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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
processing. Printer. Mouse .Keypad for providing keyed input.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Speakers/headphones . Based on a typewriter. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). stores and makes the output of the information.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations.To provide input and output. A computer inputs information.Provides printed paper output. Some PCs won’t have speakers. Computer Process From the IT perspective. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. storage. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. mouse. the computer functions through four stages: input. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. and output. The following are the standard set: Monitor . or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. process it.Speakers provide sound output. . Keyboard . Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. Processing Next. the computer processes your data. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system.
safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. After storing the data.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. Output is the result we get through output devices. the most visible of which are the external storage parts. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. It might send the data over to the printer. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Figure 1. . Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD).Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. storing procedure comes next.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. 1. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. A lot of devices are used in the storage process.
and any loose components at the same electrical potential. a pair of tweezers.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. Use the right kind of tools.4 Anti-static bag 2. . Figure 1. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. a little grabber tool. a nut driver or two.3. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench. the computer.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you.5).Figure 1.4). Figure 1.
Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. 17. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. 6. 15. 14. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. 8. trash can and fire exit. 11. Check voltage requirement. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. 16. 9. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. 4. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. 10. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. Beware of sharp edges. 5. 13. 20. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair.Figure 1. 18. 19.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. . Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. 7. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles.
3. 4. . 10. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. 5. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. 8.3 Exercises 1. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. 9.3. The monitor provides visual output for the computer. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. 2. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 7. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input.1.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. 6. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals.
Chapter II Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit – front and back .1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case.1 System Unit The system case. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment. desktop. mid-tower. tower. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. Figure 2. mini-tower. and cube. Figure 2. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline.
The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2.2 Onboard Devices . Figure 2. Connections such as USB. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. Including power supply . lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy.Buttons used to turn the system on and off. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections. CD-ROM. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. and DVD drives are in the front of the case.2).
3). . PCs use a 5-volt/3. Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1. PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2. and 3.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5. Figure 2.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.1.2. 12.First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V .3 V DC.3 .Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2.0 .3-volt current to support onboard electronics.
or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. optical drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . add-on fans.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20. supplemental motherboard power. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. extra video card power.Table 2.
surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power. Figure 2.Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage.4 Uninterruptible power supply .4).
2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. While it is in RAM. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. Table 2. When you start a computer. a computer uses memory. When power is turned off. Most RAM is volatile.3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function.2. the processor interprets the data. it loses its contents. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM.
but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) .
and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. but could not fix it. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM.
you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM.6). You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. 2. . CPUs might look similar. Figure 2. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager.needed by the program.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. but they are not interchangeable. DDR RAM.
8).Figure 2. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.9 SEC processor . which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) .9) Figure 2. Figure 2.7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.
It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. .5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. which enables system components to be added to the computer. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . Figure 2. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. Figure 2. it helps the CPU work with RAM. On newer AMD systems.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. which is dedicated to video.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard.2. similar to a PCI slot. Southbridge . special port. The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).a single.
An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. and others. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. including the expansion slots. video card.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. 2. and components. Table 2. chipset. capable of storing about 64 KB of data. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. CD and DVD drives. hard drives.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. Finally. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.
This controller determines the refresh rate.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. resolution. .Expansion Cards Video Card . Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. and number of colors that can be displayed. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. It is often called Ethernet Card. Also called the display adapter.
A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.Sound Card . Next. .7 Exercises LABORATORY 1.
with the case door facing up. Fill in the following chart. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. Component Specifications/Description e. Put the case down on your work surface.2. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. and open the case. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for.g. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. . After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. 3. 2.
Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. 4. After removing the RAM. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Figure 2. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. Remove the front panel connectors. Look at the label on the power supply. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards).11). reset button.11 Front panel control wires . make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2.3. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.
Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. by the edges. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. The screws may also have small washers. 13 3. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2.2. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. Handle the motherboard gently.13). Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . 4.14. as shown in Figure 2. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. Figure 2. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Check on the expansion slots. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation.
