TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction

Chapter 1 Computer Fundamentals 1.1 1.2 1.3 Computer Peripherals and their Importance Occupational Health and Safety Exercises

Chapter 2 Computer Hardware 2.1 System Unit 2.2 Power Supply 2.3 Memory 2.4 Central Processing Unit 2.5 Motherboard 2.6 Expansion Cards 2.7 Exercises Laboratory 1: Removing Hardware Laboratory 2: Installing Hardware

Chapter 3 Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3.1 Exercises

Laboratory 3: Drive and Cable Installation

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operating System 4.1 Operating System Fundamentals 4.2 BIOS and CMOS 4.3 Hard Disk Partitions 4.4 Windows Utilities 4.5 Exercises Laboratory 4: OS Installation

Chapter 5 Introduction to Networks 5.1 Networking Fundamentals 5.2 Network Media 5.3 Peer to Peer Network 5.4 Importance of Computer Networks 5.6 Exercises Laboratory 5: Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN

INTRODUCTION

This is the instructor's manual for "IS 103: Computer Architecture and Operating System Fundamentals‖ a course for undergraduates in PC assembly and disassembly, OS Installation and Computer Networks. It introduces students to the fundamentals of computer architecture, the interface between hardware and software. This approach enables students to build a complete personal computer and help them to improve their computer hardware servicing. Topics covered include computer hardware components and computer peripherals. It also includes competencies such as installing, maintaining, configuring and diagnosing computer systems and networks.

COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Chapter I Computer Fundamentals 1.1 Computer Peripherals and their Importance A computer may perform various tasks. To expand and improve the performance of a computer, peripherals are needed. Computer peripherals are add-on hardware to the computer. The computer cannot fully function to its finest performance without a keyboard and a mouse. Thus, computer peripherals are gradually more becoming basics in every personal computer. Computer hardware components are becoming very essential in a way that they allow people to communicate and interact with the computer. Although other computer peripherals may be considered only as an optional component, they can be extremely useful in a unique way. To make the PC work, you need all the parts (or at least the most). A typical PC is more than one device. The most important part of the PC is the system unit, the box that usually sits underneath your desk—the one that all the other parts connect to. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit. All of the other parts of the PC—the printer, the keyboard, the monitor—connect to the system unit and are known collectively as peripherals. Figure 1.1 shows a typical desktop PC, with the system unit and peripherals as separate pieces.

Monitor

Speakers System Unit Mouse Keyboard Printer

Figure 1.1 Typical desktop computer with peripherals

 Speakers/headphones . storage. A computer inputs information. You add or remove peripherals depending on what you need from the system. the computer functions through four stages: input.To provide input and output. Various pieces of hardware enable you to input data. processing.  Mouse . Some PCs won’t have speakers.  Printer. most computers must have a standard set of peripherals. Some computers don’t even have a keyboard.Speakers provide sound output. Processing Next. There’s no law that requires a PC to have all of these peripherals. Plenty of PCs may not have a printer. process instructions and manage the flow of information through a computer system.Provides printed paper output.Keypad for providing keyed input. CPU is the main chip that is used to perform calculations. . process it.  Keyboard . mouse. the computer processes your data.Pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input.The big television thing that provides a visual output for the computer. the most common of which are the keyboard and mouse. Computer Process From the IT perspective. Processing takes place inside the system unit with the help of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The following are the standard set:  Monitor . Input Inputs are any data or instruction entered into the computer. The only limit is the number of connections for peripherals available on the system unit. stores and makes the output of the information. or monitor but other PCs may have many more peripherals. Based on a typewriter. and output.

Every worker has a right to healthy and safe work and to a work environment that enables them to live a socially and economically productive life. the most visible of which are the external storage parts. such as floppy diskettes and CD-R discs. Output is the result we get through output devices. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. Often it places data on the monitor so you can see what you’ve just typed.Storage Once the computer finishes processing data. Figure 1. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace.2 Occupational Health and Safety Occupational health and safety (OHS) refers to the policies. storing procedure comes next.2 shows a typical antistatic wrist strap. Anti-static devices you can use: a) Anti-static wrist strap – a device consists of a wire that connects on one end to an alligator clip and on the other end to a small metal plate that secures to your wrist with an elastic strap. 1. A lot of devices are used in the storage process. Always ground yourself before touching any part of the computer to avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD). After storing the data. . A printer and monitor are examples of output devices. Output The fourth stage of the computer process is the output. Occupational Health and Safety Procedures in Installing Computer Systems 1. It might send the data over to the printer. it must put the information somewhere for you to inspect it.

. a little grabber tool.3. Use the right kind of tools.5). A sample anti-static mat is shown in Figure 1.Figure 1.4). and any loose components at the same electrical potential. The basic technician toolkit consists of a star-headed Torx wrench.2 Anti-static wrist strap b) Anti-static mat – it can be purchased in combination with an anti-static wrist strap that can keep you.3 Anti-static wrist strap and mat combination c) Anti-static bag – a specially designed bag that sheds whatever electricity you have. Figure 1.4 Anti-static bag 2. Be careful with tools that may cause short circuit. a hemostat to go along with Phillips-head and flat-head screwdrivers (Figure 1. the computer. a nut driver or two. thus preventing any damage to components stored within (Figure 1. a pair of tweezers. Figure 1.

Always firmly grip the plug and pull it out that way. 19. Always unplug equipment before cleaning or repair. 11. 9. . Wear safety glasses for protection against sparks and metal fragments. 16. 4. Check voltage requirement. 17. Never pull an electrical cord out by the cable. 15. Working area should have proper lighting and ventilation. 13. Use only grounded plugs and receptacles. Avoid wearing jewelry when working. Ensure that you have a first-aid kit and fire extinguisher at hand. Make sure all extension cords are unplugged after use. 7. 18. 6. trash can and fire exit. Don’t overload circuits by using multiple plugs or extension cords. Always power off and unplug the computer before working on it. Never use damaged or frayed electrical cords or cords with damaged plugs. Keep one hand in your pocket when working with live circuit 12.5 Typical technician tool kit 3. Beware of sharp edges. 8. 20. When making circuit changes switch off and unplug the power cord from the equipment then discharge the capacitors.Figure 1. 14. 5. Wear rubber sole shoes when standing on the ground or in a concrete floor. Never use electrical equipment in a wet or damp environment. Never use extension cords as permanent wiring. 10.

The keyboard provides keyed input for the computer.3 Exercises 1. procedures and activities that aim to protect the health. All of the processing and storage takes place in the system unit.1 Use the following key terms to complete the sentences. safety and welfare of all people at the workplace. 7. . 4. All of the other parts of the PC that connect to the system unit such as the printer are known collectively as peripherals. 10. 2. 9. Anti-static wrist straps and anti-static bags are used to protect devices from electrostatic discharge damage. The fourth stage in the computing process is storage. 8. 6. Printer and speakers are example of input devices. Occupational health and safety procedures refers to the policies. anti-static device electrostatic discharge system unit peripherals storage keyboard monitor occupational health and safety mouse input 1. Any item which has the effect of reducing static electricity charges on a person's body or equipment is called an anti-static device. The monitor provides visual output for the computer.1. 3. A mouse is a pointing device used to control a graphical pointer on the monitor for input.3. 5.

1 System Unit – front and back . mid-tower.Chapter II Computer Hardware 2. Figure 2.1 System Unit The system case. Figure 2. mini-tower. Cases come in six basic sizes: slimline. and cube. tower. desktop.1 shows the front and back of a typical PC case. sometimes called the chassis or enclosure. it is both the internal framework of the PC and the external skin that protects the internal components from the environment.

Figure 2.distinguished by its cooling fan and power plug is almost always at the top of the case.2 Onboard Devices . One area of the back of the case holds all the onboard connections and the other area contains slots for cards. Including power supply . CD-ROM.2). and DVD drives are in the front of the case. lights to tell you the status of the system and access doors to removable media drives such as floppy.Buttons used to turn the system on and off. Majority of the system unit connections are found at the back of the case. The onboard devices need holes so you can plug in those devices (Figure 2. FireWire and audio are also located in front of the case for easy access if you want to use a device that needs these connections. Connections such as USB.

and 3.2.First widespread update to ATX PS  EPS 12 V .  PCs use a 5-volt/3. Some power supply versions:  Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) 12 V 1.Overcame problem overloading 12 V rail and provides multiple 12 V rails Common power connectors are shown on Table 2. .2 Power Supply The power supply acts as act as a ―step-down‖ transformer to provide the conversion from alternating current (AC) to the direct current (DC) usable by the delicate interior components of the PC (Figure 2.1. 12.3).  PCs use a 12 V current to power motors on devices such as hard drives and CD-ROM drives.Introduced for server motherboards  ATX 12 V 2. Figure 2.3-volt current to support onboard electronics.3 .3 Power Supply The power supply converts AC into 5.3 V DC.0 .

supplemental motherboard power.1 Various Power Connectors Power Connector Component being supplied power Motherboard Original PC main power connector Motherboard 20. and case lighting 4-pin peripheral power connector (Molex) Floppy drive. optical drive.or 24-pin main power connector Hard drive.Table 2. extra video card power. add-on fans. AGP video cards 4-pin floppy drive power connector (Mini molex) .

