu tham kho chuyn bit v cng anten. Do vy, nu cc tn hiu tham kho ng nht c pht i t nhiu anten vt l, nhng anten ny khng th c phn gii di gc mt thit b u cui di ng v nhng anten c th cng c xem nh l mt cng anten n. Tuy nhin, n gin ha, s c hai gii hn anten c s dng sau y: Trong trng hp hai anten pht (Hnh 4.8a), cc k hiu tham kho ca anten th hai c ghp knh tn s vi cc k hiu tham kho ca anten th nht, vi lch min tn s l 3 sng mang ph. Trong trng hp bn anten pht (Hnh 4.8b), cc k hiu tham kho cho anten th ba v th t c ghp knh tn s bn trong k hiu OFDM th hai ca mi khe thi gian. Ch rng cc k hiu tham kho cho anten ba v t ch c truyn i trong mt k hiu OFDM ca mi khe.

Cng cn lu thm l mt phn t ti nguyn mang theo mt k hiu tham kho cho mt anten no , v khng c tn hiu no c truyn trn

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

66

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

nhng anten khc. V vy, cc k hiu tham kho ca mt anten no khng b nhiu bi truyn dn t nhng anten khc trong cng mt t bo. R rng, trong trng hp bn anten pht, mt k hiu tham kho min thi gian ca anten th ba v th t c gim bt so vi anten th nht v th hai. iu ny c lm gii hn tng s tn hiu tham kho trong trng hp dng 4 anten pht. ng thi, iu ny cng tc ng tiu cc n kh nng theo di nhng s bin i knh truyn rt nhanh. Tuy nhin, iu ny c th c iu chnh da trn mt trin vng l vic ghp knh khng gian 4 anten s c p dng ch yu cho nhng trng hp vi di ng thp (low mobility). L do gi li mt k hiu tham kho cao hn cho anten th nht v th hai trong trng hp s dng bn anten pht l c gi thit cho rng nhng tn hiu tham kho ny s c s dng nh l mt phn ca vic d tm t bo khi to (initial cell search) trong lc thit b u cui di ng cha thu c y thng tin v s lng anten pht trong cng mt t bo. V vy, vic cu hnh cc tn hiu tham kho ca anten th nht v th hai s c thc hin cng lc m khng ph thuc vo s lng anten. 4.2.3 X l knh truyn ti ng xung Nh c tho lun trong chng 3, lp vt l giao tip vi cc lp cao hn, m c th hn l n lp MAC bng cc knh truyn ti (Transport Channels). LTE k tha nguyn l c bn ca WCDMA/HSPA, l d liu c chuyn n lp vt l trong dng khi truyn ti (Transport Blocks) vi mt kch thc no . Nu xt chi tit hn v cu trc khi truyn ti, LTE la chn phng php tng t vi phng php c la chn cho HSPA:

Trong trng hp truyn dn anten n, ch c th c ti a mt khi truyn ti n kch thc ng cho mi TTI. Trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu anten, c th ln n 2 khi truyn ti kch thc ng cho mi TTI, mi khi truyn ti tng ng vi mt t m (codeword) trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian ng xung. iu ny ng rng, mc d LTE h tr ghp knh khng gian ng xung ln ti bn anten pht, nhng s t m vn b gii hn 2. Truyn dn a anten ng xung c cung cp chi tit hn trong phn 4.2.5.

Vi cu trc khi truyn ti ny, vic x l knh truyn ti ng xung LTE, m c th l x l DL-SCH (qu trnh x l ca cc knh truyn ti ng xung khc cng tng t mc d c thm vo mt s rng buc), c th c phc ha theo hnh 4.9 vi hai chui x l ring bit chnh, mi chui tng ng
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

67

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

vi qu trnh x l ca mt khi truyn ti n. Chui x l th 2 tng ng vi khi truyn ti th 2, do vy ch xut hin ghp knh khng gian ng xung. Ni chung, trong trng hp ny, hai khi truyn ti c kch thc khc nhau c kt hp nh mt phn ca vic nh x anten (Antenna Mapping) trong phn thp hn ca hnh 4.9.

Hnh 4.8 Cu trc tn hiu tham kho trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu anten ng xung: (a) hai anten pht v (b) bn anten pht.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

68

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.9 X l knh truyn ti ng xung. Phn c gch gch ch c mt trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian ng xung, l khi hai khi truyn ti c pht song song trong mt TTI.

Hnh 4.10 Chn CRC ng xung, tnh ton v gn mt CRC vo mi khi truyn ti.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

69

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.11 Khi m ha Turbo LTE

4.2.3.1 Chn CRC Trong bc u tin ca qu trnh x l knh truyn ti, mt CRC c tnh ton v gn vo mi khi truyn ti (Hnh 4.10). CRC cho php pha thu pht hin ra cc li cn li trong khi truyn ti c gii m. Ch th li tng ng sau c th c s dng bi giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng xung. 4.2.3.2 M ha knh Nhng bn pht hnh u tin ca chun truy cp v tuyn WCDMA (trc HSPA) cho php c m ha xon (convolutional coding) v m ha Turbo c ng dng cho cc knh truyn ti. Vi HSPA, m ha knh c n gin ha theo hng l: ch c m ha Turbo c ng dng cho cc knh truyn ti lin quan n HSPA (HS-DSCH cho ng xung v E-DCH cho ng ln). iu tng t cng ng vi knh chia s ng xung LTE, tc l ch c m ha Turbo c th c p dng trong trng hp truyn dn DL-SCH. Cu trc tng th ca m ha Turbo LTE c minh ha trong hnh 4.11. M ha Turbo s dng li hai tc WCDMA/HSPA 1/2, cc b m ha tm trng thi thnh phn, ngha l tc m ha tng cng l R=1/3. Tuy nhin, b xen r (interleaver) bn trong b m ha Turbo WCDMA/HSPA, i vi LTE, c thay th bi vic xen r da trn QPP (QPP: Quadrature Permutation Polynomial - a thc hon v cu phng). Tng phn vi b xen r WCDMA/HSPA hin ti, b xen r da trn QPP s hn ch ti a s tranh chp (contention), ngha l vic gii m c th c song song ha mt cch d dng m khng to ra nguy c cho vic ng khi truy cp vo b nh ca b xen r. i vi cc tc d liu rt cao c h tr bi LTE, vic s dng k

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

70

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

thut xen r da trn QPP v thc cht c th lm gim c phc tp ca b m ha/gii m Turbo. 4.2.3.3 Chc nng Hybrid-ARQ lp vt l Nhim v ca H-ARQ lp vt l ng xung l trch tp hp bit chnh xc t cc khi bit m c phn phi bi b m ha knh c pht i trong mt TTI cho trc (Hnh 4.12). S bit ph thuc vo s lng khi ti nguyn c n nh, s iu ch c chn, v th t ghp knh khng gian. Cng cn ch rng mt vi phn t ti nguyn trong mt khi ti nguyn c n nh s b chim bi cc k t tham kho nh c m t bn trn v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 v s c tho lun su hn trong phn 4.2.4. Nu tng s bit m c phn phi bi b m ha knh ln hn s bit c th c pht i, chc nng H-ARQ s trch mt tp hp con cc bit m, dn n tc m c hiu lc Reff > 1/3. Cn nu nh tng s bit m nh hn s bit c pht, chc nng H-ARQ s lp li tt c hoc mt tp hp con ca cc bit m, tc l tc m c hiu lc Reff < 1/3. i vi trng hp truyn dn li, trong a s trng hp, chc nng H-ARQ s la chn mt tp hp m bit khc pht i, ngha l chc nng H-ARQ s cho php d tha gia tng (Incremental Redundancy). 4.2.3.4 Ngu nhin ha mc bit Ngu nhin ha ng xung LTE ng rng khi bit c phn phi bi chc nng H-ARQ c nhn ln (php ton XOR) bi mt chui ngu nhin ha mc bit (Hnh 4.13). Nhn chung vic ngu nhin ha d liu m ha gip m bo vic gii m pha thu c th tn dng mt cch y li x l c cung cp bi m knh (channel code). Khng c ngu nhin ha ng xung, b gii m knh u cui di ng t nht l trn l thuyt c th nhm tn hiu nhiu vi tn hiu mc tiu, do khng th trit nhiu mt cch chnh xc. Bng vic ng dng cc chui ngu nhin ha khc nhau cho cc cell ln cn, cc tn hiu nhiu sau khi c gii xo trn s tr nn ngu nhin ha, m bo tn dng y li x l c cung cp bi m knh.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

71

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.12 Chc nng H-ARQ lp vt l trch ra tp hp bit m c pht i trong mt TTI cho.

Hnh 4.13 Ngu nhin ha ng xung. Ngc li vi HSPA, khi vic ngu nhin ha ng xung c a n cc chip phc tp sau khi dn tri ra (ngu nhin ha mc chip), LTE p dng ngu nhin ha ng xung n cc bit m ca mi knh truyn ti (ngu nhin ha mc bit). Vic ngu nhin ha mc chip th cn thit vi HSPA m bo li x l c cung cp bi qu trnh dn tri c th c s dng mt cch hiu qu. Mt khc, vic ngu nhin ha cc bit m hn l cc k t iu ch phc tp, ng rng phc tp thc thi s tng i thp hn v khng c tc ng tiu cc n hiu sut trong trng hp LTE. Trong LTE, ngu nhin ha ng xung c ng dng cho tt c cc knh truyn ti. Ngu nhin ha cng c ng dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung (xem phn 4.2.4). i vi tt c cc knh truyn ti ng xung ngoi tr MCH, cng nh vi bo hiu iu khin L1/L2, th chui ngu nhin s khc nhau i vi cc cell ln cn (ngu nhin ha cell ring bit) m bo s ngu nhin ha nhiu gia cc cell. Ngc li, trong trng hp truyn dn da trn MBSFN s dng knh truyn ti MCH, vic ngu nhin ha nn ging nhau vi tt c cc cell chim mt phn trong truyn dn MBSFN no (ngu nhin ha chung cell) (xem thm phn 4.2.6).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

72

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

4.2.3.5 iu ch d liu iu ch d liu ng xung chuyn i mt khi bit c ngu nhin ha thnh mt khi k t iu ch phc tp tng ng (Hnh 4.14). B s iu ch c h tr cho ng xung LTE bao gm QPSK, 16QAM, v 64QAM, ln lt tng ng vi 2, 4, v 6 bit trn mt k t iu ch. Tt c cc s iu ch ny c th c dng trong trng hp truyn dn DL-SCH. i vi cc knh truyn ti khc, c th a ra mt s gii hn no . V d, ch c iu ch QPSK c p dng trong trng hp truyn dn BCH.

Hnh 4.14 iu ch d liu, chuyn i M bit thnh M/L k t iu ch phc tp. QPSK: L=2, 16QAM: L=4, 64QAM: L=6. 4.2.3.6 nh x anten nh x anten x l ng thi cc k t iu ch tng ng vi hai khi truyn ti (trong trng hp chung), v nh x kt qu n cc anten khc nhau (Chun LTE thng ni n cc cng anten antenna port, hn l ni n cc anten, mt cng anten tng ng vi truyn dn ca mt tn hiu tham kho ng xung ring bit nhng c th khng tng ng vi mt anten vt l tht). Nh c th c nhn thy trong hnh 4.9, LTE h tr ln n bn anten pht. nh x anten c th c cu hnh theo nhiu cch khc nhau cho ra cc s a anten khc nhau bao gm phn tp pht, to cc bp sng (beam-forming), v ghp knh khng gian. Chi tit hn v antenna mapping v truyn dn a anten ng xung LTE c cung cp trong phn 4.2.5. 4.2.3.7 nh x khi ti nguyn nh x khi ti nguyn nh x cc k hiu c pht i trn mi anten thnh cc phn t ti nguyn ca tp hp cc khi ti nguyn c n nh bi MAC scheduler cho vic pht i cc khi truyn ti (xem hnh 4.15). Nh c tho lun trong chng 3, s la chn cc khi ti nguyn ny c th da trn nh gi cht lng knh ca cc khi ti nguyn khc nhau nh c nhn thy bi u cui di ng mc tiu. Nh c cp trong chng 3, scheduling ng xung thc hin trn mt c s khung ph (1ms). Do , mt khi ti nguyn ng xung c xc nh nh s lng sng mang ph trong sut mt khe thi gian 0.5 ms, vic n nh khi ti nguyn ng xung lun lun c thc hin di dng cc
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

73

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

cp khi ti nguyn, khi mi cp bao gm hai khi ti nguyn lin tip trong mt khung con min thi gian. Gp li, mi khi ti nguyn bao gm 84 phn t ti nguyn (12 sng mang con trong thi gian 7 k t OFDM) (12.6 = 72 phn t ti nguyn trong trng hp tin t tun hon m rng). Tuy nhin, nh c cp bn trn, mt vi phn t ti nguyn trong mt khi ti nguyn s khng c gi tr cho vic nh x knh truyn ti khi chng c s dng bi:

Cc k t tham kho ng xung bao gm cc phn t ti nguyn khng c s dng tng ng vi cc k t tham kho ca cc anten khc, nh c tho lun phn trc. Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung, s c tho lun nhiu hn trong phn tip theo.

