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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
Speakers provide sound output. Based on a typewriter. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. A computer inputs information. processing. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. Computer Process From the IT perspective. Speakers/headphones .To provide input and output. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. mouse. the computer processes your data. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. storage. process it. . Processing Next. Some PCs won’t have speakers. and output. the computer functions through four stages: input.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. Keyboard . The following are the standard set: Monitor .Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Mouse . Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).Keypad for providing keyed input. Printer. stores and makes the output of the information.Provides printed paper output.
it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). Output is the result we get through output devices. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. Figure 1. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. storing procedure comes next. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. It might send the data over to the printer. 1. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. .2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. the most visible of which are the external storage parts. After storing the data.
Use the right kind of tools.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. Figure 1.5). thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. and any loose components at the same electrical potential.3. a nut driver or two. Figure 1. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1.4 Anti-static bag 2. .3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. a pair of tweezers.Figure 1.4). a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. the computer. a little grabber tool. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench.
Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. 5. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Check voltage requirement. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. 20. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. 7. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. 8. . 11. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. trash can and fire exit.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. 15. 13. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords.Figure 1. 9. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. 18. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. 6. 10. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. 19. 4. 17. 14. Beware of sharp edges. 16.
10. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. 2. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 5. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. 8. 9. The monitor provides visual output for the computer. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace.1. 4. 6. 7. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer.3 Exercises 1. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies.3. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. .1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 3.
Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. Figure 2.1 System Unit – front and back . Figure 2. mini-tower. and cube. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. tower.1 System Unit The system case. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. mid-tower.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case. desktop.
Buttons used to turn the system on and off. and DVD drives are in the front of the case. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards.2). Figure 2. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. Including power supply . CD-ROM. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Connections such as USB.2 Onboard Devices . FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections.
3). and 3.First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V . 12. Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.2.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2.0 .2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.3 V DC. PCs use a 5-volt/3. .3 .1. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Figure 2.3-volt current to support onboard electronics.
or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. supplemental motherboard power.Table 2. optical drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . add-on fans. extra video card power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20.
Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. Figure 2. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power.4 Uninterruptible power supply .4). surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.
Table 2. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. Most RAM is volatile. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit.2. When power is turned off. it loses its contents. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. When you start a computer. While it is in RAM. the processor interprets the data. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. a computer uses memory. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops .3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily.
200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-.
Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. but could not fix it. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is .
You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM.6). but they are not interchangeable. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. .4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2. Figure 2. 2.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. DDR RAM.needed by the program. CPUs might look similar.
CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) .8).7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard. Figure 2. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.9) Figure 2. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.Figure 2. which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.9 SEC processor .
similar to a PCI slot.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. .2. which enables system components to be added to the computer. which is dedicated to video. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot .a single. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. special port. it helps the CPU work with RAM.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. Southbridge .5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH). Figure 2. On newer AMD systems. Figure 2.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard.
and components.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. Finally. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. Table 2. chipset. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. 2. CD and DVD drives.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. hard drives. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. video card. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. including the expansion slots. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. and others. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip .
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . It is often called Ethernet Card. and number of colors that can be displayed.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. Also called the display adapter. This controller determines the refresh rate.Expansion Cards Video Card . These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. resolution. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. .
Next. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator.Sound Card . A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. Turn off the PC and unplug it. .An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound.
Component Specifications/Description e. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. and open the case.2. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Fill in the following chart. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. 2. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. 3. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component.g. Put the case down on your work surface. . ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. with the case door facing up.
4. reset button. Remove the front panel connectors. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. After removing the RAM. Figure 2.11 Front panel control wires .3. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. Look at the label on the power supply. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2.11). These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use.
Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Check on the expansion slots.2. Figure 2. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. 4. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. Handle the motherboard gently. 13 3.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. as shown in Figure 2. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2.14. by the edges.13). The screws may also have small washers.
4. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. 4. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. Figure 2. List them down. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. . Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. 3. 3. or you will bend its tiny pins. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. Examine the CPU. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. .2.static mat. then raise the lever to a vertical position. 5. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. .SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. This drives are hot swappable. It sends data bit by bit. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable.
requiring at least three drives. and any special features that the drive may possess. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. This drives are hot swappable. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. or on the manufacturer's web site. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. . This technique. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. the manufacturer of the drive. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies.
The small. They have been around since the very first PCs.4 Floppy Diskette . only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure). 1. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection.Figure 3. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. Jumper Pins: A set of pins. or removed to break a connection. 3. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts.2 External Drives A.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3.1. without the use of software. A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection.
and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. are used in digital cameras. which appeared around 1986. reading or writing data as necessary. however. a generic term. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter.by higher capacity removable media. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. are 3½ inches. PDAs. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. B. Memory cards. and other devices. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. . Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. Modern floppy disks.
5 CDs and DVD . They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. C. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. Compact discs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. DVDs. come in many varieties. The most common types are CompactFlash. Some drives can only read from discs. DVD players and DVD recorders. Figure 3. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. SmartMedia. Flash cards. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. PDAs. Secure Digital. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. and phones. Memory Stick.
Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. but it lacks error checking.1 Internal Cables A. 3. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW.2 Internal and External Cables 3. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. wide. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. file support. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. DVD-ROM.37 GB of data. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. but as usage evolved to include data storage. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. more densely packed pits. enable you to erase data and burn new data.6). CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. DVD-RW. DVD+RW. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. DVD-R for authoring. DVD+R. can be burned on both sides of the disc. unlike CD-Rs. DVD-RW. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process.2. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. but still have forty pins. but not erased. and DVD-RAM. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. can store up to 16 GB of data. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. DVD+RW. The colored . and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat.
stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device. The drive positions on older. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard.6 PATA cable . The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device. Figure 3. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.
as high as 300 MB/sec. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. which improves airflow inside the case.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables.B. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. have only 34 conductors. Figure 3. Figure 3. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3.7 SATA cable C.8).
2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. It is connected to the power supply unit.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.9 SCSI cable 3. and the needs of designers and users. Figure 3. . The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time.D. Figure 3.2. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). sizes.
Common hosts include computers and video game consoles.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. switch. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. or to another computer. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. and blue for line-in. pink for microphone. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. . router.
Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. 6. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. 5.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Turn off the PC and unplug it. rocking the connector gently from side to side. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. .3. Put the case down on your work surface. Next. Be careful but firm. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. and open the case. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. with the case door facing up. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for.
Remove a hard drive from the system. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. 4. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Be careful but firm. 5. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ .2. 7. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard.
Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. 4. 5. 2. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. 3. 2. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master.INSTALLING 1. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. . Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. Remove the floppy drive from the case. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. and examine the pins. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector).
Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. 4. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Inspect the optical drive. 3. .INSTALLING 1. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. 2. 2. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. 3. 3. 2. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk.
Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.4. 5. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. .
supercomputers. spreadsheets.0 . such as word processors. 3. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). act the same. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. Operating systems do not look the same or. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. Almost all computers (including handheld computers.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. taking control of the PC. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST).1). Application programs. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. desktop computers. on the surface. 4. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. 1. cannot run on a PC without an OS. and Web browsers. Table 4. 2.
It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24. and media centers (Figure 4." . The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. including home and business desktops.1).Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. 2001. laptops.
Figure 4. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4.1 Windows XP environment 4. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS).2 ROM BIOS A. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time.2). The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM. Figure 4.2 BIOS and CMOS A. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix . It is often built into the Southbridge. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program.
F2.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup .3) Figure 4.4).To enter the CMOS setup program. but they all contain basically the same settings. F1. Figure 4. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. CTRL-ALT-Enter. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4. ESC.4 SoftMenu screen .enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-ESC. CTRL-ALTINS. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have. Usually.
Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. Figure 4.6 Advanced BIOS Features . Figure 4. as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.6).5).5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4.
Figure 4.8). such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4.7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. Figure 4.9 Power Management .7).8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4. Advanced Chipset Features . or disable the onboard ports. enable.9).