Motherboard 6-pin auxiliary power connector Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) hard drive 15-pin SATA power cable Motherboard 4-pin ATX +12V power connector An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) protects the PC against a power dip or power outage. surge protection and power conditioning (Figure 2.4). It contains a battery that provides continuous AC power.4 Uninterruptible power supply . Figure 2.

Most RAM is volatile. It consists of memory chips that can be read from and written by the processor and other devices. Provided the computer has enough space in RAM to hold all the programs. certain operating system files load from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. Table 2. These files remain in RAM as long as the computer is running. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the most popular type of electronic memory.2 Types of RAM RAM TYPE  DIMM (Dual Inline Memory Module) o The 168-pin DIMM is the most popular DRAM package in use today  Extra pins to handle functions such as buffering and ECC (Error Correction Code)  144-pin SO-DIMMs (small outline) are used in laptops .3 Memory In storing data and information temporarily. Additional programs and data are also loaded into RAM from the storage unit. a computer uses memory. it loses its contents. When you start a computer. While it is in RAM. When power is turned off. the processor interprets the data. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously. The memory chips on the circuit boards in the system unit perform this function.2.

but a DIMM isn’t always SDRAM  Wide number of pins  Small-outline DIMM (SODIIMM) used on laptops  Faster than DRAMs  RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) o It is a new type of RAM  Speeds of up to 800 MHz  Comes on sticks called RIMMs  184-pin for desktops and 160-pin SO-RIMM for laptops  All slots must be populated: unused slots must have a CRIMM (continuity RIMM)  DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  184-pin DIMM packages (desktops)  172-. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o SDRAM are tied to the system clocks  Synchronized with system clock  SDRAM is always a DIMM. 200-pin DIMM packages (laptops) .

third slot is black  DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) o DDR SDRAM doubles the throughput of SDRAM  Doubled the clock. increasing buffering  Does not speed up core RAM. but could not fix it. Only high-end motherboards and memory controllers can use ECC RAM. parity RAM was able to detect this error most of the time. but just the I/O  240-pin DIMM (not compatible with DDR) When RAM gave bad data to the memory controller. Working with RAM • Constant hard drive activity symptomatic of insufficient RAM is called disk thrashing. and then swap the data back into RAM when it is . Wide range of speeds  Considered a standard today  Dual slots are blue. ECC RAM is always slower than non-ECC RAM due to the overhead of the correcting code. Error correction code (ECC) RAM improved upon parity RAM by being able to fix single-bit errors on the fly. It occurs when Windows repeatedly uses up all available RAM space and has to move data not immediately needed out of the RAM into a temporary file on the hard drive called a swap file or page file.

5 An Intel Pentium CPU AMD CPU Figure 2.6 An Common CPU Packages  Pin grid array (PGA) – most common grid array package which is distinguished by its square shape with many—usually hundreds—of tiny pins. You also need to know the maximum amount of RAM your motherboard supports and the maximum supported per slot. . 2. CPUs might look similar.6). Figure 2. or DDR2 RAM) your motherboard accepts.4 Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. but they are not interchangeable. DDR RAM. Two main CPU makers are Intel (Figure 2. you must know what type of RAM (such as regular SDRAM. You can monitor the size of your swap file in the Task Manager.needed by the program.5) and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) (Figure 2. • Before you purchase a RAM upgrade.

CPU package where the CPU is contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard (Figure 2. Figure 2.9) Figure 2.7 Sample of PGA package  Land grid array – uses flat pads instead of pins  Ball grid array –uses tiny balls instead of pins Grid array CPUs snap into special sockets on the motherboard.9 SEC processor . ZIF sockets work by way of small arm that locks the CPU in place (Figure 2.Figure 2. which allows the CPU to be inserted with no force.8). PGA CPUs connect to the motherboard by way of a zero insertion force (ZIF) socket.8 ZIF socket with arm on side  Single edge cartridge (SEC) . with each socket designed to match the pins (or balls or pads) on the CPU.

The Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH).2. It holds the vast majority of the ports used by the peripherals and it distributes the power from the power supply.  Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot . On newer AMD systems.  Southbridge . Figure 2.5 Motherboard The motherboard is a printed circuit board that contains the wires— called traces —that make up the different buses of the computer system.a design architecture for the expansion bus on the computer motherboard. special port. the Northbridge provides the communication with the video card. Also called the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) or peripheral bus controller  Memory/RAM slots – slots where memory modules are inserted  Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) . . it helps the CPU work with RAM. which enables system components to be added to the computer.10 shows the parts of an ATX motherboard. Figure 2. which is dedicated to video.handles expansion devices and mass storage drives.10 ATX motherboard parts Parts of the Motherboard  Northbridge – On Intel-based motherboards. similar to a PCI slot.a single.

An expansion slot is a socket where you plug in an expansion card. capable of storing about 64 KB of data.6 Expansion Cards An expansion card is a circuit board that lets you add new features to a computer.  Front panel connections  Soft Power  Reset  Power LED  Hard drive activity LED  Dual-in-line package (DIP) switches Three variable and interrelated characteristics define modern motherboards: form factor. It is almost always built into the Southbridge on modern motherboards. Finally.  Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip – a changeable chip. chipset. that stores the data that is read by BIOS. and components.  Basic Input Output System (BIOS) chip .3 Kinds of Expansion Cards .contains the programs that enable the CPU to communicate with basic devices like the floppy drive. CD and DVD drives. Motherboards usually have two EIDE ports: the primary and secondary. 2.  Floppy port/header – port for the floppy cable which connects the floppy drive to the motherboard. and others. The chipset determines the type of processor and RAM required for the motherboard. Most expansion cards contain ports at the back of computer where you can plug in devices. the built-in components determine the core functionality of the system. hard drives. Table 2. and defines to a degree the built-in devices supported by a motherboard. video card. Enhance Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) ports/headers – ports for the IDE cable used to connect hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.  System Clock or Lithium Battery – supplies constant electricity to the CMOS to maintain its data. The form factor defines the size of the motherboard and the general location of components and ports. including the expansion slots.

The VGA (video graphics array) enable the interfacing of high-resolution monitors with the processor.Expansion Cards Video Card . These adapters permit interfacing with video monitors. permitting the addition of more peripheral devices than normally could be connected using the available expansion slot. resolution. and number of colors that can be displayed.A highspeed interface that extends the bus outside the computer. Network Interface Card (NIC) – enables and controls the exchange of data between the PCs in a local area network or a home network. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) Adapter . Also called the display adapter. Each PC in a network must be equipped with a NIC. This controller determines the refresh rate. It is often called Ethernet Card.A circuit board attached to the motherboard that contains the memory and other circuitry necessary to send information to the monitor for display on screen. .

A modem permits communication with remote computers via a telephone – line link 2.Sound Card . REMOVING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 1.An expansion card that records and plays back by translating the analog signal from a microphone into a digitized from that the computer can store and process. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. .7 Exercises LABORATORY 1. Next. Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on. Modem Card – Abbreviation for modulator/demodulator. and then translating the data back into analog signals or sound. Turn off the PC and unplug it.

place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. with the case door facing up. Fill in the following chart. Disconnect the power connectors from the drive devices and from the motherboard. Remove the screws holding the computer's power supply into the case. Put the case down on your work surface. ACTIVITY 1: Prepare an inventory list ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes 1.2. Be sure to support it so that it does not fall after the screws have been removed. Component Specifications/Description e.g. Hard disk drive Samsung hard disk 500 GB ACTIVITY 2: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 20 minutes 1. Identify and describe the major components you find inside the case. . Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. 2. Remove the screws of your system unit case. and open the case. 3.

11). make note of the following: How many RAM slots do you have? ________________________ What type of RAM do you have? ________________________ Where are the guide notches located? ________________________ 3. Remove the RAM(s) stick from the motherboard (Make sure you only handle RAM by using the corners of the chip) 2. 4. Remove the front panel connectors.11 Front panel control wires . Figure 2. ACTIVITY 4: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. What is written in the label? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the RAM in anti-static mat and set it aside for later use.3. reset button. and front panel LEDs (power and hard disk activity) (Figure 2. These should include your power button (on ATX motherboards). After removing the RAM. Remove the power supply carefully from the computer case. Look at the label on the power supply.

