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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
Processing Next. Printer. the computer functions through four stages: input. Computer Process From the IT perspective. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). the computer processes your data. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. Some PCs won’t have speakers. The following are the standard set: Monitor . most computers must have a standard set of peripherals.Speakers provide sound output. Keyboard . and output. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. A computer inputs information.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer.Provides printed paper output. process it. Mouse . . process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. stores and makes the output of the information. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. storage. Speakers/headphones . processing.To provide input and output.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system.Keypad for providing keyed input. mouse. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. Based on a typewriter. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals.
the most visible of which are the external storage parts. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD).2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. storing procedure comes next. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. After storing the data. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. A lot of devices are used in the storage process.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. Output is the result we get through output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. It might send the data over to the printer. Figure 1. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 1. .
a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. Use the right kind of tools. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1.5).Figure 1.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. Figure 1. . a nut driver or two.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. Figure 1. a pair of tweezers. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1.4). the computer.4 Anti-static bag 2. a little grabber tool. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench.3. and any loose components at the same electrical potential.
Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. 8. 6. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. 10. 17.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. 18. 4. 16. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. 9. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. Beware of sharp edges. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. 7. 20.Figure 1. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. 11. 15. 5. 19. 14. trash can and fire exit. 13. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. Check voltage requirement. .
. 2. The monitor provides visual output for the computer.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. 8. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 5. 3. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. 4. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 7.3. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit.1. 10. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. 9. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer.3 Exercises 1. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. 6.
1 System Unit The system case.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. mini-tower. mid-tower. Figure 2. Figure 2. desktop. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. tower. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment. and cube.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case.1 System Unit – front and back .
Connections such as USB. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Including power supply .distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. Figure 2. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections.2).Buttons used to turn the system on and off. CD-ROM. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. and DVD drives are in the front of the case.2 Onboard Devices .
First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V .2. Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1. and 3.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.3 .3-volt current to support onboard electronics.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5. .3 V DC. Figure 2. 12.1. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.0 . PCs use a 5-volt/3.Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2.3).2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.
add-on fans. extra video card power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive.Table 2.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . optical drive. supplemental motherboard power.
surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.4).4 Uninterruptible power supply . It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power.Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. Figure 2.
2. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. When power is turned off. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. When you start a computer. Most RAM is volatile. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. it loses its contents. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. While it is in RAM. a computer uses memory. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. the processor interprets the data. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . Table 2. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) .
ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. but could not fix it. third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing.
5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins.6). DDR RAM. CPUs might look similar. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. 2. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2.needed by the program. .4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. Figure 2. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager. but they are not interchangeable. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade.
CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2.8).8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) . which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force.9 SEC processor .7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.9) Figure 2. Figure 2. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.Figure 2. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.
10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. Figure 2. Southbridge .a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. which is dedicated to video.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. Figure 2. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).a single. . which enables system components to be added to the computer. special port. similar to a PCI slot. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) .handles expansion devices and mass storage drives.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. it helps the CPU work with RAM. On newer AMD systems.2. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot .
contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. and others. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. Table 2. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. and components. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. video card. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. hard drives. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. 2. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. including the expansion slots. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . Finally.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. chipset. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. CD and DVD drives.
A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. It is often called Ethernet Card. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. resolution. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. Also called the display adapter. This controller determines the refresh rate.Expansion Cards Video Card . Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. and number of colors that can be displayed. .
A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. Next. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator.Sound Card . unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. .
Remove the screws of your system unit case.g. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. with the case door facing up. 2. Fill in the following chart.2. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. and open the case. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Put the case down on your work surface. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. Component Specifications/Description e. . 3. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case.
These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). 4. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. Look at the label on the power supply. Figure 2. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. After removing the RAM. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.11). Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case.11 Front panel control wires .3. Remove the front panel connectors. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. reset button. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2.
Check on the expansion slots. Handle the motherboard gently.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. by the edges. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Figure 2.2. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard.13). as shown in Figure 2. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . 4. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. 13 3.14. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. The screws may also have small washers.
Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit.2. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. Examine the CPU. 3. 4. Figure 2. 4. 3.static mat. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. 5. . What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. List them down. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. then raise the lever to a vertical position. . Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. or you will bend its tiny pins.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. It sends data bit by bit. . SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. This drives are hot swappable. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable.
. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. and any special features that the drive may possess. or on the manufacturer's web site. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. the manufacturer of the drive. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. This drives are hot swappable. This technique. requiring at least three drives. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives.
Jumper Pins: A set of pins.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure). 3.2 External Drives A.Figure 3. A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. The small.4 Floppy Diskette . Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. 1. without the use of software. or removed to break a connection. They have been around since the very first PCs. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today.1.
a generic term. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. Memory cards. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. are 3½ inches. and other devices. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. which appeared around 1986. however. B. are used in digital cameras. Modern floppy disks. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. reading or writing data as necessary. . You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system.by higher capacity removable media. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. PDAs. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:.
which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. C. SmartMedia. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Secure Digital. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Memory Stick. and phones.5 CDs and DVD . CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Flash cards. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. Compact discs. Figure 3. Some drives can only read from discs. DVDs. come in many varieties. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. The most common types are CompactFlash. PDAs. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. DVD players and DVD recorders. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players.
unlike CD-Rs. DVD+R. DVD+RW. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose.1 Internal Cables A. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. can be burned on both sides of the disc. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM.2. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data.2 Internal and External Cables 3. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. enable you to erase data and burn new data. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. file support. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music.6). and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. but still have forty pins. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. can store up to 16 GB of data. 3. wide. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. DVD-RW. more densely packed pits.37 GB of data. DVD-RW. DVD-R for authoring. but not erased. but it lacks error checking. but as usage evolved to include data storage. and DVD-RAM. The colored . DVD+RW. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. DVD-ROM. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties.
The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. Figure 3. The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. The drive positions on older.6 PATA cable . The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.
Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. which improves airflow inside the case. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -.8 Floppy cable with five connectors .8). and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.B.7 SATA cable C. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3. Figure 3. have only 34 conductors. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives.as high as 300 MB/sec. Figure 3.
It is connected to the power supply unit. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time. Figure 3. sizes. . The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and the needs of designers and users. Figure 3.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.D.2.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground).9 SCSI cable 3. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.
router. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. switch. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. pink for microphone. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. or to another computer.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. and blue for line-in. . A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host.
5. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. . Next. with the case door facing up. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Be careful but firm. Put the case down on your work surface. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. 6. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case.3. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Remove the screws of your system unit case. and open the case.
Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation.2. 4. Be careful but firm. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. rocking the connector gently from side to side. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Remove a hard drive from the system. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. 5. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. 7. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one.
3. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). 2.INSTALLING 1. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. Remove the floppy drive from the case. and examine the pins. 2. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. . Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. 5. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 4.
4. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. 2. 3. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. 3. 2. 2. 3. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. Get the floppy disk and its cable. .INSTALLING 1. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Inspect the optical drive. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1.
5.4. Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. . Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6.
3. Operating systems do not look the same or. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. spreadsheets. such as word processors. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. Application programs. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. Table 4. Almost all computers (including handheld computers.0 . An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. supercomputers. desktop computers.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. on the surface. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI).1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics.1). act the same. taking control of the PC. cannot run on a PC without an OS. 1. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. and Web browsers. 4. 2.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4.
It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24." . including home and business desktops. 2001.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. and media centers (Figure 4. laptops.1). The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience.
Figure 4.1 Windows XP environment 4. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix .2).2 ROM BIOS A. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM. It is often built into the Southbridge. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery.2 BIOS and CMOS A. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. Figure 4. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive.
you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del.4). CTRL-ALT-Enter.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. Usually. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. CTRL-ALTINS. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have. Figure 4. F2. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. but they all contain basically the same settings.3) Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-ESC. F1. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.To enter the CMOS setup program. ESC.4 SoftMenu screen . Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup .
6 Advanced BIOS Features . Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings.5).5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4.6). as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.
enable. Advanced Chipset Features .8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4.9).7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. Figure 4.7).8). or disable the onboard ports. Figure 4.9 Power Management .
10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password .locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. Figure 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks.10). Figure 4. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. .
Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. potentially making a file system full. . On Microsoft Windows machines. Having cache and log files separate from other files. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. These can change size dynamically and rapidly. Protecting or isolating files. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. In a smaller partition.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. that file might only require 4KB to store. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Use of multi booting setups. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition.
In addition. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. . the file can be undeleted. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. This is because as the size of the volume increases. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. if the file was located on a FAT partition. In addition. and archive file attributes. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. FAT supports only read-only. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. To protect the volume. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. and files are given the first open location on the drive. hidden. However. which cannot be done under Windows NT. it can lead to data loss. because FAT starts out with very little overhead.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. system. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware.
there are no special locations on the disk. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. Currently. someone can boot under MS-DOS. Therefore. like HPFS. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. as it does under FAT. which. In addition. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. are sorted. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. . or another operating system. However. unlike FAT or HPFS. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. such as 512 byte sectors. with larger volume sizes.
Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. point to Accessories. point to All Programs. point to All Programs. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. For example. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. point to System Tools. To open Disk Defragmenter. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. a technique called defragmentation. click Start. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations.4. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. deleted. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. Remove downloaded program files. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. . ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. When files are created. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. point to Accessories. Empty the Recycle Bin. and then click Disk Cleanup. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. and then click Disk Defragmenter. Remove Windows temporary files. point to System Tools. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. click Start. To open Disk Cleanup.
such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. enabling you to back up to network drives. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. When ordered to seek and destroy. To start Backup. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. click Start.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. It supports a greater variety of devices. such as a hard disk or a tape. tape. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. and removable disks (but not optical discs). It can be both sword and shield. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. and then click Backup.12 Antivirus Programs . By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. logical drives. and if it finds any. point to All Programs. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. point to Accessories. point to System Tools. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT.
and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. 3. and it varies depending on the BIOS. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. it is ESC. Shut down your computer.13. Power your computer back on and be ready. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. Press that key and let SETUP load. 4.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom.14.4. F1. After the BIOS SETUP loads. or DEL. Usually. Figure 4. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. 2. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. To check what yours is. You will need to press a certain key at this point. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________.
The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. Now just select where you want to boot from first. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation.Figure 4. Figure 4.15. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). This will reboot your computer. 7. second.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. . and third. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4.14 BIOS main screen 5. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. After the new order is set.
press ENTER. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. 3. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. you are prompted to repair it. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. 6. At the Welcome to Setup page. Create two partitions of equal size. 8. Delete system partition ____________ c. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. . 9. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. 5. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. 4. press _____. To bypass the repair. Create partition ___________ b. 2. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. press ESC. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. Partition size is entered in megabytes.ACTIVITY 2. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. and then press ENTER. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected.
On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. During this portion of setup. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. Windows XP Setup begins. If you prefer a language other than English. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. 4. restart your computer to try again. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. Then.and then copies the setup files. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). you can use your mouse. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. 8. 3. press any key in your keyboard.ACTIVITY 3. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. On the Personalize Your Software page. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. If you connect . your mouse will not work. On the Your Product Key page. Windows XP formats Partition C. so you must use the keyboard. press ENTER. you can change language settings after setup is complete. Click Next to accept the default settings. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. Eventually. type your name and your organization name. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. If prompted to start from the CD. Then. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. From this point forward. 5. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. 6. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. On the Welcome to Setup page. the Regional and Language Options page appears. Select Partition C and press ENTER. 2. click Next. read the licensing agreement. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. click Next.
Then. On the Help protect your PC page. 21. 13.your computer to a network. On the Date and Time Settings page. nicknames. click Next. click the Time Zone down arrow. On the Thank you page. Then. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. click Next. 18. click Next. On the Networking Settings page. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. click Skip. You can use first names only. set your computers clock. or full names. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. Then click Next. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. 17. click Next. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. 20. 14. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. click Finish. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. Click Next. When the Display Settings dialog appears. 15. On the Who will use this computer? page. Click Next. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. click OK. click No. . Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. click Next. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. 12. After setup is complete. 16. 19. and select your time zone. type the name of each person who will use the computer. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. click OK.
