Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

..................................................Rhino 2.......................................0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index......................................... 447 xv ...........................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. the name stuck. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents. and by the time the product was in beta testing. 17 . see the Rhino Command List.com Web site www. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office. To explore the related topics. and Find.com/support/faq. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.rhino3d. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. Help Access Rhino's Help file.rhino3d. Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. Index.Rhino 2. under the topic Help.rhino3d.

Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. drag with the right mouse button. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.Rhino 2. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys. F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Shift. Front. Ortho pane on the status bar. and Right view. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. In parallel views like the default Top. F8. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Lens length displays on status bar.

Rotate mouse wheel. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Snap pane on the status bar. PageUp.Rhino 2. Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. PageDown. Rotate mouse wheel.

Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .Rhino 2. Lens length displays on status bar. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button.

0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. See Options dialog box. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right.Rhino 2.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 . Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. Some are designed in to be shortcuts. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .

you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. 26 . Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle.

y. Note If you enter only x. type coordinates in the format: rx. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.10 and press Enter. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates.y. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. y and z coordinates to place points. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. then click Single Line. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.6. then click Single Line.3 and press Enter. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.0 and press Enter. type 0. click Line.0 and press Enter.and y-coordinates. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12.Rhino 2. the point will lie on the world x. with r prefix relative coordinates.y plane. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. type r2.z and press Enter. Note If you enter only x.6. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. type coordinates in the format: wx. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.10 in the construction plane coordinates.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter.6. type coordinates in the format: x. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. the point will lie on the construction plane.6.10 and press Enter. 27 .z and press Enter. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. type w0.and y-coordinates. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. click Line. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt.0.10 in the world coordinates. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. type w12. then click Single Line. type 12.

Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Next point of curve. indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. click Line. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. then click Single Line. type 4<45 and press Enter. 28 . enter the starting point for the line. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis. click Free-form. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. type r4<45 and press Enter. then click Interpolate Points.Rhino 2. click a point in the perspective viewport. click another point in the perspective viewport. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line.axis) and press Enter. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. A white tracking line will display. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. indicating the new location of the selection set. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. Click the left mouse button to select the point.axis) and press Enter. click Line. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. then click Single Line. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move.

Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. type NoElev.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. press Ctrl. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. and click again. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. From the Curves menu. then press Ctrl and click. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. Press Tab. click Line.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. negative numbers are below. Continue with picking locations.D. Or press Tab twice. but only if the point can be truly 3. Place the first line point. Release Ctrl. After starting elevator mode. Release the left mouse button to place the objects. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport.Rhino 2. Change viewports. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. was when you pressed Tab. release Ctrl. 29 . then click Single Line.D points using 2. Drag the mouse out. You can start elevator mode in another location. Positive numbers are above the construction plane. Specifying 3.

Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. Click to place the point. type <60. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. the marker snaps to the curve end. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. enter the starting point for the line. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 . type a distance and press Enter. From the Curves menu. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle. then click Single Line. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. click Line. Turn on end object snap. Your line will pass through the end of the curve.Rhino 2. Or. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines.

0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. From the Curves menu. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. enter the starting point for the line. click Line. Click to place the point. Click to place the point. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Or.Rhino 2. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. type 10. you can turn them on. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. then click Single Line. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter.

their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims.Rhino 2. this will become more clear. Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. 32 .0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. the surfaces cannot be merged. you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces. so those are the things that need to be merged. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together.

Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. extension line extension. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line offset distance. Text height The text height in Rhino units.Rhino 2. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. 33 . The text height. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command.

Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. 34 . Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines. Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. regardless of the direction of the dimension line.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line.

You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. when not zero. When the Refine check box is selected. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. whenever you start a new model without a template. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. but should shade and render relatively fast. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing.Rhino 2. is from 1 to 100. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. This setting is scale independent. Notes tab Add notes to your model. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. these settings are used. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. type information you want to save with the model. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. more accurate meshes. Document Properties dialog box. 35 . the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. This setting is scale independent. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. and higher polygon count. Document Properties dialog box. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Custom Set the custom options. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. but may take very long to shade and render.

and Max dist. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. In practice. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. and lower polygon count. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. After initial meshing. and higher polygon count. By default. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Jagged seams is not selected. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. Max dist. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Document Properties dialog box. less accurate meshes. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. Refine is selected. When the Refine check box is selected. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing. Min edge length.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. edge to Srf options. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. By default. more accurate meshes. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Setting Max dist. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. The default values is 16. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. When the Refine check box is selected. By default. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces.Rhino 2. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Simple planes is not selected. This option is scale dependent. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Max edge length. 36 .

Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. This makes the image appear smoother. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. In general. Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. None No shadows. 37 . all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. but also slows down rendering. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. use bigger shadow offset. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. use smaller shadow offset. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. if the shadows are turned on. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. In practice. In Rhino. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. None Each pixel is sampled once. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. With small objects. Background Sets the color of the render background. With large objects. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image.Rhino 2.

if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting.2cm 1. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2mm 1. Fractional.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2m 1. the relative tolerance is used instead. For example. or Feet & Inches. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box.2centimeter(s) Meters 1.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. You can mix fractional and decimal input. When you change from one units to another. In those commands. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . trimming surfaces. Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2mic 1.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. Document Properties dialog box. Select Decimal. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change.Rhino 2.2c 1. Mils 1. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry.2km 1.

If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. step through the viewports. and place a named viewport on top. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance.01 to 0. or Extents of the selected objects.Rhino 2. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. You can specify which viewport is maximized. rename viewports. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. Close the viewport. set multiple templates. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0.01 millimeters. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. Rhino 2. In general.001. 39 .0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Use defined and named views. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. You can create new viewports. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Extents.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. Zoom Window. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. and use predefined viewport configurations. A dialog box will warn if the units do not match.

click Zoom Extents All. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. from the View menu.Rhino 2. all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. To bring all your objects into view. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. from the View menu. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane. When you make a Window selection. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection. Edit viewport properties. To remove an object from a selection set. 40 . the current object and its designation in the list highlight. When the selection menu pops up. click Set View > Plan. When you make a Crossing selection.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. To select additional objects. Crossing. Edit Grid properties. Select objects General Click an object to select it.

Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.0 If you save as a 1. Click another object. When object is highlighted.x files from Rhino 2. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 .x file. Copy. you'd get one line. but if you picked it as a boundary. type a filename.0. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu.x 3D models (. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. click Export or Save As. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. press Enter or the spacebar. Sweep2). select Rhino 1.x files into Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list.x file into Rhino 2.x file from Rhino 2. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. Sweep1.Rhino 2. Import and export file types Rhino 1. and you picked an edge as a curve. no 2. To cancel the selection process: Click None. Saving 1. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole. In the File name box.0.3dm). These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. In the Save as type box.0 If you load a 1. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. For instance if you have a plane.

0 use IGES to transfer files. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. Click Save. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName.Rhino 2. click Open.2. select 3D Studio. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. Or. from the File menu. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. Click Open. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. select 3D Studio. or MAX 2.0. If no object name is defined. click Import/Merge. For version 3. 2. In the File name box. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Or. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. 42 . In the File name box. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. in the Files of type. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files.5. type a name for the 3DS file. 2. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in. type a name for the 3DS file. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in.2. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. When building morph targets. MAX 2. click Save As. In the Save as type box.0. They are not converted to NURBS. If so.

5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. 3DS MAX version 2.5 plug-ins path. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. This happens because the MAX2. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.3dm. Only Spline objects get exported.dli.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. select Rhino 3D Models.5. Select the 3DM file to import. (3dmimp. This happens because MAX2.5. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. RhinoMax2imp. MAX does not export NURBS curves.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX. from the Files of type box. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces.5\plugins\" directory. The Rhino web site at http://www. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. are imported in several pieces.dli into your "3dsmax2. export to a DWG. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.dli. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2.rhino3d. RhinoMax25imp. and RhinoMax20imp.0 Command Reference File formats In general.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Open 3D Studio MAX2. In the MAX2. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. From the MAX2. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported. click Import. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. or 3D Studio R4.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2.dli. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 File Import dialog box.Rhino 2. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. RhinoMax20imp.dli from the directories in your MAX2.dli.5 File menu. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. or RhinoMax25imp. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS. use 3DS file format. RhinoMax2imp. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces.dli. Attempt trimming? 43 . Now mesh your curved surfaces. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino.

This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. From the MAX2 File menu. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. from the Files of type box.0. Click the MAX2. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. Surface. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. click Import.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool). NURBS curves: 44 .com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.5 NURBS object.Rhino 2. 3D Studio MAX 2.rhino3d. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. Given the information we have. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. In general.5 module called "ACISMAX2. Open 3D Studio MAX2. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. Curve. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. Using developers tools. 3DS MAX version 2. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2. select Rhino 3D Models." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. If MAX crashes. (3dmimp.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question. If you answer "no. click the Sub-Object button.dli and RhinoMax2imp. Select the 3DM file to import. To closely examine and edit MAX2. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact.5 or 3DS DOS. CurveCV. The Rhino web site at http://www. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces.dli or RhinoMax2imp.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp. Be patient.5 as a single surface.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory.

1. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. Some surfaces.at/duck3. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button. In the File Import dialog box. click Mesh.habware. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. from the Files of type box. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. From the File menu.Rhino 2. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. Select the 3DM file to import. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer. On December 10 1997. obj+number is used as a name. CurveCV. 45 . 3D Studio MAX 3. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. If there is no Rhino object name.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. Clear the Weld control. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported.rhino3d. are imported in several pieces.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. Click the Sub-Object button. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. click Import. Surface. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. From the Tools menu. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. select Rhino 3D Models. Curve." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. Open 3D Studio MAX.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models.

It does not fix geometry problems. ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To change these into splines. Using ACIS Version 5. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support. but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. In the Save as type box. click Save As. click Export Selected.0 ACIS Version: 3.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. but import in as bodies. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. At the Select object prompt. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. All of the version types export curves. Click Save. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. from the File menu.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3.and v-direction vectors. type a name for the file. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files.Rhino 2.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. select the options for the export. select ACIS SAT.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. Or.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . select the curves and explode them. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed. In Rhino.0 ACIS Version: 2. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. In the File name box. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.5 ACIS Version: 1.0 is currently not suggested.

Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.0 ACIS Version: 4. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator.Rhino 2. select Adobe Illustrator.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4. from the File menu.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. Click Open.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. under Scale.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid. In the File name box. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4. 47 . click Open. In the Files of type box. In the AI Import Options dialog box. type a name for the AI file.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4. click Import/Merge. Or. select a scale option.

click Export Selected. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. curves need to be refit before exporting. select AG. Or. click Save As. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. In the Save as type box. click Open. Make the viewport you want to export from active. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. type a name for the AI file. Under some circumstances. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. not text. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. In some situations. select Adobe Illustrator. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. from the Files of type box. from the File menu. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. Or. In the File name box. select AG. type a name for the AG file. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. click a scale option. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. type a name for the AG file. In the Save as type box. click Import/Merge. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. From the File menu. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport.1 units from the original curve. Or.5. In the File name box. Click Save. under Scale. Click Open. From the File menu. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu.0 > 8. In the AI Export Options dialog box. from the File menu.0 files. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs. In the File name box. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. click Save As. from the File menu. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file.ini. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. Rhino only reads curve geometry. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. In the Open dialog box.

0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. In the Files of type box. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. From the File menu. type a name for the DWG file. In the Save as type box. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. or anything in paperspace. regions. select AutoCAD DWG. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. Or. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Click Save. click Export Selected. Or. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Click Open. click Save As. select the options for DWG export. select AutoCAD DWG. from the File menu. XREF's are imported. click Import/Merge. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Click Save. In the File name box. click Save As. type a name for the DXF file. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. from the File menu. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Or. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. OLE objects.Rhino 2. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. In the Files of type box. click Import/Merge. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. type a name for the DWG file. rays. They are not converted to NURBS. select AutoCAD DXF. select AutoCAD DXF. select the options for DXF export. Or. type a name for the DXF file. click Export Selected. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. click Open. from the File menu. click Open. Click Open. from the File menu. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. In the File name box. In the File name box. From the File menu. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. Rhino will not import images. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. In the File name box. Object properties. In the Save as type box.

If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. This means if the curve is just one line. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. but do not properly read polyface meshes. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. or circle. If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. Rhino will not import images. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. They are not converted to NURBS. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. rays. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. circle. Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities.Rhino 2. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. arc. AutoCAD line types are ignored. curves are approximated with polylines. and line entities. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. OLE objects. 50 . or circle. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. circles. arcs. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. you can export either polyline or spline entities. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. 2-D curves are simplified. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. or anything in paperspace. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. export curves as splines. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. arc. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. 3-D curves are never simplified. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. regions. use RAW instead. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh.

and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. line. In the Save as type box. If the simplify tolerance is too large.csv). lines. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. or ellipse. Use simple entities Circles. For silhouette lines. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. If the simplify tolerance is too small. From the File menu. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. ellipses. it is exported as a simple entity. This setting uses current model units. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. arcs. it will be exported as such. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. arcs. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. select Object Properties (. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. and line entities. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. not the file header. Click Save. ellipse. or later DWG/DXF. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. but increase the number of polyline segments. and ellipses as NURBS curves. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12. click Export Selected.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. arc. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be. line. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12.Rhino 2. circle.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. The larger this number. Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. In the File name box. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. type a name for the file. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. circle.

Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified.0. If you have previously selected a centerline.0. Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save.Rhino 2. Rhino produces one component for each shape. You can give each shape the name you would like here. Rhino must approximate each polyline. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel.S) or only half (. The larger this number. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. 52 . Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve.C). pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. This setting determines how the station lines are created. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt. All component origin shift is considered 0. object render color and selected mass properties. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. When exporting curves as polylines. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names. layer color. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. object name. Each component will have the same name as the shape.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file.

The LWO file is limited to 65. select Lightwave.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL. Or. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Click Save. Object names will be used when exporting the . from the File menu.535 points for the entire file. from the File menu. or Windage (sail). click Import/Merge. 53 . You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. click Save As. In the File name box. select Lightwave. type a name for the LWO file. In the Save as type box. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. Moray automatically numbers the objects. from the Files of type box. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. click Save As. Click Open. In the File name box. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. which does not have the 65. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. In the Open dialog box. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. They are not converted to NURBS. Note Object names are supported.lwo file instead of a generic name. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export Selected. Containment. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. type a name for the UDO file. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. type a name for the LWO file. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. Click Save.000 polygon limitation. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications.Rhino 2. In the File name box. select Moray UDO. Each component will initially be a member of this part. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. Or. If the same name is used for multiple objects. click Open. from the File menu.

click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. surfaces. and colors. 54 . Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. Or. only closed solids will be imported. click User Defined. select Parasolid X_T." Solution The model probably exported just fine. surfaces. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. and curves Solid Edge 6. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. In the File name box. from Create menu.INC file. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. type a name for the file. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. If the file contains open surfaces. When you export to UDO.UDO file and a .0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file.0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. Planes are important primitives.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges.Rhino 2. Click Save.stmuc. select the target application for the export. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception. click Save As.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. they display a blank window. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. To import the object into Moray. Rhino creates a . from the File menu.com/moray/. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. they will be ignored with no warning. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks.0 will not read in open surfaces.

Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino. however. type a name for the RIB file.rhino3d. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. Or. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model.rhino3d. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. click Save As. click Export Selected.graphics.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. 55 . In the File name box. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard.bmrt. ISBN: 0201508680. ISBN: 1558606181.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. select RenderMan. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout.rendering. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD. Click Save. from the File menu.

It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. and highlight. In the File name box.povray. In the Save as type box. Rhino writes the surface. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light. click the big blue "R. The transparency color is the color of the object.1. type a name for the POV file. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www.rendribrc. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. click Export Selected. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. 56 . the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. The intensity is always set to 1. Click Save.org. select POV-Ray Mesh.rib reboot your computer. click Save As. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. color. transparency. To test render the scene.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Set up your scene with materials and lights. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export.org. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. Use Properties to set the object names. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout.Rhino 2." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. and opacity statement for each object. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. Or. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box." Two windows will open. To cancel the rendering process.povray. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. from the File menu. however. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer.

from the Files of type box. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. click Open. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV. They are not converted to NURBS. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file.inc and lights. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. 57 . type a name for the RAW file. Or. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. but object colors are. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. In the Save as type box. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. Click Save. transparency.Rhino 2. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. from the File menu. Or. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. click Import/Merge. from the File menu. select Raw Triangles.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. click Save As. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. select Raw Triangles. type a name for the RTF file. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Textures are not exported. and highlight. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. Set up your scene with materials and lights. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. or into one large POV file. In the File name box. In the File name box. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights. Click Open.

Export it in RAW format. use DXF instead. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. click Export Selected. click Import/Merge.0762mm. from the File menu. In the Open dialog box. 0. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. and use ExplodeMesh. (For example. from the File menu. select STEP.0381mm. 0. from the File menu.0254mm. In the File name box. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used. from the Files of type box. type a name for the SLC file.0127mm. click Export Selected.Rhino 2. Or. type a name for the STEP file. type a name for the STEP file. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. Click Save. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. Or.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Click Open. select SLC.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. 58 . select STEP. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. The greater the number of polygons. In the File name box. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces. click Save As. In the File name box. click Open. click Save As. click Open. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Import it back into Rhino. In the Save as type box. Click Save. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. from the File menu. 0. The slices will be evenly spaced. Or. From the File menu. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. click Import/Merge. In the Save as type box. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain.0508mm and 0. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. Consequently.

An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. select STL. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. They are not converted to NURBS. click Polygon Mesh. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. click Export Selected. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. In the File name box. then Weld (angle=180). from the File menu. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. type a name for the STL file.Rhino 2. from the Files of type box.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. then click Unify Normals. Click Open. Instead. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. 59 . then click Weld. Or. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. From the Tools menu. if two triangles share an edge. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects. change the [STL] section of the Rhino.) Select the new mesh object. but doesn't glue the edges together. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export.ini file to look like this. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. From the Tools menu. then they have the same idea of up. click Save As. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. that is. For example. type a name for the STL file. to control STL accuracy. select STL. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. Click Save. If a mesh point is highlighted. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Use JoinMesh. to get JCAD to work. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. then click Join. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Save as type box. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. click Polygon Mesh. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. From the Tools menu. click Polygon Mesh. In the File name box. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid.

Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero. click Export Selected. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. from the Files of type box. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. In the Save as type box. etc. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu.axis toward the x. views. type a name for the VDA file. type a name for the VDA file. click Save As. In the Open dialog box. Click Save. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. Or. click Open.y plane. From the File menu. click Export Selected. shine. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. symbols. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Click Save. Texture assignments are currently not exported. click Import/Merge.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. select VDA. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Render color. click Save As. from the File menu. type a name for the WRL file. In the File name box.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. In the File name box. from the File menu. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. Rhino now 60 . Or. It does not support representation of drawing information. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. In the File name box. It does not support assembly and feature information. select VDA. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. select VRML.D geometry and topology information. from the File menu. Click Open.

setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. type a name for the file. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file.0. This can be tricky. Or.pdf. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. click Save As.com/software/mtx2html.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. try 1.Rhino 2. In the WMF Export Options dialog box. select Windows Metafile." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer. Render Mesh tab. you should try 2.0 and 2. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. In general.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. From the File menu. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. type a name for the WMF file. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output.) Outside of Rhino. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box. In the File name box. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export. Click Save. from the File menu.viewpoint. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. Or. from the File menu. click Export Selected. and if so. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. Click Save. (The MTS file contains the actual data.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired.0.viewpoint. You can download it from http://developer. click Export Selected. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. If it does not work with your VRML viewer. In the Save as type box. click Save As. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format.exe.0 first. but will make the WRL file much larger. 61 .

IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. type a name for the DXF file. select an IGES type. select IGES. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. enter a name for the file. This means various settings have different values for each product. from the IGES type box. and click Save. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. IGES units The units used for the IGES export.Rhino 2. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. From the File menu. Detailed options Author. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. click Export Selected. Sender's product ID.3ds A file yourfile. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. In the File name box. Organization. in the Save as type box. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. 62 . Click Save. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section.x is created.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. 1 2 In the File name box.

except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system.ini. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1.2 or 5. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. To import trimming curves as curve objects. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file. the IGES file will be empty.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers. To create an IGES import log.Rhino 2. change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 .0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. When Rhino 2. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.ini. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5.

A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. This file can contain multiple flavors. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple . The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. 3." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. 2. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile. that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N".) are ignored. Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary.Rhino 2. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. an IGES level number is automatically selected. Lines that begin with semi-colon (. To see if this is the case.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window.. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. . If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported.txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules.). Spaces and tabs are ignored. you need to do a bit of sleuthing.." For example.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import. 1. When Rhino reads an IGES file. but this is not required. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . A flavor is terminated by a blank line.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 . The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0.