Hnh 4.15 nh x khi ti nguyn ng xung. Trong trng hp chung, s c mt nhm ti nguyn v mt nh x ti nguyn tng ng cho mi anten pht. Khi trm gc c y thng tin v nhng phn t ti nguyn no c s dng cho cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung cng nh tn hiu iu khin L/L2 v do khng c gi tr cho nh x knh iu khin, n c th nh x thng knh truyn ti n cc phn t ti nguyn c hiu lc cn li. Tng t, thi gian tip nhn, u cui di ng bit phn t ti nguyn no c s dng cho tn hiu tham kho ng xung v iu khin L1/L2 v do c th trch d liu knh truyn ti mt cch n gin t tp hp cc phn t ti nguyn chnh xc. Ti nguyn vt l m DL-SCH c nh x n c xem nh l knh chia s ng xung vt l (PDSCH) trong chun LTE.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

74

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

4.2.4 Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung h tr truyn dn cc knh truyn ti ng xung v ng ln, chnh xc hn l DL-SCH v UL-SCH, cn c bo hiu iu khin ng xung lin kt chnh xc (associated downlink control signaling). Bo hiu iu khin ny thng c xem nh bo hiu iu khin L1/L2, ch ra rng thng tin tng ng to r mt phn t lp vt l (Lp 1) v mt phn t lp MAC (lp 2). Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung lin quan n truyn dn DLSCH v UL-SCH bao gm:

Cc thng ip scheduling lin quan n DL-SCH cn thit cho mt u cui di ng c hoch nh c th nhn chnh xc, gii iu ch, v gii m DL-SCH. Bao gm cc thng tin v phn b ti nguyn DL-SCH (tp hp cc khi ti nguyn), nh dng truyn ti v thng tin lin quan n DL-SCH Hybrid ARQ. Bo hiu ny do tng t vi HS-SCCH (High-Speed Shared Control Channel) c nh ngha cho HSPA. Cc thng ip scheduling lin quan n UL-SCH, c bit l cc chp nhn scheduling s thng bo cho u cui di ng ti nguyn ng ln no v nh dng truyn ti no s dng cho truyn dn UL-SCH. Bo hiu ny do tng t nh E-AGCH (E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel) c nh ngha cho HSPA.

Khi c nhiu u cui di ng c hoch nh ng thi, phi c kh nng pht nhiu thng ip scheduling cho mi TTI. Mi thng ip nh vy c pht i theo mt knh iu khin L1/L2 ng xung. Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.16, mi knh iu khin tng ng vi mt thng ip scheduling n u tin c x l mt cch ring bit, bao gm chn CRC, m ha knh, ngu nhin ha mc bit, v iu ch QPSK. Cc k t iu ch sau c nh x n ti nguyn vt l ng xung, ngha l n li thi gian-tn s OFDM. Ti nguyn vt l m bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 c nh x n trong chun LTE c xem nh l knh iu khin ng xung vt l (PDCCH).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

75

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.16 Chui x l cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung.

Hnh 4.17 Li thi gian/tn s LTE vi phn t ti nguyn no c s dng bi cc k t tham kho ng xung v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.17, cc knh iu khin L1/L2 c nh x n cc k t OFDM u tin (ln n 3 k t) trong mi khung con. Bng cch nh x cc knh iu khin L1/L2 n khi u ca khung ph, thng tin iu khin L1/L2 bao gm phn b ti nguyn DL-SCH v nh dng truyn ti, c th c ly ra trc khi kt thc khung ph. Do vic gii m DL-SCH c th bt u mt cch trc tip sau khi kt thc khung ph m khng phi ch i

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

76

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

cho vic gii m thng tin iu khin L1/L2. iu ny s ti thiu ha tr trong vic gii m DL-SCH v do ti thiu ha ton b tr truyn dn ng xung. Hn na, vi vic pht knh iu khin L1/L2 bt u ca khung ph, bng cch cho php vic gii m sm hn thng tin iu khin L1/L2, cc u cui di ng khng c scheduling c th tt mch thu ca chng trong phn ln ca khung ph, kt qu l cng sut tiu th ti u cui c gim bt. Nu xt chi tit hn, ti nguyn vt l m tn hiu iu khin L1/L2 c nh x n th bao gm mt s cc phn t knh iu khin, mi phn knh iu khin bao gm mt s phn t ti nguyn c xc nh trc. Cc k t c iu ch ca mi knh iu khin L1/L2 sau c nh x n mt hoc nhiu phn t knh iu khin ph thuc vo kch thc, v mt s lng cc k t iu ch, ca mi knh iu khin L1/L2. Lu rng kch thc ny c th khc nhau i vi cc knh iu khin L1/L2 khc nhau. Mng s bo hiu r rng s lng cc phn t knh iu khin trong mt khung ph. Khi , cc phn t knh iu khin c kch thc c xc nh trc v c t bt u ca khung ph, iu ny ng rng mt u cui di ng c scheduled s bit cc phn t ti nguyn no c s dng bi cc knh iu khin L1/L2 v do bit c phn t ti nguyn no m DL-SCH c nh x n (cc phn t ti nguyn cn li). Tuy nhin, cc u cui di ng khng thng bo r rng v cu trc iu khin L1/L2 chi tit hn, bao gm s lng chnh xc knh iu khin L1/L2 v s phn t knh iu khin m mi knh iu khin L1/L2 c nh x n. ng hn, u cui di ng phi c gng m mm gii m nhiu ng c knh iu khin (control channel candidates) c kh nng tm ra knh iu khin L1/L2 mang thng tin scheduling n u cui di ng c th ny. V d, hnh 4.18 minh ha trng hp ca su phn t knh iu khin v kh nng nh x cc knh iu khin L1/L2 n mt, hai, hoc bn phn t knh iu khin. Nh c nhn thy, trong trng hp c bit ny, c 10 ng c knh iu khin khc nhau. u cui di ng gii m mi ng c ny v sau kim tra CRC cho knh iu khin hp l. 4.2.5 Truyn dn nhiu anten ng xung Qu trnh x l knh truyn ti c m t trong phn 4.2.3 bao gm nh x anten, lc , n c m t n gin nh qu trnh x l cc khi k t iu ch t hai khi truyn ti c m ha v nh x (n bn) anten pht. Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.19, thc ra nh x anten LTE bao gm hai bc ring bit, nh x lp v tin m ha (Layer mapping and Pre-coding).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

77

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.18 Phn t knh iu khin v ng c knh iu khin.

Hnh 4.19 nh x anten LTE bao gm nh x lp, tip theo l tin m ha. Mi vung tng ng vi mt k hiu iu ch.

Hnh 4.20 Hai anten m ha khi khng gian-tn s (SFBC) trong kt cu a anten LTE.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

78

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

nh x lp cung cp vic gii ghp knh cc k t iu ch ca mi t m (khi truyn ti c m ha v iu ch) thnh mt hoc nhiu lp. Do , s lp th lun lun t nht bng vi s khi truyn ti c pht. Vic tin m ha trch ra chnh xc mt k t iu ch t mi lp, x l ng thi cc k t ny v nh x kt qu vo min tn s v anten (trong trng hp thng thng, vic nh x cng c th trong min thi gian). Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.19, vic tin m ha c th c thy nh hot ng trn vector
v i vi kch thc NL, trong mi vector bao gm mt k t t mi lp.
_

Vic phn chia qu trnh nh x anten thnh hai chc nng ring bit, nh x lp v tin m ha, c gii thiu trong chun LTE c th nh ngha v m t cc s truyn dn nhiu anten khc nhau, bao gm phn tp pht vng h (open-loop transmit diversity), to cc bp sng (beam-forming), v ghp knh khng gian trong mt kt cu a anten duy nht. Vi v d bn di ca s truyn dn nhiu anten c cho cng vi vic thc thi ca chng trong kt cu a anten LTE. 4.2.5.1 Hai anten m ha khi khng gian-tn s (SFBC) Trong trng hp hai anten SFBC (Hnh 4.20), c mt t m n (khng ghp knh khng gian) v hai lp. nh x lp gii ghp knh cc k t iu ch ca t m trn hai lp. Tin m ha sau s p dng m khng gian-tn s trn mi vector lp v i. 4.2.5.2 To dng tia (beam-forming) Trong trng hp to dng tia (Hnh 4.21) c mt t m n (khng ghp knh khng gian) v mt lp n, tc l nh x lp l trong sut. Tin m ha s a vector tin m ha w vi kch thc NA n mi k t lp xi.
_ _

Hnh 4.21 To dng tia trong khung nhiu anten LTE.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

79

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.22 Ghp knh khng gian trong khung nhiu anten LTE (NL=3, NA=4). 4.2.5.3 Ghp knh khng gian Vi trng hp ghp knh khng gian (Hnh 4.22), trong trng hp chung, c hai t m, s lp NL, s anten NA, vi NL 2 v NA NL. C th, hnh 4.22 minh ho trng hp ba lp (NL=3) v bn anten pht (NA=4). nh x lp gii ghp knh cc k t iu ch ca hai t m trn NL lp. Nh c nhn thy, trong trng hp ba lp, t m u tin c nh x n lp u tin trong khi t m th hai c nh x n lp th hai v th ba. Do , s k t iu ch ca hai t m s c gp i s lng k t iu ch ca t m th nht m bo s lng k t nh nhau trn mi lp. Tin m ha sau a vo ma trn W kch thc NA x NL n mi vector lp v i. Nhn chung, ghp knh khng gian LTE cn c vo tin m ha da trn bng m (codebook), tc l vi mi s kt hp ca s lng anten NA v s lng lp NL, mt nhm ma trn tin m ha c nh ngha c tnh k thut. Da trn vic o tn hiu tham kho ng xung ca cc anten khc nhau, thit b di ng quyt nh chn mt dy ph hp (s lng cc lp) v ma trn tin m ha tng ng. Nhng thng tin ny sau c thng bo n mng. Trong khi mt dy n c bo co c gi tr cho ton b bng thng h thng, th nhiu ma trn tin m ha c gi tr cho nhng phn khc nhau ca bng thng h thng cng c th c bo co. Mng phi xem xt cc thng tin ny, nhng khng phi da vo n khi quyt nh dy no v nhm ma trn m ha trc no c s dng tht s cho truyn dn ng xung. Khi mng c th quyt nh chn mt nhm ma trn m ha trc khc vi ci c thng bo bi u cui di ng, mng phi bo hiu r rng cc ma trn m ha trc no c s dng bi cc phng tin bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung. Phng php tng t c s dng cho to dng tia nhiu anten ng xung, tc l da trn vic o c cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung ca
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm
_

80

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

cc anten khc nhau, thit b di ng s quyt nh chn mt vector m ha trc ph hp (to dng tia) v thng bo cc thng tin ny n mng. Mng cn phi xem xt cc thng tin ny, nhng khng phi da vo n khi quyt nh vector m ha trc no tht s c s dng cho truyn dn ng xung. Tng t vi trng hp ghp knh khng gian, mng phi bo hiu r rng vector to dng tia no c s dng cho u cui di ng. Nh mt kt qu, m ha trc ch c th c s dng cho truyn dn DL-SCH m khng c s dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. 4.2.6 Multicast/broadcast s dng MBSFN Nh c tho lun trong chng 4, truyn dn OFDM mang li mt s li ch v mt cung cp cc dch v multicast/broadcast a cell, chnh xc hn l kh nng to truyn dn multicast/broadcast a cell ng b nh mt truyn dn n qua knh a ng. Nh c cp trong chng 2, loi truyn dn LTE ny c cp nh Multicast/Broadcast qua mng tn s n (MBSFN). LTE h tr truyn dn multicast/broadcast da trn MBSFN bi knh truyn ti MCH (Multicast Channel). Vic x l knh truyn ti MCH v nhiu mt th ging nh i vi DL-SCH (Hnh 4.9), vi mt vi ngoi l:

Trong trng hp truyn dn MBSFN, d liu ging nhau c pht vi nh dng truyn ti ging nhau s dng ngun ti nguyn vt l ging nhau t nhiu cell thng thng thuc cc eNodeB khc nhau. Do , nh dng truyn ti MCH v phn b ti nguyn khng th c chn la mt cch t ng bi eNodeB. Khi truyn dn MCH nhm n (targeting) nhiu u cui di ng ng thi, hybrid ARQ th khng th c ng dng trc tip trong trng hp truyn dn MCH.