You have to remove the fan assembly before you can remove the CPU.12) because they help prevent over-tightening the screws during installation. What types of expansion slots are available and how many of each type do you have? _____________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Do not forget to unplug the CPU fan .14. 4. Note the maker and model information on the motherboard.13). Handle the motherboard gently. Clip-type fans require you to apply pressure on the clip to release it from the fan mount. What is the name of your motherboard manufacturer?__________________________________ What is the model number of your motherboard?______________________________________ 5. Locate and remove the screws holding the motherboard to the frame of the case. as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. The screws may also have small washers.12 Washers Motherboard standoffs Figure 2. Some systems may use small plastic or metal supports called standoffs between the motherboard and the frame (Figure 2. 13 3. Screwdown fans require only that you unscrew the securing hardware. Check on the expansion slots. Be sure not to lose these washers (Figure 2.2. You can use a small flat-head screwdriver to do this. by the edges. Screwdown fans are easier to remove than clip fans. Carefully remove the motherboard from the PC case and place it on the anti-static mat.

4. Figure 2. . List them down. Be careful not to lift the CPU at an angle.14 Using a screw driver to remove a clip-type fan Move the end of the zero insertion force (ZIF) lever a little outward to clear the safety notch. Examine the CPU. Unplug any wires attached to the card and remove the screw holding the card in place. Hold the chip carefullyby its edges and lift it straight up out of the socket. . What type of CPU do you have? ___________________ What is the CPU information printed on the chip package? __________________________________________ ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards 1.________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ ________________________ _________________________ 2. or you will bend its tiny pins.static mat. then raise the lever to a vertical position. Carefully pull the card out of the expansion slot and place them on the anti. Locate the card(s) that are needed to be removed. See how many expansion cards are available on your system unit.2. 4. 5. 3. 3.

LABORATORY 2. INSTALLING HARDWARE MATERIALS REQUIRED:  The disassembled computer in Laboratory 1  A Phillips head screwdriver  Thermal Compound  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1: Power Supply ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Place the power supply in the same location where it was removed. Note the location of screw holes and make sure they line up. 2. Install the screws to secure the power supply in place. 3. Connect the power connectors to the motherboard, the amount of connections vary between motherboards. Then connect the power supply to all of the drives and extra fans if any. ACTIVITY 2: RAM ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the RAM stick from the anti-static mat. 2. Locate the memory slot and install the RAM to the motherboard. 3. Turn on the computer and see if the RAM is working. Note: In case of RAM malfunctioning see troubleshooting RAM.

ACTIVITY 3: Motherboard ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Hold the motherboard just above the case to find which holes of the case line up with the holes in the mother board.

2. Gently lay the motherboard in the case and secure it in place with the mounting screws. Be sure to use the washers and plastic/metal standoffs, if there is any. 3. Insert the front panel control wires in their appropriate places. 4. Connect the power supply connectors to the motherboard. ACTIVITY 4: CPU ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Pull up the lever beside the CPU's socket. 2. Insert the CPU with the correct orientation and lock down the ZIF lever. 3. Apply a small amount of thermal compound in the center of the top of the CPU before you place the fan. 4. Attach the fan and plug the fan connector in. ACTIVITY 5: Expansion Cards ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. Get the expansion card from the anti-static mat (hold each card on both the outer edges and metal end). 2. Align the card on the appropriate slot where to install it. 3. Press down firmly on the top of the card, but not too hard as to damage it. (Apply pressure at various points along the top of the card just to make sure the card is in place.) 4. Screw the card in place. 5. Reconnect the wires and cables.

Chapter III Disk Drives and Cables 3.1 Internal and External Drives 3.1.1 Internal Drives/Hard Disk Drive A hard disk drive (HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read from and written to the platter by read/write heads that float on a film of air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives have fallen in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity. Hard disk drives have been the dominant device for secondary storage of data in general purpose computers since the early 1960s. They have Figure 3.1 Hard Disks maintained this position because advances in their areal recording density have kept pace with the requirements for secondary storage. Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interfaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached SCSI (SAS).

How Hard Drive Works? A hard disk drive consists of a motor, spindle, platters, read/write heads, actuator, frame, air filter, and electronics. The frame mounts the mechanical parts of the drive and is sealed with a

cover. The sealed part of the drive is known as the Hard Disk Assembly or HDA. The drive electronics usually consists of one or more printed circuit boards mounted on the bottom of the HDA. A head and platter can be visualized as being similar to a record and playback head on an old phonograph, except the data structure of a hard disk is arranged into concentric circles instead of in a spiral as it on a phonograph record (and CD-ROM). A hard disk has one or more platters and each platter usually has a head on each of its sides. The platters in modern drives are made from glass or ceramic to avoid the unfavorable thermal characteristics of the aluminum platters found in older drives. A layer of magnetic material is deposited/sputtered on the surface of the platters and those in most of the drives I've dissected have shiny, chromelike surfaces. The platters are mounted on the spindle which is turned by the drive motor. Platters spin between 3500 and 10,000 rounds per minute (RPM) Table 3.1 Types of Hard Drives Hard Drives IDE / PATA (Integrated Drive Electronics Drive / Parallel Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  IDE/PATA Drives have usually 40 pins.  IDE/PATA Drives offer 133 MB/sec transfer rate.  It sends 8 bit data at a time.  PATA Cables are used to connect PATA HDD. Two drives can be connected in a single pata cable. One as master and other as slave. The configuration of master and slave is done by different combination of jumpers in the hdd.

Maximum of 16 drives can be connected in a single scsi cable. Only one drive can be connected in a single SATA cable. SCSI cables are used to connect SCSI HDD. This drives are hot swappable. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface Drive)     SCSI Drives have usually 50 to 68 pins.  It sends data bit by bit.  SATA Cables are used to connect SATA HDD. 4 pins in pair of two for sending and receiving data and rest 3 pins are grounded. Each hdd have a 8 bytes hexadecimal code known as WWN (world wide name) for its identification in the cable.  SATA Drives offers generally 300MB/sec transfer rate. SCSI Drive offers generally 640MB/sec transfer rate. .SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment Drive)  SATA Drives have usually 7 pins.

 This drives are hot swappable.  SAS Cables are used to connect SAS Drives. Protecting Data with RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Drive mirroring writes data simultaneously to two hard drives. .SAS(Serial Attached SCSI Drive)  SAS Drives generally offers 805 MB/sec transfer rate. enabling the system to continue to work if one hard drive dies. requiring at least three drives. or on the manufacturer's web site. This technique. Instructions for setting common jumpers are usually printed right on the drive. Although disk striping without parity works very fast. combines the redundancy of disk mirroring with the speed of disk striping. the manufacturer of the drive. Hard Disk Connectors and Jumpers Several different connectors and jumpers are used to configure the hard disk and connect it to the rest of the system. splitting the data across two drives means you’ll lose all data if either drive fails. A faster and even more effective technique is drive duplexing. and any special features that the drive may possess. which performs mirroring using separate controllers for each drive. full instructions for all jumpers will be in the product's manual. The number and types of connectors on the hard disk depend on the data interface it uses to connect to the system. Maximum of 128 drives can be connected in a single cable. A third way to create redundant data is disk striping with parity.

They come in a few standard sizes (and some non-standard ones I'm sure).  Jumper Pins: A set of pins. across two of which a jumper is placed to make a specific connection.44MB capacity floppy disks are being replaced Figure 3.1. or removed to break a connection. and are still used on many types of modern hardware today. A jumper consists of two primary components:  Jumper: The jumper itself is a small piece of plastic and metal that is placed across two jumper pins to make a connection. Jumpers are sometimes also called shunts.4 Floppy Diskette . 3.Figure 3. The small.2 External Drives A. They have been around since the very first PCs. Floppy disk drives Floppy disk drives are becoming a thing of the past as Microsoft and Intel push for legacy-free computing. without the use of software.3 Hard Disk pins and connectors Jumpers are small devices that are used to control the operation of hardware devices directly. only one or two sizes are commonly seen on PCs. 1.

The case has a sliding protective cover which opens to reveal a portion of the magnetic media when inside a floppy drive.by higher capacity removable media. are 3½ inches.  Thumb drives store much more data than a floppy—sometimes up to the equivalent of thousands of floppy disks. They are hotswappable in Windows 2000/XP/Vista and don’t require an external power source. You may have a maximum of two floppy diskdrives in a system. as they are powered directly from the USB bus. a generic term. Some PCs allow you to boot from a USB thumb drive. Read/write heads inside the floppy disk drive move back and forth across the media. USB thumb drives contain a standard USB connection and have replaced many other forms of removable media as the way we transfer files. . Floppy disks have gone through several stages of improvement and have gotten smaller with each phase. Early PCs used a 5¼-inch floppy. and they must use either the drive letter A: or B:. B. however. PDAs. Memory cards. Pre-PC computers used an 8-inch floppy. are used in digital cameras. and other devices. Modern floppy disks. reading or writing data as necessary. Floppy disks are constructed of a flexible magnetic disc housed inside a square plastic case. a single floppy disk drive can be configured to use either drive letter. which appeared around 1986. Flash Drives and Other Tiny Drives  Flash memory includes USB thumb drives and memory cards.