3.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2.static mat. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. then raise the lever to a vertical position. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. Figure 2. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. List them down. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. 4. 4. . . or you will bend its tiny pins. 5. 3. Examine the CPU. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti.2.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. It sends data bit by bit. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable. This drives are hot swappable. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins.
Although disk striping without parity works very fast. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. This technique. or on the manufacturer's web site.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. This drives are hot swappable. the manufacturer of the drive. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. requiring at least three drives. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. and any special features that the drive may possess. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. . The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system.
4 Floppy Diskette . A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. Jumper Pins: A set of pins.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. without the use of software. They have been around since the very first PCs. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. The small.Figure 3. 3. 1. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).2 External Drives A.1. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. or removed to break a connection. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today.
as they are powered directly from the USB bus. which appeared around 1986. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. reading or writing data as necessary. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. a generic term. PDAs. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter.by higher capacity removable media. are used in digital cameras. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Memory cards. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. and other devices. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. are 3½ inches. however. . Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. Modern floppy disks. B.
The most common types are CompactFlash. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Some drives can only read from discs.5 CDs and DVD . Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. C. Compact discs. Secure Digital. Flash cards. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras. DVD players and DVD recorders. DVDs. Memory Stick. SmartMedia. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. PDAs. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. and phones. come in many varieties. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. Figure 3. and to record discs for archival and data exchange.
can be burned on both sides of the disc.2. DVD+R. more densely packed pits. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. wide. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. DVD-R for authoring. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. unlike CD-Rs. DVD+RW. file support.37 GB of data. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. and DVD-RAM.6).Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. DVD+RW. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW. but as usage evolved to include data storage. can store up to 16 GB of data. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. enable you to erase data and burn new data. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. DVD-RW. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. DVD-ROM. 3. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. but still have forty pins. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. but not erased. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM.1 Internal Cables A. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. but it lacks error checking. The colored . DVD-RW. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps.2 Internal and External Cables 3.
The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device. The drive positions on older.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. Figure 3. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard.6 PATA cable . 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device.
They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives.B. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3. Figure 3. have only 34 conductors. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. which improves airflow inside the case.8).8 Floppy cable with five connectors . They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.as high as 300 MB/sec. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. Figure 3. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.7 SATA cable C.
Figure 3. and the needs of designers and users. sizes.9 shows an internal SCSI cable.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. Figure 3.9 SCSI cable 3. It is connected to the power supply unit.2.D.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. .
router. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. switch. or to another computer. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. . A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. pink for microphone. and blue for line-in.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles.
Be careful but firm. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. Remove the screws of your system unit case. 5. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Turn off the PC and unplug it. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. with the case door facing up. and open the case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Next. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. 6. Put the case down on your work surface. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. .3.
Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. 4. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. rocking the connector gently from side to side. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. 5. Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . 7. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Be careful but firm. Remove a hard drive from the system. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable.2. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping.
How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. 5. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. and examine the pins. 3. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. 4. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). .INSTALLING 1. 2. Remove the floppy drive from the case. 2. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master.
and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. 3. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. 4. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. . 2. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. 2. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. 2. 3. Inspect the optical drive. 3. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver.INSTALLING 1. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk.
Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. .4. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. 5. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.
desktop computers.1). 2. Operating systems do not look the same or.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST). 1. 3. taking control of the PC. Almost all computers (including handheld computers. on the surface. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. such as word processors. supercomputers. and Web browsers.0 . Application programs. 4. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. Table 4.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. spreadsheets. cannot run on a PC without an OS. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. act the same.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI).1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4.
including home and business desktops.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. and media centers (Figure 4. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24. 2001.1). laptops." .
2). Figure 4. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS).1 Windows XP environment 4. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix . Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive. The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard.2 ROM BIOS A.2 BIOS and CMOS A.Figure 4. It is often built into the Southbridge.
CTRL-ALT-ESC. F1. but they all contain basically the same settings. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have. Usually.4 SoftMenu screen .3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup . you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del.3) Figure 4.4). you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. CTRL-ALTINS.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program. CTRL-ALT-Enter. F2. ESC. Figure 4. Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4.To enter the CMOS setup program.