Hn na, cng c cp trong phn 4.2.3, ngu nhin ha MCH cn ging nhau cho tt c cc cell lin quan trong truyn dn MBSFN. nh gi knh truyn cho vic gii iu ch kt hp ca truyn dn MBSFN khng th da trc tip vo tn hiu tham kho ring cell thng thng c m t trong phn 4.2.2 khi cc tn hiu tham kho ny khng c pht i bi cc phng php MBSFN v do khng phn hi c knh MBSFN tng hp. Thay vo , cc k t tham kho b sung c chn vo cc khung ph MBSFN, c minh ha trn hnh 4.23. Cc tn hiu tham kho ny c pht i bi MBSFN, tc l cc k hiu tham kho ging nhau c pht bi tt c cc cell lin quan trong truyn dn MBSFN (gi tr phc tp ging nhau trong phn t ti nguyn ging nhau). Tn hiu tham kho tng ng v vy c th c s dng

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

81

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

trc tip cho vic nh gi knh MBSFN tng hp, cho php gii iu ch kt hp truyn dn MBSFN.

Hnh 4.23 Cc tn hiu tham kho chung t bo v ring t bo trong cc khung ph MBSFN. Ch rng hnh v th hin mt tin t chu trnh m rng tng ng vi 12 k hiu trn 1 khung ph. Truyn dn MCH s dng MBSFN khng c php ghp knh vi truyn dn ca cc knh truyn ti khc nh DL-SCH trong cng khung con. Do , cng khng c truyn dn bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung lin quan n truyn dn DL-SCH (nh dng truyn ti, ch th ti nguyn, v thng tin lin quan n H-ARQ) trong cc khung con MBSFN. Tuy nhin, c th c cc bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung khc c pht trong cc khung con MBSFN, v d cc cp pht scheduling (scheduling grants) cho truyn dn UL-SCH. Kt qu l, cc tn hiu tham kho ring cell thng thng nh c m t trong phn 4.2.2, cng cn c pht trong cc khung con MBSFN, song song vi tn hiu tham kho da trn MBSFN. Tuy nhin, khi bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 b gi li trong phn u tin ca khung con, ch cc k t tham kho ring-cell trong k t OFDM u tin ca khung con c pht i trong cc khung con MBSFN (cng nh k t OFDM th hai ca khung con trong trng hp bn anten pht), c minh ha trong hnh 4.23. 4.3 Scheme truyn dn ng ln 4.3.1 Ti nguyn vt l ng ln Nh c cp trong phn tng quan c cung cp trong chng 2, truyn dn ng ln LTE da trn k thut gi l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM. Nh c bit, DFTS-OFDM l mt scheme truyn dn n sng mang PAR mc thp, n cho php n nh bng thng linh hot v a truy cp trc giao khng ch trong min thi gian m cn trong c min tn s. Do , Scheme truyn dn ng ln LTE cng c xem nh FDMA n sng mang (SC-FDMA).

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

82

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.24 Kin trc c bn ca truyn dn DFTS-OFDM Hnh 4.24 tm tt li kin trc c bn ca truyn dn DFTS-OFDM vi DFT kch thc M thch hp vi mt khi gm c M k t iu ch. u ra ca DFT sau c nh x n u vo c chn lc ca mt IFFT kch thc N. Kch thc DFT xc nh bng thng tc thi ca tn hiu c truyn dn trong khi php nh x tn s xc nh v tr ca tn hiu c truyn dn trong ton b ph ng ln c hiu lc. Cui cng, mt tin t tun hon (cyclic prefix) c chn vo cho mi khi x l. Nh c tho lun trong chng trc, vic s dng tin t tun hon trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang cho php ng dng mt cch d dng k thut cn bng min tn s hiu sut cao c phc tp thp ti pha thu. Nh c tho lun trong chng trc, trong trng hp chung, c truyn dn DFTS-OFDM tp trung v phn tn u c th s dng c. Tuy nhin, truyn dn ng ln LTE b hn ch vi truyn dn tp trung, chng hn php nh x tn s ca hnh 4.24 nh x u ra ca DFT n u vo lin tc ca IFFT. T quan im thc thi DFT, DFT kch thc M s b p buc vi s lng l hai. Tuy nhin, vic p buc nh vy th xung t trc tip vi s mong mun c linh ng cao v mt s lng ti nguyn (bng thng truyn dn tc thi) c th c n nh t ng n cc u cui di ng khc nhau. T quan im s linh ng, tt c cc gi tr c th ca M phn no c cho php. Vi LTE, ng gia (middle-way) c chp nhn ni m kch thc DFT b gii hn vi cc tch ca cc s nguyn 2, 3, v 5. V th, cho v d, vi kch thc DFT l 15, 16, v 18 th c cho php nhng M=17 th khng c cho php. Trong cch ny, DFT c th c thc thi nh s kt hp ca cc DFT c s 2, 3 v 5 c phc tp tng i thp. Nh c cp trong chng trc, v c th hin r rng trong hnh 4.24, DFTS-OFDM cng c th c xem nh truyn dn OFDM thng thng kt hp vi DFT da trn m ho trc. Do , ngi ta c th thng ni n khong cch sng mang con trong trng hp truyn dn DFTS-OFDM. Hn na,

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

83

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

tng t vi OFDM, ti nguyn vt l DFTS-OFDM c th c xem nh mt mng li thi gian-tn s vi s rng buc b sung, l ti nguyn thi giantn s tng cng c n nh n cc u cui di ng phi lun lun bao gm cc sng mang con lin tc. Cc thng s c bn ca scheme truyn dn ng ln LTE c la chn cn chnh, cng nhiu cng tt, vi cc thng s tng ng ca ng xung LTE da trn OFDM. Do , nh c m t trong hnh 4.25, khong cch sng mang con DFTS-OFDM ng ln tng ng vi f=15 KHz v cc khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang con c cng c xc nh cho ng ln. Tuy nhin, ngc vi ng xung, ng ln khng c cc DC-carrier khng dng c. Nguyn nhn l s c mt ca DC-carrier trung tm ca ph tn s lm n khng c kh nng cp pht ton b bng thng h thng n mt u cui di ng n v vn gi thuc tnh n sng mang PAR thp ca truyn dn ng ln. Cng vy, do DTF da trn m ho trc, tc ng ca bt k nhiu DC s c tri ra trn khi M cc k t iu ch v do s t gy hi so vi truyn dn OFDM thng thng.

Hnh 4.25 Kin trc min tn s ng ln LTE V vy, tng s sng mang con ng ln l NSC = 12 . NRB. Tng t nh ng xung, vi ng ln, chun lp vt l LTE cng cho php linh hot rt cao v mt bng thng h thng tng cng bng cch cho php bt k s lng khi ti nguyn ng ln no trong khong t 6 khi ti nguyn v cao hn. Tuy nhin, cng tng t nh ng xung, s c hn ch l cc yu cu tn s v tuyn ch c ch nh, t nht l lc u, cho mt tp hp cc bng thng ng ln gii hn. Cng v mt kin trc min thi gian c lm chi tit hn, ng ln LTE rt ging vi ng xung, nh c th c nhn thy trong hnh 4.26. Mi khung con ng ln 1ms bao gm hai khe c di bng nhau Tslot=0.5 ms. Mi khe sau bao gm mt s lng cc khi DFT km theo c tin t tun hon (Cyclic Prefix - CP). Cng tng t ng xung, hai di tin t tun hon
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 84 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

c nh ngha cho ng ln, tin t tun hon thng thng v tin t tun hon m rng.

Hnh 4.26 Khung con ng ln LTE v cu trc khe. Mt khung con bao gm hai khe kch thc bng nhau. Mi khe bao gm 6 hoc 7 khi DFTS-OFDM trong trng hp tng ng vi tin t chu trnh bnh thng v m rng.

Hnh 4.27 Cp pht ti nguyn ng ln LTE Ngc vi ng xung, cc khi ti nguyn ng ln c n nh n mt u cui di ng phi lun lun c lin tip nhau trong min tn s, nh c minh ho trong hnh 4.27. Ch rng, tng t nh ng xung, khi ti nguyn ng ln c nh ngha nh 12 sng mang con DFTS-OFDM trong sut mt khe 0.5 ms. Ti cng mt thi im, scheduling ng ln c thc hin trn c s mt khung con 1 ms. Do , tng t nh ng xung, n nh ti nguyn ng ln c thc hin di dng cc cp khi ti nguyn lin tc trong min thi gian.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

85

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Trong hnh 4.27, ti nguyn ng ln c n nh tng ng vi tp hp cc sng mang con ging nhau trong c hai khe. Ni mt cch khc, vic nhy tn s lin khe (inter-slot) c th c ng dng cho ng ln LTE. Nhy tn s lin khe ng rng ti nguyn vt l c s dng cho truyn dn ng ln trong hai khe ca khung con khng chim gi cc tp hp cc sng mang con ging nhau nh c minh ho trong hnh 4.28. Ch rng, khi bng thng truyn dn RF u cui di ng bao ph ton b ph ng ln, nhy tn s ng ln l mt hot ng bng gc thun tu, n gin ch l s bin i php nh x DFT thnh IFFT ca qu trnh DFTS-OFDM trong hnh 4.24. C t nht hai li ch tim tng ca vic nhy tn s ng ln:

Nhy tn s cung cp phn tp tn s b sung, gi thit l cc bc nhy c bc (order) bng hoc ln hn bng thng kt hp knh. Nhy tn cung cp phn tp nhiu (ly trung bnh nhiu), gi nh rng m hnh nhy tn th khc nhau cc cell ln cn.

Hnh 4.28 Nhy tn ng ln 4.3.2 Tn hiu tham kho ng ln Tng t ng xung, tn hiu tham kho cho nh gi knh cng cn thit cho ng ln LTE cho php gii iu ch kt hp trm gc. Do s khc nhau gia cc scheme truyn dn ng xung v ng ln LTE (tng ng vi OFDM v SC-FDMA da trn DFTS-OFDM) v s quan trng ca bin i cng sut thp cho truyn dn ng ln, nguyn l ca cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln th khc vi ca ng xung. V bn cht, vic tn s cc tn hiu tham kho c ghp vi d liu truyn dn t cng mt u cui di ng l khng th i vi ng ln. Thay vo , tn hiu tham kho ng ln c ghp knh thi gian vi d liu ng ln. c bit hn, nh c minh ho trong hnh 4.29, tn hiu tham kho ng ln c pht trong khi th t ca mi khe ng ln v vi mt bng thng tc thi bng vi bng thng ca truyn dn d liu. Ch rng, trong trng hp chung, nhy tn s ng ln c th c ng dng, ni rng hai khe trong hnh 4.29 c pht trn cc tn s khc nhau, v bn cht c l phn bit nhau. Trong trng hp ny, php ni suy gia hai khi tn hiu tham

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

86

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

kho ca mt khung con c th khng c kh nng nh mt knh, do s phn bit tn s, v bn cht c th khc nhau gia hai khi. Mt cch thc thi tn hiu tham kho ng ln l to ra tn hiu tham kho min tn s XRS(k) vi di MRS tng ng vi bng thng c n nh (s lng sng mang con DFTS-OFDM c n nh hoc, tng ng vi kch thc DFT tc thi) v a n u vo ca mt IFFT, nh c minh ho trong hnh 4.30. Vic chn tin t tun hon sau c thc hin chnh xc nh i vi cc khi ng ln khc. Theo nhiu ngha, iu ny c th c xem nh vic xc nh tn hiu tham kho ng ln nh l mt tn hiu OFDM. Tuy nhin, ngi ta c th m t tng ng tn hiu tham kho ging nh mt tn hiu DFTS-OFDM bng cch n gin ly IDFT kch thc MRS ca chui XRS(k) min tn s. Chui kt qu sau c th a n qu trnh x l DFTS-OFDM c phc tho trong hnh 4.24.

Hnh 4.29 Tn hiu tham kho ng ln c chn vo trong khi th t ca mi khe thi gian ng ln. Gi s l tin t tun hon thng thng, tc l by khi trn mt khe v khng c nhy tn.