If you do something like: open alpha. ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read. set the options for the IGES type. accepting only entities marked as geometry. If one of the Annotation(). but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero.igs open gamma. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. or Logical/Positional(). If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. 65 . The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile.igs. click New. it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need.igs and gamma. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file.igs normally. Rhino reads alpha. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. regardless of type. Definition(). you will get it.0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. Other(). In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.Rhino 2.igs. click Close. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file.

If the max degree is set to three.3. Max degree Choose between no degree limit.2 stores years using two digits and 5. this number should be one. Unix uses LF. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and maximum degree five. and click Delete. or IGES circles. 66 . IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. select an IGES type. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). maximum degree three. The number must be bigger than zero. click Close. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. and MacOS style line endings. and MacOS uses CR. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. In most cases.3 using four digits. If the max degree is set to five. and click Copy Type. The difference is 5. from the IGES type list box. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. from the IGES type list box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to.2 and 5. set the options for the IGES type. In the IGES Export Types dialog box.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. select an IGES type.Rhino 2. IGES 184 entities. and click Edit. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. arcs. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. IGES arcs. Unix. set the options for the IGES type. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. click Close. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities.

67 . If the max degree is set to five. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. If the max degree is set to three. from the File menu. Try to load both files into your product. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. Curves are not exported. type a name for the OBJ file. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. when possible. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. when possible. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Or. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). click Export Selected. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). try the following test. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. click Save As.com/rhino so we can document this file format. Click Save. maximum degree three. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces. select the options for OBJ export.rhino3d. Fit rational surfaces With this setting. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. In the File name box. If you get better results with one export type. Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. select Wavefront OBJ. and maximum degree five. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the Save as type box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry.Rhino 2. when possible. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type.

Export layer names Exports layer names. CR (Mac OS) Return only. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. mesh export is disabled.obj file.mtl file with the same name as the . Export material definitions Creates an . Options Skip Don't export meshes. The . End of line character CRLF (Windows. LF (Unix) Line feed only. 68 . Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters.Rhino 2. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. Export object names Exports object names. 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. If is far from 100% satisfactory. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. MS-DOS) Return + line feed. To export to MAX. There are also references to these materials added to the . Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. By default. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices.obj file. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet.ini file.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. Export layer names should be cleared. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. This material name is exported for use by the renderer.mtl file contains one material definition per object.

0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. type a filename. Note When merging an IGES file. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. From the IGES Type box. and flip the trim.Rhino 2. To distinguish between separate entities.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. from the File menu. and resides in the same level will import to the same object. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. and set the display to wireframe. select the trim curve. For the fastest import. select 3D Studio MAX 3. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected. All data that is not grouped. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES. change your viewport layout to a single viewport. Or. In the Save as type box. and Customize > Preferences. it is recommended that you save your work first.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . select the surface. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. In this case. try using OBJ format instead. and then restart MAX.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. select Alias V8.x. it is recommended that you save your work.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. make it independent. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. After a large IGES import.

select AUTOFORM. In the File name box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 .0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. select Ashlar Vellum. type a filename. type a filename. select IGES.Rhino 2. In the File name box.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

71 . From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. select IGES.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.Rhino 2. type a filename. In the File name box. select AutoShip. select Breault Research's ASAP.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. select CADCEUS. type a filename.

000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. select CATIA.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. select CamSoft.Rhino 2. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . type a filename. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.

In the File name box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. type a filename. even those that are trivially trimmed. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. select Cosmos/M. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. Surfaces and Solids. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. select FastShip. select IGES. select IGES. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. 74 . select IGES. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select Cosmos/M.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.Rhino 2.

type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. type a filename. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. select IGES. click Export or Save As. type a filename. select IronCAD. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . In the File name box.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select FastSURF.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. select Integrity Ware. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.

From the IGES Type box. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the Save as type box. select LUSAS. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 .2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. select Mastercam. select IGES. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

2 EOL=LF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. In the File name box. select Maya. select IGES. In the Save as type box. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. click Export Selected. Surfaces and Solids. From the IGES Type box. select ME30. Or. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. 77 .0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. type a filename. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. From the IGES Type box. from the File menu.

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. click Export or Save As. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. You may set these options as you see fit. Version 5. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. select IGES. select Mechanical Desktop. Version 5.IGESOUT dialog box.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK.0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. and click OK.Rhino 2. type a filename.opt. click Export or Save As. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command. In the Save as type box. click Structure. From the IGES Type box. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. To save these settings. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As. set IGES Version to either 5. 78 . In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. select Microstation. In the File name box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Geometry. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click DE Mappings.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . select IGES. in the Description box. type a filename.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. click Start and Global. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. From the IGES Type box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. (The MDT defaults work fine. click Edit options.2 or 5. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. To get the best results. In the File name box. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above.3. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.

Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. If you add the following section to your Rhino.Rhino 2. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting.ini file. type a filename. select Multisurf.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry.000000 79 . click Export or Save As.1 using an IGES file. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Multisurf 3. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. the current version of Multisurf is 3. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.1. select NASA GridTool.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. select IGES.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. select IGES.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select OptiCAD.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 .Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select NuGraf. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.

pro file then read it in before exporting. Note With Pro/E version 20.pro file or save them as rhino. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. somewhere around 0.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . type a filename. From the IGES Type box. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0001 will produce good results. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. when exporting to IGES. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much.001 to 0. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. If you set your tolerances right. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. In the File name box. use these settings in the Pro/E config.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. use the "All Parts" option. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.01 units. select IGES. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.

If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface.Rhino 2. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. When modeling in Rhino. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation. 82 . Surface replace is another good tool to use. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. If the curves are planar. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. there are now two types. even those that are trivially trimmed. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E. and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. then. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. Surfaces and Solids. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. Things like fillets and drafts . Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. The more trims you have. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.

It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. From the IGES Type box. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 .asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go.Rhino 2. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. click Export or Save As. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. In the File name box. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design. a surface. select IGES. you will not get back what you sent.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select SDRC's I-DEAS.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. and a solid. In the Save as type box. There is no geometry information in it. type a filename. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E .

01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. select Softimage. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.Rhino 2. All three have their own problems and benefits. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino.8: ftp://ftp.okino.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.txt contains command line option information.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. In the Save As dialog box. 2 84 . Run iges2soft. 1. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.phoenixtools.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile. In the IGES Export dialog box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Check out their web site for more information: www. SGI and x86 (Intel).com.phoenixtools.phoenixtools. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino. click Save As. then click IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Softimage can also import 3DS. DXF. Open Softimage.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export.com Plugin download link page: www. for SI versions 3. select Softimage. select IGES.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.7sp1 and 3. from the Save as type box. From the File menu.igs MyDSCFile.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. Type a filename and click Save. 3. from the IGES Type box.

Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. type a filename. click Export or Save As. select Solid Edge. In the File name box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. select IGES. select IGES.Rhino 2. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. In the Save as type box. click Export or Save As. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces. From the IGES Type box. Surfaces and Solids. Experiment with different settings for optimal results.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 86 .Rhino 2. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0001 before building the geometry. In the File name box. select SolidWorks. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. To export models to Rhino.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. click Export or Save As.001 or 0. select IGES.

Nothing replaces experience. to test feasibility. for SolidWorks. etc. and investigate alternative approaches. From the IGES Type box. Generally. In the Save as type box. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. 87 . and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. ribs. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible. select SUM4.0001.. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. click Export or Save As. SUM 4.Rhino 2. Also. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. by nature. Shelling. is tangent. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. leaving features such as fillets. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. try to model with smooth. which within human perception. In the File name box. select IGES. then shelling is likely to fail.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. shelling. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature. type a filename. select SURFCAM. which works on both edges and faces. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. select IGES.

2 EOL=LF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. In the File name box. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 . select IGES. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select Unigraphics. From the IGES Type box.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. In the File name box. select TekSoft. click Export or Save As. select IGES. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

From the IGES Type box. Surfaces and Solids. In the Save as type box. select IGES. click Export or Save As. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. 90 . In the File name box.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu. Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. Context-sensitive menu with object selected.2 EOL=LF Scale=1.Rhino 2. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. select Yamaha ESPRi.

91 . That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable.Rhino 2. and Value boxes.0 Command Reference If an object is selected. Edit the Rhino. In addition. from the Named Colors list. type RGB values in the Red. If context-sensitive menu is on. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold.ini file to add or change menu items. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. or drag to manipulate the view. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. select a color. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. Saturation.txt in the Rhino install directory. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. If no object is selected. actions related to objects appear in the menu. and Blue boxes. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. For maximum speed. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. type values in the Hue.ini file. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Context-sensitive menu indicator. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. Green. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box.

and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. Near. and Point will not work for that pick. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. When an object snap is active. As you pass your cursor over an object. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. 92 . right-click the Lock checkbox. After the pick. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. To display the Osnap dialog box. Only Near. if End. and Knot object snaps can persist. If object snaps are locked. on the status bar. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. For example. Point. End. Perp. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. Quad. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. the appropriate object snap displays. All object snaps behave similarly. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. When activated. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. To clear all persistent object snaps. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. Tan. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. Midpoint. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Center.Rhino 2. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. click Osnap. Near. Intersection. or can be activated for one pick only. End.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 . Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.

0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. Perp. Click to enter the endpoint. 94 . with no spaces. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. Intersection. Valid options are NoSnap. End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. If a command is active. OrientOnSrf. Midpoint. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. all others will be cleared. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. from the Tools menu. End. click Object Snap. for example in ExtractIsoparm. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. The normal object snaps are evaluated first.Rhino 2. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. Near. Tan. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Center. then click End. Only these object snaps will be set. and Knot. The marker jumps to the endpoint. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. InsertKnot. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. This command is useful for command files. Point. it turns off all persistent object snaps. or just suspends them for one pick. separated by commas. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. Quad.

click Mid. The marker jumps to its midpoint. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Point. Move the cursor near a curve. the seam point on closed curves. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Point. In the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. click the Osnap pane. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. Click to enter the point. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Click to enter the midpoint. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click End. 95 . click Object Snap. click the Osnap pane. The marker jumps to it. Click to enter a point on the curve. Near object snap Snap near a curve. then click Mid. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. On the status bar. In the Osnap dialog box.Rhino 2. from the Tools menu. and the "corners" of surfaces. Move the cursor near a point. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click Near. On the status bar. then click Near. The marker moves along the curve.

click Object Snap. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point.Rhino 2. perpendicular to the curve. Click to enter one of these points. Move the cursor along a curve. Click to enter the center point. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. On the status bar. Move the cursor near an intersection. then click Perpendicular To. click Object Snap. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. click Perp. click the Osnap pane. then click Intersection. Move the cursor near a curve.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. On the status bar. click Int. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor along a curve. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve. In the Osnap dialog box. 96 . tangent to the curve. The marker jumps to it. then click Tangent To. click Cen. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter one of these points. click the Osnap pane. then click Center. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. Click to enter the point of intersection. from the Tools menu. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. The marker jumps to its center point. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point.