The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Look for the devices with question mark icons. select ―No. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. not this time‖. 10. 7. If there are no question marks left. 6. reboot your computer. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)".ACTIVITY 4. but have no existing drivers installed. Afterwards. then select NEXT to continue. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. CD-ROMS. Then click NEXT to continue. for example. Video Cards. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. and Printers. 9. 4. Hard Drives. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. Click MANAGE. At times. your driver may not match the device installed. Right-click MY COMPUTER. Click DEVICE MANAGER. . 8. Click START. If it is not. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. 3. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. 12. When you buy a sound card. On the radio buttons. 2. To install driver: 1. 11. wireless adapters. 5. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. Wait until it is finished. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not.
a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. type of system bus (for example. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. type of media (for example. Token Ring. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code.1. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. type of network (for example. Also called a LAN adapter. Ethernet. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. twisted-pair. often simply referred to as a network. or FDDI) 2. Figure 5.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. coaxial. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. PCI or ISA) B.1 Networking Fundamentals A. consider the following three factors: 1. or fiber-optic cable) 3. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. A computer network. . is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. An example of a network is a computer network. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. a Token Ring card.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card.
This point is usually a hub or switch. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. Ring. Star. This creates a physical ring of cable. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. which will be described later in the chapter. and the logical topology. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. C. and Mesh. Figure 5.2. which is used for medium size area. Metropolitan area network (MAN).Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). Extended Star. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. Hierarchical. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. These are shown in Figure 5. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. . Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. examples for a city or a state.
The host devices can exist without a network. that means that that host can send data on the network. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. will extend the length and size of the network. D. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. but without the network. and many other user devices. clients and servers. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. first serve. printers. create. This also reflects the design of the Internet. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. This is the way that Ethernet works. it is first come. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. The second type is token-passing. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. . as you will learn later in the chapter. So as you can see in the graphic. These hosts include computers. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. with which the users share. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. and obtain information. If the host has no data to send. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. scanners. which has multiple paths to any one location. This. When a host receives the token. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself.
Figure 5. Figure 5.5). A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. 4.3 Repeater D. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. to keep local traffic local. 8. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. or even 24) using a process known as concentration. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals.g. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network. and increase the reliability of the network. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.D. Figure 5.3).4).5 Bridge . Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.4 Hub D.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5.
It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. routers have become the backbone of the Internet.D. Because of the decisions that switches make. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. because of their ability to route packets. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). and FDDI. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. In contrast. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. However. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all.6). they make a LAN much more efficient.7). or a mixed wired/wireless network. running the IP protocol.6 Switch D.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. choose the best path for them through the network. Token-ring. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. such as Ethernet. Routers can also connect technologies. Figure 5. . They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. Switches at first glance often look like hubs. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses.
9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. as the medium). networking media confine network signals to a wire. or space.9). Each media has advantages and disadvantages.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.Figure 5. You can build computer networks with many different media types. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. through a LAN.10 UTP Cable .7 Wireless router 5. Figure 5.10). optical fiber (Figure 5. however. or fiber. and even free space can carry network signals.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. in the form of bits and bytes. cable.8).
Connecting a computer to a router 2. Figure 5. Connecting a hub to a hub . and then the orange and green wires. 5.11. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. and rollover cables. Unlike straight-through cables. Connecting a router to a router 4. crossover.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. Connecting a switch to a switch 5.2.
. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.12). none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.2. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. hub. Connecting a computer to a switch 3. or computer 5.5. and a large hard disk. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. Connecting a router to a hub 2. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. Figure 5.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. vast memory. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable. Connecting a LAN port to a switch.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices.
. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. audio and video files. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. In client/server networking.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. graphics. When a page is requested. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. Figure 5. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. etc. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. Figure 5.
you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. such as a supercomputer. . When applying to the NIC for IP addresses.61.groucho. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. called an IP Address. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. Instead.physics. quark. Allows local resources to be shared directly. which is written as 149. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences.27. 5. and a host number.3.76. which is contained in the leading octets. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number. which is the remainder. For example. without the need for intermediate servers. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability. rather than relying on a single computer. A network of peers can share its processor.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server.4.12.
defining different places to split IP addresses. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.320 nets with 65.0.0. E.0. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. 5.0. .The size of the host part depends on the size of the network.0. allowing roughly 1.0 through 127.0 through 223. Class C Class C networks range from 192. This class provides for a 24-bit host part. personal handheld devices).0.0 through 254. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224.0. Class B Class B contains networks 128. The network number is contained in the first octet.0.0. IP Multicast. the network number is in the first two octets. fax.255. they are often still isolated.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network. have been defined. several classes of networks.0.255.255.0.0.0. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts. This class allows for 16. Classes D.0.0. To accommodate different needs. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.6 million hosts per network.024 hosts each. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0 through 191. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.0. with the network number contained in the first three octets.
Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. Like file sharing. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. computer networks are necessary. decisions of purchase. Sharing Media. . printers can be connected using a print server.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. computers can stream musing. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing .Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. videos and movies from one computer to the next. Printers . They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. Additionally. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. which allows direct printing from all computers. structure.
Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. 2. 8.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. 6.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 5. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Strip off the jacket. Media Center Server . You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. then clip their length. 3. . Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Untwist the wires. 4.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. 7. Cut a length of cable. 5. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. Video Games .
11.9. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. 10. Then click OK. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. 12. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. 2. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Subnet . Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Use Class C IP addresses. Inspect both ends of the cable. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). ACTIVITY 2. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Assign a unique IP address to each computer.
Then click OK. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. then click RUN. The switch must be connected to the router. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. Click START. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. . Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). and then click OK. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3.1) and press ENTER.0.168. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 5. In the command prompt. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. 4.g.ACTIVITY 3. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. Type CMD. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. PING 192. 2.
Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. click Share this folder on the network. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. 4. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. 2. 3. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. After you type the appropriate credentials. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1.ACTIVITY 4. Type the name using UNC format. 3. 4. 2. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. . Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. In the folder's properties. Use the default name for the shared folder. 2. Click OK. Rename the folder as share_yourname. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. Click OK. Click START and then click RUN. Create a folder in DESKTOP.
To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. 7. Select Browse for a printer. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. In the Share name field. . 3. Click NEXT to start. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 6. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections.ACTIVITY 4. Then click NEXT to continue. and then click Printer properties. on the Start menu. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. Add a network printer 1. then click ADD PRINTER. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. 3. 9. Click NEXT to continue. and select the Share this printer check box. Right-click the printer you want to share. Select YES. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. In Control Panel. or a printer attached to another computer. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. 2. When the list of printers appears. 8. Select A network printer. 5. 4. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. 2. Click the Sharing tab. 4. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. Click START and then. Click OK.
2 Software 6.4 Exercises 6.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.3 Networks 6.4.1 Objective 6.2 Case Analysis .1 Hardware 6.
2011 http://www.htm May 31. http://www.wisegeek.com/drcables1.com/ Larry F.blogspot. Byard.php May 31. 2011 http://www. 2011. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. Larry and Nancy Long.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers. The PC Guide (http://www. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. 2001.Version Date: April 17. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.com/ Charles M. http://www. Peter. Kayne.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.computerotic. 2011 http://www. 2001.ehow.com).com/ . Kozierok.PCGuide. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. http://www.com/install-a-power-supply. 2007.microsoft.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change.build-your-owncomputer-tips. Long. The McGraw-Hill Companies.com/kb/310312 http://www. United States.duxcw.0 .com/ http://www.ictglobal. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www.vistax64.kitchentablecomputers.pcguide.tech-faq.html June 2. May 27.html April 17. Norton.2. Site Version: 2. Mike.html. R.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support. http://www. May 31.com/what-is-pata.