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Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises
Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware
Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises
Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation
Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation
Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN
This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.
COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.
Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer
Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals
To provide input and output. storage.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input.Keypad for providing keyed input. processing. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).Provides printed paper output. Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. Speakers/headphones . You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. process it.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. Some PCs won’t have speakers. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. The following are the standard set: Monitor . Computer Process From the IT perspective. . Processing Next. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. Keyboard . Mouse . mouse. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. Based on a typewriter. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Printer. the computer processes your data. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system. stores and makes the output of the information. the computer functions through four stages: input.Speakers provide sound output. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. A computer inputs information. and output.
it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it. storing procedure comes next.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). 1. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. After storing the data. Figure 1. Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. A printer and monitor are examples of output devices.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. A lot of devices are used in the storage process.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. . Output is the result we get through output devices. It might send the data over to the printer. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. the most visible of which are the external storage parts.
a little grabber tool. and any loose components at the same electrical potential. Figure 1. . thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. Use the right kind of tools.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. a pair of tweezers. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench.4). Figure 1.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit.4 Anti-static bag 2.Figure 1. the computer. A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1.5). a nut driver or two.3.
5 Typical technician tool kit 3. 8. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. 5. 10. 6. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. 11. 16. . 15. 4. 9. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. 17. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. 19. 20. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. trash can and fire exit. 18. Beware of sharp edges. Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments.Figure 1. 7. 13. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. Check voltage requirement. 14.
.1. 6. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. 4.3 Exercises 1. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. 7. 9. 5. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. 2. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input. The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device.3. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. 8. 10.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. The monitor provides visual output for the computer. 3. Printer and speakers are example of input devices.
Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. mini-tower.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case. Figure 2. mid-tower. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment. desktop. tower.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. and cube.1 System Unit The system case.1 System Unit – front and back . Figure 2.
Including power supply . CD-ROM. Figure 2. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case.2 Onboard Devices .Buttons used to turn the system on and off. One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards.2). FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. and DVD drives are in the front of the case.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case. Connections such as USB.
PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives. Some power supply versions: Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2. .3 V DC.1.3-volt current to support onboard electronics. PCs use a 5-volt/3.First widespread update to ATX PS EPS 12 V . Figure 2.0 .Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2.3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.3 .2.Introduced for server motherboards ATX 12 V 2. 12.3). and 3.
or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. optical drive. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) . add-on fans.Table 2.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20. supplemental motherboard power. extra video card power.
surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.4).4 Uninterruptible power supply .Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power. Figure 2.
3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running.2. it loses its contents. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function. While it is in RAM. Most RAM is volatile. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code) 144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops . When power is turned off. the processor interprets the data. a computer uses memory. When you start a computer. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. Table 2. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM.
SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks Synchronized with system clock SDRAM is always a DIMM. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) . but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM Wide number of pins Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops Faster than DRAMs RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM Speeds of up to 800 MHz Comes on sticks called RIMMs 184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM) DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM 184-pin DIMM packages (desktops) 172-.
parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. increasing buffering Does not speed up core RAM. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . third slot is black DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM Doubled the clock. but could not fix it. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. Wide range of speeds Considered a standard today Dual slots are blue. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. but just the I/O 240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller.
DDR RAM.5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2. but they are not interchangeable. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.6 An Common CPU Packages Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. . 2.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2.6).needed by the program. CPUs might look similar. Figure 2.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer.
9 SEC processor .9) Figure 2.7 Sample of PGA package Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.8 ZIF socket with arm on side Single edge cartridge (SEC) .CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2.Figure 2. with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU. Figure 2. ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.8). which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force. PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.
The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).a single. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot .10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. . Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) .handles expansion devices and mass storage drives. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply. Figure 2. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. it helps the CPU work with RAM. special port.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system. which is dedicated to video. which enables system components to be added to the computer.2. Southbridge .10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. Figure 2.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. On newer AMD systems. similar to a PCI slot.
Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. and components. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. and others. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip . Finally. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices.contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. Table 2. CD and DVD drives. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.3 Kinds of Expansion Cards . Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. hard drives. 2. An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. Front panel connections Soft Power Reset Power LED Hard drive activity LED Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. chipset.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer. including the expansion slots. video card. capable of storing about 64 KB of data.
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. This controller determines the refresh rate.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. Also called the display adapter.Expansion Cards Video Card . Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. and number of colors that can be displayed. It is often called Ethernet Card. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. resolution. The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor. .A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer.
Next. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Turn off the PC and unplug it.Sound Card . .An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source.7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.
Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Put the case down on your work surface. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. Component Specifications/Description e. 3. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. with the case door facing up.2.g. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Fill in the following chart. 2. . Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. and open the case.
What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.3. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2.11 Front panel control wires . Figure 2. Look at the label on the power supply. make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. Remove the front panel connectors. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use. 4. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. After removing the RAM. reset button.11). These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards).
What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Handle the motherboard gently. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. 13 3.13). Note the maker and model information on the motherboard. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. as shown in Figure 2.2. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan . Check on the expansion slots. You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2.14. The screws may also have small washers. by the edges. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. 4. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. Figure 2. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat.
14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. . See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit. Examine the CPU. 4. 3. List them down. What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1. 4.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. . Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place.static mat. then raise the lever to a vertical position. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. or you will bend its tiny pins. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. 5.2. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. 3. Figure 2.
LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED: The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1 A Phillips head screwdriver Thermal Compound An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.
ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.
2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.
Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).
How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a
cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive) IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins. IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate. It sends 8 bit data at a time. PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.
4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. This drives are hot swappable. . Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable.SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive) SATA Drives have usually 7 pins. SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. It sends data bit by bit. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive) SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable. Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD.
splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable.SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive) SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. and any special features that the drive may possess. This drives are hot swappable. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. . combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. or on the manufacturer's web site. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. This technique. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. requiring at least three drives. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. the manufacturer of the drive. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing.
They have been around since the very first PCs. or removed to break a connection. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today.1. A jumper consists of two primary components: Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. The small.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3. 1.2 External Drives A. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts. They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).Figure 3. 3.4 Floppy Diskette .3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection. without the use of software. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. Jumper Pins: A set of pins.
Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. Modern floppy disks.by higher capacity removable media. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. B. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. . are 3½ inches. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. and other devices. Memory cards. are used in digital cameras. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards. a generic term. however. The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. which appeared around 1986. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. PDAs. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. reading or writing data as necessary.
Compact discs. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. C. Secure Digital. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras.5 CDs and DVD . Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. and phones. Figure 3. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. Some drives can only read from discs. Flash cards. SmartMedia. PDAs. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. DVDs. The most common types are CompactFlash. come in many varieties. DVD players and DVD recorders. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. Memory Stick. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. and to record discs for archival and data exchange.
6). Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps. and directory structure CD-ROM discs are for storing data.Types of Optical Drives CDs come in many varieties. CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs.37 GB of data. but it lacks error checking. file support. the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM. but not erased. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. DVD-RW.2. CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. DVD+RW. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to. more densely packed pits. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. DVD+RW. but as usage evolved to include data storage. unlike CD-Rs. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. DVD-ROM.1 Internal Cables A. The colored . The lowest capacity DVD holds 4. and DVD-RAM. but still have forty pins. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. DVD+R.2 Internal and External Cables 3. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. can store up to 16 GB of data. DVD-R for authoring. 3. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3. enable you to erase data and burn new data. DVD-RW. can be burned on both sides of the disc. wide. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW.
The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device.6 PATA cable . Figure 3. The black connector attaches to the master drive or device. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors: The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard. The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard. 40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable: The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device. The drive positions on older.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors. The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.
SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower.7 SATA cable C. Figure 3.as high as 300 MB/sec.8). Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard. Figure 3.B. and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3. have only 34 conductors. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. which improves airflow inside the case. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard.
The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time.9 shows an internal SCSI cable. sizes.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). Figure 3. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.2. . Figure 3.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. and the needs of designers and users.9 SCSI cable 3. It is connected to the power supply unit.D.
switch. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port. Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. router. . A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. pink for microphone.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. and blue for line-in. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers. or to another computer. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends.
unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer A Phillips head screwdriver An anti-static mat An anti-static wrist strap (optional) Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. Turn off the PC and unplug it. 5. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. rocking the connector gently from side to side.3. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. Be careful but firm.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. and open the case. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. with the case door facing up. 6. Put the case down on your work surface. ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. Next. .
Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . 5. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Be careful but firm. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull.2. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. 7. Remove a hard drive from the system. 4.
Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. 5. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. 3. Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. Remove the floppy drive from the case. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. .INSTALLING 1. 2. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. and examine the pins. 4. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 2. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive.
Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Get the floppy disk and its cable. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. 2. 3. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. 3. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master.INSTALLING 1. Inspect the optical drive. . Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. 2. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk. 4. Get the Optical drive and its cable. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. 2. 3.
Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking.4. . 5. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6.
1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. act the same. and Web browsers.1). 3.0 . Application programs. 4. Table 4.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). desktop computers. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. An OS works only with a particular type of processor.1 Home Users Windows 9x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4. taking control of the PC. 1. cannot run on a PC without an OS. such as word processors. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. spreadsheets. Operating systems do not look the same or. Almost all computers (including handheld computers. 2. supercomputers. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics.Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. on the surface. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST).
" . laptops.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista Windows Vista Business Windows Vista Enterprise Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7 Windows 7 Professional Windows 7 Enterprise Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista Windows Vista Starter Windows Vista Home Basic Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7 Windows 7 Starter Windows 7 Home Basic Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. 2001.1). including home and business desktops. and media centers (Figure 4. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24.
Figure 4. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. Three primary BIOS brands: American Megatrends (AMI) Award Phoenix . Figure 4. The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2). It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery. It is often built into the Southbridge.2 ROM BIOS A.1 Windows XP environment 4. It is customizable via the CMOS setup program. Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS).2 BIOS and CMOS A.
Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility SoftMenu Setup . CTRL-ALTINS. F2. Usually. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. but they all contain basically the same settings. Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4.4). Figure 4.3) Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-ESC. Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. F1.To enter the CMOS setup program. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have.4 SoftMenu screen . ESC. CTRL-ALT-Enter. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del.
5). Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. Figure 4.5 Standard CMOS Features screen Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4. as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.6 Advanced BIOS Features . Figure 4.6).
7).8).deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4.9).9 Power Management .7 Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. enable. or disable the onboard ports. Advanced Chipset Features . Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4.
Figure 4. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4.10 PnP/PCI Configurations Set Password .10).locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. Figure 4. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. .3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.
Use of multi booting setups. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. On Microsoft Windows machines. potentially making a file system full. Purposes for partitioning: Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. . that file might only require 4KB to store. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Protecting or isolating files. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. Having cache and log files separate from other files. In a smaller partition. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. These can change size dynamically and rapidly.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer.
which cannot be done under Windows NT. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). To protect the volume. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. In addition. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. . and files are given the first open location on the drive. hidden. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located. This is because as the size of the volume increases. FAT supports only read-only. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. if the file was located on a FAT partition. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. and archive file attributes. the file can be undeleted. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. it can lead to data loss. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. In addition. However. system. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems.
such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. someone can boot under MS-DOS. which. Currently. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. However. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. . or another operating system. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition. unlike FAT or HPFS. Therefore. there are no special locations on the disk. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. such as 512 byte sectors. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS. Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. as it does under FAT. In addition. NTFS continues to organize files into directories.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. like HPFS. are sorted. with larger volume sizes.
