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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
process it.Provides printed paper output. . Keyboard . Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. Processing Next. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. and output. Computer Process From the IT perspective. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. The following are the standard set: Monitor .To provide input and output. Mouse . process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. Some PCs won’t have speakers. stores and makes the output of the information. Based on a typewriter. mouse. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Speakers/headphones .The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals.Keypad for providing keyed input.Speakers provide sound output. A computer inputs information. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). the computer processes your data. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. processing. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. storage. Printer. the computer functions through four stages: input.
. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. the most visible of which are the external storage parts.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. After storing the data.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. 1. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. storing procedure comes next. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). It might send the data over to the printer. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. Figure 1. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Output is the result we get through output devices. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace.
a nut driver or two. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have.4). Figure 1.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. the computer. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1.5). Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit.Figure 1. a pair of tweezers. Use the right kind of tools. .3.4 Anti-static bag 2. Figure 1. a little grabber tool. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1. and any loose components at the same electrical potential.
9. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. 17. 13.Figure 1. 10. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. 11. 5. 16. Beware of sharp edges. 18. 7. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. 14. trash can and fire exit. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. 8. 6. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. . Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. 20. 15. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. 4. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. 19. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. Check voltage requirement. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment.
7. 6.3 Exercises 1. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. 5. . The monitor provides visual output for the computer. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. 8. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. 2. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. 10. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer.3.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. 3. 9. 4.1. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1.
and cube. mini-tower. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. Figure 2. Figure 2. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. mid-tower. desktop.1 System Unit – front and back . it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment. tower.1 System Unit The system case.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2.
distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections.2). Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Connections such as USB. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. Including power supply .2 Onboard Devices . and DVD drives are in the front of the case. CD-ROM. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. Figure 2. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy.Buttons used to turn the system on and off.
3). and 3. Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.3-volt current to support onboard electronics.3 .2. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Figure 2. . PCs use a 5-volt/3.0 .First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V .Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.3 V DC.1.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2. 12.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.
add-on fans. optical drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . extra video card power. supplemental motherboard power.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20.Table 2.
4 Uninterruptible power supply .4). Figure 2.Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power.
When you start a computer. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. When power is turned off. Table 2.2. the processor interprets the data. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. Most RAM is volatile.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. it loses its contents. While it is in RAM. a computer uses memory. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously.
200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-.
but could not fix it. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is .
CPUs might look similar. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager.6).5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2.needed by the program.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. . • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. but they are not interchangeable.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. Figure 2. DDR RAM. 2.
9 SEC processor .7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU. which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) .9) Figure 2. Figure 2.8).Figure 2.
it helps the CPU work with RAM.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. which enables system components to be added to the computer.a single. On newer AMD systems.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. special port. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card.2. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives. Figure 2. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . Southbridge . which is dedicated to video. similar to a PCI slot.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot .5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. . Figure 2. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).
It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. video card. Finally. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . including the expansion slots.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. Table 2. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. and others. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. hard drives. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. chipset. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. and components. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. CD and DVD drives. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . 2.
A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . It is often called Ethernet Card. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC.Expansion Cards Video Card . and number of colors that can be displayed. Also called the display adapter. Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. resolution. . This controller determines the refresh rate.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen.
Next. . Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. Turn off the PC and unplug it. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator.Sound Card . Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.
Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. Fill in the following chart. . Put the case down on your work surface. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. Component Specifications/Description e. Remove the screws of your system unit case. with the case door facing up. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard.g. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1.2. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. 2. and open the case. 3.
What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Figure 2. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. Remove the front panel connectors.3.11 Front panel control wires . reset button. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). Look at the label on the power supply. 4. After removing the RAM. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2.11).
Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. Figure 2. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat.14. 4. by the edges. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. The screws may also have small washers. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . Note the maker and model information on the motherboard.2.13). Handle the motherboard gently. Check on the expansion slots. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. as shown in Figure 2. 13 3. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation.
Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. 5. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. 4. or you will bend its tiny pins. 3.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. 3. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket.2.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. then raise the lever to a vertical position. . Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. Examine the CPU. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. Figure 2. . 4. List them down.static mat.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
It sends data bit by bit. This drives are hot swappable. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. .
which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. . SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. or on the manufacturer's web site. This drives are hot swappable. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. the manufacturer of the drive. and any special features that the drive may possess. This technique. requiring at least three drives. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping.
Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing.4 Floppy Diskette . A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. 3.2 External Drives A. Jumper Pins: A set of pins. 1. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. They have been around since the very first PCs. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today. without the use of software. or removed to break a connection. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).Figure 3. The small.1.
a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files.by higher capacity removable media. reading or writing data as necessary. are used in digital cameras. however. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. Memory cards. and other devices. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. Modern floppy disks. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. PDAs. . are 3½ inches. a generic term. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. B. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. which appeared around 1986.
and phones. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. Memory Stick. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Secure Digital. Figure 3. DVD players and DVD recorders. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. The most common types are CompactFlash. C. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. come in many varieties. Compact discs. SmartMedia. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Flash cards. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. Some drives can only read from discs. PDAs. DVDs.5 CDs and DVD .
Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. more densely packed pits. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. DVD-ROM. DVD-RW. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. wide. but as usage evolved to include data storage. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. enable you to erase data and burn new data. file support.2. The colored . DVD-R for authoring. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data.6). Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. unlike CD-Rs. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. DVD+RW. DVD+R. DVD-RW. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. can be burned on both sides of the disc. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. can store up to 16 GB of data.1 Internal Cables A. but it lacks error checking. but still have forty pins. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. DVD+RW. the name was changed to digital versatile disc.2 Internal and External Cables 3.37 GB of data. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. and DVD-RAM. but not erased. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. 3. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors.
Figure 3. The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.6 PATA cable . 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. The drive positions on older. The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard.
and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.B. Figure 3.7 SATA cable C. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. have only 34 conductors. Figure 3. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3.8). Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. which improves airflow inside the case. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.as high as 300 MB/sec. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives.
Figure 3.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). sizes. . and the needs of designers and users.D.2. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time.9 shows an internal SCSI cable. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes. It is connected to the power supply unit.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. Figure 3.9 SCSI cable 3.
switch. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. pink for microphone. and blue for line-in. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. or to another computer. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. .The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. router.
Put the case down on your work surface. with the case door facing up. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. 5. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. and open the case.3. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. 6.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. . Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Be careful but firm. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Next. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable.
5. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. 7. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . 4. rocking the connector gently from side to side.2. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. Be careful but firm. Remove a hard drive from the system.
Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. 2. . Remove the floppy drive from the case. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. and examine the pins. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.INSTALLING 1. 3. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. 2. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. 5. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. 4.
. 2. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. 4. 2. 2. 3. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. 3. Inspect the optical drive. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1.INSTALLING 1. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. 3. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. Get the Optical drive and its cable.
4. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. 5. . Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.
Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. 1. supercomputers. cannot run on a PC without an OS.0 . An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. act the same.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. spreadsheets. Almost all computers (including handheld computers. Operating systems do not look the same or.1). An OS works only with a particular type of processor. taking control of the PC. desktop computers. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. and Web browsers. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). 3. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. such as word processors.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. Application programs. 2. 4. Table 4. on the surface.
" . and media centers (Figure 4. 2001. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. including home and business desktops.1). It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24. laptops.
CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery.2 BIOS and CMOS A. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive.2 ROM BIOS A.2).1 Windows XP environment 4. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). Figure 4. It is often built into the Southbridge. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix . The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program.Figure 4.
you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. Figure 4. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. but they all contain basically the same settings. CTRL-ALT-ESC. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. CTRL-ALTINS. CTRL-ALT-Enter. F1.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. ESC.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup .4 SoftMenu screen . Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4. F2. Usually. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have.To enter the CMOS setup program.4). Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.3) Figure 4.
5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4.5). Figure 4. Figure 4.6 Advanced BIOS Features . as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4. Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings.6).