Figure 3. PDAs. CompactFlash cards are the oldest of these flash cards. come in many varieties. Optical Drives An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Memory Stick. and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives. Compact discs. and to record discs for archival and data exchange. Secure Digital. The most common types are CompactFlash. but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. DVD players and DVD recorders. Recorders are sometimes called burners or writers. and phones. SmartMedia. C. Optical drives—along with flash memory—have mostly displaced floppy disk drives and magnetic tape drives for this purpose because of the low cost of optical media and the near-ubiquity of optical drives in computers and consumer entertainment hardware. which are used in portable devices such as digital cameras.5 CDs and DVD . They are also very commonly used in computers to read software and consumer media distributed in disc form. Optical disc drives are an integral part of stand-alone consumer appliances such as CD players. Flash cards. Some drives can only read from discs. and Extreme Digital (xD) Picture Card. DVDs.

enable you to erase data and burn new data. Older (ATA-33) IDE cables had 40 conductors and forty pins. DVD+R. wide. but still have forty pins. ribbon-type cables with 40 parallel wires (Figure 3.2 Internal and External Cables 3. file support. DVDs offer much higher capacities than CDs because DVDs user smaller. CD-ROM speeds have increased substantially from the original 150 KBps.  DVDs were released as digital video discs in 1995. Special organic dyes which give the CD-Rs their distinctive bottom color aid in the burning process. DVD-R for authoring. DVD+RW. 3. but it lacks error checking. unlike CD-Rs. and DVD-RAM can be burned and erased like CD-RW.1 Internal Cables A. and DVD-RAM. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) or Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) cable PATA cables are flat. The colored . the DVD equivalent of CD-ROM.  CD-recordable (CD-R) discs hold either 650 MB or 700 MB and can store either audio or data. but not erased. the name was changed to digital versatile disc. but as usage evolved to include data storage. DVD-RW. Newer ATA-133 EIDE cables have 80 conductors. CD-Digital Audio is for playing music. can be burned on both sides of the disc. more densely packed pits. Recordable DVD-media comes in many varieties: DVD-R for general purpose. CD-RWs are rated with three speeds: write speed followed by rewrite speed followed by read speed. The lowest capacity DVD holds 4.6). DVD-RW. so a 10× CD-ROM has a maximum speed of 1500 KBps. and directory structure  CD-ROM discs are for storing data. and can burn two layers of pits per side for a total of four layers.  DVD-ROM. They are used to connect PATA hard drives and other PATA devices to the computer's motherboard. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written to.  CD-rewritable (CD-RW) discs. DVD+RW.2. can store up to 16 GB of data.Types of Optical Drives  CDs come in many varieties.37 GB of data. Increased speeds are measured in multiples of 150 KBps.

40-conductor IDE cables can be determined by their relative positions along the cable:  The off-center middle connector gets attached to the slave device.stripe along one edge of the cable aligns with pin number one on the device and motherboard connectors.  The gray connector attaches to the slave drive or device.  The connector farthest from the middle connector gets attached to the motherboard.  The black connector attaches to the master drive or device. Figure 3.6 PATA cable . The drive positions on older. 80-conductor EIDE cables have color-coded connectors:  The blue connector gets attached to the motherboard.  The connector closest to the middle connector gets attached to the master device.

and have a twist at the end of the cable that attaches to the drives.as high as 300 MB/sec. which improves airflow inside the case.8).7 SATA cable C. Floppy cable Floppy drive cables look a lot like IDE cables except that they are a little narrower. Figure 3.8 Floppy cable with five connectors . and as many as four drive connectors (Figure 3. have only 34 conductors. There are also eSATA cables that can be used to connect external SATA drives to a computer. They may have from two to five connectors: one to attach to the motherboard. SATA cables have only seven conductors and are therefore much thinner than ribbon-type IDE cables. They are also capable of very high data transfer rates -. which provides for more flexibility in choosing where to mount hard drives. Figure 3. SATA cables can be as long as one meter in length and are more rugged than IDE cables. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) SATA (Serial ATA) cables are used to connect high-speed SATA hard drives and optical drives to the motherboard.B.

and even colors to meet the various SCSI standards that have evolved over time.2 External Cables Cable An electrical power cable consists of 3 wires (2 wires + 1 for ground). Figure 3.D.9 SCSI cable 3. . Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) cable Internal and external SCSI cables are available in variety of shapes.2.2 External Cables The table below shows the various external cables used in a complete computer system Table 3. It is connected to the power supply unit.9 shows an internal SCSI cable. Figure 3. The mouse cable is connected to the PS2 port commonly located at the back of the system unit. and the needs of designers and users. sizes.

Common hosts include computers and video game consoles. The monitor cable connects to the Video Graphics Array (VGA) port.The keyboard cable is also connected to a PS2 port usually found beside the PS2 port for mouse. A Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable is primarily used to connect a USB device such as a printer to a host. pink for microphone. and blue for line-in. One end connects to the Local Area Network (LAN) port of the computer and the other end connects to a hub. . or to another computer. The network cable is usually a Category 5 unshielded twisted pair cable with an RJ-45 on both ends. router. switch. Audio cables connects to the audio ports with the usual color codes: green for speakers.

ACTIVITY 1: Hard Disk Drive ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the drive and pull. Next. place the screws near the component for you to easily identify for which component the screws are for. rocking the connector gently from side to side. Disconnect all the ribbon cables from the hard drives and CD-ROM drives. 5. Put on your anti-static wrist strap if you have and connect the clip to the side of the system case. but first note which device is connected to which cable and where the orientation stripe is located on each device. Put the case down on your work surface. with the case door facing up. Be careful but firm. and open the case. Disconnect all the cables from the back of the system case. After removing the screws of a particular hardware component. Remove the screws of your system unit case. Drive and Cable Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer  A Phillips head screwdriver  An anti-static mat  An anti-static wrist strap (optional)  Ballpen or pencil and paper LABORATORY PREPARATION: 4. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. 6.3 Exercises LABORATORY 3. Turn off the PC and unplug it.3. unplug the monitor and any other device with an external power source. . Make a note of what went where so that you will know how to reconnect them later on.

Is it closer to the center of the drive (near the power connector) or to the side of the drive? __________________________________________________ Does your hard drive have jumpers?________________________ . Disconnect the power supply from all of the PATA devices by unplugging the Molex connector from each one. Be careful but firm. How many holes does it have for pins?______________________________ How many connectors are on your ribbon cable?_______________________ 3. 7. Look at the end of the drive where the ribbon cable connects and answer the following. Grasp the cable as closely as possible to the connector on the motherboard and pull. rocking the connector gently from side to side. How many PATA or SATA controllers do you see on your motherboard? __________________________________________________ What color are the IDE connections on the motherboard? __________________________________________________ 6. 5. Look at the PATA or SATA connections on your motherboard. Remove a hard drive from the system. Examine the connector on the end of the ribbon cable. Be careful to note the type of screws you removed and store them for safekeeping. Disconnect the ribbon cables from the motherboard. 4. Lay the cables aside for later reinstallation.2.

Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Get the Hard disk and its SATA or PATA cable. How many wires make up the ribbon cable? __________________________________________________ Look at the motherboard where the cable was attached. Activity 2: Floppy Disk ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVING 1. How many pins do you count? __________________________________________________ 3. Remove the floppy drive from the case. Connect the power connector to the Hard Disk. 2. and the other is the flat ribbon cable that carries the data to and from the drive. One is the four-wire cable from the power supply (with its mini connector). 2. . Carefully disconnect the two cables from the back of the floppy drive. 5. Disconnect the other end of the ribbon cable from the motherboard and examine the following questions. and examine the pins. Make the Hard Disk as the primary master.INSTALLING 1. 3. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. 4.

3. Inspect the optical drive. Do you see a tiny hole near the edge of the tray door? _______________ What is the purpose of the tiny hole in front of the drive? __________________________________________________ INSTALLATION 1. Activity 3: Optical Drives ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes REMOVAL 1. Look at the front of the drive where you insert a disc. Get the Optical drive and its cable. 2. Make the Optical drive as the secondary master. . 2. 4. Get the floppy disk and its cable. remove the screws holding the optical drive in place. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. 3. Connect the cable to the motherboard and to the Hard disk. Unplug the connections: First unplug the Molex connector from the back of the optical drive. 3. Connect the cable to the mother board and to the floppy disk.INSTALLING 1. 2. Connect the power connector to the Floppy disk. and then remove the PATA ribbon cable from the drive’s connector. Turn on the PC for Floppy Disk checking.