Hnh 4.30 Vic to tn hiu tham kho ng ln min tn s

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

87

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Cc tn hiu tham kho nn c nhng thuc tnh nh sau:

Bin khng i hoc hu nh khng i trn tuyn vi nhng c tnh c bn ca scheme truyn dn ng ln LTE (n sng mang PAR thp).

Thuc tnh t tng quan min thi gian tt cho php nh gi knh ng ln chnh xc. Cc chui vi thuc tnh ny thnh thong c xem nh cc chui CAZAC (Constant-Amplitude Zero-Auto-Correlation). Mt b chui vi thuc tnh CAZAC l b chui Zadoff-Chu. Trong min tn s, chui Zadoff-Chu di Mzc c th c biu th nh:
k (k + 1) X(u)ZC(k) = e -j u MZC

(4.1)

Vi l ch s ca chui Zadoff-Chu trong b chui Zadoff-Chu di MZC S lng chui Zadoff-Chu hiu lc a ra mt di chui no , l s gi tr c th c ca ch s u trong (4.1), bng vi s lng s nguyn c lin quan ch yu n di MZC. iu ny c ngha rng, c s lng chui Zadoff-Chu ln nht v do cui cng l s lng tn hiu tham kho ng ln c hiu lc s ln nht. Chui Zadoff-Chu c di tt nht th c a chung hn. Ti cng mt thi im, di MRS ca tn hiu tham kho ng ln min tn s nn c bng vi bng thng c n nh, tc l bi s ca 12 (kch thc khi ti nguyn) th hin nhin khng phi mt s tt nht. Do , chui Zadoff-Chu c di tt nht khng th c s dng mt cch trc tip nh tn hiu tham kho ng ln LTE. Thay vo tn hiu tham kho ng ln c chuyn ha t chui Zadoff-Chu c di tt nht. Hai phng php ly tn hiu tham kho ng ln di MRS t chui Zadoff-Chu di tt nht c nh ngha trong chun lp vt l LTE:
1.

Phng php 1 (s ct ct - truncation): Chui Zadoff-Chu c di MZC, trong MZC l s tt nht nh nht ln hn hoc bng MRS, b cht ct thnh di MRS. Phng php 2 (m rng theo chu k): Chui Zadoff-Chu di MZC, trong MZC l s tt nht ln nht nh hn hoc bng MRS, c m rng mt cch tun hon n di MRS.

2.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

88

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.31 Phng php to ra tn hiu tham kho ng ln t chui ZadoffChu di tt nht. Ch rng trong trng hp chung, c nhiu hn mt k t c th b ct ct (phng php 1) hoc c m rng theo chu k (phng php 2). Hai phng php ny c minh ha trong hnh 4.31. Cn lu rng hnh ny gi s khng phi trng hp no cng ct ct hoc m rng theo chu k ca mt k t n. Cho v d, nu di chui tham kho MRS=96, tng ng vi 8 khi ti nguyn, c mong mun, phng php 1 c th s dng chui Zadoff-Chu c di NZC=97 (mt s tt nht) nh mt im bt u. Tuy nhin, s tt nht ln nht nh hn hoc bng 96 l 89, ni rng phng php 2 s cn s dng chui Zadoff-Chu di NZC=89 nh im bt u v p dng vic m rng chu k 7 k t t n tn hiu tham kho c di 96 c mong mun. R rng, c hai phng php ny u gim quy m thuc tnh CAZAC ca tn hiu tham kho ng ln. Phng php ti u v mt duy tr tt nht thuc tnh CAZAC trong s nhng th khc ph thuc vo di chui tn hiu tham kho MRS hng ti. Do , c hai phng php u c ngha v c th c s dng, ph thuc vo di chui tn hiu tham kho c mong mun hoc tng ng vi kch thc ti nguyn c n nh. 4.3.2.1 Nhiu tn hiu tham kho Trong trng hp in hnh, mt u cui di ng n s pht trong mt ti nguyn c cho trc (mt tp hp sng mang con no trong sut mt khung no ) trong mt cell. Tuy nhin, trong cc cell ln cn, thng c truyn dn ng ln ng thi trong cng ti nguyn. Trong trng hp , iu quan trng l trnh tnh hung m hai u cui di ng trong cc cell ln cn s dng tn hiu tham kho ng ln ging nhau, khi s ko theo mt nguy c tim nng ca nhiu cao gia cc truyn dn tn hiu tham kho. Do , trong cc cell ln cn, cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln nn c da trn cc chui Zadoff-Chu khc nhau (t cc b chui Zadoff-Chu ging nhau), tc l cc
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 89 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

gi tr khc nhau cho ch s u trong cng thc (4.1). trnh vic lp k hoch cell qu phc tp, iu quan trng l s lng cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln c di no khng c qu nh. y l nguyn nhn ti sao tn hiu tham kho ng ln c da trn cc chui Zadoff-Chu di tt nht, ti a ha s lng chui vi mt di chui cho trc. Mt cch khc to ra nhiu tn hiu tham kho ng ln l da vo thuc tnh t tng quan zero ca cc chui Zadoff-Chu. Thuc tnh ny ng rng vic dch theo chu k mt chui Zadoff-Chu th trc giao vi chnh n. Do , nhiu tn hiu tham kho ng ln c th c to ra bng cch dch theo chu k tn hiu tham kho c bn ging nhau. Phng php ny c th c s dng khi hai cell c ng b vi nhau v thng trong trng hp cc cell thuc v cng eNodeB. Phng php cng c th c s dng nu c hai u cui di ng pht trn cng ti nguyn trong cng mt cell, n c th xy ra trong trng hp ng ln SDMA. 4.3.2.2 Tn hiu tham kho cho vic d knh Hoch nh (scheduling) ph thuc knh truyn ng xung, trong c min thi gian v min tn s l mt cng ngh LTE ch cht. Nh c tho lun trong chng trc, scheduling ph thuc knh truyn ng ln l vic n nh ti nguyn ng ln n mt u cui di ng ph thuc vo cht lng knh tc thi cng c th c s dng. Scheduling ph thuc knh truyn ng ln c th gia tng tc d liu t c v gim nhiu n cc cell khc, bng cch cho u cui di ng pht i trong cc bng tn s c cht lng tt cng mt lc. thc hin scheduling ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v tn s, cc nh gi cht lng knh min tn s l cn thit. Vi ng xung, iu ny c th c hon thnh bng cch u cui di ng o cht lng tn hiu tham kho ring-cell ng xung, n c pht trn ton b bng thng cell, v thng bo cht lng knh c nh gi n mng bng ch th cht lng knh (CQI-Channel Quality Indicator). Nh c thy trong hnh 4.29, cc tn hiu tham kho c s dng cho vic gii iu ch kt hp ng ln ch c pht trn bng thng c n nh t ng n mi u cui di ng. Cc tn hiu tham kho ny do c th khng c s dng bi mng nh gi cht lng knh ng ln
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 90 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

cho bt k tn s no khc hn tn s c n nh hin ti n u cui di ng v v vy c th khng cung cp thng tin cn thit cho scheduling ph thuc knh ng ln trong min tn s. h tr scheduling ph thuc knh min tn s ng ln, vic thm nhiu hn cc tn hiu tham kho bng rng do cng c th c pht trn ng ln LTE. Nhng k t tham kho ny c xem nh tn hiu tham kho d knh, phn bit chng vi cc k t tham kho (gii iu ch) c tho lun bn trn v c minh ha trong hnh 4.29. Nguyn l c bn cho cc tn hiu tham kho d knh th tng t nh nguyn l ca tn hiu tham kho gii iu ch. c bit hn, tn hiu tham kho d knh cng c da trn cc chui Zadoff-Chu di tt nht v c pht trong mt khi DFTS-OFDM hon ton. Tuy nhin, c vi iu khc nhau ch yu gia tn hiu tham kho d knh v tn hiu tham kho gii iu ch:

Nh c cp, cc tn hiu d knh thng c mt bng thng ln hn, c th l ln hn nhiu so vi ti nguyn ng ln c ch nh cho mt u cui di ng. Cc tn hiu tham kho d knh c th thm ch cn c pht bi cc u cui di ng m khng c ch nh bt k ti nguyn ng ln no cho truyn dn UL-SCH. Cc tn hiu tham kho d knh tiu biu khng cn thit phi pht thng xuyn nh cc tn hiu tham kho gii iu ch. Trong nhiu trng hp, cc tn hiu tham kho d knh s c pht t hn mt ln mi khung con. Phi c kh nng pht cc tn hiu tham kho d knh t nhiu u cui di ng trong cng bng tn.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

91

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.32 Truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho d knh ng ln Nu vic d knh c s dng trong mt cell, mng n nh r rng cc khi trong kin trc khung con ng ln cho truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho d knh, nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.32. Cc khi ny do khng c ngha cho truyn d liu (UL-SCH). Cc khi c n nh cho truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho d knh l ti nguyn c chia s, ngha l nhiu u cui di ng c th pht tn hiu tham kho trong cc ti nguyn ny. iu ny c th c thc hin theo nhiu cch khc nhau:

C th l mt khi c ch nh cho tn hiu tham kho d knh trong mi khung con. Tuy nhin, mi u cui di ng ch c th pht mt tn hiu tham kho d knh trong mi khung con th N, tc l N u cui di ng c th chia s ti nguyn trong min thi gian. Truyn dn tn hiu tham kho c th c phn tn, ngha l ch c truyn dn trn mi sng mang con th N (so snh vi tho lun truyn dn DFTS-OFDM phn tn trong chng trc). Bng cch cho cc u cui di ng khc nhau pht trn cc b sng mang khc nhau, m ti nguyn d knh c th c chia s trong min tn s. Cc u cui di ng khc nhau c th pht ng thi tn hiu tham kho ging nhau vi s dch chuyn theo chu k khc nhau. Nh c tho lun bn trn, cc php dch khc nhau ca chui
92 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Zadoff-Chu th trc giao vi nhau, vi iu kin l vic dch vt qu s phn tn thi gian knh. Trn thc t, s kt hp cc phng php ny c th c s dng chia s mt ti nguyn c n nh cho truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho d knh gia cc u cui di ng khc nhau trong mt cell.

Hnh 4.33 X l knh truyn ti ng ln LTE 4.3.3 X l knh truyn ti ng ln X l knh truyn ti ng ln LTE c th c phc tho theo hnh 4.33. Khi khng c ghp knh khng gian ng ln LTE, ch mt khi truyn ti n c pht cho mi TTI. Chn CRC: tng t nh ng xung, mt CRC c tnh ton v c thm vo mi khi truyn ti ng ln.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

93

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

M ha knh: M ha knh ng ln da vo m Turbo ging nhau, bao gm cng b xen r trong da trn QPP (QPP-based internal interleaver), nh c s dng cho ng xung.

Chc nng hybrid-ARQ lp vt l: Cc vn v hybridARQ ng ln LTE lp vt l th c bn ging nh chc nng ng xung tng ng, tc l chc nng lp vt l hybrid-ARQ trch t khi bit m ha c phn phi bi b m ha knh, cc b bit chnh xc truyn i trong ln pht hoc pht li. Ch rng, trong mt kha cnh no , c mt vi s khc nhau r rng gia giao thc hybrid-ARQ ng ln v ng xung, nh hot ng khng ng b so vi hot ng ng b. Tuy nhin, nhng khc nhau ny khng c phn nh trong kha cnh hybrid-ARQ lp vt l.

Ngu nhin ha mc bit: Tng t nh ng xung, ngu nhin ha mc bit cng c th c ng dng cho cc bit m trn ng ln LTE. Mc ch ca ngu nhin ha th ging nh cho ng xung, l ngu nhin ha nhiu v do m bo rng li ch qu trnh x l c cung cp bi m ha knh c th c s dng hon ton. t c iu ny, vic ngu nhin ha ng ln l nhim v ca u cui di ng, tc l cc u cui di ng khc nhau s dng cc chui ngu nhin ha khc nhau.

iu ch d liu: Tng t nh ng xung, iu ch d liu ng ln chuyn i khi bit c m ha/ngu nhin ha thnh khi k t iu ch phc tp. Cc nhm s iu ch c h tr cho ng ln LTE th tng t nh ng xung, tc l QPSK, 16QAM, v 64QAM, tng ng vi hai, bn v su bit trn mt k t iu ch.

Khi k t iu ch sau c a n x l DFTS-OFDM nh c phc ha trong hnh 4.24, n cng nh x tn hiu n bng tn c n nh.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

94

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

4.3.4 Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln Tng t nh ng xung LTE, vi ng ln cng cn bo hiu iu khin lin kt no (iu khin L1/L2 ng ln) h tr truyn dn cc knh truyn ti ng ln v ng xung (DL-SCH v UL-SCH). Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln bao gm:

Bo nhn Hybrid-ARQ cho cc khi truyn ti DL-SCH nhn c.