7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure.7).9).8). such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Advanced Chipset Features .deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. Figure 4.9 Power Management . enable.8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4. or disable the onboard ports.
locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks.10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password . Figure 4. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4. . Figure 4.10).3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.
that file might only require 4KB to store. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. In a smaller partition. On Microsoft Windows machines. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. These can change size dynamically and rapidly. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. potentially making a file system full. Use of multi booting setups. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. . Having cache and log files separate from other files. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. Protecting or isolating files. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store.
In addition. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. it can lead to data loss. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. . when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. if the file was located on a FAT partition. which cannot be done under Windows NT. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. hidden. the file can be undeleted. However. system. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. To protect the volume. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. In addition. and files are given the first open location on the drive. and archive file attributes. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. FAT supports only read-only. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). This is because as the size of the volume increases. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure.
there is no file encryption built into NTFS. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. or another operating system. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. In addition. which. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. such as 512 byte sectors. someone can boot under MS-DOS. Therefore. are sorted. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. However. there are no special locations on the disk. . because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. unlike FAT or HPFS. with larger volume sizes. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. like HPFS.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. as it does under FAT. Currently.
Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. Remove downloaded program files. point to Accessories. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. a technique called defragmentation. To open Disk Defragmenter. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. and then click Disk Defragmenter. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. To open Disk Cleanup. Empty the Recycle Bin. .4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. Remove Windows temporary files.4. When files are created. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. point to All Programs. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. and then click Disk Cleanup. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. deleted. point to All Programs. point to System Tools. point to Accessories. For example. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. point to System Tools. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. click Start. click Start. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk.
and removable disks (but not optical discs). The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. logical drives. such as a hard disk or a tape. point to System Tools. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. When ordered to seek and destroy. It can be both sword and shield. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them.12 Antivirus Programs . tape. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. It supports a greater variety of devices. and then click Backup. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. click Start. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. and if it finds any. enabling you to back up to network drives. point to All Programs. point to Accessories. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. To start Backup. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards.
OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. Power your computer back on and be ready. or DEL. You will need to press a certain key at this point. To check what yours is. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. it is ESC.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. 3. Usually. After the BIOS SETUP loads.4. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . Press that key and let SETUP load. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". 4. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen. Shut down your computer. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.13. 2. F1.14. and it varies depending on the BIOS. you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________.
and third. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive).14 BIOS main screen 5.Figure 4. Figure 4. . 7. This will reboot your computer.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. After the new order is set. second. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. Now just select where you want to boot from first. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4.15. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT.
Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. At the Welcome to Setup page. 4. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. . 3. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. press ENTER. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. 8. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. Create two partitions of equal size. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition.ACTIVITY 2. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. press ESC. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. Delete system partition ____________ c. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. 9. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. 6. 2. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. and then press ENTER. Create partition ___________ b. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Partition size is entered in megabytes. To bypass the repair. you are prompted to repair it. 5. press _____.
Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Then. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). you can change language settings after setup is complete. If you prefer a language other than English. 6. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. so you must use the keyboard. During this portion of setup. Select Partition C and press ENTER. press ENTER. 4. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). On the Your Product Key page. 2. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box.and then copies the setup files. Click Next to accept the default settings. On the Personalize Your Software page. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. Then. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. you can use your mouse. read the licensing agreement. On the Welcome to Setup page. click Next. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. 3. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. 8. your mouse will not work. Eventually. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. type your name and your organization name. 5. Windows XP formats Partition C. From this point forward. If prompted to start from the CD. If you connect . restart your computer to try again. the Regional and Language Options page appears. click Next.ACTIVITY 3. Windows XP Setup begins. press any key in your keyboard. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation.
On the Help protect your PC page. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. or full names. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. and select your time zone. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. click Skip. 17. 16. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click OK. After setup is complete. nicknames. Then click Next. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. click Next. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. Then. set your computers clock. You can use first names only. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. 12. 20. click Finish. 14. click No. . On the Who will use this computer? page. click Next. On the Date and Time Settings page. On the Networking Settings page. When the Display Settings dialog appears. click the Time Zone down arrow. 19. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. Then. Click Next. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. click Next. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. 15. click OK. type the name of each person who will use the computer. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. 13. click Next. 18.your computer to a network. Click Next. On the Thank you page. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. 21. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. click Next.