Click to enter one of these points. You can set this point. arc or ellipse. click Tan. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. click Object Snap. from the Tools menu. click the Osnap pane. Similarly. distance constraint. click the Osnap pane. On the status bar. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Move the cursor near a curve. Click to enter the knot point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. Set your constraints relative to the base point. click Object Snap. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. then click From. then click Knot. and relative coordinate entry. angle constraint. In the Osnap dialog box. type Knot. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. with From. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. In the Osnap dialog box. click Object Snap. You can use another object snap to pick this point. or similar surface edges. At the Choose a base point prompt. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. From object snap Snap from a point. click Quad. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point.Rhino 2. then click Quadrant. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. without entering that point for the original command. from the Tools menu. pick a point. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. 3 Example 97 . Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. without picking it. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. and finally choose the point for the original command. Move the cursor along a circle.

3 At the prompt requesting a point. Int. from the Tools menu. Near. At the Click near the curve prompt. and Quad. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. you can use simple snaps. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. for greater precision. Point. type 2 and press Enter. 98 . then click Perpendicular From. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. snap to the end of the line. select the curve. Cen. click Object Snap. select the curve. At the Choose a point prompt. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. then click From.Rhino 2. then click Tangent From. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. Mid. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. click Object Snap.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. At the Choose a base point prompt. Note When selecting points during this sequence. The cursor moves only along the curve. At the Click near the curve prompt. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. End.

select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. in the Object Snap toolbar. Point. The marker moves only along the line. Note When selecting points during this sequence. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from. Cen. select a first point to specify the tracking line. then click Along Line. Near. you can use simple snaps (End. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. Near. At the Start of tracking line prompt. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. Mid. Along object snap Track along a line. Or. and Quad) for greater precision. The marker moves only along the line. Click to enter a point on the line. Near. right-click the Along toolbar button. from the Tools menu. Int. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. Cen. select a second point. Mid. type AlongParallel. Point. click Object Snap. Cen. At the End of base line prompt. Int. Note When selecting points during this sequence. At the Start of base line prompt. Int. Mid. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. select a second point. At the Choose a point prompt. Click to enter a point on the line. 99 . Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. you can use simple snaps (End. and Quad) for greater precision. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. The marker tracks along the tangent line. and Quad) for greater precision.Rhino 2. you can use simple snaps (End. At the End of tracking line prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. Point.

By default. Click to enter a point on the surface. then click On Surface. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane.Rhino 2. Mid. you can use simple snaps. Note When selecting a point on the surface. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. When Osnap projection is on. from the Tools menu. The marker moves only along the surface.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. and the cursor is over an object snap point. but works on curves. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. Near. Center. Point. End. select Project to CPlane. 100 . This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. At the Click near the surface prompt. it is off. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. and Knot. select the surface. click Object Snap. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. for greater precision. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Intersection.

or just the knot isoparms. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. and OBJ file export. 0. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Information Technical information about the command displays. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. and the other positive integers. 101 . Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. Isoparms at surface knot locations. POV-Ray. Object Properties. General tab. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. and RenderMan RIB. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. 2.Rhino 2. 1. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. go to the Options dialog box. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. The valid values are -1. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves.

0 Command Reference Object Properties. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. using a plug-in library. transparency. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. From top left to bottom right. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. 102 . Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Turns light on or off. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. this tab displays the properties for that light type. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. you can set the color. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Color Sets the color of the light. Light tab Edit light object properties. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light. finish.Rhino 2. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. To change the material assignment of the layer. texture. Material tab Edit object material properties.

Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. From top left to bottom right. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.Rhino 2. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. or a polygon mesh. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Text tab Edit text properties. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. 103 . To change the color of the wireframe display. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Object Properties. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. polysurface. Clear this option to remove the bump map. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties. Unlike more advanced renderers.

0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).25 inches. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text.Rhino 2. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases. Options dialog box. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases. Command string Command alias definitions. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Example If your units are inches. 104 . When you place annotation text. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. The two sizes update each other. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

107

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

110

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Also.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. On the Shade tab. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. and a backdrop image. from the smooth geometry. shadows. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. this shading mode may be much faster. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. and the color-andshadows Render. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. If the objects you are rendering are very complex. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Render Render your model to see a realistic view.Rhino 2. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. click Options. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Choose between the quick render preview. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Rhino takes that time to calculate. 114 . click Use OpenGL. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time. Render Mesh tab. spotlighting. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. For highest quality results. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. The next time you shade the same model. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. highlights. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. you will see improved performance. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

which might appear in waves. so it won't be deformed.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it.0 or 1. Rhino Render tab. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Also. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. the patterns may probably disappear. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. The next time you render the same model. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box.5. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex. you will see improved performance. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems. Render Mesh tab. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. of the view in the active viewport. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Self. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort.Rhino 2. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. from the smooth geometry. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. 115 . Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. In some situations. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Render tab. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. When you draw the plane. Jagged spotlight edges and self.

Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth. That will usually solve the problem. Change the size of the light. If you’re getting self.Rhino 2. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Self-shadowing artifacts. Sometimes the conversion 116 . Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well.shadowing effects. If the problems still persist. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. Correct shadow. there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them. If you increase it too much. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows. The scale of the objects is very large. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated.

and since the polygons are flat. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. please read section the next section. Or you can organize your parts a different way. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. if you were working on a human figure. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized. To update Windows NT drivers. 117 .com/windows/downloads/winntw. Name Layer name. available from Microsoft at www. Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. you may not have the current drivers. On Status of layer. they look jagged. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. If this does not fix the problem. you can turn them all off at once. Even if you got the card last week.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). and download the latest drivers. Start Rhino. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. When objects are on a layer. select them all with one selection.Rhino 2. Off Status of layer.microsoft. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. To set the column width. Otherwise. change the color of the wire frame. you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Windows 95.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. For example. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column.asp. To update your OpenGL drivers. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. This helps you organize your model.dll and Glu32. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. contact Rhino Technical Support. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack.

Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. To change the color of the wireframe display. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer.Rhino 2. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. finish.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. texture. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. polysurface. transparency. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. or a polygon mesh. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. you can set the color. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black. Unlike more advanced renderers. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. You can snap to objects on this layer. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. 118 . Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface.

Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. click New. select a set of layers. Clear this option to remove the bump map. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. 119 . and Invert the selection. If you don't remember the layer names. select the name on the list. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. type a new name and press Enter. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. In the Layer dialog box. You can select all layers. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar.Rhino 2. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. You cannot create new layers with these names. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.

click the color column of the layer you want to change. On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. To delete empty layers. select a color for the layer. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. use the Empty Layers filter. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. from the list select the layers you want to delete. select all the displayed layers and delete. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. When a model has a large number of layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. click a filter option.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Rhino 2. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. In the Select Color dialog box. Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. In the Show box. Click Delete. In the Edit Layers dialog box. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects.

off. click Filtered Layers. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. or locked. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 .0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box.Rhino 2. In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z." are on or locked. Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked. 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). set the desired filter options. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box.

If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. generally. The rail curve directs the surface along it. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. If this doesn't help. stair-like. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Think of each curve you select in Loft. then try Loft. Rules. then the surface created by loft will. then use a ruled surface. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. try adding a few more cross sections. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes.Rhino 2. or accordion bellows-like surface. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. then use the one closest to the top of the list. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. If you are after a flag-like surface. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements. 122 . you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Sweep1. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. If you are after a tent-like. The surface is smooth. Sweeps. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. Lofts. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2.

while keeping the other end fixed. Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves. If you have a several of closed curves. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. the surface will twist. use a Sweep2. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. 123 . If surfaces are twisted with open curves. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting.

and thus the fillet. For a given radius. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. For each of these four ways. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius.Rhino 2. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface. 124 . The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. there are four ways to fillet. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. or no curves. the intersection of the offsets can have one. several. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius.

0 Command Reference As mentioned. for this choice of sides. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. there may be several fillet pieces. 125 . These pieces can be grouped into connected components.Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option.Rhino 2. When Extend = yes. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. 126 . No. yes. If split. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. then the surfaces are left intact. and split. When that is the case. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. If no. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible. Because of this. If yes.

Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. and a fillet will exist. Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. their offsets may intersect. 127 .Rhino 2. If two surfaces are tangent.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. then no fillets will be created.

and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established.Rhino 2. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. Otherwise. rather than arcs. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces. FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. no fillet will be created. or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. except cross-sections are lines. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. 128 .

If you do. it is projected. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. Additionally. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. but it may not fit." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. In this case. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. do not pick A and B first.Rhino 2. 129 . especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. If one is a polysurface. If both are single surfaces. However. The result will have a hole at the corner. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. B and C. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. When joining A. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii.0 Command Reference In general. the direction of the normal is arbitrary. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. Once we have a curve on the surface. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. joining A to C. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. it doesn't. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. on an open surface or polysurface. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. Often. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. The picking order can make the difference. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. In this case. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface. no corner patch will be attempted. Do each surface individually. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. then the result to B will work. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. a spherical patch will be made. Objects have overlapping surface areas.

not mesh objects. the operation can fail. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. This point is also called a singularity. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. You can also move control points to the same location. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent.Rhino 2. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. 130 . You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. or visa versa. For success using the Booleans.0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union.

To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. In this example. At the Select object for intersection prompt. select the second object. the two boxes are just touching along one side. but Difference. click From Objects.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. 131 . we chose the cone first. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. In this example. In this example. the Intersect command may give different results. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. Depending on the order the objects are selected. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case.Rhino 2. and then click Intersection. The objects will Union. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. there are three possible intersection curves. and Intersection do not work. At the Select object to intersect prompt. select one object. In this example.

you would expect to get all three curves. If your objects are very complex.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . if your objects are polysurfaces. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them.Rhino 2. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. In our simple example. so we will Explode it. Therefore. however. this may not happen. To get all the possible curves.