point to System Tools. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. point to Accessories. Remove Windows temporary files. and then click Disk Cleanup. click Start. click Start.4. and then click Disk Defragmenter. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. To open Disk Defragmenter. Remove downloaded program files.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to All Programs. To open Disk Cleanup. point to Accessories. point to All Programs. a technique called defragmentation. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. When files are created. Empty the Recycle Bin. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. deleted. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. point to System Tools. . Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. For example. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk: Remove temporary Internet files.
and then click Backup. point to All Programs. click Start. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. logical drives. Examples of Antivirus Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards.12 Antivirus Programs . or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. point to Accessories. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. When ordered to seek and destroy.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. To start Backup. point to System Tools. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. tape. enabling you to back up to network drives. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. and removable disks (but not optical discs). such as a hard disk or a tape. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. It supports a greater variety of devices. It can be both sword and shield. and if it finds any.
F1. After the BIOS SETUP loads. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have.4. You will need to press a certain key at this point. 3. Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. Usually. Figure 4. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen. Power your computer back on and be ready. To check what yours is. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4.13.14. Shut down your computer. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ . it is ESC. 2.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. or DEL. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED: A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive) Windows XP installer Driver installer Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. 4. and it varies depending on the BIOS. Press that key and let SETUP load.
second. Now just select where you want to boot from first. your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. After the new order is set. 7. .14 BIOS main screen 5. and third.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes.Figure 4. Figure 4. This will reboot your computer. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have.15. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4.
To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. . Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. 5. 3. Delete system partition ____________ c. 4. To bypass the repair. press ESC. you are prompted to repair it.ACTIVITY 2. press ENTER. 9. what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. At the Welcome to Setup page. Create two partitions of equal size. Create partition ___________ b. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. You can select from the following options: Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick) Format the partition by using the NTFS file system Format the partition by using the FAT file system Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. 8. Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. 2. Partition size is entered in megabytes. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. 6. and then press ENTER. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. press _____. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk.
On the Personalize Your Software page. If prompted to start from the CD. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. Select Partition C and press ENTER. click Next. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). You cannot use spaces or punctuation. Windows XP Setup begins. 3. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. click Next. 8. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. On the Welcome to Setup page. Eventually. 4. you can use your mouse. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case.ACTIVITY 3. the Regional and Language Options page appears. type your name and your organization name. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. press ENTER. press any key in your keyboard. Then. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. so you must use the keyboard. read the licensing agreement. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. you can change language settings after setup is complete. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. If you connect . 6. Windows XP formats Partition C. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. From this point forward. 2. 5. Then. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. your mouse will not work. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box.and then copies the setup files. On the Your Product Key page. Click Next to accept the default settings. restart your computer to try again. During this portion of setup. If you prefer a language other than English. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Then press F8 to accept the agreement.
When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. click the Time Zone down arrow. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. click Next. On the Thank you page. click Next. On the Networking Settings page. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. click OK. or full names. Then.your computer to a network. click Next. if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. 21. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. When the Display Settings dialog appears. Then click Next. 12. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. On the Help protect your PC page. Click Next. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. click Next. 17. click Skip. click No. Then. 14. click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. 13. Click Next. type the name of each person who will use the computer. You can use first names only. 19. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. 20. click OK. set your computers clock. On the Date and Time Settings page. 18. click Next. click Finish. and select your time zone. 16. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. 15. On the Who will use this computer? page. . On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. nicknames. After setup is complete.
and Printers. If there are no question marks left. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. but have no existing drivers installed. select ―No. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. not this time‖. 4. Hard Drives. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. then select NEXT to continue. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. reboot your computer. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. Right-click MY COMPUTER. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. Look for the devices with question mark icons. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. . Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. When you buy a sound card. Then click NEXT to continue. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. Click START. Video Cards. 6. 3. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. At times. 12. Click MANAGE. To install driver: 1. Afterwards. 11. Wait until it is finished. for example.ACTIVITY 4. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. CD-ROMS. On the radio buttons. wireless adapters. 8. If it is not. 7. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. your driver may not match the device installed. Click DEVICE MANAGER. 9. 2. 10. 5.