11. select ―No. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. Click MANAGE. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. 3. Right-click MY COMPUTER. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. 9. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. At times. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. not this time‖. Click START. CD-ROMS. your driver may not match the device installed. To install driver: 1. Click DEVICE MANAGER. but have no existing drivers installed. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. for example. 12. Hard Drives. 5. and Printers. Afterwards. If there are no question marks left. On the radio buttons. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. Wait until it is finished. 7. 4.ACTIVITY 4. Video Cards. 2. then select NEXT to continue. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. reboot your computer. 10. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. . Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. When you buy a sound card. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. If it is not. Look for the devices with question mark icons. 8. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. Then click NEXT to continue. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. 6. wireless adapters.
a Token Ring card. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. often simply referred to as a network. Token Ring. type of system bus (for example. type of network (for example. Ethernet. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. An example of a network is a computer network.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. A computer network.1. Figure 5. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. or FDDI) 2. . The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5.1 Networking Fundamentals A. PCI or ISA) B. consider the following three factors: 1. or fiber-optic cable) 3. twisted-pair. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. Also called a LAN adapter. coaxial.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. type of media (for example. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card.
Figure 5. . The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. Ring. Metropolitan area network (MAN). A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. which is used for medium size area. Extended Star. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area.Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). These are shown in Figure 5. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. Hierarchical.2. This point is usually a hub or switch. which will be described later in the chapter. which is the actual layout of the wire (media).2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. and Mesh. Star. C. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. examples for a city or a state. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. and the logical topology. This creates a physical ring of cable.
which has multiple paths to any one location. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. but without the network. The host devices can exist without a network. first serve. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. it is first come. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. This is the way that Ethernet works. This. that means that that host can send data on the network. So as you can see in the graphic. If the host has no data to send. scanners. This also reflects the design of the Internet. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. and obtain information. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. D. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. These hosts include computers. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. will extend the length and size of the network. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. printers. with which the users share. and many other user devices. When a host receives the token. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. clients and servers. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. The second type is token-passing. . as you will learn later in the chapter. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. create.
2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media. Figure 5. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5.g. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. to keep local traffic local.5 Bridge .4 Hub D. or even 24) using a process known as concentration. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5.3). Figure 5. Figure 5.5). and increase the reliability of the network.3 Repeater D. 8. 4.D.4). The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.
5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. However. . because of their ability to route packets.6). and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. In contrast. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. running the IP protocol. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. Routers can also connect technologies. Because of the decisions that switches make. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. choose the best path for them through the network. and FDDI. such as Ethernet.6 Switch D. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. routers have become the backbone of the Internet. Figure 5. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network).4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. Switches at first glance often look like hubs.D.7). they make a LAN much more efficient. Token-ring. or a mixed wired/wireless network. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater.
7 Wireless router 5. or space. cable.9). in the form of bits and bytes.10). What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. optical fiber (Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. Each media has advantages and disadvantages. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere. Figure 5.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. however. through a LAN. You can build computer networks with many different media types.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5.8).8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. networking media confine network signals to a wire.Figure 5. or fiber.10 UTP Cable . and even free space can carry network signals. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. as the medium).
Unlike straight-through cables.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. Connecting a computer to a computer 3.11.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. Connecting a router to a router 4. and rollover cables. crossover.2. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. 5. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. Connecting a hub to a hub . Connecting a computer to a router 2. Figure 5. Connecting a switch to a switch 5. and then the orange and green wires.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross.
out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. vast memory. Connecting a computer to a switch 3.5. Connecting a router to a hub 2.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5.12). none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.2. or computer 5. hub. . and a large hard disk. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. Figure 5.
the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. .The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. Figure 5.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. In client/server networking. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. Figure 5. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. audio and video files. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. graphics. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. When a page is requested. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. etc.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network.