At the Select cutting objects prompt. 133 . click Extract Surface. Delete the small wedge of the cone.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. Explode the cone. From the Solid menu. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines. select the cone. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. At the Select object to split prompt. select the two faces of the box as shown below. click Split. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter.

In this case. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. union. From the Edit menu. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. difference. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. click Trim. The intersection involves isolated points. Use the Join command to join all the parts together. There is no intersection. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. So. A – B = A intersect ~B. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. 134 . intersection. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. go through the same code. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B).0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. and is achieved by flipping the normals. select the two curves.Rhino 2.

HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. etc.ini and restart Rhino. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Exit Rhino. Surfaces overlap. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. In Windows Explorer. planes.Rhino 2. find the folder where Rhino is installed. cylinders. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection.ini to open it for editing.ini file. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. select the check box for the toolbar. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout. the outside is the side to which the normals point. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. 135 . one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino. For a polysurface that is not a solid. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. Edit the Rhino. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. Double-click Rhino. To understand the results. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino. Find the setting you want to change. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar.ini. To edit the Rhino.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge.

click Properties. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. The toolbar moves to a new position. loses its title bar. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears.Rhino 2. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. Or. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. This is a setting in the Rhino. and from the Toolbar menu. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area. it has no title bar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. and click Properties.ini file. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. 136 . which can be on or off the Rhino window. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. and is docked. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. The title bar appears on the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. The toolbar appears or hides. The toolbar reshapes. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. until the preview frame of it changes shape. type the new name. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. select the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area.

Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. 3 137 . enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. right-click the toolbar name in the list. click Properties. and click Import Toolbar. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. and from the Toolbar menu. select the toolbar. and click Properties. click Delete. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. Or. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Or. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. Press and hold Ctrl. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click Delete Toolbar. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. and from the Toolbar menu.Rhino 2. select the toolbar. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. Click Import. select the toolbar. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. click New. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. select the toolbars to import. click Import. which has the white triangle in the corner. Or. Or. and drop in the desired position. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The linked toolbar appears. Click Open. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. it will distort the bitmap icon. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. Release the mouse button. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. and from the Toolbar menu. The linked toolbar appears. select the toolbar. Or. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. and click New Toolbar.

Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. In this case. and click the right mouse button. select Float to Top to make the link button float. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Or. The linked toolbar vanishes.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. clear Float to Top. The buttons rearrange. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. The toolbar appears. The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. 138 . Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange.Rhino 2. Press and hold Shift. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Release the mouse button. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Press and hold Shift. The toolbar is floating. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button. Press and hold Shift. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. Move the cursor over a link button. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Press and hold Ctrl. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. or to a different position in the same toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. Hold down a mouse button for a moment.

Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. You can change the ToolTip. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap.Rhino 2. the left and right mouse buttons commands. capture a portion of the screen. and from the Toolbar menu. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. type text in the ToolTip box. Press and hold Shift. Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. You can clear the image. and click Add Button. If you don't know what to enter. click OK. In the Delete Button dialog box. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Click Close. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and the bitmap icon. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 139 . Or. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Press and hold Shift. and click the right mouse button. type text in the ToolTip box. Press F2 to view the command history. for example: Zoom In | Out. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. and click the right mouse button. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. draw with the paint tools. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. right-click the toolbar name in the list. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. Press and hold Shift. Release the left mouse button. A blank button is added to the toolbar. click Add Button.

Click the pencil tool. up. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. and click the right mouse button. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. A square replaces the cursor. click Edit Bitmap. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. click Undo. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. Or. Press and hold Shift. from the Edit menu. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.Rhino 2. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties. Or. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. To undo a mistake. Press and hold Shift. from the Edit menu. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. and click the right mouse button. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. click Clear. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. and click the right mouse button. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. 140 . as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Press and hold Shift. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Grab. Note You can shift the image left. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. the button is blank. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace. and click the right mouse button. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. from the Edit menu. right. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. click Edit Bitmap. Press and hold Shift. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. then OK. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color.

6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. click Export Bitmap. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script.4 13. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object.0 5. This script moves objects. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. 141 .0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream. select a bitmap file. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. from the File menu. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line. from a text file. which stops the creation of point objects.1 4. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. Press and hold Shift.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand. Click Open. In the Import Bitmap dialog box. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. click Edit Bitmap. type a bitmap file name.-4 8. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. command aliases. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. from the File menu. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. and click the right mouse button. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. shortcut keys.4 -4.-3 1. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. Click Save. click Import Bitmap. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button.Rhino 2.

Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. layername2. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). variable names. Press F2 to view the command history. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. queries. The default is 1. There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. is a fast. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected.5. If you don't know what to enter. From the Tools menu. The default is 20. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. 142 . PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. Options are 0=Interpolate. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition. Microsoft JScript 5. then click Paste from Clipboard. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. Fit is the fitting method. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. Automation servers. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. Mode is always 1. portable. browsing for files. Divs is the samples per knotspan. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. the Web's only standard scripting language. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. These scripting languages allow loops.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. and Java applets.Rhino 2. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. click Commands. 1=Fit.

If you zoom in enough. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. To fix broken edges. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. you have to explode the model. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated.microsoft. re-trim the surface. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. These damaged areas can cause problems. The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. Rhino will let you do it. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint. then it will list some specific problems. and Check doesn't check for those things. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. If your model doesn't pass Check.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. If a model passes Check. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. If Rhino matches the large edges.Rhino 2. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check. 143 . That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. Some bad model parts. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools . Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface.rvb. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner. then edit the trim curves.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. though. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems.for instance. The first one to try is the Check command. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. For more information on scripting. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. see: http://msdn. you may find some of those microscopic edges. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. and join everything back together again. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . But it can check the general overall structure of the object. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. Another problem is having a tiny. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. If your model doesn't pass Check. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name.

use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. and Join. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). You will get this error message. 144 . Trim again. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. you can Undo changing the degree. open up the kink by control point editing. simple edge-to-edge matching. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.0 5. Additionally. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. the Join command can get confused when that happens. and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs.0 5.5 5. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Split the curve at the kink. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it.10 5. Thus. FitCrv. Untrim or DetachTrim. Solution: Rebuild the curve. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement.Rhino 2. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message.4 10. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. If there are lots of tiny edges. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. This test does not check the geometry. To draw a non-G1 curve. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge.

Solution: Open up the stacked points. Edge direction. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces.Rhino 2. The warning lets you know when this has happened. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. fix curve and retrim. You can put control points very close to each other. In short. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. and then control point edit the extrusion. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Internal control points are coincident. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. You will get this error message. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. Rhino 2. You will get this error message. Usually. but not right on top of each other. Join and Booleans in particular. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. Some operations. You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. but not right on top of each other. Use this to install as a standalone node. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Draw a Circle. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Solution: DetachTrim. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Extrude it. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model. You can put control points very close to each other. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. 145 .

htm. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses. No special hardware is needed.Rhino 2. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. 146 .com/plug-ins. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded. For details on setting up a workgroup. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo.rhino3d. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.0 as a workgroup node. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. Very little administration is required. unlike standalone Rhino. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. the license is added back to the available license pool. contact your network administrator. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. When a node shuts down.rhino3d. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. This is an installation option. Thus. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. it does not modify the shape of the surface. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. visit www.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2.com/plugins/developer. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation.0" as a workgroup node. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2.

then e_tol tells how close the 3. After the initial grid is made. and tolerance values for each of the curves. 1. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected. Rhino meshes all trim edges. 1. 147 . If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or . the marker will snap to the snap point. When the initial mesh grid is made.D edge.Rhino 2. 0. 3. The 3. 2. 3. trim curves are ignored. the draft angle is 0.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. called the pedge. Marker. and pe_tol tells how close the 3. Cursor. called the edge. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0.D curve. which also approximates the intersection.D curve (the one you see). This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling.90 degrees The range is from . two 2. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages.D edge is to the surface. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. 2. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. When using elevator mode.D curves. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane).90 degrees to 90 degrees. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. the cursor turns into a crosshair. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. If an object snap is on. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. 0. 8/3. 1/3. For example. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. Each 2.

There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. or a polysurface. blue on one side. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. Normals are also used for lighting a surface. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. The other side is the inside. flat constant on the other). Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. However. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations.) with a polynomial definition. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. red on the other. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. If you hold it at the ends. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command. Imagine a rope. there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. the stiffness of the rope. or reflective metal on one side. when you have a single surface.Rhino 2. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge. Solid objects do not have naked edges. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it).0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. etc. 148 . When you have a finished solid. Normal direction Every surface has a normal.

Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. this is called a "quilt. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. surfaces. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. It is a mathematical way of defining curves. and solids. 149 . Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Planar pane and Osnap pane. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Ortho pane.Rhino 2. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. In some other 3-D programs. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. it is also a solid. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. From left to right they are: Layer pane. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. Snap pane.

and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. If a mesh is generated from a solid.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command. The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. Esc clears the command prompt. The u. v. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. v. If objects are selected and no command is active. A rectangular surface with the u. The u.Rhino 2.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. grid size. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. You can save your own templates to base future models on. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. no objects are selected. When no command is active. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. Esc deselects all objects. and tolerances. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino.0 Command Reference If you are typing a command.direction is indicated by the red arrow. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. units. 150 . They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. Esc turns off the points. U. and normal. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Surfaces have three directions. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. and the v.direction is indicated by the green arrow. there will be no holes in the mesh. You can display the u. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. u.

Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. You can shade and render the wireframe view. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. At the Fourth corner of polygon. Second corner of polygon.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. 4View Four-viewport layout. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Turn control points on for an existing mesh.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. 151 . Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Or. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. 3View Three-viewport layout. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. and Third corner of polygon prompts. press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. Press Enter for triangle prompt. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate.

Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.Rhino 2. 152 . Select a point on the surface. Start the AddNextU command. Select a point on the surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Start the AddNextV command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.

0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. Start the AddPrevU command. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected 153 .Rhino 2. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface.

prompt select the group or enter a group name. select an object to add to a group. 2 At the Select groups. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Start the AddPrevV command. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.Rhino 2. 154 . Select a point on the surface. 1 At the Select objects prompt.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. Use the Group command to group objects together.

The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. or World Right. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. World Front. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. The curves must be planar. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. AlignProfiles Align two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups.Rhino 2. At the Select curve to change prompt. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. 155 . 1 2 Select the objects. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust.

At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. End of first line prompt.Rhino 2. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. select a point that defines the start of an angle line. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. Start of second line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines. At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. 156 .