10).3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. Figure 4.locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. Figure 4.10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password . PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4. .
it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. These can change size dynamically and rapidly.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. Having cache and log files separate from other files. Use of multi booting setups. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. Protecting or isolating files. On Microsoft Windows machines. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. In a smaller partition. that file might only require 4KB to store. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. . potentially making a file system full.
it can lead to data loss. . performance with FAT will quickly decrease. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. hidden. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. In addition. FAT supports only read-only. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. and files are given the first open location on the drive. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. This is because as the size of the volume increases. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. system. and archive file attributes. which cannot be done under Windows NT. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). the file can be undeleted. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. if the file was located on a FAT partition. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. To protect the volume.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. In addition. However.
like HPFS. with larger volume sizes. are sorted. as it does under FAT. . This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. which. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. or another operating system.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. there are no special locations on the disk. In addition. Therefore. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. someone can boot under MS-DOS. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. such as 512 byte sectors. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. However. unlike FAT or HPFS. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. Currently.
deleted. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. click Start. and then click Disk Defragmenter. point to System Tools. a technique called defragmentation. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. Remove Windows temporary files. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations.4. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. Remove downloaded program files. and then click Disk Cleanup. . To open Disk Defragmenter. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. point to System Tools. point to Accessories. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. point to Accessories. click Start. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. To open Disk Cleanup. point to All Programs. When files are created. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. Empty the Recycle Bin. point to All Programs. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. For example. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations.
point to System Tools. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. point to All Programs. It can be both sword and shield. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. and if it finds any.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. logical drives. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. enabling you to back up to network drives. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. tape. such as a hard disk or a tape. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. point to Accessories. When ordered to seek and destroy. and removable disks (but not optical discs). The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. and then click Backup. It supports a greater variety of devices. To start Backup. click Start.12 Antivirus Programs . Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity.
What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . it is ESC. 2. Press that key and let SETUP load. Usually. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.13. To check what yours is. After the BIOS SETUP loads. Figure 4. 4.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. You will need to press a certain key at this point. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". Shut down your computer. Power your computer back on and be ready. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. or DEL. F1.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. and it varies depending on the BIOS.14. 3.4.
second. and third. After the new order is set. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. . It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4.14 BIOS main screen 5.Figure 4. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. This will reboot your computer. 7. Figure 4.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. Now just select where you want to boot from first.15.
If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. you are prompted to repair it. and then press ENTER. Partition size is entered in megabytes. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. Create two partitions of equal size. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available.ACTIVITY 2. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. 5. 8. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. 9. press ENTER. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. 3. To bypass the repair. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. Create partition ___________ b. At the Welcome to Setup page. Delete system partition ____________ c. 4. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. 2. press _____. . Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. press ESC. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. 6. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition.
On the Welcome to Setup page. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. click Next. Eventually. Click Next to accept the default settings. 3. Windows XP Setup begins. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. 4. 8. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. the Regional and Language Options page appears. During this portion of setup.and then copies the setup files. 6. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. type your name and your organization name. click Next. Then. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. On the Personalize Your Software page. On the Your Product Key page.ACTIVITY 3. If you connect . On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. If you prefer a language other than English. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). Then press F8 to accept the agreement. so you must use the keyboard. Windows XP formats Partition C. your mouse will not work. restart your computer to try again. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. press ENTER. you can use your mouse. Then. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. 2. you can change language settings after setup is complete. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). read the licensing agreement. 5. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. press any key in your keyboard. Select Partition C and press ENTER. From this point forward. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. If prompted to start from the CD.
12. 14. and select your time zone. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. On the Thank you page. On the Who will use this computer? page. 16. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click Next. click the Time Zone down arrow. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. When the Display Settings dialog appears. Then. 13. Then click Next. Click Next. 18. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. 19. 21. . You can use first names only. click Finish. click OK. On the Help protect your PC page.your computer to a network. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. 20. Click Next. or full names. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. click Next. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. On the Date and Time Settings page. After setup is complete. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. click No. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. set your computers clock. click Next. Then. 17. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. 15. click Skip. click Next. click Next. On the Networking Settings page. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. nicknames. click OK. type the name of each person who will use the computer.