CQI (ch th cht lng knh), ch ra cht lng knh ng xung khi c nh gi bi u cui di ng. Tng t vi HSPA, bo co CQI c th c s dng bi mng cho scheduling ph thuc knh ng xung v iu khin tc . Tuy nhin, tri ngc vi HSPA v do thc t l scheduling ng xung LTE c th c thc hin trong c min thi gian v min tn s, bo co LTE CQI ch ra cht lng knh trong c min thi gian v tn s.

Cc yu cu scheduling, ch ra rng mt u cui di ng cn ti nguyn ng ln cho truyn dn UL-SCH.

Ngc vi ng xung, khng c bo hiu ng ln ch ra nh dng truyn ti UL-SCH n mng. iu ny c da trn gi thit rng u cui di ng lun lun i theo cc chp nhn scheduling thu c t mng, bao gm nh dng truyn ti UL-SCH c ch nh trong cc chp nhn nh c m t trong phn 3.2.3. Vi gi thuyt ny, mng s bit trc nh dng truyn ti c s dng cho truyn dn UL-SCH v khng c nguyn nhn bo hiu r rng n trn ng ln. Vi cc nguyn nhn tng t, cng khng c bo hiu r rng ca thng tin lin quan n hybrid-ARQ cho UL-SCH. Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln c nh ngha bn trn cn c pht trn ng ln bt chp u cui di ng c bt k d liu knh truyn ti ng ln (UL-SCH) pht hay khng v do bt k u cui di ng c n nh bt k ti nguyn ng ln no cho truyn dn UL-SCH hay khng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

95

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.34 Ghp knh d liu v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln trong trng hp truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH v iu khin L1/L2 Vi nguyn nhn ny, hai phng php khc nhau c th c s dng cho truyn dn bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln, ph thuc vo vic c hay khng u cui di ng c n nh mt ti nguyn ng ln cho truyn dn UL-SCH. 1. Ti nguyn ng ln c n nh (truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH): iu khin L1/L2 c ghp knh vi UL-SCH trc khi x l DFTS-OFDM. Khng c ti nguyn ng ln c n nh (khng truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH): iu khin L1/L2 c pht trn cc ti nguyn tn s c n nh ring cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln.

2.

Nu u cui di ng c n nh mt ti nguyn ng ln cho truyn dn UL-SCH, bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 m ha s c ghp knh vi d liu knh truyn ti c m ha v iu ch trc khi x l DFTS-OFDM, nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.34. iu ny c th c xem nh ghp knh theo thi gian ca d liu knh truyn ti v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 v duy tr thuc tnh n sng mang ca truyn dn ng ln. Nh bit, cn ch rng khi u cui di ng c ti nguyn ng ln ri, khng cn pht yu cu scheduling r rng nh phn ca bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. Do , iu khin L1/L2 ch bao gm CQI v bo nhn hybrid-ARQ. Cng cn ch rng, mng nhn bit y truyn dn bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 t mt u cui di ng no :

CQI c pht u n, trong nhng khong thi gian xc nh trc c bit bi h thng mng.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

96

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Bo nhn Hybrid-ARQ c pht nhng khong thi gian c th hp l lin quan n truyn dn ng xung tng ng (DL-SCH).

Do , mng c th trch phn knh truyn ti v phn knh iu khin L1/L2 pha thu mt cch chnh xc trc khi p dng gii m ring bit mi mu thng tin.

Hnh 4.35 Kin trc ti nguyn c s dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln trong trng hp khng truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH. Nu u cui di ng khng c n nh mt ti nguyn ng ln cho truyn dn UL-SCH, thng tin iu khin L1/L2 (CQI, bo nhn hybrid-ARQ, v yu cu scheduling) c pht thay th trong ti nguyn ng ln c n nh ring cho iu khin L1/L2. Nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.35, cc ti nguyn ny c t ra ca ton b bng thng h thng c gi tr. Mi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang con (mt khi ti nguyn) trong phm vi mi khe ca khung con ng ln. cung cp vic phn tp tn s, cc ti nguyn tn s ny th nhy tn trn ng bin gii ca khe, l mt ti nguyn iu khin L1/L2 bao gm 12 sng mang con phn pha trn ca ph trong khe u tin ca khung con v mt ti nguyn c kch thc nh nhau phn thp hn ca ph trong sut khe thi gian th hai ca khung con hoc ngc li. Nu nhiu ti nguyn hn c cn cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln, chng hn, trong trng hp ton b bng thng truyn dn rt ln h tr mt s lng ln ngi dng, cc khi ti nguyn thm vo c th c n nh k tip cc khi ti nguyn c n nh trc .

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

97

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Cc nguyn nhn cho vic t ti nguyn cho iu khin L1/L2 ra ca ton b ph gm hai phn:

Cng vi vic nhy tn c m t bn trn, iu ny s ti a ha s phn tp tn s c bit bi bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 n nh ti nguyn ng ln cho bo hiu iu khin cc v tr khc trong ph , chng hn khng ra, s lm b phn mnh ph ng ln, lm cho n khng c kh nng n nh bng thng truyn dn rt rng n mi u cui di ng n v vn duy tr thuc tnh n sng mang PAR thp ca truyn dn ng ln.

4.3.5 nh thi sm ng ln (Uplink timing advance) S truyn dn ng ln LTE da trn DFTS-OFDM cho php s trc giao ni t bo ng ln (uplink intra-cell orthogonality), ngha l truyn dn ng ln c nhn t cc u cui di ng khc nhau khng gy ra nhiu ln nhau ti u thu. Mt yu cu c bn cho s trc giao ng ln ny gi l cc tn hiu c pht t cc u cui di ng khc nhau trong cng khung con nhng trong cc ti nguyn tn s khc nhau vi thi gian n xp x c ng chnh trm gc, hoc c bit hn, vi ng chnh sai nh thi th ti a l mt thnh phn ca tin t tun hon. m bo iu ny, LTE bao gm mt c ch c bit nh nh thi sm. V nguyn l, iu ny ging nh iu khin nh thi truyn dn ng ln c tho lun cho OFDM ng ln trong nhng chng trc. V mt ngha, nh thi sm l s b m u cui di ng gia khi u ca khung con ng xung c nhn v khung con ng ln c pht. Bng cch ci t b b thch hp cho mi u cui di ng, mng c th iu khin nh thi ca cc tn hiu c nhn trm gc t cc u cui di ng. V tnh cht, cc u cui di ng xa trm gc s gp phi tr truyn ln hn v do cn bt u truyn dn ng ln ca chng sm hn mt cht, so vi u cui di ng gn trm gc, nh c minh ha trong hnh 4.36. Trong v d ny, u cui di ng u tin (MT-1) c t gn trm gc v chu tr truyn nh, TP,1. Do , vi u cui di ng ny, mt gi tr nh ca

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

98

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

b nh thi sm TA,1 b p tr truyn v m bo nh thi chnh xc trm gc. Mt khc, gi tr ln hn ca nh thi sm c yu cu cho u cui di ng th 2 (MT-2), n c t khong cch ln hn t trm gc v do chu tr truyn ln hn. Gi tr nh thi sm cho mi u cui di ng c xc nh bi mng da trn php o trn truyn dn ng ln tng ng. Do , khi mt u cui di ng thc hin truyn dn d liu ng ln, d liu ny c th c s dng bi trm gc thu nh gi nh thi thu ng ln v do l ngun cho cc iu khin nh thi sm. Ch rng bt k truyn dn ng ln no cng c th c s dng cho nh gi nh thi. V d, mng c th li dng cc truyn dn u n ca cc bo co cht lng knh trong ng ln cho nh gi nh thi khi vng mt truyn dn d liu t mt u cui di ng ring bit. Trong cch ny, u cui di ng c th lp tc khi ng li truyn dn d liu trc giao ng ln m khng cn giai on hiu chnh nh thi. Da trn cc o c ng ln, mng xc nh chnh xc nh thi c yu cu cho mi u cui. Nu nh thi ca mt u cui ring bit cn s chnh xc, mng pht ra mt lnh nh thi sm cho u cui di ng ring bit ny, ch th cho n n chm hoc sm nh thi ca n lin quan vi nh thi ng ln hin ti. Thng thng, cc lnh nh thi sm n mt u cui di ng c pht mt cch tng i khng thng xuyn, chng hn mt hoc vi ln trn mt giy. Nu u cui di ng khng pht bt k th g trn ng ln trong mt thi gian di hn, khng c truyn dn ng ln no c thc hin. Trong trng hp , hiu chnh thi gian ng ln c th b mt v vic khi ng li truyn dn d liu phi c i trc bi mt pha hiu chnh li nh thi s dng truy cp ngu nhin, nh c m t trong chng tip theo phc hi li hiu chnh thi gian ng ln.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

99

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 4.36 xut nh thi ng ln

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

100

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CHNG 5 CC TH TC TRUY CP LTE


Nhng chng trc m t cc s (scheme) truyn dn ng ln (uplink) v ng xung (downlink) LTE. Tuy nhin, trc khi truyn d liu, cc u cui di ng cn phi kt ni n h thng mng. Trong chng ny s m t cc th tc cn thit cho mt u cui c th truy cp vo mng da trn LTE. 5.1 D tm t bo (cell search) D tm cell l mt th tc bng cch u cui tm c mt cell c kh nng kt ni n. Nh mt phn ca th tc d tm cell, u cui thu c nhn dng ca cell v nh gi nh thi khung ca cell c nhn dng. Ngoi ra, th tc d tm cell cng cung cp vic nh gi cc thng s cn thit cho vic tip nhn thng tin h thng trn knh qung b (broadcast), bao gm cc thng s cn li c yu cu cho truy cp h thng. trnh vic lp k hoch cell b phc tp th s lng nhn dng cell lp vt l cn phi ln. Nh c cp trong chng 4, LTE h tr 510 nhn dng cell khc nhau, c chia thnh 170 nhm nhn dng cell, vi ba nhn dng cho mi nhm. gim s phc tp khi d tm cell, d tm cell cho LTE thng c thc hin qua nhiu bc, tng t nh th tc d tm cell ba bc ca WCDMA. tr gip cho cc u cui trong th tc ny, LTE cung cp 1 tn hiu ng b s cp (Primary Synchronization signal) v 1 tn hiu ng b th cp (secondary synchronization signal) trn ng xung. Cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp l cc dy s c bit, c chn vo hai k t OFDM cui cng ca khe thi gian u tin ca khung ph (subframe) 0 v 5 nh c minh ha trong hnh 5.1. Ngoi nhng tn hiu ng b, th tc d tm cell cng c th khai thc cc tn hiu tham kho nh mt phn trong hot ng ca n. 5.1.1 Th tc d tm cell (cell search) Trong bc u tin ca th tc d tm cell, u cui di ng s dng tn hiu ng b s cp tm nh thi trn mt c s 5 ms. Lu rng tn hiu ng b s cp c pht hai ln trn mi khung. L do l n gin ha vic chuyn giao t cc cng ngh truy cp v tuyn khc nh GSM n LTE. Do , tn hiu ng b s cp ch c th cung cp nh thi khung vi khong 5ms khng r rng. Vic thc thi ca thut ton nh gi l c trng ca nh khai thc, nhng mt kh nng l thc hin lc thch ng gia tn hiu thu c v cc chui c dnh ring cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Khi u ra ca b lc thch
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng 101 SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ng t n gi tr ti a ca n, u cui c th tm c nh thi trn 1 c s 5 ms. Bc u tin ca cng c th c s dng chn tn s b dao ng cc b ca u cui di ng n tn s sng mang trm gc. Vic chn tn s dao ng cc b n tn s trm gc lm ni lng cc yu cu chnh xc trn b dao ng ca thit b u cui di ng, kt qu l gim c chi ph. i vi cc nguyn nhn c tho lun di y, c ba chui khc nhau c th c s dng nh tn hiu ng b s cp. C mt php nh x (mapping) mt - mt (one-to-one) gia mi chui trong ba chui ny vi nhn dng cell trong cng 1 nhm nhn dng cell. Do , sau bc u tin, u cui tm c nhn dng trong nhm nhn dng cell. Hn na, khi c mt php nh x mt - mt gia mi nhn dng trong nhm nhn dng cell v mi chui trong ba chui trc giao c s dng khi to tn hiu tham kho theo nh m t trong chng 4, u cui cng thu c nhn bit tng phn v cu trc tn hiu tham kho trong bc ny. Tuy nhin, thit b u cui vn cha bit c nhm nhn dng t bo sau bc ny. Trong bc tip theo, u cui d tm nhm nhn dng cell v xc nh nh thi khung. iu ny c thc hin bi vic theo di cc cp khe thi gian m cc tn hiu ng b th cp c pht. V c bn, nu (s1, s2) l mt cp chui hp l, s1 v s2 ln lt tng ng vi tn hiu ng b th cp trong khung ph 0 v 5, cp ngc li (s2, s1) th khng phi l mt cp chui c gi tr. Bng cch li dng tnh cht ny, u cui c th phn gii nh thi 5 ms c c t bc u tin trong th tc d tm cell v xc nh c nh thi khung. Hn na, khi s kt hp (s1, s2) i din cho cc nhm nhn dng cell, nhm nhn dng cell cng thu c t bc th hai ca th tc d tm cell. T nhm nhn dng cell, u cui cng thu c nhng tin tc v vic chui gi-ngu nhin no c s dng cho vic to ra tn hiu tham kho trong cell. Mt khi th tc d tm cell c hon thnh, u cui nhn thng tin h thng c qung b c c cc thng s cn li, chng hn nh bng thng truyn dn c s dng trong cell.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