Rhino 2. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1.0000 degrees. 157 . and fitted onto the selected surface. If the surface is trimmed. select the surface on which to apply the curves. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. select the surface to apply the mesh.

Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. Start. enter the angle for the arc. so if you Mirror something. enter the center of the arc's radius. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. although if you understand the process and work at it. ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface.Rhino 2. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. enter the end point of the arc. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. ApplyMesh guarantees that. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. Generally. If you use the Mirror transformation.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. mesh the most complex surface first. you can make such morphs. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. Then. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. At the Start of arc prompt. For example. one of which has been squished around in some way. But that swaps u and v on the surface. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. enter the start point of the arc. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. enter the center of the arc's radius. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. Arc Draw an arc. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. 158 . Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. If making morph targets. At the End point or angle prompt. Or.

At the End of arc prompt. At the Point on arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. enter the start of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points.Rhino 2. Arc from three points 159 . You can enter the number of control points. enter a point on the arc.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point.

End. At the Choose arc prompt. At the Radius prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. enter the start point. At the Radius prompt. Direction At the Start of arc prompt. end point. select the first curve.Rhino 2. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. enter the start point. At the End of arc prompt. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. At the End of arc prompt. enter the end point. select the second curve. end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. enter the radius of the arc. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. Tangent.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. 160 . move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. End. If the radius value is too small. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. enter the end point. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. Arc from start point. Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. and radius. At the Direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. enter a radius value.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.0. 161 . Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.1. If you cannot see the entire report.4601236.7e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0 (+/. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.1. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2). The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.1. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.1e-006. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.0). product moments.014). second moments.8545412. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.Rhino 2.34 (+/. First moments.

1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.46410162 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1.88675135 (+/. For example.77350269 (+/. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments. it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid.1e-009. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command.0 and 6. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.73300329 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2. and sometimes contradictory. if you select a box polysurface.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3. with a surface or open polysurface.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-009) Rz: 6.Rhino 2.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces. Area = 60 (+/.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.5. Different disciplines and textbooks use different. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/. As an example.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/.10.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need.1e-009) Ry: 3.73205081 (+/.1e-009. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-007) y: 300 (+/. Area First Moments: 162 . then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.0 is shown below.36650165 (+/.0 (+/. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.0) zx: 0 (+/.0.1e-009) Rz: 3.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.

In terms of integrals. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length. the area. area first moments. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals.Rhino 2. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. In particular. area second moments. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area. and area product moments. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. The relationship between the area first moments. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. In terms of integrals. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area.

those distances are applied to the array directions. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. At the Number in X direction prompt. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. The array directions are the x. Or. At the Number in Z direction prompt. press Enter. to indicate the x. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport.Rhino 2. At the Number in Y direction prompt. 164 . At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt. type the y-interval and press Enter. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. type the x-interval.and y-intervals. Transform. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter.

In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. choose two points that define the z-interval. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. type the z-interval and press Enter. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. specify twist behavior. At the Select path curve prompt. 165 . In the Array Along Curve dialog box. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. or the spacing distance along the curve. set the number of elements to array.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. Or.

166 . you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. At the Center of polar array prompt. Surface. curve on surface. choose a center point for the array. The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. At the Basepoint prompt. Objects arrayed along line.Rhino 2. type an angle and press Enter. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. type the number of copies and press Enter. You can continue to place objects. Enter a value of 1 or more. select objects to copy along the curve. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line. select a curve on a surface. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. At the Angle to fill prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. At the Select the surface prompt. and object to array.

At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. Array along a surface 167 .0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly.Rhino 2. If the surface is a trimmed surface. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. choose the surface to array along. At the Select surface to array along prompt. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. type a number of objects. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. type a number of objects.

enter the start of the arrow. See the PluginManager command. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model.Rhino 2. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. At the End of line prompt. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. otherwise you must select a folder. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. the model's folder will be used as the default. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. enter the end of the arrow. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead.rhp Options set the resolution. the path. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. 168 . it prints a detailed description of the error. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). If the Audit command detects a database error. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt.

If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Files tab. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. General tab. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. By default. automatic Autosave is turned off. 169 . The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. At the Radius prompt.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box.ini. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. Back Set to world back view. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. Note By default. you must edit your Rhino. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. Files tab. choose a center point.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. choose a radius. This sphere is two joined surfaces. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box.Rhino 2. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands.

choose the amount of bend. choose an endpoint.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid. At the End of third axis prompt. To bend the entire object. choose an endpoint. choose the second endpoint of the line. Bend Bend objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. place the point outside the object. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. choose a center point. At the End of first axis prompt. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt.Rhino 2. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the End of spine prompt. place the point outside the object. To bend the entire object. At the End of second axis prompt. Bend 170 . choose an endpoint. At the Start of spine prompt.

171 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt. you will only bend that part of the object. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. You can't bend a polysurface . curves. and meshes. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. enter the end of the angle to bisect. or enter a length and press Enter. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. The remainder of the object is kept straight. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.only control points. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object.Rhino 2. Bend moves the control points of objects. enter the start of the angle to bisect. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the start of the bisector line. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. surfaces. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves.Rhino 2. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. 172 . At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. and curvature. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. tangent direction. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. If a blend appears to tight or loose. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. tangent direction. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. If it is invoked after picking the first end. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. it applies only to the second end. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. delete the arc. and one of the curves is a blend curve. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. it applies to both ends. tangent direction. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). tangent directions. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. In either case. and curvature is called a G2 blend. then you should probably use InsertKnot. If you are joining curves. and curvature. Note The location. The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. To do this. select a surface edge. or press Enter. tangent direction.Rhino 2. 173 . If you need a G1 blend. tangent direction. At the Select first set of edges. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. tangent direction. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. select adjacent edges. A blend curve that matches location. The Blend command creates G2 blends. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. The location.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree).0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. the greater the number of control points. 183 . Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead. Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface.Rhino 2. but adds control points between each knot span. the higher the degree. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. click the new layer. This gives you more control over the shape. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same. it will no longer be periodic. If you raise the degree of a surface. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer.

Note Delete or rebuild the object. When users get back in the office. When the user gets back in the office. select one object. You must have the workgroup license manager installed.Rhino 2. To check a license back in. enter the center point. Diagnostics. 184 . run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. Select objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. use the CheckInLicense command. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. Circle Draw a circle. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. enter the radius point. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze.

0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.

enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. delete the extras. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. enter the end of the diameter. enter a radius. select the second curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. At the Third point on circle prompt. There may be multiple circles. enter a second point on the circumference. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. At the Second point on circle prompt.Rhino 2. enter a third point on the circumference. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points. enter a point on the circumference. At the Radius prompt. select the first curve. 186 . At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. Tangent. At the End of diameter prompt. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent.

use the SaveAs command and check Save small.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. or are tangent to a second curve. There may be multiple circles. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. select the first curve. At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. 187 . At the Third tangent curve. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. select the second curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. Point Select a point for input. Note To reduce the size of the model file. select the third curve. delete the extras.Rhino 2. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces.

ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. CloseViewport Close the active viewport.Rhino 2. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. right click in the Rhino Command History window. CommandHistory View command history. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. enter a point. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. Press F2 again to close the window. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. or in the Command area. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. Note To show the list of recently-used commands. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. To start one of those commands. Note Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. pick it from the list. At the Base point for closest point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. 188 . It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object.

Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. look at the Command List in this help file. Without the command area.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. At the Radius prompt. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. choose a radius. Cone Draw a cone.Rhino 2. Or. it is pasted. choose a center point for the base. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. If there is text in the Clipboard. it is pasted as a command script. Commands List all Rhino commands. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. At the End of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. At the End of conic prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. Or. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the Reference vertex prompt. Conic Draw a conic section curve.Rhino 2. Conic 190 . enter the middle point for the conic. enter the start point for the conic. enter the end point for the conic.

First reference curve prompt. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. Parabolic Rho value of 0.S) intersects chord(A. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0. Point on first curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. select a curve. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic. let T be the point where line(B. Curvature point or rho prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.5. Point on second curve prompt. If you work out the details. select a second curve. type T to select tangent curves. Second reference curve prompt.C).Rhino 2.0 and less than 0. B. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 .0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle.5 and less than 1. Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A.5.

enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. enter the reference vertex for the conic. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. At the End of conic prompt. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter.0 and 0. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. enter the end point for the conic. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. so the w<1 case is elliptical.5. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0.Rhino 2. Parabolic Rho value of 0.5 and 1. Or. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. 192 .5. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. End control points are at the same location.

0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Blend. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. and meshes for contour line creation. BlendSrf. Match. choose a base point. One of the contour planes will go through this point. polysurfaces.Rhino 2. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up. curvature. 193 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Position. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves).

ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons.Rhino 2. At the Distance between contours prompt. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. generated in both directions from the base point. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. 194 .0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. The higher this number is. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points. the less dense the control polygon will display. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. At the Control polygon display density prompt. Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. enter the distance between contours and press Enter.

Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. then convert the resulting curves to polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. select an object to create polylines from. 195 . Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. At the Angle tolerance prompt. The original curves are removed. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. use the ExtractWireframe command first.Rhino 2. Edges can't be converted with this command. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. Larger angles result in coarser polylines.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. At the Point to copy to prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest.Rhino 2. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard. Or. to move the copy vertically. Or. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. to copy the object in the same place. Object properties and location are stored with the object. it is created when the object is pasted. If the layer does not exist. snap spacing. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. 196 . type v and press Enter. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. choose locations for copies.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. choose a point to move the copy from. type I and press Enter. When you Paste objects into Rhino.

CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. At the CPlane elevation prompt.Rhino 2. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. At the X axis direction prompt. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. choose a point on the y-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. choose a point on the x-axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt. 197 . Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane.0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. choose the new origin. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis.

If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. for example. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point.and yaxes to a new location. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. choose the new origin.Rhino 2. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep.D location where it needs to be. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. drag the construction plane's new x. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the CPlane origin prompt. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. in the dynamic preview. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. Once your construction plane is positioned. 198 . flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands.D.

Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top.Rhino 2. select a curve or surface. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt. Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. 199 .

At the CPlane origin prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.axis. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the z. choose the new origin.Rhino 2. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. 200 . At the X axis direction prompt. At the Z axis direction prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. At the X axis direction prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis.axis. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the x. choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.

Use UnrollSrf. select a surface. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. cut openings in the unrolled surface. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. At the Select planar curve prompt. select the first planar curve. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. select the second planar curve. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Top view of profile curves 201 .0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves.Rhino 2. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. If true arc-length mapping is desired. the original surface must be developable.