27. quark. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. .12. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation.3.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. which is contained in the leading octets. and a host number. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. which is the remainder.groucho.61. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. without the need for intermediate servers. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. For example. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks. A network of peers can share its processor. called an IP Address. such as a supercomputer. 5. Allows local resources to be shared directly. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. Instead. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses.4.76. which is written as 149.physics. rather than relying on a single computer. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability.
While managers today are able to use the newest applications. Class C Class C networks range from 192.0. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time.0. The network number is contained in the first octet. fax.0.0. 5.255. E.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication.0 through 254.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.255. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1. several classes of networks.6 million hosts per network.0.0.320 nets with 65. defining different places to split IP addresses. Class B Class B contains networks 128.0. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.0 through 127.0.0. allowing roughly 1. the network number is in the first two octets. IP Multicast. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0. they are often still isolated. have been defined.0 through 191.0.0. To accommodate different needs.0.024 hosts each. . personal handheld devices). with the network number contained in the first three octets. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224.0 through 223. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.0. Classes D. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones.255.0. This class allows for 16.0.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network.
Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. which allows direct printing from all computers. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. structure. decisions of purchase. . computer networks are necessary. Additionally. videos and movies from one computer to the next. Sharing Media. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. printers can be connected using a print server. computers can stream musing. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing . Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. Printers .Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. Like file sharing. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology.
6. 3. 5. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. . Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. 4. 8. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Video Games . Separate out the 4 pairs of wires.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. 5. Cut a length of cable. 7.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. Untwist the wires. then clip their length. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Strip off the jacket. 2. Media Center Server .
12. ACTIVITY 2. 10. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 11. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Inspect both ends of the cable.9. Subnet . Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Assign a unique IP address to each computer. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Then click OK. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. 2. Use Class C IP addresses. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES.
g. . Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Type CMD. 5. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. 2. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. then click RUN. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.ACTIVITY 3.168. PING 192. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. Then click OK.1) and press ENTER. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. The switch must be connected to the router. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Click START. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. In the command prompt.0. 4. and then click OK. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES.
Click OK. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Create a folder in DESKTOP. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. 2. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. Use the default name for the shared folder. . Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder.ACTIVITY 4. Click OK. click Share this folder on the network. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. After you type the appropriate credentials. 3. In the folder's properties. 3. 2. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. 2. Rename the folder as share_yourname. 4. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. 4. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. Click START and then click RUN. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Type the name using UNC format.
Click OK. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Click NEXT to continue. 6. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. Select YES. 3. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. Right-click the printer you want to share. 7. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. In the Share name field. 2. 4. 3.ACTIVITY 4. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. or a printer attached to another computer. When the list of printers appears. Add a network printer 1. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. Select A network printer. Click the Sharing tab. on the Start menu. 4. and select the Share this printer check box. Then click NEXT to continue. Click NEXT to start. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. then click ADD PRINTER. 9. 8. 2. and then click Printer properties. 5. . Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. In Control Panel. Click START and then. Select Browse for a printer.
1 Objective 6.4 Exercises 6.3 Networks 6.2 Case Analysis .Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.2 Software 6.1 Hardware 6.4.
CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.com/kb/310312 http://www.com/ . Larry and Nancy Long.pcguide.com/what-is-pata. United States.com/ Charles M.html April 17.microsoft.com/ http://www. R. 2011 http://www.duxcw.html.computerotic.ehow.com). Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International.com/ Larry F. http://www. Kayne. http://www. Mike. http://www. Peter. Byard.com/drcables1.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. 2001. The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 .Version Date: April 17. May 31. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition.html June 2. 2007.com/install-a-power-supply.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. http://www.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.blogspot.php May 31.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c. 2011 http://www. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www. Long. 2001.ictglobal. May 27.vistax64. 2011.tech-faq.build-your-owncomputer-tips.htm May 31.2.PCGuide. Kozierok.wisegeek. The PC Guide (http://www.kitchentablecomputers. Site Version: 2. 2011 http://www. Norton. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B.
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