4. Turn on the PC for Hard disk checking. Now answer these questions: Did you fasten the drive using the correct screws? _______ Is the PATA cable connected properly? ______ Is the Molex plug fully inserted? ______ 6. . Connect the power connector to the Optical drive. 5.

spreadsheets. 3. desktop computers. act the same.1 Operating System Fundamentals An operating system (OS) is system software that acts as the computer’s master control program. 4. An OS always starts running immediately after the PC has finished its power-on self test (POST).Chapter IV Introduction to Operating System 4. An OS must have flexibility and provide some facility for using new software or hardware that might be installed. and Web browsers. Table 4.0 . controls the hardware and interacts with the user and application software. taking control of the PC. such as word processors. Microsoft created several operating systems for two types of user (Table 4. Microsoft Windows Windows is the name for a large family of Microsoft operating systems created by Microsoft Corporation. video game consoles) as well as some portable media players and even many of the mobile phones today use an operating system of some type.1). Operating systems do not look the same or. on the surface. Users may interact with the operating system with a user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface (GUI). 1.1 Windows operating systems Corporate Users Windows NT 3. But every OS shares the same essential characteristics. An OS works only with a particular type of processor. 2. cannot run on a PC without an OS. Application programs. Almost all computers (including handheld computers. supercomputers.1 Home Users Windows 9x  Windows 95  Windows 98  Windows Me Windows XP Home Windows NT 4.

1). and media centers (Figure 4. It was first released to computer manufacturers on August 24." . including home and business desktops. 2001. laptops. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience.Windows 2000 Windows XP Pro Windows Vista  Windows Vista Business  Windows Vista Enterprise  Windows Vista Ultimate Windows 7  Windows 7 Professional  Windows 7 Enterprise  Windows 7 Ultimate Microsoft Windows XP Windows XP Media Windows Vista  Windows Vista Starter  Windows Vista Home Basic  Windows Vista Home Premium Windows 7  Windows 7 Starter  Windows 7 Home Basic  Windows 7 Home Premium Windows XP is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.

2 ROM BIOS A. Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip is a separate chip that stores data that is read by BIOS to complete the programs needed to talk to changeable hardware such as hard disk drive. Figure 4.1 Windows XP environment 4. CMOS also acts as a clock to keep the current date and time. It is often built into the Southbridge. The ROM chip on the motherboard that holds the system BIOS is called the system ROM.2). It is customizable via the CMOS setup program.Figure 4.2 BIOS and CMOS A. These programs are collectively known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) Flash ROM chips store programs that are required by the CPU to be able to talk to other devices such as the keyboard. It is volatile and is kept alive by a battery called the CMOS or lithium battery. or ROM BIOS (Figure 4. Three primary BIOS brands:  American Megatrends (AMI)  Award  Phoenix .

Let’s have as an example a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup program.To enter the CMOS setup program.enables you to change the voltage and multiplier settings on the motherboard for the CPU from the defaults (Figure 4.3 Main screen of a Phoenix-Award CMOS setup utility  SoftMenu Setup . Every BIOS maker’s CMOS setup program looks a little different. F1.3) Figure 4. CTRL-ALT-Enter. you just set this to Auto or Default and stay away from this screen. ESC. Usually. Figure 4. you need to press a key or key combination ((may be Del. CTRL-ALTINS. but they all contain basically the same settings. F2. or CTRL-S) depending on what brand of BIOS you have.  Main menu – allows access to all submenus (Figure 4.4 SoftMenu screen .4). CTRL-ALT-ESC.

Figure 4.5).6). as well as the system’s date and time (Figure 4.6 Advanced BIOS Features . Standard CMOS Features – allows you to change floppy drive and hard drive settings. Figure 4.5 Standard CMOS Features screen  Advanced BIOS Features – often used to select the boot options (Figure 4.

such as the serial and parallel ports (Figure 4.8 Integrated Peripherals  Power Management – used to set up the power management settings for the system (Figure 4.deals with extremely low-level chipset functions (Figure 4. enable.7 Advanced Chipset Features  Integrated Peripherals – allows you to configure. Advanced Chipset Features .9 Power Management .9). or disable the onboard ports. Figure 4. Figure 4.7). Figure 4.8).

. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions.locks access to CMOS settings to prevent unauthorized persons from changing key settings in CMOS setup. PnP/PCI Configurations – allows you to configure all plug and play compatible devices (Figure 4.11 A CMOS password prompt 4. Figure 4. in effect making one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. Figure 4.10 PnP/PCI Configurations  Set Password .3 Hard Disk Partitions Disk partitioning is the act or practice of dividing the storage space of a hard disk drive into separate data areas known as partitions.10).

This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. potentially making a file system full. Use of multi booting setups. that file might only require 4KB to store. On Microsoft Windows machines. Purposes for partitioning:     Separation of the operating system files from user files Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. In a smaller partition. Raising overall computer performance on systems where smaller file systems are more efficient "Short Stroking" aims to minimize performance-eating head repositioning delays by reducing the number of tracks used per hard drive. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB.     . which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. Having cache and log files separate from other files. These can change size dynamically and rapidly.Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. When a problem occurs with Microsoft Windows. to make it easier to recover a corrupted file system or operating system installation. Protecting or isolating files. This means that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk.

hidden. . In addition. performance with FAT will quickly decrease. FAT supports only read-only. which cannot be done under Windows NT. system. Undelete utilities try to directly access the hardware. However. when using drives or partitions of over 200 MB the FAT file system should not be used. It is not possible to set permissions on files that are FAT partitions. Updating the FAT table is very important as well as time consuming. if the file was located on a FAT partition. it can lead to data loss. because FAT starts out with very little overhead. which is really a table that resides at the very "top" of the volume. In addition. the file can be undeleted. If the FAT table is not regularly updated. Advantages of FAT It is not possible to perform an undelete under Windows NT on any of the supported file systems. and archive file attributes. two copies of the FAT are kept in case one becomes damaged.Overview of FAT and NTFS File Systems FAT (File Allocation Table) System FAT is by far the most simplistic of the file systems supported by Windows NT. and files are given the first open location on the drive. Disadvantages of FAT Preferably. The FAT file system is characterized by the file allocation table (FAT). To protect the volume. The FAT file system is best for drives and/or partitions under approximately 200 MB. It is time consuming because the disk read heads must be repositioned to the drive's logical track zero each time the FAT table is updated. This is because as the size of the volume increases. and the system is restarted under MS-DOS. There is no organization to the FAT directory structure. the FAT tables and the root directory must be stored in a fixed location so that the system's boot files can be correctly located.

Disadvantages of NTFS It is not recommended to use NTFS on a volume that is smaller than approximately 400 MB. as it does under FAT. because of the amount of space overhead involved in NTFS.NTFS (New Technology File System) OVERVIEW From a user's point of view. such as FAT tables or HPFS Super Blocks. there is no file encryption built into NTFS. someone can boot under MS-DOS. The goals of NTFS are to provide: • Reliability. This space overhead is in the form of NTFS system files that typically use at least 4 MB of drive space on a 100 MB partition. and use a low-level disk editing utility to view data stored on an NTFS volume. there are no special locations on the disk. which is especially desirable for high end systems and file servers • A platform for added functionality • Removal of the limitations of the FAT and HPFS file systems Advantages of NTFS NTFS is best for use on volumes of about 400 MB or more. In addition. This is because performance does not degrade under NTFS. or another operating system. with larger volume sizes. like HPFS. However. unlike FAT or HPFS. there are no "special" objects on the disk and there is no dependence on the underlying hardware. Currently. . such as 512 byte sectors. NTFS continues to organize files into directories. are sorted. Therefore. which. The recoverability designed into NTFS is such that a user should never have to run any sort of disk repair utility on an NTFS partition.

Remove downloaded program files. which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. point to Accessories. and then click Disk Defragmenter. point to All Programs. Remove Windows temporary files. When files are created. Different parts of the file are scattered across the hard disk in noncontiguous pieces. The Disk Defragmenter Utility is designed to reorganize noncontiguous files into contiguous files and optimize their placement on the hard drive for increased reliability and performance. Fragmented simply means the file is not stored in one place in its entirety. . a technique called defragmentation. To open Disk Defragmenter. You can choose to delete some or all of the files. point to System Tools. click Start. or what computer folks like to call a contiguous location. click Start. Remove optional Windows components that you are not using.4 Windows Utilities Disk Clean Up Utility The Disk Cleanup tool helps you free up space on your hard disk by searching your disk for files that you can safely delete. point to Accessories. or modified it's almost a certainty they will become fragmented. and then click Disk Cleanup. To open Disk Cleanup. The more fragmented files there are on a drive. Empty the Recycle Bin. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel. For example.4. point to All Programs. Remove installed programs that you no longer use. Use Disk Cleanup to perform any of the following tasks to free up space on your hard disk:       Remove temporary Internet files. deleted. ActiveX controls and Java applets that are downloaded from the Internet. Disk Defragmenter Utility Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations. the more performance and reliability suffer as the drive heads have to search for all the pieces in different locations. point to System Tools.