102

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 5.1 Tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp 5.1.2 Cu trc thi gian/tn s ca cc tn hiu ng b Cu trc thi gian/tn s tng qut va c m t vn tt bn trn v c minh ha trong hnh 5.1. Nh c thy trong hnh, cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp c pht i trong hai k t OFDM n sau. Cu trc ny c la chn cho php x l kt hp tn hiu ng b th cp u cui. Sau bc u tin, tn hiu ng b s cp c nhn bit v do c th c s dng cho vic nh gi knh. Vic nh gi knh ny sau c th c s dng cho vic x l kt hp tn hiu nhn c trc bc th hai ci thin hiu sut. Tuy nhin, s b tr ca cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp gn nhau cng ng rng u cui bc hai cn phi c lng c di tin t chu trnh d c th khng chnh xc. Nhng y l mt hot ng c phc tp thp. Trong nhiu trng hp, nh thi trong nhiu cell c ng b bt u khung cc cell ln cn trng khp nhau v mt thi gian. V mt ny mt nguyn nhn l cho php hot ng MBSFN. Tuy nhin hot ng ng b cng hm rng truyn dn ca cc tn hiu ng b s cp trong cc cell khc nhau xut hin cng mt thi im. nh gi knh truyn da trn tn hiu ng b s cp do s phn hi knh ghp (composite channel) t tt c cc cell nu tn hiu ng b s cp cng c s dng trong tt c cc cell. Mt cch hin nhin, vic gii iu ch kt hp ca tn hiu ng b th cp th khc nhau cc cell khc nhau, mt nh gi knh t cell c lin quan c yu cu, khng c nh gi knh ghp t tt c cc cell. Do , LTE h tr nhiu chui cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Trong trng hp thu nhn kt hp trong cc cell c trin khai

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

103

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

ng b v thi gian, cc cell ln cn c th s dng cc chui ng b s cp khc nhau lm nh bt vn nh gi knh truyn c m t trn. Hn na, nh c m t bn trn, tn hiu ng b s cp cng mang theo phn nhn dng cell.

Hnh 5.2 Vic pht tn hiu ng b trong min tn s T mt phi cnh TDD (TDD perspective), vic nh v tn hiu ng b on cui ca khe thi gian u tin trong khung ph (subframe), thay v khe th hai, th c li hn khi n mang li t hn ch hn trong vic to ra thi gian bo v gia ng ln v ng xung. Ni cch khc, nu cc tn hiu ng b c t trong khe thi gian cui cng ca khung ph, s khng c kh nng thu c thi gian bo v c yu cu cho TDD bi vic loi b cc k t OFDM ng xung nh c tho lun trong chng 4. Cng cn ch rng, i vi hot ng TDD, vic xc nh cc tn hiu ng b ng rng khung ph 0 v 5 lun lun l cc khung ph ng xung. Khi bt u th tc d tm cell, bng thng cell khng cn thit c nhn bit. V nguyn tc, vic d tm bng thng truyn dn c th l mt phn ca th tc d tm cell. Tuy nhin, iu ny s lm phc tp ton b th tc d tm cell, n ch thch hp duy tr th tc d tm cell ging nhau m khng k n ton b bng thng truyn dn cell. Khi u cui c th c thng bo v bng thng thc s trong cell t knh qung b. Do , duy tr cu trc min tn s ging nhau cho cc tn hiu ng b m khng k n bng thng h thng cell, cc tn hiu ng b lun lun c pht bng cch s dng 72 sng mang ph trung tm, tng ng vi mt bng thng khong 1 MHz. Hnh 5.2 minh ho vic pht sinh cc tn hiu ng b. 36 sng mang ph trn mi pha ca sng mang ph DC trong min tn s c dnh ring cho tn hiu ng b. Bng cch s dng mt IFFT, tn hiu min thi gian tng ng c th c to ra. ln ca IFFT, cng nh s sng mang ph t thnh 0 trong hnh 5.2, ph thuc vo bng thng h thng. Cc sng mang ph khng c s dng cho truyn dn tn hiu ng b th c th c s dng cho truyn dn d liu.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

104

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

5.1.3 D tm cell ban u v k cn Vic tm mt cell kt ni n sau khi u cui bt ngun r rng l mt vic quan trng. Tuy nhin, quan trng tng ng l kh nng nhn dng cc cell ng c cho s chuyn giao nh mt phn ca vic h tr tnh di ng, khi kt ni u cui c di chuyn t mt cell ny n mt cell khc. Hai tnh hung ny thng c xem nh l vic d tm cell ban u v d tm cell k cn. i vi d tm cell ban u, u cui thng khng bit tn s sng mang ca cc cell m n ang tm. x l trng hp ny, u cui cn d tm tn s sng mang ph hp, c bn bng cch lp li th tc bn trn cho bt k tn s sng mang c kh nng c a ra bi b qut tn s (frenquency raster). Hin nhin, iu ny c th thng lm gia tng thi gian c yu cu cho vic d tm cell, nhng cc yu cu v thi gian d tm cho vic tm kim cell ban u thng tng i l thoi mi. Cc phng php thc thi c bit cng c th c s dng lm gim thi gian t lc bt ngun n khi mt cell c tm thy. Chng hn, u cui c th s dng bt k thng tin b sung m n c v bt u d tm trn cng tn s sng mang m ln cui cng n c kt ni n. Mt khc, d tm cell ln cn c cc yu cu v thi gian kht khe hn. Vic d tm cell cng chm, s lm cho thit b u cui cng mt nhiu thi gian hn trc khi n c chuyn giao ti mt cell c cht lng v tuyn trung bnh tt hn. iu ny hin nhin s lm gim gi tr ton b hiu sut ph ca h thng. Tuy nhin, trong trng hp chuyn giao tn s bn trong (intra-frequency handover), u cui r rng khng cn tm tn s sng mang cc cell ln cn. Ngoi vic b qua vic d tm trn nhiu tn s sng mang ra, vic d tm cell ln cn tn s bn trong c th s dng cc th tc ging nh d tm cell ban u. Cc php o cho mc ch chuyn giao cng c yu cu khi u cui ang nhn d liu ng xung t mng. Do , u cui phi c kh nng thc hin vic d tm cell ln cn c trong nhng trng hp ny. Vi vic d tm cell ln cn tn s bn trong, iu ny khng phi l vn chnh khi cc cell ng c ln cn pht tn s ging vi tn s m u cui va nhn d liu trn. Vic nhn d liu v d tm cc cell ln cn l nhng chc nng bng gc ring bit n gin, hot ng trn cc tn hiu thu c ging nhau. Tuy nhin, trng hp chuyn giao tn s bn ngoi th phc tp hn v vic nhn d liu v d tm cell ln cn cn c thc hin cc tn s khc nhau. Vic trang b cho u cui mt mch thu RF ring bit cho d tm cell ln cn th khng phi l 1 gii php hn dn nu xt v mt phc tp, mc d v nguyn l l c th. Do , cc l hng khi truyn dn d liu c th c to ra, trong qu trnh u cui iu chnh li n mt tn s khc khi thc hin cc mc ch

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

105

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

o c tn s bn ngoi. iu ny c thc hin vi cch ging nh cho HSPA, c th bng cch trnh scheduling u cui trong mt hoc mt nhiu khung ph ng xung. 5.2 Truy cp ngu nhin Mt yu cu c bn cho bt k h thng t bo no l kh nng cho php u cui yu cu thit lp mt kt ni. iu ny thng c bit n nh l truy cp ngu nhin v n phc v hai mc ch chnh trong LTE, l vic thit lp ng b ng ln, v thit lp mt nhn dng u cui duy nht, C-RNTI, c bit i vi c h thng mng v thit b u cui. Do , truy cp ngu nhin khng ch c s dng cho truy cp ban u, ngha l, khi di chuyn t LTE_DETACHED hoc LTE_IDLE n LTE_ACTIVE (xem chng 3 trong phn tho lun ca cc trng thi u cui khc nhau), m cn sau nhng giai on ca tnh trng khng tch cc ng ln khi ng b ng ln b mt trong LTE_ACTIVE.

Hnh 5.3 Tng quan ca th tc truy cp ngu nhin Ton b th tc truy cp ngu nhin c minh ho trong hnh 5.3, bao gm bn bc:
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

106

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

1. Bc u tin bao gm vic truyn dn phn m u (preamble) truy cp

ngu nhin, cho php eNodeB nh gi nh thi truyn dn ca u cui. ng b ng ln th cn thit khi u cui khng th pht bt k d liu ng ln no.
2. Bc th hai bao gm: mng pht mt lnh nh thi sm (a timing

advance command) iu chnh nh thi pht u cui, da trn cc php o nh thi bc u tin. Ngoi vic thit lp ng b ng ln, bc th hai cng n nh ngun ti nguyn ng ln n u cui c s dng trong bc th ba ca th tc truy cp ngu nhin.
3. Bc th ba bao gm vic truyn dn nhn dng u cui di ng n

mng bng cch s dng UL-SCH tng t vi d liu c hoch nh (scheduled) thng thng. Ni dung chnh xc ca bo hiu ny ph thuc vo trng thi ca u cui, d n c c bit trc i vi mng hay khng.
4. Bc th t v cng l bc cui cng bao gm vic truyn dn mt thng

ip gii quyt tranh chp (a contention-resolution message) t mng n u cui trn knh DL-SCH. Bc ny cng gii quyt bt c s tranh chp no xy ra do nhiu u cui tm cch truy cp vo h thng s dng ngun ti nguyn truy cp ngu nhin ging nhau. Ch c bc u tin s dng quy trnh lp vt l c thit k ring cho truy cp ngu nhin. Ba bc cui cng u s dng quy trnh lp vt l ging nh c s dng cho truyn dn d liu ng ln v ng xung thng thng. Trong phn tip theo, nhng bc ny s c m t chi tit hn. 5.2.1 Bc 1: Truyn dn Preamble truy cp ngu nhin Bc u tin trong th tc truy cp ngu nhin l truyn dn mt preamble truy cp ngu nhin. Mc ch chnh ca preamble l ch th cho mng s c mt ca mt th nghim (attempt) truy cp ngu nhin v thu c ng b thi gian ng ln trong mt phn ca tin t tun hon (cyclic prefix) ng ln. Nhn chung, truyn dn preamble truy cp ngu nhin c th l trc giao hoc khng trc giao i vi d liu ngi dng. Trong WCDMA, preamble th khng trc giao i vi truyn dn d liu ng ln. iu ny em li li ch trong vic khng phi cp pht bt c ngun ti nguyn no cho truy cp ngu nhin mt cch bn tnh. Tuy nhin, kim sot nhiu gia truy cp ngu nhin vi d liu, cng sut pht ca preamble truy cp ngu nhin phi c iu khin mt cch cn thn. Trong WCDMA, iu ny c gii quyt nh th tc bin i

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

107

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

cng sut (power-ramping), khi u cui s gia tng t t cng sut ca preamble truy cp ngu nhin n khi n c d tm thnh cng ti trm gc. Mc d y l gii php ph hp vi vn nhiu, nhng th tc ramping li gy ra tr trong ton b th tc truy cp ngu nhin. Do , t tr ny m th tc truy cp ngu nhin khng i hi bin i cng sut li tr nn c li. Trong LTE, vic truyn dn ca preamble truy cp ngu nhin c th c thc hin trc giao vi cc truyn dn d liu ngi dng ng ln v nh vy, th tc bin i cng sut l khng cn thit (mc d cc c tnh k thut cho php ramping). Trc giao gia d liu ngi dng c pht t cc u cui khc nhau v cc th nghim truy cp ngu nhin u thc thin c c min thi gian v tn s. Mng s pht qung b ti tt c cc u cui thng tin v vic: trong ti nguyn thi gian tn s no th truyn dn preamble truy cp ngu nhin c cho php. trnh nhiu gia d liu v cc preamble truy cp ngu nhin, mng s trnh sp xp bt k truyn dn ng ln no ngun ti nguyn thi gian v tn s . iu ny c minh ho trong hnh 5.4. T n v thi gian c bn cho truyn dn d liu trong LTE l 1 ms, mt khung ph s c dnh ring cho truyn dn preamble. Trong cc ti nguyn c dnh ring, preamle truy cp ngu nhin s c pht i.