Look in the index under "Curve. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane. From 2 Views.0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes." 202 . Example For an example. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve.Rhino 2.

pick a new location for the seam point. CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. or it may report that the curves don't overlap.Rhino 2. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter. and move it along the curve. pick on a seam point marker. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. When you are done adjusting the connections. press Enter. For each overlap interval. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. joining the ends of the overlap interval. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views. At the Location of seam point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. They are connected with a line. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. 203 .

Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. 204 . CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve.Rhino 2. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

At the Select point on the surface prompts. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. V or Both directions. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. that passes through the profile curves. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. press Enter to end the command. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . At the Start of cross-section line prompt. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. The control point for the surface appear. pick near a control point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. Press Enter to stop creating curves.Rhino 2. end the line for the cross section plane. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. select a surface. At the End of cross-section line prompt. with the control polygons.

you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them. CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . space the cross section curves relatively evenly.Rhino 2. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. For best results.

click to create the circle object. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt.0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. select a curve. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle.Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. Or. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. press Esc to end the command without change. the curve is locally flat. 2 207 . This does not automate finding the inflection points. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve.

These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. Options Gaussian In the images below. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. 208 . A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. For example. set the style and range. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. and other important properties. In the Curvature dialog box. The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands.Rhino 2. curvature. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature.

Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature.>1000) and the red close to infinity. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. cylinders.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. In the case of the mill. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. In the case of an offset. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing.5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature). you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. 209 . Blue areas should be safe. (Planes. Set the value for blue rather high (10. Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.Rhino 2.>100." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue.

these values may not be appropriate. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. This is known as signed curvature. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . then we establish a convention. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. both free and attached to objects. At any point on a curve in the plane. or to the right of the curve. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point.Rhino 2. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. this may result in a rather uninformative image. The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. If we care about this.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. the normal to the surface at that point. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface. A soap bubble. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. As a starting point. These meshes can be large. unlike a simple soap film. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. and the direction.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface.

Rhino 2. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. u. frequency. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. even when other commands are started.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. such as wire loops. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. close the dialog box. Curvature graph on surface. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. 211 . This contrasts with a soap bubble. Adjust the length. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or.0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area.

This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. They are not curvature continuous. Degree 5 curve 212 . the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. or tangent only.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. However. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. In other words. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1.

Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. Curve Draw a curve by control points. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . that is. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. maximum principal curvature.D normal." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. 3. To see the circle.D point. If isoparm display is turned off. 3. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. If the graph changes smoothly. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. minimum principal curvature. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. negative when the circles point opposite ways. pick a point on the surface. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous.Rhino 2. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. To better grasp this. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle. there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. Gaussian curvature. Press F2 to show the Command History window. At any point on a curve (except lines).0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. As you move your cursor. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt.

Press Alt to suspend autoclose. enter additional control points. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. press Enter. The curve closes.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. You must draw one more control point than the degree. enter an additional control point. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. At the Next point. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. When drawing a high degree curve. and pick. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough. enter the start of the curve. At the Next point. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. To end the curve.

0 (+/.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Object properties and location are stored with the object. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.Rhino 2. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. select the box. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17.014).0). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. When you Paste objects into Rhino. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.1e-006. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.7e-006. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.34 (+/. it is created when the object is pasted. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. First moments. select the box.4601236. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. select the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.0. second moments.8545412. product moments. If the layer does not exist. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box.1. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.1.1. 4 215 . A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.

select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.0.3921 (+/.Rhino 2. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. select the first point of a line to define a plane.0001). The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. At the Start of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cut plane prompt. 216 . select the end point of a line that defines a plane. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt. press Enter to stop making cut planes. select the box. Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. At the Radius prompt. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. second moments.1e-006.1.7e-006. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the box. At the End of cylinder prompt. First moments. choose a center point for the base. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.0). choose a point for the center of the top surface. select the box. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.4601236.8545412.0 (+/. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0.Rhino 2.1. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. choose a radius. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. Solid cylinder 217 . product moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.

All objects in the model are deleted. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. use New command instead. To start a new model. If you want to post-select objects to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. and saved construction planes are not deleted. Press Delete. saved views. Delete Delete selected objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. 218 . use the Erase command. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. Layers. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command.Rhino 2.

axis is perpendicular to the x.axis in the real world. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. use the arm to choose a y. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. 219 . Similar to Untrim . Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. use the arm to choose an x.Rhino 2. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing. Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. choose an origin in Rhino. You do not need to ensure that the y.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. and the trim curve is created. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. select your digitizing arm. select a boundary to detach. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt.axis. Rhino will do it for you. In the Baud Rate dialog box. select the proper serial port and baud rate. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Microscribe. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer.axis in the real world.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.

all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input.Rhino 2. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitize the third set of reference points. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. Whatever the reason. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. arcs. Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. or the object moves slightly. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. choose a y. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. If it is more convenient. choose an x. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. Thus. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. You can draw lines.axis in Rhino. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. and is assigned to the F12 key. you can use the digitizer. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. recording reference points as you go. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. and curves with the digitizer. circles. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. 220 . At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt.

use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. Label each point O.axis on the table. This is the reference polyline. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . and O.axes. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose a y. Y. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use.. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. and then click Calibrate. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. click Digitize. or you need to close and restart Rhino. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. use the arm to choose point O on the real object. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. X. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. Microscribe. and Y for the origin. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. From the Tools menu. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. use the arm to choose an x. x. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. and y. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table.Rhino 2. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. If the digitizer or object moves.axis on the table.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer. click Digitize. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer.

To digitize in millimeters. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object. enter the start of the section plane axis. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. specify how you want to space the planes. enter a second point on the base plane. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. a point is sampled. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. enter 2. The planes are defined with a base point.54.Rhino 2. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. You can space the planes at intervals. enter 0. enter 25.4. At the Second point on plane prompt. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. hold the pedal. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. and spacing. enter a third point on the base plane. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. As long as the pedal is depressed. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. Press Enter when you are finished. To digitize in centimeters. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. At the Third point on plane prompt.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. direction. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. type the scale factor for all digitized input. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. enter a point on the base plane. Type C to create a closed curve. When you finish digitizing points on the object. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. 222 . At the Start of axis prompt. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. To digitize in meters. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis.0254.

Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. As long as the pedal is depressed. Rhino samples points. At the Select second line prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point for the dimension line location. enter the distance between sampled points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. When you release the pedal. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. a point is sampled. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. 223 . pick a line. At the Dimension line location prompt. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. pick a second line. At the Place the dimension prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to.Rhino 2. At the Second dimension point prompt.

pick a point on the model to dimension to. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point for the dimension line location.Rhino 2. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a curve. At the Second dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve. At the Place the dimension prompt. DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. At the Dimension line location prompt.

pick the a point in the model to dimension from. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text. enter an angle for the dimension line. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Or the first point of a reference angle.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. At the Second reference point prompt. At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. enter the second point of a reference angle. pick a curve. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt.Rhino 2. 225 .

and v. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. to change the direction. Dir Show direction display. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Second dimension point prompt. red and green arrows show the u.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. On surfaces. Or. At the Dimension line location prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. Curve direction 226 . At the Press Enter when done prompt. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. select a curve. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. pick a point for the dimension line location.directions at the point. pick a point for the dimension line location. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Press Enter to terminate the display. surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. type F.

FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction. At the Start of light direction vector prompt. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light.Rhino 2. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. pick a location for the directional light. unless you apply textures.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. VReverse. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. The directional light icon does not render or shade. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. the UReverse.order and direction. The location of the directional light does not matter. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. 227 .and v. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction.

persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. pick a point. 228 . light the scene less. clear the Disable checkbox. To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. Darker colors. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated.Rhino 2. When Object snaps are disabled. right-click the Disable checkbox. like gray. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. Distance Measure the distance between two points.

Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. use the Split command. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. type an integer number and press Enter. select curves and press Enter.0000 units. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. At the Number of segments prompt. At the Length of segments prompt. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. reversing the direction of the curve. pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line.Rhino 2. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve. 229 . Point objects are not a part of any other object. Note Point objects display as small squares. select the curves to divide and press Enter. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1.

use the Split command. When a polysurface is picked. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. select a curve.Rhino 2. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If you want points to start at the other end. surface. use the Dir command to flip the curve. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. or polysurface to evaluate. 230 .0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve.

all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. 231 . enter the location of the dot. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. At the Location of dot prompt. type the text to show in the dot. In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. You can check this with the Dir command.Rhino 2. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane.

At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .Rhino 2. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.

textblocks. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. and press Enter. select an object to duplicate. surfaces. and solids. then select the edge to duplicate. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. Because of this. Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. The object will be duplicated in place. surfaces. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. the surface will always sag more than the original. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. For example. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. edge.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. dimensions. Duplicate border curve 233 . The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. The Dup command only duplicates curves. It does not duplicate points. To limit your selection to surfaces. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. but it only makes points. or bnd (boundary). or lights. type c (curve). Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape.Rhino 2. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. type f (face). and polysurfaces. meshes. Dup Duplicate an object.

At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. press Enter to create a triangular surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the fourth curve. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. For many surface creation commands. select the second curve. select the third curve.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. select the first curve.Rhino 2. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface. select the edges of a surface. 234 . Or. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. EditDim Edit dimension text. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 .Rhino 2. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. select a dimension. type new text.0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. For a surface from closed planar curves. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. use Create a planar surface through planar curves. You can use surface edges.

EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. select a text block. They are not the same as knots. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. set the options.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. 236 . In the Edit Text dialog box. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Type the new text.

25 inches. enter the endpoint for the second axis. At the End of first axis prompt. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. At the End of second axis prompt. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Example If your units are inches. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. When you place annotation text. You can enter the number of control points. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . The two sizes update each other. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter the center point. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. enter the endpoint for the first axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.Rhino 2. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.

238 . Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. enter the second focus point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipse from focus points. At the End of second axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. enter a point on the ellipse curve. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. enter the end of the second axis. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. enter the end of the axis. enter start of an axis of the ellipse.0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. At the End of first axis prompt. enter a focus point. Partial Draws a partial ellipse.

Draw an ellipsoid from focus points. choose an endpoint. End of third axis prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface.Rhino 2. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. or type a height and press Enter. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. End of second axis prompt. enter the second focus point. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. End of first axis prompt. Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the major axis. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose a center point. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. 239 . enter a focus point.

select a bitmap file to use for mapping. When you use the EMap command. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. curvature.Rhino 2. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. and other important properties. 240 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. These meshes can be large. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness.