6 Advanced BIOS Features .5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4. Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.5). Figure 4.6). Figure 4.
8). or disable the onboard ports.7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. Advanced Chipset Features . Figure 4.9).9 Power Management . such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4. enable.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4.7). Figure 4. Figure 4.
Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.10). Figure 4.10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password .locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4.11 A CMOS password prompt 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions. Figure 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. .
In a smaller partition. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. Use of multi booting setups. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Having cache and log files separate from other files.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. Protecting or isolating files. On Microsoft Windows machines. that file might only require 4KB to store. These can change size dynamically and rapidly. potentially making a file system full. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. . to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB.
and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. In addition. system. hidden. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. . FAT supports only read-only. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. which cannot be done under Windows NT. and archive file attributes. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. if the file was located on a FAT partition.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. it can lead to data loss. the file can be undeleted. and files are given the first open location on the drive. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. This is because as the size of the volume increases. However. To protect the volume. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. In addition. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged.
as it does under FAT. there are no special locations on the disk. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. or another operating system. someone can boot under MS-DOS. such as 512 byte sectors. which. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. unlike FAT or HPFS. are sorted. However. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. In addition. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. with larger volume sizes. like HPFS. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. Therefore. Currently. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. .
the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. click Start. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files. deleted. point to All Programs. point to System Tools. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. point to Accessories. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. When files are created. a technique called defragmentation. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. Remove downloaded program files. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. To open Disk Cleanup. Remove Windows temporary files. click Start. For example.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. and then click Disk Cleanup. point to All Programs. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. point to System Tools.4. Empty the Recycle Bin. To open Disk Defragmenter. and then click Disk Defragmenter. . You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to Accessories. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety.
point to System Tools. enabling you to back up to network drives. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. and then click Backup. It can be both sword and shield. It supports a greater variety of devices. and removable disks (but not optical discs). you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. point to All Programs. such as a hard disk or a tape.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders.12 Antivirus Programs . Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. To start Backup. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. click Start. When ordered to seek and destroy. point to Accessories. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. tape. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. logical drives. and if it finds any. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT.
Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. You will need to press a certain key at this point. 4.13. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. Power your computer back on and be ready. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". After the BIOS SETUP loads. Press that key and let SETUP load. Figure 4. or DEL. it is ESC. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen. Usually. To check what yours is. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. F1. and it varies depending on the BIOS. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. 2. 3. Shut down your computer. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom.14.4.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ .
It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. Figure 4.Figure 4. second. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. and third. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. This will reboot your computer.15. 7.14 BIOS main screen 5. Now just select where you want to boot from first. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. . your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. After the new order is set.
9. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. press _____. 6. . you are prompted to repair it. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. To bypass the repair. Delete system partition ____________ c. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. 4. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. press ESC. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. 8. 2. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. Partition size is entered in megabytes. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. and then press ENTER. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first.ACTIVITY 2. 5. Create two partitions of equal size. Create partition ___________ b. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. At the Welcome to Setup page. 3. press ENTER.
restart your computer to try again. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. If prompted to start from the CD. 5. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. If you prefer a language other than English. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. Windows XP Setup begins. During this portion of setup. 4. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). From this point forward. If you connect . 8. you can change language settings after setup is complete. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. On the Personalize Your Software page. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. press any key in your keyboard. Eventually. click Next. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. the Regional and Language Options page appears. Then. type your name and your organization name. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. Select Partition C and press ENTER.and then copies the setup files. 3. 2. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. you can use your mouse. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. read the licensing agreement. On the Welcome to Setup page. Windows XP formats Partition C.ACTIVITY 3. Click Next to accept the default settings. On the Your Product Key page. so you must use the keyboard. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. press ENTER. your mouse will not work. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). 6. click Next. Then.