4. At times. If there are no question marks left. Click DEVICE MANAGER. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. Right-click MY COMPUTER. but have no existing drivers installed. Click START. Hard Drives. for example. 10. 9. then select NEXT to continue. and Printers. 8. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. When you buy a sound card. Look for the devices with question mark icons. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. 2. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". . Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. Click MANAGE. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. 11. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. your driver may not match the device installed. not this time‖. Then click NEXT to continue. On the radio buttons. CD-ROMS. Wait until it is finished. 7. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. Video Cards. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. 3. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. 6. If it is not. Afterwards. 12. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. reboot your computer. To install driver: 1. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. 5.ACTIVITY 4. select ―No. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. wireless adapters.
Ethernet. type of media (for example. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. coaxial. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. twisted-pair.1. or FDDI) 2. type of system bus (for example. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. Figure 5. Also called a LAN adapter.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. PCI or ISA) B.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. Token Ring.1 Networking Fundamentals A. A computer network. An example of a network is a computer network. type of network (for example. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. . or fiber-optic cable) 3. a Token Ring card. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. consider the following three factors: 1. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. often simply referred to as a network.
Ring. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. and Mesh. This point is usually a hub or switch. Figure 5. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus.2. Star. and the logical topology. Hierarchical. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. which will be described later in the chapter. This creates a physical ring of cable. which is used for medium size area. These are shown in Figure 5. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). .Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). examples for a city or a state. Extended Star. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. C. Metropolitan area network (MAN). Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network.
The second type is token-passing. scanners. . These hosts include computers. will extend the length and size of the network. it is first come. D. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. When a host receives the token. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. with which the users share. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. that means that that host can send data on the network. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. The host devices can exist without a network. and many other user devices. This. This is the way that Ethernet works. printers. clients and servers. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. which has multiple paths to any one location. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. This also reflects the design of the Internet. and obtain information. but without the network. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. So as you can see in the graphic. If the host has no data to send. first serve. create. as you will learn later in the chapter.
The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e. Figure 5.D. 8.3 Repeater D. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there.4 Hub D. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media. or even 24) using a process known as concentration.5). The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.4). Figure 5.g. Figure 5. 4.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5.3). and increase the reliability of the network. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater.5 Bridge .3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. to keep local traffic local.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.
The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. such as Ethernet. Token-ring. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. running the IP protocol. choose the best path for them through the network. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). Switches at first glance often look like hubs. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. Figure 5.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. In contrast.6). a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. Because of the decisions that switches make.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. and FDDI. Routers can also connect technologies. . The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. or a mixed wired/wireless network.6 Switch D. they make a LAN much more efficient. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. However. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater.7).D. routers have become the backbone of the Internet. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). because of their ability to route packets. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection.
Figure 5.10). cable. You can build computer networks with many different media types. or fiber.10 UTP Cable . the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. optical fiber (Figure 5.9).7 Wireless router 5. or space.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. and even free space can carry network signals. networking media confine network signals to a wire.8). in the form of bits and bytes.Figure 5. as the medium). through a LAN. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. however.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.
Connecting a computer to a computer 3. Unlike straight-through cables. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. Connecting a hub to a hub . 5. Connecting a switch to a switch 5.2. Figure 5. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. Connecting a router to a router 4. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. crossover. and then the orange and green wires.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires.11. and rollover cables. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross. Connecting a computer to a router 2.
or computer 5. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. vast memory. hub.5. Connecting a computer to a switch 3. . Connecting a LAN port to a switch.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables.2. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.12).3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. and a large hard disk. Connecting a router to a hub 2. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. Figure 5.
A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. In client/server networking. Figure 5. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. . Figure 5. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. audio and video files.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. etc. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. graphics. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. When a page is requested.
Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number. which is contained in the leading octets. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. rather than relying on a single computer. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage. A typical IP address looks like this: 216.3. called an IP Address. . quark.physics. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. and a host number.12. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks.27.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number.61. Instead.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04.76. 5. without the need for intermediate servers. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. such as a supercomputer. which is written as 149. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. which is the remainder.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.groucho. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. A network of peers can share its processor. For example.4. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. Allows local resources to be shared directly.
personal handheld devices). .0.0 through 191. the network number is in the first two octets. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.0. IP Multicast. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.0.0.0.0. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.0 through 223.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network. with the network number contained in the first three octets. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.255. 5.024 hosts each.0. Class C Class C networks range from 192. allowing roughly 1.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication. Classes D. The network number is contained in the first octet.0. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.6 million hosts per network.320 nets with 65. and F Addresses falling into the range of 18.104.22.168.0. has been assigned addresses from within this range. defining different places to split IP addresses. To accommodate different needs. several classes of networks. E. they are often still isolated.255.0.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones.0.0 through 254.0. have been defined. This class allows for 22.214.171.124 through 127. fax. Class B Class B contains networks 128.
Sharing Media. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. structure.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. computers can stream musing. Additionally.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. decisions of purchase. videos and movies from one computer to the next. . computer networks are necessary.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing . Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Printers .Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. printers can be connected using a print server. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. which allows direct printing from all computers. Like file sharing. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications.
Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. 7. Cut a length of cable. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 4. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Video Games .A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. 6. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. 8. 3. 5. Media Center Server . 5.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Strip off the jacket. 2. Untwist the wires. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. . then clip their length.
Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. 2. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Then click OK. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. 10. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. ACTIVITY 2. 12. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES.9. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. 11. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Inspect both ends of the cable. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Use Class C IP addresses. Subnet . Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP).
The switch must be connected to the router. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers.g. . Type CMD. 2.168. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. 5. PING 192. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 4. and then click OK. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. In the command prompt. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP).ACTIVITY 3. then click RUN. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e.0. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. Click START.1) and press ENTER. Then click OK. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.
After you type the appropriate credentials. 4. Click OK. Type the name using UNC format. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Create a folder in DESKTOP. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. 3. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. Use the default name for the shared folder. Click START and then click RUN. 4. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. 2. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. 3. Click OK. . How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. 2. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1.ACTIVITY 4. 2. Rename the folder as share_yourname. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. In the folder's properties. click Share this folder on the network. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access.
You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. Click OK. Click START and then. 2. Click NEXT to start. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. on the Start menu. Right-click the printer you want to share. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. or a printer attached to another computer. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. In the Share name field. When the list of printers appears. Add a network printer 1. Select A network printer. 2.ACTIVITY 4. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. then click ADD PRINTER. 3. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. . 4. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. 8. Click NEXT to continue. In Control Panel. 3. 9. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. and select the Share this printer check box. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 7. Click the Sharing tab. 6. Select YES. and then click Printer properties. 4. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Then click NEXT to continue. 5. Select Browse for a printer.
4 Exercises 6.2 Case Analysis .3 Networks 6.1 Hardware 6.4.2 Software 6.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.1 Objective 6.4.
Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. 2007.blogspot.tech-faq.com/ http://www. Kayne.com/kb/310312 http://www.duxcw.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.vistax64. http://www. 2001. Mike. 2011. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. Kozierok. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. http://www.html.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www.pcguide.ictglobal. May 27. 2001.Version Date: April 17.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support. Site Version: 2.ehow. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition. 2011 http://www.html April 17.com/drcables1.kitchentablecomputers. R.microsoft.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.com/ . http://www.com/ Charles M.com/what-is-pata.0 .com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet.PCGuide. Byard. Norton. United States. May 31. http://www. 2011 http://www. 2011 http://www.wisegeek.html June 2. Peter.computerotic.com).build-your-owncomputer-tips.com/ Larry F.php May 31. Long. The PC Guide (http://www.2.htm May 31.com/install-a-power-supply. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Larry and Nancy Long.
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