If the original data on your hard disk is accidentally erased or overwritten. and then click Backup. logical drives. such as a hard disk or a tape. checking for viruses only when certain events occur. or becomes inaccessible because of a hard–disk malfunction. It has come a long way from its origins in Windows NT. and removable disks (but not optical discs). such as a program executing or a file being downloaded. point to System Tools. When ordered to seek and destroy. enabling you to back up to network drives. Examples of Antivirus    Program Norton anti virus AVG Kaspersky Figure 4. tape. It can be both sword and shield. click Start. you can easily restore it from the disk or archived copy by using the Restore or Automated System Recovery Wizards. By using Backup you can create a duplicate copy of all of the data on your hard disk and then archive it on another storage device. Antivirus Utility An antivirus program protects your PC in two ways. point to Accessories. Antivirus programs can also operate as virus shields that passively monitor your computer’s activity. working in an active seek-and-destroy mode and in a passive sentry mode.12 Antivirus Programs . To start Backup. present you with the available options for removing or disabling them. and if it finds any. the program will scan the computer’s boot sector and files for viruses.Backup Recovery Utilities Backup Utility provide almost all the tools you need to back up files and folders. point to All Programs. The backup and recovery utility in Windows XP helps you protect your data in the event your hard disk fails or files are accidentally erased due to hardware or storage media failure. It supports a greater variety of devices.

14. Figure 4. 4. OS Installation MATERIALS REQUIRED:  A working computer with an optical drive (CD-ROM drive)  Windows XP installer  Driver installer  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. What is the key to enter setup in your computer? _____________. Press that key and let SETUP load. look on the bottom of the BIOS boot screen.4. and it should show something like the one shown in Figure 4. you should see a screen similar to the one in Figure 4. or DEL. F1. After the BIOS SETUP loads. To check what yours is.13 BIOS boot screen At the bottom. 3. This will depend on the brand of BIOS you have. Usually. The BIOS screen is the motherboard boot screen.13. 2. it is ESC. You will need to press a certain key at this point. Shut down your computer. it should say "Press [key] to enter SETUP". Changing Drive Boot Priority in CMOS Setup ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. and it varies depending on the BIOS. Power your computer back on and be ready.5 Exercises LABORATORY 4. What is your BIOS maker? _________________ .

press F10 to SAVE AND EXIT. Scroll over to the Advanced BIOS Features menu using the Arrows Keys. After the new order is set.15 Advanced BIOS Features 6.14 BIOS main screen 5. Figure 4.15. This will reboot your computer. . your first boot device must be your optical drive (CD-ROM drive). It should automatically show a menu like the one in Figure 4. or scroll over to the EXIT and select save changes. Now just select where you want to boot from first. and third. The name of the menu may vary depending on the brand of BIOS you have. It is simple if you follow the instructions in the BIOS screen.Figure 4. second. If you are going to perform a Windows XP installation. 7.

what text will you find in your screen? _______________________________________________ Hit the key to load from the menu. Delete regular partition ____________ 7. . Identify the keys to be used to execute the following actions: a. Use the ARROW keys to select an existing partition. To bypass the repair. Create two partitions of equal size. 2. If it is the CD/DVD Drive first. If an existing Windows XP installation is detected. Partition size is entered in megabytes. and then restart the computer to start the Windows XP Setup program. Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting using the Windows XP Setup program ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1. To accept the Windows XP Licensing Agreement. 4. press ENTER. 8. Select NTFS file system (Quick) and press ENTER. Delete system partition ____________ c. 9. and then press ENTER. the option to leave the current file system intact is not available. Select the format option that you want to use to format the partition. or create a new partition by selecting the non-partitioned space where you want to create a new partition. 3. Create partition ___________ b. All existing partitions and non-partitioned spaces are listed for each physical hard disk. press _____. You can select from the following options:  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the FAT file system (Quick)  Format the partition by using the NTFS file system  Format the partition by using the FAT file system  Leave the current file system intact (no changes) Note: If the selected partition is a new partition. Use the ARROW keys to select the partition where you want to install Windows XP. Insert the Windows XP CD into your optical drive. press ESC. 5.ACTIVITY 2. you are prompted to repair it. The computer will now start up and load from the first boot device. At the Welcome to Setup page. 6.

ACTIVITY 3. so you must use the keyboard. On the Windows XP Licensing Agreement page. the Regional and Language Options page appears. type a name that uniquely identifies your computer in the Computer name box. Then press F8 to accept the agreement. you can use your mouse. Then. Perform a Clean Installation of Windows XP ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1. Then. If prompted to start from the CD. Select Partition C and press ENTER. Eventually. click Next. If you miss the prompt (it only appears for a few seconds). 6. type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. You cannot use spaces or punctuation. press ENTER. 8. If you connect . 2. Insert the Windows XP CD into your computer and restart your computer. you can change language settings after setup is complete. 4. Windows XP Setup begins. This page enables you to select the hard disk drive on which Windows XP will be installed. How long did it take to format Partition C and copy setup files? _____________________ 7. restart your computer to try again. 5. click Next. If you prefer a language other than English. your mouse will not work. Windows XP formats Partition C. On the Your Product Key page. press any key in your keyboard. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password page. 3. Press the PAGE DOWN key to scroll to the bottom of the agreement. Name: ___________________________________ Organization Name: ________________________ 9. type your name and your organization name. The product key is unique for every Windows XP installation. Windows XP restarts and then continues with the installation process. Some programs use this information to automatically fill in your name when required. During this portion of setup. On the Personalize Your Software page.and then copies the setup files. Product Key: ___________________________________ 10. Press ENTER again to select Format the partition using the NTFS file system (Quick). On the Welcome to Setup page. From this point forward. Click Next to accept the default settings. read the licensing agreement.

if Windows XP cannot connect to the Internet. you can connect to the Internet after setup is complete. nicknames. 15. Windows XP will automatically remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. type the name of each person who will use the computer. . click Help protect my PC by turning on Automatic Updates now. You can use first names only. Type a strong password that you can remember in the Administrator password box. On the Help protect your PC page. click Finish. On the How will this computer connect to the Internet? page. On the Networking Settings page. or full names. If you are not yet connected to the Internet. 16. 14. On the Date and Time Settings page. click Skip. Then click Next. Click Next. 21. When the Display Settings dialog appears. On the Who will use this computer? page.your computer to a network. click the Time Zone down arrow. click Next. Then. 19. and select your time zone. 17. Windows XP will spend about a minute configuring your computer. you will use this computer name to find shared files and printers. After setup is complete. Windows XP will then check if you are connected to the Internet. click Next. 12. set your computers clock. click OK. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page. Computer Name: ___________________________________ Administrator Password: _____________________________ 11. Windows XP Setup displays the Ready to activate Windows? page. When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears. click Next. 18. and then retype it in the Confirm password box. 20. 13. On the Thank you page. click Next. On the Workgroup or Computer Domain page. Windows XP will spend 2or 3minutes configuring your computer and will automatically restart when finished. click No. click Next. Click Next. click OK. Then.

Click MANAGE. Device drivers come with the device when you buy it. Click START. Devices here are hardware recognized by windows. Driver Installation ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 25 minutes Drivers are the brains that show hardware how to function. At times. Repeat steps 5 to 9 until no more question mark icons are left. It is the same procedure to install drivers for these devices. Right-click MY COMPUTER. 4. Wait until it is finished. When you buy a sound card.ACTIVITY 4. Right-Click the specific device you would like to install the driver for and click UPDATE DRIVER. the Hardware Update wizard will tell you whether the installation is complete or not. it comes with a CD-ROM that holds all the necessary device drivers. then select NEXT to continue. . and Printers. 6. you will see devices in the UNKNOWN DEVICES category. but have no existing drivers installed. 7. 3. Some very common devices with driver installations are network adapter. 9. 12. not this time‖. your driver may not match the device installed. Insert the Driver Installation CD into your computer. To install driver: 1. wireless adapters. 10. for example. CD-ROMS. Video Cards. Choose the hardware category your hardware relates to and click the + symbol next to it. Click DEVICE MANAGER. Look for the devices with question mark icons. This will install a new driver or update an existing driver for your hardware. On the radio buttons. 5. Your computer will search on your CD where the drivers are located. 2. reboot your computer. Then click NEXT to continue. select ―No. If it is not. Select "Install the software automatically (Recommended)". 11. 8. Hard Drives. Afterwards. The Hardware Update Wizard will appear. If there are no question marks left.

type of media (for example. An example of a network is a computer network.1 Networking Fundamentals A. called a Media Access Control (MAC) address. or fiber-optic cable) 3.1. or a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) card. The Network Interface Card (NIC) As shown in the Figure 5. PCI or ISA) B. Also called a LAN adapter.Chapter V Introduction to Networks 5. Computer Networks and Networking A network is an intricately connected system of objects or people. A computer network. it plugs into a motherboard and provides a port for connecting to the network. a network interface card (NIC) is a printed circuit board that provides network communication capabilities to and from a personal computer. Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concerned with the computer networks. coaxial. a Token Ring card. . Figure 5. often simply referred to as a network. This address is used to control data communication for the host on the network. This card can be designed as an Ethernet card. type of network (for example. is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. type of system bus (for example. Each individual NIC throughout the world carries a unique code. consider the following three factors: 1.1 A Network Interface Card When you select a network card. Token Ring. Ethernet. twisted-pair. or FDDI) 2.