On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. On the Who will use this computer? page. On the Thank you page. set your computers clock. click Next. Then. 13.your computer to a network. and select your time zone. Then. 14. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. When the Display Settings dialog appears. Then click Next. Click Next. click Next. 19. . Click Next. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. click Finish. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. click the Time Zone down arrow. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. click No. 15. click OK. After setup is complete. or full names. 20. click Next. 16. click Next. 17. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. You can use first names only. click OK. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. type the name of each person who will use the computer. 18. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. 21. 12. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. click Skip. nicknames. On the Networking Settings page. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. On the Help protect your PC page. On the Date and Time Settings page. click Next.
the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. Look for the devices with question mark icons. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. 5. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. CD-ROMS. Click START. Afterwards. Then click NEXT to continue. 12. then select NEXT to continue. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. At times. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. To install driver: 1. Hard Drives.ACTIVITY 4. Click DEVICE MANAGER. Video Cards. your driver may not match the device installed. Wait until it is finished. 11. . Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. 8. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. Right-click MY COMPUTER. not this time‖. If it is not. and Printers. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. If there are no question marks left. When you buy a sound card. 9. 6. On the radio buttons. Click MANAGE. but have no existing drivers installed. 7. for example. 4. select ―No. reboot your computer. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. 3. 2. 10. wireless adapters.
is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices.1. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. . often simply referred to as a network.1 Networking Fundamentals A. type of system bus (for example. type of network (for example. twisted-pair. or FDDI) 2. PCI or ISA) B. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. A computer network. Ethernet. a Token Ring card.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. Figure 5. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. or fiber-optic cable) 3. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Token Ring. An example of a network is a computer network. coaxial. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. type of media (for example. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. consider the following three factors: 1.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. Also called a LAN adapter. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5.
An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. examples for a city or a state.2. and Mesh. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. These are shown in Figure 5. Ring. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). . Hierarchical.Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). which is used for medium size area. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. This point is usually a hub or switch. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. Figure 5. and the logical topology. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. This creates a physical ring of cable. Extended Star. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. which will be described later in the chapter. C. Star. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. Metropolitan area network (MAN).
The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. The host devices can exist without a network. . printers. So as you can see in the graphic. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. This. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. first serve. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. that means that that host can send data on the network. will extend the length and size of the network. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. D. and many other user devices. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. create. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. it is first come. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. This is the way that Ethernet works. If the host has no data to send. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. with which the users share. This also reflects the design of the Internet. which has multiple paths to any one location. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. as you will learn later in the chapter. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. The second type is token-passing. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. but without the network. and obtain information. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. scanners. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. These hosts include computers. clients and servers. When a host receives the token.
1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5.4 Hub D. to keep local traffic local. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater.D.5).3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN. 8. and increase the reliability of the network. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5.4). Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.g. or even 24) using a process known as concentration.5 Bridge . 4.3).3 Repeater D. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.
They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all.6). Routers can also connect technologies. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5.7). just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. However.6 Switch D. such as Ethernet. and FDDI. because of their ability to route packets. they make a LAN much more efficient. running the IP protocol. Switches at first glance often look like hubs.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. or a mixed wired/wireless network. Because of the decisions that switches make. In contrast. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). a wireless only LAN (WLAN). Figure 5. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. Token-ring. .5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. choose the best path for them through the network. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. routers have become the backbone of the Internet.D. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection.
Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere. as the medium).10).8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. or space.7 Wireless router 5. cable. Figure 5. networking media confine network signals to a wire. or fiber. in the form of bits and bytes. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. and even free space can carry network signals.8). however. optical fiber (Figure 5.Figure 5.10 UTP Cable .9).2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. through a LAN. You can build computer networks with many different media types. Each media has advantages and disadvantages.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5.
we use crossover cables to connect like devices. Unlike straight-through cables.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. 5. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. Figure 5. Connecting a hub to a hub . This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time. Connecting a switch to a switch 5. Connecting a router to a router 4. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5.11. and then the orange and green wires. Connecting a computer to a router 2. and rollover cables. crossover. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1.2.
. or computer 5. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor.2.5. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. vast memory.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. and a large hard disk. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable.12).3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. Connecting a computer to a switch 3. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. hub. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing. Figure 5. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. Connecting a router to a hub 2.
content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. etc. .13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. Figure 5. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. graphics. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. When a page is requested.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page. audio and video files. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. Figure 5. In client/server networking.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays.