Hnh 5.7 Minh ha nguyn l ca truyn dn preamble truy cp ngu nhin.

Trong min tn s, preamble truy cp ngu nhin c mt bng thng tng ng vi su khi ti nguyn (1.08 MHz). iu ny kh ph hp vi bng thng nh nht m LTE c th hot ng, su khi ti nguyn ny c tho lun trong chng 4. Do , cu trc preamble truy cp ngu nhin ging nhau c th c s dng, khng k n bng thng truyn dn trong cell. Vi nhng trin khai s dng cc phn b ph ln hn, nhiu ngun ti nguyn truy cp ngu nhin c th c xc nh trong min tn s, mang li s gia tng v dung lng truy cp ngu nhin.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

108

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Trc khi truyn dn preamble, u cui thc hin mt th nghim truy cp ngu nhin thu c ng b ng xung t th tc d tm cell. Tuy nhin nh thi ng ln th cha c thit lp. Bt u ca mt khung ng ln u cui c xc nh c lin quan vi bt u ca khung ng xung u cui. Do tr truyn gia trm gc v u cui, truyn dn ng ln do s b tr tng i vi nh thi truyn dn ng xung trm gc. Do , khi khong cch gia trm gc v u cui khng c bit, s c mt s khng chc chn trong nh thi ng ln tng ng vi hai ln khong cch gia trm gc v u cui, ln ti 6.7 s/km. tnh ton cho s khng chc chn ny v trnh nhiu vi cc khung ph tip theo m khng c s dng cho truy cp ngu nhin, mt khong thi gian bo v s c s dng, ngha di ca preamble thc t s ngn hn 1ms. Hnh 5.5 minh ho di preamble v khong thi gian bo v. Vi di preamble LTE xp x 0.9 ms, 0.1 ms thi gian bo v cho php kch thc cell ln n 15 km. cc cell ln hn, s khng chc chn v nh thi c th ln hn khong thi gian bo v c bn, khong thi gian bo v b sung c th c to ra bng cch khng sp xp (scheduling) bt c truyn dn ng ln trong khung ph theo sau ti nguyn truy cp ngu nhin. Preamble c da trn Zadoff-Chu (ZC), chui [131] v chui dch tun hon ca n. Cc chui Zadoff-Chu cng c s dng cho vic to ra tn hiu tham kho nh c m t trong chng 4, m t cu trc ca cc chui ny. T mi chui Zadoff-Chu gc X (u ) (k), chui dch tun hon m-1 c to ra ZC bng cch dch tun hon mi [Mzc/m], vi MZC l di ca chui Zadoff-Chu gc.

Hnh 5.5 nh thi Preamble eNodeB cho ngi s dng truy cp ngu nhin khc nhau

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

109

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 5.6 Vic pht preamble truy cp ngu nhin Chui ZC dch tun hon s hu nhiu thuc tnh hp dn. Bin ca chui l khng i, iu m bo vic s dng b khuch i cng sut hiu qu v duy tr thuc tnh PAR thp ca ng ln n sng mang. Cc chui cng c s t tng quan tun hon l tng (auto-correlation), iu ny th quan trng cho vic thu nh gi nh thi chnh xc eNodeB. Cui cng, s tng quan cho gia cc preamble khc nhau da trn s dch chuyn tun hon [N/m] c s dng khi pht cc preamble ln hn thi gian truyn kh hi ln nht cng vi tr truyn ln nht ca knh. V vy, nh thuc tnh tng quan cho l tng, m khng c nhiu bn trong cell do nhiu th nghim truy cp ngu nhin s dng cc preamble c ly t chui gc Zadoff-Chu ging nhau. Vic sinh ra preamble truy cp ngu nhin c minh ho trong hnh 5.6. Mc d hnh ny minh ho vic pht trong min thi gian, nhng vic pht trong min tn s c th c s dng nh nhau trong mt s thc thi. Hn na, cho php vic x l min tn s trm gc (c tho lun nhiu hn bn di), mt tin t tun hon c bao gm trong vic to ra preamble.

Hnh 5.7 Vic d tm Preamle truy cp ngu nhin trong min tn s

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

110

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Cc chui Preamble c chia thnh nhiu nhm, mi nhm l 64 chui. Nh mt phn ca cu hnh h thng, mi cell c ch nh mt nhm bng cch xc nh mt hoc nhiu chui Zadoff-Chu gc v cc dch chuyn tun hon c yu cu to ra tp hp cc preamble. S lng nhm cn ln trnh s cn thit cho vic lp k hoch chui cn thn gia cc cell. Khi thc hin mt th nghim truy cp ngu nhin, u cui la chn mt chui ngu nhin t b chui c cp pht n cell m u cui ang c gng truy cp. Ch cn khng c u cui no khc thc hin mt th nghim truy cp ngu nhin bng cch s dng cng mt chui ti cng mt thi im th s khng c xung t xy ra v s th nghim s c pht hin bi mng vi mt kh nng rt cao. X l trm gc l mt c im thc thi, nhng nh tin t tun hon nm trong preamle, vic x l min tn s s c phc tp thp hn. Mt v d v iu ny s c ch ra trong hnh 5.7. Cc mu trn mt ca s c thu thp v chuyn i n thnh biu din trong min tn s bng cch s dng FFT. di ca s l 0.8 ms, n bng vi di ca chui ZC khng c tin t tun hon. iu ny cho php x l s khng chc chn v nh thi ln n 0.1ms v n ph hp vi khong thi gian bo v c xc nh. u ra ca FFT, biu din tn hiu thu c trong min tn s, c nhn vi biu din min tn s lin hp phc tp (the complex-conjugate frequencydomain representation) ca chui Zadoff-Chu gc v kt qu s c a qua mt IFFT. Bng cch quan st u ra IFFT, n c kh nng pht hin ra s dch chuyn ca chui Zadoff-Chu gc no c pht i v tr ca n. V c bn, nh ca u ra IFFT trong khong i tng ng vi chui c dch tun hon th i v tr c cho bi v tr ca nh trong khong. Vic thc thi min tn s ny th hiu qu v mt tnh ton v cho php pht hin ra nhiu th nghim truy cp ngu nhin s dng cc chui dch tun hon khc nhau c to ra t cng mt chui Zadoff-Chu gc; trong trng hp c nhiu s th nghim th s ch c mt nh trong mi khong tng ng. 5.2.2 Bc 2: p ng truy cp ngu nhin Trong p ng cho th nghim truy cp ngu nhin c pht hin, mng s pht mt thng ip trn DL-SCH, nh bc th hai ca th tc truy cp ngu nhin, bao gm:

Ch s (index) ca chui preamle truy cp ngu nhin m mng tm thy v nh vic p ng c hiu lc.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

111

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

iu chnh nh thi c tnh ton bi u thu preamle truy cp ngu nhin. Mt chp hn hoch nh, ch ra cc ngun ti nguyn m u cui s s dng cho vic truyn dn thng ip trong bc th ba. Mt nhn dng tm thi c s dng nhng thng tin lin lc khc gia u cui v mng.

Trong trng hp mng pht hin ra c nhiu th nghim truy cp ngu nhin (t cc u cui khc nhau), cc thng ip p ng ring bit ca nhiu u cui di ng c th c kt hp trong mt truyn dn duy nht. Do , cc thng ip p ng c sp xp trn DL-SCH v c biu th trn mt knh iu khin L1/L2 bng cch s dng mt nhn dng c dnh ring cho p ng truy cp ngu nhin. Tt c cc u cui pht preamble s gim st cc knh iu khin L1/L2 p ng truy cp ngu nhin. Trong c tnh k thut, nh thi ca thng ip p ng th khng c nh - c th p ng cho nhiu truy cp ng thi mt cch y . N cng mt vi linh hot trong s thc thi trm gc. Khi cc u cui thc hin truy cp ngu nhin ngun ti nguyn ging nhau s dng preamble khc nhau, s khng c xung t xut hin v t bo hiu ng xung n s a n cc u cui thng tin c lin quan. Tuy nhin, vn c mt kh nng chc chn ca s tranh chp, l khi nhiu u cui s dng preamble truy cp ngu nhin cng thi im. Trong trng hp ny, nhiu u cui s phn ng li trn thng ip p ng ging nhau v tranh chp xut hin. Vic gii quyt cc tranh chp ny l mt phn ca bc tip theo nh c tho lun bn di. Tranh chp cng l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn ti sao hybrid ARQ th khng c s dng cho truyn dn p ng truy cp ngu nhin. Khi mt u cui thu mt p ng truy cp ngu nhin c d nh cho cc u cui khc th s b sai v nh thi ng ln. Nu hybrid ARQ c s dng, nh thi ca ACK/NAK cho mt u cui nh vy s khng ng v c th gy nhiu lon bo hiu iu khin ng ln t nhng ngi s dng khc. Trong lc thu nhn p ng truy cp ngu nhin trong bc hai, u cui s iu chnh nh thi truyn dn ng ln ca n v tip tc n bc th ba. 5.2.3 Bc 3: Nhn dng u cui Sau bc th hai, ng ln ca u cui c ng b thi gian. Tuy nhin, trc khi d liu ngi dng c th c pht n/t u cui, mt nhn dng duy nht trong cell (C-RNTI) phi c n nh n u cui. Ph thuc vo trng thi u cui, cng c th cn n vic trao i thng ip b sung.
GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

112

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Trong bc th ba, u cui pht cc thng ip cn thit n mng s dng cc ngun ti nguyn c n nh trong p ng truy cp ngu nhin bc hai. Vic truyn cc thng ip ng ln vi cng cch ging nh khi d liu ng ln c hoch nh thay v gn n vi preamble bc th nht s c li hn do nhiu nguyn nhn. u tin l lng thng tin c pht trong s vng mt ng b ng ln nn c gim thiu khi nhu cu cho mt khong thi gian bo v ln to ra truyn dn nh vy s lin quan n chi ph. Th hai, vic s dng s pht ng ln thng thng cho truyn dn thng ip cho php iu chnh n s iu ch v kch thc cho php (grant size), chng hn, cc iu kin v tuyn khc nhau. Cui cng, n cho php s dng hybrid ARQ vi s kt hp mm cho thng ip ng ln. Mt kha cnh quan trng sau cng, nht l trong vin cnh gii hn v vng ph sng, khi n cho php s dng mt hoc nhiu s truyn li tp hp nng lng cho bo hiu ng ln m bo kh nng ln ca truyn dn thnh cng. Ch rng truyn li RLC khng c s dng cho bo hiu RRC ng ln trong bc ba. Mt phn quan trng ca thng ip ng ln bao gm mt nhn dng u cui v nhn dng ny s c s dng nh mt phn ca c ch gii quyt tranh chp trong bc bn. Khi trng hp u cui trong trng thi LTE_ACTIVE, ngha l n c kt ni n mt cell c nhn bit v do c mt C-RNTI c n nh, C-RNTI ny c s dng nh nhn dng u cui trong thng ip ng ln. Mc khc, mt nhn dng u cui mng li c s dng v mng truy cp v tuyn cn bao hm (involve) mng li trc khi p ng thng ip ng ln trong bc 3. 5.2.4 Bc 4: Gii quyt tranh chp Bc cui cng trong th tc truy cp ngu nhin bao gm mt thng ip ng xung cho vic gii quyt tranh chp. Ch rng t bc th hai, nhiu u cui thc hin th truy cp ngu nhin ng thi s dng chui preamble ging nhau trong bc u tin s nghe c thng ip p ng ging nhau trong bc th hai v do c nhn dng tm thi ging nhau. V vy, trong bc th t, mi u cui nhn thng ip ng xung s so snh nhn dng trong thng ip vi nhn dng m chng pht trong bc th 3. Ch mt u cui c c s trng nhau gia nhn dng c nhn trong bc 4 v nhn dng pht i nh mt phn ca bc th ba s thit lp th tc truy cp ngu nhin thnh cng. Nu u cui cha c n nh mt C-RNTI, nhn dng tm thi t bc th hai c bt n C-RNTI; nu khng u cui s gi C-RNTI m n va c n nh.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