1. type of media (for example. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. a Token Ring card. type of system bus (for example. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. coaxial. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card.1 Networking Fundamentals A. type of network (for example. Ethernet. A computer network. or FDDI) 2. consider the following three factors: 1. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. PCI or ISA) B. twisted-pair. Figure 5. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. or fiber-optic cable) 3. Also called a LAN adapter. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. Token Ring. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. An example of a network is a computer network. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. . often simply referred to as a network.
Metropolitan area network (MAN). A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. which will be described later in the chapter. This creates a physical ring of cable.2. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus. There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. Extended Star. examples for a city or a state. Ring.2 Physical Topologies A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. Star. . This point is usually a hub or switch. which is used for medium size area. Hierarchical.Computer networks are classified into: Local area network (LAN). An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. C. Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. and Mesh. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. These are shown in Figure 5. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. and the logical topology. Figure 5. which is the actual layout of the wire (media). which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts.
with which the users share. it is first come. D. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. printers. scanners. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. clients and servers. The second type is token-passing. as you will learn later in the chapter. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. The host devices can exist without a network. This. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. This also reflects the design of the Internet. There is no order the stations follow to use the network. and obtain information. first serve. These hosts include computers. which has multiple paths to any one location. Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. If the host has no data to send. So as you can see in the graphic. . When a host receives the token. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. and many other user devices. This is the way that Ethernet works. that means that that host can send data on the network. will extend the length and size of the network. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. create. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. but without the network. An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created.
5 Bridge .g.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.3 Repeater D. and increase the reliability of the network. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. 8. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5. or even 24) using a process known as concentration.4). The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN.D. to keep local traffic local.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5.4 Hub D. 4. Figure 5. Figure 5.3).5). This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals. Figure 5.
Figure 5. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). and FDDI. A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5.D. In contrast. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. Token-ring.7).6 Switch D. . they make a LAN much more efficient. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. Routers can also connect technologies. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). routers have become the backbone of the Internet. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. choose the best path for them through the network. running the IP protocol. such as Ethernet.6).4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5. Switches at first glance often look like hubs. because of their ability to route packets. Because of the decisions that switches make. a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater. However. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). or a mixed wired/wireless network.
Figure 5.8). in the form of bits and bytes. the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5. optical fiber (Figure 5.9).9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. or space. as the medium). Each media has advantages and disadvantages. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. Figure 5. cable. networking media confine network signals to a wire.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5.10). You can build computer networks with many different media types. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.10 UTP Cable . and even free space can carry network signals. or fiber. through a LAN. however.7 Wireless router 5.
Unlike straight-through cables. Figure 5.2. we use crossover cables to connect like devices.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. 5. Connecting a hub to a hub . A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. and rollover cables. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross. and then the orange and green wires. Connecting a router to a router 4. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. Connecting a computer to a router 2.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. crossover.11. Connecting a switch to a switch 5.
The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable.5. Figure 5. or computer 5. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor. Connecting a router to a hub 2.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks. hub. and a large hard disk.12). .12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. vast memory.2. Connecting a computer to a switch 3. Connecting a LAN port to a switch. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables.
the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers. Figure 5. A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. Figure 5. . Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. When a page is requested.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. graphics.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. In client/server networking. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. audio and video files. etc. A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking: Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network.) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization.
137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability. which is contained in the leading octets. and a host number.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. A typical IP address looks like this: 216. A network of peers can share its processor. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. without the need for intermediate servers. quark. rather than relying on a single computer. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks. Instead.188.8.131.52. Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems: Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks. which is written as 149. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number.groucho.12. . 5.27.physics. which is the remainder. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure. called an IP Address. For example. Allows local resources to be shared directly. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number. such as a supercomputer.