Computer networks are classified into:  Local area network (LAN). There are two parts to the topology definition: the physical topology. which is the actual layout of the wire (media).2 Physical Topologies    A bus topology uses a single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly. Star. and Mesh.  Wide area network (WAN) is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. C. Ring. which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts. These are shown in Figure 5. A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. This point is usually a hub or switch. Figure 5. examples for a city or a state. which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. Network Topology Topology defines the structure of the network. Extended Star.  Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. The physical topologies that are commonly used are the Bus.2. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration. This creates a physical ring of cable. . Hierarchical. which will be described later in the chapter.  Metropolitan area network (MAN). and the logical topology. which is used for medium size area.

and obtain information. A hierarchical topology is created similar to an extended star but instead of linking the hubs/switches together. It links individual stars together by linking the hubs/switches. This. the hosts’ capabilities are greatly limited. as you will learn later in the chapter. with which the users share. but without the network. This also reflects the design of the Internet. . The second type is token-passing. A mesh topology is used when there can be absolutely no break in communications. and many other user devices. The two most common types of logical topologies are Broadcast and Token-passing. The logical topology of a network is how the hosts communicate across the medium. it passes the token to the next host and the process repeats itself. which has multiple paths to any one location. create. So as you can see in the graphic. the system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on the topology. Network Devices Devices that connect directly to a network segment are referred to as hosts. This is the way that Ethernet works. first serve. The host devices can exist without a network. will extend the length and size of the network. that means that that host can send data on the network. scanners. clients and servers. Token-passing controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each host. There is no order the stations follow to use the network.   An extended star topology uses the star topology to be created. each host has its own connections to all other hosts. for example the control systems of a nuclear power plant. If the host has no data to send. These devices provide the users with connection to the network. When a host receives the token. printers. D. it is first come.   Broadcast topology simply means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network medium. These hosts include computers.

4. Figure 5.D. The difference is the number of cables that connect to the device (Figure 5.3 Bridge A bridge is a device designed to connect two LAN segments (Figure 5.5 Bridge .3). Two reasons for using hubs are to create a central connection point for the wiring media.4 Hub D. This is done at the bit level to a large number of hosts (e.1 Repeater The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media (Figure 5. or even 24) using a process known as concentration.4). to keep local traffic local.5). and increase the reliability of the network. A hub is also known as a multi-port repeater. 8.2 Hub The purpose of a hub is to regenerate and retime network signals.g. yet allow connectivity to other parts (segments) of the LAN for traffic that has been directed there. The reliability of the network is increased by allowing any single cable to fail without disrupting the entire network.3 Repeater D. Figure 5. The purpose of a bridge is to filter traffic on a LAN. Figure 5.

A router that includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch is called a wireless router (Figure 5. and then switch them to the proper outgoing port. They do this by "switching" data only out the port to which the proper host is connected. Because of the decisions that switches make. They enable virtually any type of computer to communicate with any other computer anywhere in the world. since part of their function is connectivity concentration (allowing many devices to be connected to one point in the network). just like a hub is called a multi-port repeater.5 Routers The router makes decisions based on groups of network addresses (Classes) as opposed to individual MAC addresses. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). routers have become the backbone of the Internet. choose the best path for them through the network. The purpose of a router is to examine incoming packets. Routers can also connect technologies. Both hubs and switches have many connection ports. such as Ethernet. a wireless only LAN (WLAN). and FDDI.4 Switch A switch is a multi-port bridge (Figure 5.7). a hub will send the data out all of its ports so that all of the hosts have to see and process (accept or reject) all of the data. The difference between the hub and switch is that switches make decisions based on MAC addresses and hubs don't make decisions at all. It is commonly used to allow access to the Internet or a computer network without the need for a cabled connection. In contrast. they make a LAN much more efficient. Token-ring.6 Switch D.6). . or a mixed wired/wireless network. running the IP protocol. Routers are the most important traffic-regulating devices on large networks. Switches at first glance often look like hubs. However. because of their ability to route packets. Figure 5.D.

You can build computer networks with many different media types.9 Fiber Optic Cable Figure 5. optical fiber (Figure 5.8 Coaxial Cable Figure 5.2 Network Media The basic functions of media are to carry a flow of information. however.Figure 5.8).9). or space. Figure 5. Some of the advantages and disadvantages are: • Cable length • Cost • Ease of installation Coaxial cable (Figure 5. and even free space can carry network signals. through a LAN. Other than wireless LANs (that use the atmosphere.7 Wireless router 5. cable. in the form of bits and bytes. Each media has advantages and disadvantages.10).10 UTP Cable . or fiber. What is an advantage for one media might be a disadvantage for another. networking media confine network signals to a wire. as the medium). the principal medium is called Category 5 unshielded twisted-pair cable (CAT 5 UTP) (Figure 5.

Connecting a router to a router 4. Unlike straight-through cables. Crossover cables are typically used in the following situations: 1. 5. we use crossover cables to connect like devices. This allows for two devices to communicate at the same time.1 Crossover cable Crossover cables have pairs of wires that crisscross.11 Crossover cable color coding We just switch the orange-white and green-white wires. Connecting a computer to a router 2. Connecting a computer to a computer 3. Connecting a switch to a switch 5. and then the orange and green wires. Figure 5. A visual example can be seen on Figure 5. Connecting a hub to a hub .2.11. and rollover cables.There are generally three main types of networking cables: straight-through. crossover.

Connecting a computer to a switch 3. The modern PC can easily act as both a client and server (a peer) for many types of applications. Connecting a router to a hub 2. hub. You can use a straight-through cable when: 1. none of which are being fully utilized when performing common computing tasks such as e-mail and Web browsing.2.5. and a large hard disk. Figure 5. The modern personal computer (PC) has a very fast processor.3 Peer-to-Peer Networks Peer-to-peer networking is the utilization of the relatively powerful computers (personal computers) that exist at the edge of the Internet for more than just client-based computing tasks.2 Straight Through/Patch cable In straight-through cables. . or computer 5. out of the 8 pins that exist on both ends of an Ethernet cable. each pin connects to the same pin on the opposite side (Figure 5. Connecting a LAN port to a switch.12 Straight through cable color coding Straight-through cables are primarily used for connecting unlike devices. vast memory.12).

A good example of the client/server model of computing is Web browsing. Client computers initiate requests for resources or data from server computers.  A network of peers is easily scaled and more reliable than a single server. Figure 5.13 shows an example of a peer to peer set up. the Web server sends the page and its associated files to the requesting client. The Web server stores all of the content associated with a Web site (HTML files. audio and video files. content and resources are typically shared from only the center of the network. Web servers on the Internet are typically high-end dedicated server computers with very fast processors (or multiple processors) and huge hard disk arrays. .) and listens for incoming requests to view the information on a particular Web page.13 Peer-to-Peer set-up Peer-to-peer networking has the following advantages over client/server networking:  Content and resources can be shared from both the center and the edge of the network. When a page is requested. etc. Figure 5.The typical computing model for many applications is a client/server model. In client/server networking. A single server is subject to a single point of failure or can be a bottleneck in times of high network utilization. graphics. A server computer typically has vast resources and responds to requests for resources and data from client computers.

For example. 5. which is written as 149. which is contained in the leading octets. quark.edu has an IP address of 0x954C0C04.27. and a host number. you are given a network number and allowed to assign all valid IP addresses within this range to hosts on your network according to your preferences. Instead. without the need for intermediate servers. which is the remainder. consolidating computing resources for distributed computing tasks.4.  Allows efficient multipoint communication without having to rely on IP multicast infrastructure.physics. . rather than relying on a single computer.  Peer-to-peer networking solves the following problems:  Allows the processing resources of edge computers to be utilized for distributed computing tasks.  Shared resources of peer computers can be directly accessed.137 IP addresses are split up into four eight-bit numbers called octets for readability. Another reason for this notation is that IP addresses are split into a network number.12. A network of peers can share its processor. you are not assigned an address for each single host you plan to use. When applying to the NIC for IP addresses. A typical IP address looks like this: 216.76.61. such as a supercomputer. a peer can share the file directly from its local storage.  Allows local resources to be shared directly. Rather than sharing a file stored on a central server. called an IP Address.1 IP Addresses Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number.3. This format is often referred to as dotted quad notation.groucho.