113

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Thng ip gii quyt tranh chp c pht trn DL-SCH, s dng nhn dng tm thi t bc th hai cho vic nh v thit b u cui trn knh iu khin L1/L2. K t khi ng b ng ln c thit lp, hybrid ARQ s c ng dng cho bo hiu ng xung trong bc ny. Cc u cui c s ph hp gia nhn dng m chng pht i trong bc th ba v thng ip nhn c trong bc th t cng s pht mt bo nhn hybrid ARQ trn ng ln. Cc u cui khng tm c s ph hp gia nhn dng c nhn trong bc 4 v nhn dng tng ng c pht i nh mt phn ca bc th 3 s c xem nh l tht bi trong th tc truy cp ngu nhin v cn khi ng li th tc truy cp ngu nhin t bc 1. Hin nhin, khng c phn hi hybrid ARQ no c pht i t cc u cui ny. 5.3 Paging Paging c s dng cho thit lp kt ni khi to mng. Mt giao thc paging hiu qu s cho php u cui ng m khng cn x l my thu trong hu ht thi gian cho n khi n thc dy nhng khong thi gian c xc nh trc gim st thng tin paging t mng. Trong WCDMA, mt knh ch th paging ring r c gim st nhng khong thi gian c xc nh trc, c s dng ch th n cc u cui rng thng tin paging ang c pht. V ch th paging ngn hn mt cch ng k so vi khong thi gian thng tin paging, iu ny s lm ti thiu thi gian u cui c nh thc. Trong LTE, khng s dng knh ch th paging ring r v kh nng tit kim cng sut l rt nh do khong thi gian ngn ca bo hiu iu khin, ti a ba k t OFDM nh c m t trong chng 4. Thay vo , c ch ging nh truyn dn d liu ng xung trn DL-SCH c s dng v u cui di ng s gim st bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 cho vic n nh k hoch ng xung. Mt chu trnh DRX c nh ngha, n cho php u cui ngh ngi trong hu ht thi gian v ch thc dy gim st bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. Nu u pht hin ra mt nhm nhn dng c s dng cho paging khi n thc dy, n s x l thng ip paging tng ng c pht trn ng xung. Thng ip paging bao gm nhn dng ca cc u cui ang c tm gi v mt u cui khng tm thy nhn dng ca n s loi b thng tin c nhn v ngh ngi theo chu trnh DRX. Hin nhin, khi nh thi ng ln khng c nhn bit trong sut chu trnh DRX, s khng c bo hiu ACK/NAK no c th xy ra v nh vy hybrid ARQ vi s kt hp mm khng th c s dng cho cc thng ip paging. Chu trnh DRX cho paging c minh ho trong hnh 5.8.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

114

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Hnh 5.8 Vic nhn khng lin tc (DRX) cho paging.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

115

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

KT LUN
Sau gn 3 thng lm n, c s ch dn tn tnh ca thy Trn Xun Trng, cng nh s ng vin v ng h t gia nh cng b bn gip cho ti hon thnh n ny. y cng chnh l dp ti c th t cng c, hon thin v nng cao kin thc ca mnh. Theo ng nh yu cu ra t trc, n ny lm ni bt nhng u im ca cng ngh LTE, cng nh cc k thut tin tin c s dng trong cng ngh ny. Tuy vn cn ang c tip tc nghin cu, th nghim v pht trin nhng vi nhng kt qu bc u rt kh quan cng nh li th v kin trc mng n gin v kh nng d dng tch hp vi cc mng 3G v 2G hin ti m khng cn thay i ton b c s h tng mng c, cng ngh LTE chng t c tim nng mnh m ca mnh so vi cc cng ngh i th m in hnh l WiMAX. Cho d c ra i mun hn so vi WiMAX ( c trin khai trn th trng), cng ngh LTE mi ny vn c tnh cnh tranh cao trong tng lai, v ngoi nhng u im sn c, LTE cn nhn c rt nhiu s ng h ca cc i gia trong ngnh cng ngh vin thng, nh Ericsson, Nokia-Siemens Networks, AlcatelLucent, T-Mobile, Vodafone, v cc tp on ln khc mi gia nhp nh China Mobile, Huawei, LG Electronics, NTT DoCoMo v Samsung.

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

116

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

CC THUT NG V T VIT TT
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project T chc chun ha mng di ng th h th 3 H thng antenna thch ng Bo nhn (trong giao thc ARQ) H s r r knh ln cn Cng truy nhp Ch bo nhn (cu hnh RLC) M ha v iu ch thch nghi Yu cu lp li t ng

A
AAS ACK ACLR AGW AM AMC ARQ Adaptive Antenna System Acknowledgement (In ARQ Protocols) Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio Access Gateway (in LTE/SAE) Acknowledged Mode (RLC Configuration) Adaptive Modulation And Coding Automatic RepeatRequest

B
BCCH BCH BER BLER BM-SC BPSK BS BSC BTC BTS Broadcast Control Channel Broadcast Channel Bit-Error Rate Block-Error Rate Broadcast/Multicast Service Center Binary Phase-Shift Keying Base Station Base Station Controller Block Turbo Code Base Transceiver Station Convolutional Code Code-Division Multiplexing Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Cyclic Prefix Continuous Packet Connectivity Common Pilot Channel Channel Quality Indicator Cyclic Redundancy Knh iu khin qung b Knh qung b T l li bit T l li khi Trung tm dch v broadcast/multicast Kha dch pha nh phn Trm gc Khi iu khin trm gc M turbo khi Trm thu pht gc M chp Ghp knh phn chia theo m a truy nhp phn chia theo m Mng li Tin t tun hon Kh nng kt ni gi lin tc Knh hoa tiu chung Ch th cht lng knh truyn Kim tra tnh d tun hon SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

C
CC CDM CDMA CN CP CPC CPICH CQI CRC

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

117

n tt nghip rng CS Check Circuit Switched

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

Chuyn mch knh Knh iu khin dnh ring Knh dnh ring Cn bng hi tip quyt nh Bin i fourier ri rc OFDM tri ph DFT, cng c xem nh l SC-FDMA ng xung Knh chia s ng xung Knh iu khin vt l dnh ring Knh vt l dnh ring Knh d liu vt l dnh ring S thu nhn khng lin tc Knh lu lng dnh ring S pht khng lin tc

D
DCCH DCH DFE DFT DFTS-OFDM DL DL-SCH DPCCH DPCH DPDCH DRX DTCH DTX Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Channel Decision Feedback Equalization Discrete Fourier Transform DFT-Spread OFDM, See Also SC-FDMA Downlink Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel Discontinuous Reception Dedicated Traffic Channel Discontinuous Transmission Enhanced Dedicated Channel E-UTRAN NodeB Evolved Packet Core European Telecommunication Standards Institute Federal Communications Commission Frequency Division Duplex Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiple Access Fast Fourier Transform

E
E-DCH eNodeB EPC ETSI Knh dnh ring nng cao NodeB E-UTRAN Li gi ci tin Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u

F
FCC FDD FDM FDMA FFT Hi ng truyn thng lin bang Song cng phn chia theo tn s Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s Bin i fourier nhanh Mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM EDGE Dch v v tuyn gi tng hp

G
GERAN GPRS GSM EDGE RAN General Packet Radio Services

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

118

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng GSM

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng Global Sytem For Mobile H thng truyn thng di ng ton Communications cu

H
HARQ HSCSD HLR HS-DSCH HSDPA HSPA HSUPA Hybrid ARQ High Speed Circuit Switched Data Home Location Register High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Packet Access High Speed Uplink Packet Access Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers Inverse FFT IP Multimedia Subsystem International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 Incremental Redundancy International Telecommunications Union Long Term Evolution ARQ hn hp D liu chuyn mch knh tc cao Thanh ghi nh v thng tr Knh chia s ng xung tc cao Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao Truy nhp gi tc cao Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao

I
IEEE IFFT IMS IMT-2000 IR ITU Vin k s in v in t FFT o ngc H thng con a truyn thng IP Vin thng di ng quc t 2000 S d tha gia tng Hip hi vin thng quc t

L
LTE S pht trin di hn iu khin truy nhp mi trng Broadcast a truyn thng/dch v multicast Dch v multicast v broadcast Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra Trung tm chuyn mch di ng Bo nhn tht bi (trong giao thc ARQ) Mt node logic iu khin vic pht v thu trong nhiu t bo. C khi cn xem nh tng ng vi mt trm gc.

M
MAC MBMS MBS MIMO MSC Medium Access Control Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service Multicast And Broadcast Service Multiple Input Multiple Ouput Mobile Switching Center

N
NAK NodeB Negative Acknowledgement (In ARQ Protocols) NodeB, a logical node handling transmission/reception in

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

119

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng multiple cells. Commonly, but not necessarily, corresponding to a base station

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

O
OFDM OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Peak to Average Power Ratio Peak to Average Ratio Paging Control Channel Paging Channel Pre-coding Control Indication Physical Downlink Control Channel Packet Data Convergence Protocol Physical Downlink Shared Channel Protocol Data Unit Physical layer Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quality of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao H s cng sut nh trn trung bnh H s nh trn trung bnh (ging nh PAPR) Knh iu khin tm gi Knh tm gi Ch th iu khin tin m ha Knh iu khin ng xung vt l Giao thc hi t d liu gi Knh chia s ng xung vt l n v d liu giao thc Lp vt l iu ch bin cu phng Cht lng dch v Kha dch pha cu phng Mng truy nhp v tuyn Khi ti nguyn Tn s v tuyn Giao thc lin kt v tuyn Khi iu khin mng v tuyn Nn tiu mnh m iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn K hiu tham kho S th t truyn li FDMA n sng mang

P
PAPR PAR PCCH PCH PCI PDCCH PDCP PDSCH PDU PHY

Q
QAM QoS QPSK

R
RAN RB RF RLC RNC ROHC RRC RS RSN Radio Access Network Resource Block Radio Frequency Radio Link Protocol Radio Network Controller Robust Header Compression Radio Resource Control Reference Symbol Retransmission Sequence Number

S
SC-FDMA Single Carrier FDMA

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

120

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng SDMA SFBC SIR SNR Spatial Division Multiple Access Space Frequency Block Coding Signal To Interference Ratio Signal To Noise Ratio

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian M ha khi khng gian-tn s H s tn hiu trn nhiu H s tn hiu trn tp m a truy nhp phn chia theo m v thi gian Song cng phn chia thi gian Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian a truy nhp phn chia theo m ng b, phn chia theo thi gian nh dng truyn ti S kt hp nh dng truyn ti Ch trong sut (cu hnh RLC) Khong thi gian truyn dn

T
TD-CDMA TDD TDM TDMA TD-SCDMA TF TFC TM TTI Time Dvision-Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Duplex Time Division Multiplexing Time Division Multiple Access Time DivisionSynchronous Code Division Multiple Access Transport Format Transport Format Combination Transparent Mode (RLC Configuration) Transmission Time Interval User Equipment, the 3GPP name for the mobile terminal Uplink Uplink Shared Channel Unacknowledgement Mode (RLC Configuration) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Voice Over IP

U
UE UL UL-SCH UM UMTS UTRA UTRAN Thit b ngi dng, tn 3GPP t cho thit b u cui di ng ng ln Knh chia s ng ln Ch khng bo nhn (cu hnh RLC) H thng vin thng di ng ton cu Truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton cu Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton cu a truy nhp bng rng phn chia theo m Thoi qua IP Chui Zadoff-Chu

W
WCDMA

V
VoIP

Z
ZC Zadoff-Chu

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

121

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skld and Per Beming, 3G Evolution HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband, Academic Press, 2007 [2] Rysavy Research, EDGE, HSPA and LTE broadband innovation, 3G Americas, 2008 [3] The mobile broadband evolution: 3GPP Release 8 and beyond HSPA+, SAE/LTE and LTE-advanced, 3G Americas, 2009 [4] H. Ekstrm, A. Furuskr, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner and M. Wahlqvist, Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-term Evolution, IEEE Communications Magazine, March 2006 [5] WiMax v LTE: Chin hay ha?, Tp ch PCWorld Vit Nam, 2008 [6] www.tapchibcvt.gov.vn [7] www.thongtincongnghe.com [8] www.ieee.org [9] www.3gpp.org

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

122

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm

n tt nghip rng

Cng ngh LTE cho mng di ng bng

GVHD: ThS. Trn Xun Trng

123

SVTH: Nguyn Minh Tm