1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use.12. A network of peers can share its processor. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. such as a supercomputer. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed.physics.4. called an IP Address.76. For example.27.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. Instead. which is written as 149. without the need for intermediate servers.3. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. which is contained in the leading octets. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. quark.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. which is the remainder. . a peer can share the file directly from its local storage. Allows local resources to be shared directly. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number.groucho. rather than relying on a single computer.61. 5. and a host number. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.
the network number is in the first two octets.0.0. This class provides for a 24-bit host part.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time. with the network number contained in the first three octets.0 through 127.0.0.255.320 nets with 65. Classes D.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.0 through 223.6 million hosts per network.0. allowing roughly 18.104.22.168.0. have been defined.0. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0 through 254. several classes of networks.0.0.0. The network number is contained in the first octet. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.255. personal handheld devices). This class allows for 16. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. 5. . fax. defining different places to split IP addresses.0 through 191. IP Multicast. Class B Class B contains networks 128.0.0. To accommodate different needs. they are often still isolated.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. E. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.024 hosts each. Class C Class C networks range from 192.0. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.0.
Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. . Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. computer networks are necessary. Sharing Media.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network. there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. structure. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. Additionally.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. which allows direct printing from all computers. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing . Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Printers . computers can stream musing. printers can be connected using a print server. videos and movies from one computer to the next. decisions of purchase.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. Like file sharing.
Video Games . Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. 8. Strip off the jacket. 6. Cut a length of cable. 7. 2.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. Media Center Server . Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. Untwist the wires. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. 3. then clip their length. 4. 5. 5. . Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1.
ACTIVITY 2. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Use Class C IP addresses. 2. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Inspect both ends of the cable. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. 12. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.9. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. 10. Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. 11. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Subnet . Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Then click OK.
Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. PING 192. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES.1) and press ENTER. 4. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. In the command prompt. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. then click RUN. 5. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. 2. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6.g. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. The switch must be connected to the router.0. and then click OK.168. Type CMD. Then click OK. Click START. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect.ACTIVITY 3. . Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP).
4. Click START and then click RUN. 2. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. Create a folder in DESKTOP. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Rename the folder as share_yourname. In the folder's properties. click Share this folder on the network. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. 3. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. 2. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. Type the name using UNC format. Click OK. After you type the appropriate credentials. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. 4. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting.ACTIVITY 4. Use the default name for the shared folder. 3. . Click OK. 2.
Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. Click OK. 2. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. 8. and select the Share this printer check box. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. 2. Right-click the printer you want to share. Click the Sharing tab. Add a network printer 1. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. . Select YES. 3. Click NEXT to continue. Select Browse for a printer. 4. 3. When the list of printers appears. 4. Click START and then. 6. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use.ACTIVITY 4. 5. Then click NEXT to continue. Select A network printer. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. on the Start menu. In the Share name field. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. then click ADD PRINTER. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. In Control Panel. 9. and then click Printer properties. or a printer attached to another computer. Click NEXT to start. 7.
4 Exercises 6.2 Software 6.1 Hardware 6.4.1 Objective 6.3 Networks 6.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.2 Case Analysis .
COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition. http://www.2. Larry and Nancy Long.ictglobal. Kayne. 2011. 2011 http://www.com/drcables1.html.com/what-is-pata.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c. R.vistax64.htm May 31.com/ http://www. http://www. http://www. Peter.pcguide.Version Date: April 17. Mike.microsoft.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change. May 31. http://www.build-your-owncomputer-tips. Site Version: 2. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www. 2001. Byard.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers. 2011 http://www. The McGraw-Hill Companies.duxcw.com/kb/310312 http://www.com/ Larry F.0 .tech-faq.com/ .com).wisegeek. The PC Guide (http://www.com/install-a-power-supply.com/ Charles M.html April 17.blogspot.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.computerotic. 2001. Kozierok. 2007. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. May 27.html June 2. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. 2011 http://www.PCGuide. United States.kitchentablecomputers. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.php May 31.ehow. Long. Norton.
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