To accommodate different needs.0.0. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. several classes of networks.0.024 hosts each.0.0.0 through 127. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.0. have been defined. they are often still isolated. Class B Class B contains networks 128. E.0 through 254.0. with the network number contained in the first three octets. the network number is in the first two octets.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.0.0. IP Multicast. This class allows for 16.0. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1.255.0 through 184.108.40.206. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. The network number is contained in the first octet. . defining different places to split IP addresses.255.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network. Classes D.320 nets with 65. 5. fax. This class provides for a 24-bit host part. While managers today are able to use the newest applications.0.0. has been assigned addresses from within this range.0 through 191. allowing roughly 1. Class C Class C networks range from 192.0.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time. personal handheld devices).255.6 million hosts per network.
Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. . there are other reasons as well: cost reduction by sharing hard. which allows direct printing from all computers. decisions of purchase. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. printers can be connected using a print server. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. structure. Benefits of Computer Networks File Sharing . Additionally. Like file sharing. Printers . videos and movies from one computer to the next. Sharing Media. computer networks are necessary.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed.Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. computers can stream musing. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications.
Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED: Two working computers with NICs installed Router Switch Crimping tool Cable tester Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long) Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces) Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. 7. 8. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. 3. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. Separate out the 4 pairs of wires.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. 4. Strip off the jacket.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. . 2. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Cut a length of cable. 5. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. Video Games . 5. Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug. Untwist the wires. then clip their length. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end. Media Center Server . 6.
Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. Set the subnet mask for both computers. Then click OK. 2. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. 10. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Subnet . ACTIVITY 2. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. 11.9. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Use Class C IP addresses. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. 12. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Inspect both ends of the cable.
0. . Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 4. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. then click RUN. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. Type CMD. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer. Click START. 5. Then click OK. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES.168. The switch must be connected to the router. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. and then click OK. In the command prompt. To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch.ACTIVITY 3.g. PING 192.1) and press ENTER. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. 2. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP).
To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. 2. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. 3. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. Use the default name for the shared folder. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Type the name using UNC format. Create a folder in DESKTOP. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. Click OK. 3.ACTIVITY 4. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. 4. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. Rename the folder as share_yourname. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. . In the folder's properties. 4. click Share this folder on the network. 2. Click OK. Click START and then click RUN. After you type the appropriate credentials. 2.
Click START and then. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. 5. then click ADD PRINTER. or a printer attached to another computer. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. In the Share name field. Select A network printer. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. 6. 3. 8. 7. 9. Select YES. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. 4. 2. Click the Sharing tab. and then click Printer properties. 2. Click NEXT to continue. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Right-click the printer you want to share. on the Start menu. 4. Select Browse for a printer. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. and select the Share this printer check box.ACTIVITY 4. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use. Then click NEXT to continue. Click OK. Add a network printer 1. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. 3. In Control Panel. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. When the list of printers appears. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. Click NEXT to start. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. .
2 Software 6.4 Exercises 6.4.3 Networks 6.2 Case Analysis .Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.4.1 Objective 6.1 Hardware 6.
ehow. The PC Guide (http://www.2.computerotic.microsoft. May 31. 2001. Kozierok.com/ Larry F. R.com/ http://www. Site Version: 2.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c.com/install-a-power-supply.com/ .html June 2. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. May 27. 2007.0 .kitchentablecomputers.PCGuide. Larry and Nancy Long.html.ictglobal.pcguide. Peter.wisegeek. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. 2011 http://www.com/ Charles M. Kayne.html April 17.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change.Version Date: April 17. 2001. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition.com/what-is-pata.com/drcables1. http://www.blogspot.php May 31.htm May 31.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.tech-faq. United States. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www.com). 2011 http://www. http://www. 2011 http://www.duxcw.com/kb/310312 http://www.build-your-owncomputer-tips. Long. Byard. http://www.vistax64. Mike. The McGraw-Hill Companies.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support. 2011. Norton. http://www.
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