0.255.0. The network number is contained in the first octet. several classes of networks. This class allows for 16.255. the network number is in the first two octets.320 nets with 65.0.0 are either experimental or are reserved for special purpose use and don't specify any network.255. To accommodate different needs.0.0. While today nearly every organization uses a substantial number of computers and communication tools ( telephones. The class networks are described here: Class A Class A comprises networks 1. fax.0.The size of the host part depends on the size of the network.0. Class B Class B contains networks 128. allowing roughly 1.0. defining different places to split IP addresses. IP Multicast.0. with the network number contained in the first three octets. This class allows for nearly 2 million networks with up to 254 hosts.4 Importance of Computer Networks Two of the most important strategic issues for the success of every enterprise are information and communication. E. 5.024 hosts each. has been assigned addresses from within this range. and F Addresses falling into the range of 224. which is a service that allows material to be transmitted to many points on an internet at one time. This class provides for a 24-bit host part. Classes D.6 million hosts per network. personal handheld devices).0. .0.0. have been defined.0.0 through 254.0 through 223.0. Class C Class C networks range from 192.0.0 through 127.0.0 through 191. While managers today are able to use the newest applications. they are often still isolated.

Personal computers connected to a business network can choose which files and folders are available to share on the network. which allows direct printing from all computers. Additionally. They are a new kind (one might call it paradigm) of organization of computer systems produced by the need to merge computers and communications. decisions of purchase.  Printers . videos and movies from one computer to the next. Benefits of Computer Networks  File Sharing . .Sharing media between computers is easy when connected to a network.many departments still do not communicate and much needed information cannot be readily accessed. and operation of computer networks cannot be left to technical staff. Like file sharing. Computer networks allow the user to access remote programs and remote databases either of the same organization or from other enterprises or public sources. Besides this major reason why any organization should not fail to have a computer network. printers can be connected using a print server. structure. Management as well has a critical need for understanding the technology of computer networks. there are other reasons as well:     cost reduction by sharing hard. computer networks are necessary.and software resources high reliability by having multiple sources of supply cost reduction by downsizing to microcomputer-based networks instead of using mainframes greater flexibility because of possibility to connect devices from various vendors Because of the importance of this technology. computers can stream musing.Computers can print pages to another computer with a printer on the network.  Sharing Media.Computers connected to a network can share files and documents with each other. To overcome these obstacles in an effective usage of information technology. Computer networks provide communication possibilities faster than other facilities.

Insert ordered wires into RJ-45 plug.A media center server can store your entire entertainment library on a centralized hub to give quick access to your media from every computer on your network.  Video Games . 5. make sure jackets are inserted into plug. You can easily set up multiplayer death matches and even host your own game server. 4. Push the wires in firmly enough to make sure the conductors are all visible when you look at the plug from the end.5 Exercises LABORATORY 5. 5. 2. Create cross-over and straight-through cables ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 30 minutes 1.Console and PC gamers benefit from networking also. 6. Strip off the jacket. Follow correct color code for straight-through and crossover cable. . Separate out the 4 pairs of wires. Create a simple Peer-to-Peer LAN MATERIALS REQUIRED:  Two working computers with NICs installed  Router  Switch  Crimping tool  Cable tester  Category 5 UTP cable (at least 1 meter long)  Registered Jack (RJ)-45 (at least 6 pieces)  Ballpen or pencil and paper ACTIVITY 1. Cut a length of cable. 8. Make sure that the length of the untwisted wires will allow the cable to be inserted into the RJ-45 plug. then clip their length. Organize the wires according to the proper color code and flatten the wires. Media Center Server . 7. Maintain the color order and flatness of the wires. Untwist the wires. 3.

Insert the plug firmly into the crimp tool and crimp down completely. Connect your computers using cross-over cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.9. Then click OK. Workstation 1 Workstation 2 IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ Subnet Mask:____________________ Mask:____________________ 4. 2. Use Class C IP addresses. Inspect both ends of the cable. Assign a unique IP address to each computer. 10. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. 11. Inspect the color code and jacket location to be sure they are correct. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Plug one end of the crossover cable into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports. ACTIVITY 2. Use a cable tester to verify the quality of the cable. 12. Subnet . Set the subnet mask for both computers. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3.

To check how long it takes for packets to reach host and if that particular host can accept requests. . Open MY COMPUTER on both computers and click on PROPERTIES. Then click on PROPERTIES and choose INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP). Click START. 5. Right-click MY NETWORK PLACES. In the command prompt. The switch must be connected to the router. Plug one end of the straight-through cables into each of the computers’ Ethernet ports and plug the other ends to the switch. Select the option ―Obtain an IP Address automatically‖ to allow the router to assign IP addresses to your computers. you can type PING then the IP ADDRESS of the computer you want to check (e.ACTIVITY 3. Configure the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 Computer Name :First Name Computer Name :Last Name Computer Description :PC1 Computer Description :PC2 Workgroup :Middle Name Workgroup :Middle Name 3. 2.g. 4.1) and press ENTER. Then click OK. type IPCONFIG and press ENTER. To check the IP addresses assigned by the router to your computer.0. Take note of the following: Workstation 1 Workstation 2 MAC Address :____________________ MAC Address :____________________ IP Address :_____________________ IP Address :_____________________ 6. Type CMD. PING 192. then click RUN. and then click OK. Restart your computer for the changes to take effect. Connect your computers using straight-through cable ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes 1.168.

ACTIVITY 4. click Share this folder on the network. 2. 3. Click START and then click MY NETWORK PLACES. Click OK. Type the name using UNC format. 2. 4. In the folder's properties. Click START and then click RUN. Folder-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Folder 1. 4. Click VIEW WORKGROUP COMPUTERS. Rename the folder as share_yourname. Click OK. What you can do with those subfolders and files depends on the level of permission you have been granted. Right-click the folder and then click SHARING AND SECURITY. To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using Universal Naming Convention (UNC) Format 1. 3. You then see all of the subfolders and files in that shared folder. After you type the appropriate credentials. Create a folder in DESKTOP. How does a shared folder look like? _____________________________________________ To Connect to a Shared Folder by Using My Network Places 1. Double-click the appropriate computer in your workgroup. Double-click the shared folder to which you want to gain access. a window opens that displays all of the shared folders and printers on the computer to which you are connecting. Use the default name for the shared folder. 2. where computername is the name of the computer to which you are attempting to connect and sharename is the name of the shared folder on that computer: \\computername\sharename 3. .

Click NEXT to continue. In the Share name field. Once you have accepted this fact you can click YES to proceed to the next step. When the list of printers appears. and then click Printer properties. 4. Select YES. or a printer attached to another computer. 4. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. Printer-sharing ESTIMATED COMPLETION TIME: 15 minutes Sharing a Printer 1. 2. 2. 3. 6. 3. on the Start menu. Click START and then click CONTROL PANEL. select the one you want to use and click NEXT. Click NEXT to start. Right-click the printer you want to share. . 5. Click OK. 9. Select Browse for a printer. In Control Panel. Click START and then. and select the Share this printer check box.ACTIVITY 4. A new Add Printer Wizard window opens. 7. Select A network printer. Windows will now automatically retrieve the required printer drivers from the computer which is currently sharing the printer. 8. To be safe you can run anti-virus software on the computer sharing the printer. Click the Sharing tab. enter a descriptive name for the printer: This is the identifier that will be shown to other devices on the local network when they make connections. You will be warned about printer drivers possibly containing viruses. click PRINTERS AND FAXES. then click ADD PRINTER. You will now see the printer in the Printers and Faxes window. Then click NEXT to continue. Add a network printer 1. Windows will ask you whether you would like to set the printer you are adding as the default printer to use.

1 Objective 6.2 Software 6.4.2 Case Analysis .4 Exercises 6.3 Networks 6.4.Chapter VI Trouble Shooting and Maintenance 6.1 Hardware 6.

Larry and Nancy Long.com/ref/fdd/confCable-c. 2001. United States.com/ Larry F.com/ http://www.wisegeek. CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Troubleshooting PCs 2nd Edition. http://www.php May 31. Kozierok.BIBLIOGRAPHY Meyers.microsoft.htm May 31.com/ Copyright © Tech-FAQ by TopBits http://support.Version Date: April 17.2. 2007.tech-faq. http://www.ictglobal.pcguide.com).PCGuide.ehow. 2011 http://www.build-your-owncomputer-tips. COMPUTERS: Information Technology in Perspective 11th Edition.html.kitchentablecomputers. 2011. http://www. Build Your Own Computer Tips by Robert B. May 27. Mike. 2011 http://www. Byard. Site Version: 2.com/ Copyright © 1996-2010 http://bishwajeet. May 31.com/ .com/install-a-power-supply.com/tutorials/205005-bootpriority-change.com/what-is-pata. Norton.com/kb/310312 http://www.duxcw. The PC Guide (http://www.blogspot. Peter. R.com/ Charles M. Kayne. 2001. 2011 lordbob75 01-19-2009 http://www. Introduction to Computers 6th Edition The McGraw-Hill International. http://www. The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2011 http://www.html June 2.vistax64. Long.0 .html April 17.computerotic.com/drcables1.

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