The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. 241 . but will always work. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior. select More reliable. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. under Zebra and EMap. on the Shade tab. Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. When More reliable is selected. in the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal.Rhino 2. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. When Faster is selected. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh.

The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. maintains the tangent direction. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. No means there is one drag point. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. you are moving control points of the curve. drag point indicators. as with the Blend command. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. One-point-per-end mode. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. select a surface edge.Rhino 2. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. At the End of region to edit. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. At the Start of region to edit. 242 . In each case.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve.

During EndBulgeSrf editing. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered.1 2.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.1 2. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. aliases. 243 .2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. the script Circle 0.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. After editing.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1.2 does the same thing as Circle 0.Rhino 2. For example.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key.

Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. select a point. If the surface is trimmed. 244 . Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). select the surface to evaluate. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. select the objects you want to erase. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. Note Erase is the same as Delete. Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. the untrimmed surface is used. click points on the surface. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command.Rhino 2.z format. Exit Exit Rhino.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. and the U. A point object is created on the surface.y. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt. Or use the C option to suppress creating points. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. At the Select objects to erase prompt. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. Press Enter when done prompt. Note When a polysurface is picked.

select Rhino 2 3D Models. Click Save.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. layer color. object render color. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. object name. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. This command is obsolete. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. Use the Explode command. select objects to explode. type a filename. In the Files of type box. Rhino supports several file types. Export Export selected objects to a file. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. In the Files of type box. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces.Rhino 2. In the File name box. 245 .0 files. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. and selected mass properties. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. select the file type you want to use. File. type a filename. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. In the File name box. Click Save. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments.

Or.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command. Press Enter when done prompts. In the File name box. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. At the next Select boundary objects. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Or. select a boundary object to extend to. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. 246 . Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. At the next Select object to extend prompts. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts. type a filename. In the Files of type box. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Click Save. enter a name for the text file. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. The extension is joined to the original curve. select objects to extend. select Rhino 2 3D Models. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Extend Extend a curve.

Or. At the Radius of arc prompt. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. At the End point or angle prompt. 247 . Type=Line Makes a line extension. surfaces. ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc.Rhino 2. type a number for the radius and press Enter. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. enter the end of the extension. select a curve to extend. Or. Note You can use any combination of curves. and solids as boundary edges. type an angle for the arc. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go.

Select near the end of the curve to extend. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 .Rhino 2. use Extend a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. At the End of arc prompt. select a curve to extend. use Extend a curve. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. the extension will be joined to the original curve. the extension will be joined to the original curve. enter the endpoint of the extension. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle.

unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines. select the curve to extend. Options Join If Join=Yes.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries.Rhino 2. At the End of line or length prompt. near the end you want to extend. the extension will be joined to the original curve. 249 . if possible. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. select a curve to extend. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. type a distance to extend and press Enter.

or pick two points to specify the distance. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. Note With the linear extension. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself.Rhino 2. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. and MetaNURBS in LightWave. The extension length is based on parameterization. This fixes the original. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization. depending on the shape of the object. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. Then the surface is extended on the end. enter an amount to extend. 250 . Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface.

The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar.and v-directions of the surface. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. If you need curved cross sections. The marker is constrained to the surface. and isoparms display at the marker. use Project or Intersect. If you need to place an object on a surface. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. In contrast to InsertKnot.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. Extract several isoparms. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. surfaces. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. choose a point. If you need angled cross sections along surface. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. and polygon mesh objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way.Rhino 2. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. and Loft a surface through them. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. v or both directions. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt.

Rhino 2. or type a distance and press Enter. select surfaces and press Enter. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. The original surface is left intact. 252 . The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. Note ExtractPt works on curves. drag the desired distance and pick. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. If you choose the Copy option. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. At the Extrusion distance prompt. surfaces. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. Solid Tools. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. and polygon mesh objects. the surface is copied. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first.

0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction.Rhino 2. Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. This option does not appear for open curves. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal. The choices are Sharp. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object. then the extrusion is in that direction. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. Smooth. and Chamfer. Round. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. Otherwise.

Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. At the Point to extrude to prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. At the Extrusion distance prompt. 254 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. select surfaces and press Enter. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. At the Select path curve prompt. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve.Rhino 2. then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. or enter a distance and press Enter. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. The default is vertical to the construction plane. To draw a deformable plane. select the path curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. pick a point. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. select the curve. choose the point. select the curve to extrude. draw two lines at right angles. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve.

0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Join To change the Join option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. select the second curve near the end for the fillet. At the Tolerance prompt. select curves and press Enter. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. type the fillet radius and press Enter.Rhino 2. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. enter a number. Or. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. or accept the default and press Enter. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. 255 . Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. type J and press Enter. Fillet Fillet two curves. type R and press Enter.

choose the first surface to fillet. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.Rhino 2. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . choose the second surface to fillet. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces.

When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. At the Fitting tolerance <0. In general. If you have a dense string of points. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode.Rhino 2. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. The original curves are unchanged. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. select curves and press Enter. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. For scripting. 257 . Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Each face has a constant monochrome color. The curves are refitted. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline. enter a tolerance. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve.

Each face has a constant monochrome color. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. axes. click Use OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid.Rhino 2. the OpenGL shade options will be available. object highlighting. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Options. On the Shade tab. Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. If OpenGL shading is turned on. 258 . The grid. this shading mode may be much faster. Each face has a constant monochrome color. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces.

The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. select curves. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. but their directions are reversed. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked.Rhino 2. that define the outline of the flattened surface.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface. At the Increment size prompt. surfaces or meshes and press Enter. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. If OpenGL shading is turned on. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. the OpenGL shade options will be available. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. click Options. The objects looks exactly the same. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. enter a number and press Enter.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. On the Shade tab. 259 . The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. If Booleans give unexpected results. this shading mode may be much faster. click Use OpenGL. such as Union instead of Difference. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge.

Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. At the New backbone curve . All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. especially those with trimmed edges. select the new backbone curve to flow to.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Flow works on the control points of an object . select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . Front Set to world front view. This curve will be used as a new backbone. Flow does not work on polysurfaces.Rhino 2. At the Original backbone curve . Instead of drawing a line before the command.

select near end prompt.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.Rhino 2. select the second curve near the coinciding end.select near end prompt. you must edit your Rhino. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. Grid Toggle the display of the grid. 261 . At the Second curve . select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve .

GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. You can then apply commands to the entire group. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Group Place selected objects in a group. A handlebar displays on the curve. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. select the curve or surface to edit. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group.0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. 262 . Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. GridSize Set the extents of the grid.Rhino 2. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface.

click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. pick a point. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces.0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. In the Heightfield dialog box. At the Second corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. or enter a length. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. A handlebar will display on the surface. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. Height The scale of the height of the surface. select a bitmap file. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. pick a point. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. 263 . The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. At the First corner prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. adjust options. select the surface to edit. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position.

enter the number of turns for the helix. select Turns or Pitch. 264 . If you select Reverse twist. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. the helix will twist counterclockwise.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. If you select Pitch.Rhino 2. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. enter the end of the helix axis. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. enter the start of the helix axis. enter the radius for the helix. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. At the End of axis prompt. This is the line the helix will wind around. At the Radius prompt. If you select Turns.

and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. select the objects you want to hide. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box. Visibility. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. 265 . hidden background bitmaps are displayed. If you exit the model and reopen it. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. Organic. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Status bar: Osnap Or. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. close the Osnap dialog box. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide.Rhino 2.

select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. 1 2 Select one or more spotlights.axis or the y. (This is a limitation of the command.0 and 1. The longitudinal direction.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. not a statement of a physical principle. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal). 266 . At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. the more concentrated the hotspot. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. and press Enter.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. the command does nothing.axis. only half of the model needs to be given. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. Longitude=X. Use 1. The information displays in a separate window. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. The visible objects hide. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight. ) prompt. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. Waterline Length Length at water line. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates.Rhino 2. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. enter a number between 0. that is. The smaller the number.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts.

Import Import or merge objects from another file. the command will fail. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. In the File name box. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. type a filename. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane. File. and STL Tools File menu. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select Rhino 3D Models. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. the objects are placed on the current layer. Note Rhino supports many file types.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. 267 . Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. select curves.Rhino 2. Click Open. If the imported file type does not support layers.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. The objects are reparameterized.

00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag.3dm hi 2.3dm Untitled a 2147483647. and z-directions. scale. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object. In the File name box. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. or a point to rotate from.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1. At the Scale factor <1. it does.Rhino 2. Click Open. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it.3dm tricky 1a 1. Scale Scales the objects. and rotate. Press Enter to place the model at 0. If you say yes.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.3dm hi 1. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. 268 . The scale operation works just like the Scale command. choose a start angle.3dm tricky 1a 1.0.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1.3dm bg 32986. type a filename. AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. Options Rotate Rotates the objects. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing. etc. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. At the Rotation Angle <0. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt.3dm bg 32985. y.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. If you say no. select Rhino 3D Models. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists.3dm tricky 1a 2.3dm tricky 1a. choose an insertion point for the imported objects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x.

press Enter to end the command. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. After inserting kinks. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt. select the curve to insert edit points to. choose points where you want to insert a kink. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. 269 .Rhino 2. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts.

pick points of the surface for new knots. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. or Both. 270 . V. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U.Rhino 2. At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts. select a surface.

At the Next point of curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Start of line prompt. and the parts are joined. and pick. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. enter the start of the curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. press Enter. Main. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. enter additional points. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. enter an additional point. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve).Rhino 2. At the End of line prompt.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. 271 . The curve closes automatically. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt. To end the curve. A straight line replaces part of the curve.

select a surface. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. Valid degrees are 1. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. At the Next point on curve. 9. 5.Rhino 2. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. Undo Undoes the last curve segment. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). At the Start of curve prompt. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. 272 . When you draw an interpolated curve. choose an additional point. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. all three parameterizations generate the same curve. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. 3. The marker is constrained to the surface.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. choose the first point of the curve. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. 7. and 11. Sharp When you make a closed curve.

Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. 273 . Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Knot. Close Creates a closed curve. and Intersection work. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Cen. Near.Rhino 2. Object snaps End. Midpoint.

Rhino 2. select the objects. Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. Non-polyline curves are rejected. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. use the BooleanIntersection command. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. Intersect Intersect two objects. Invert Invert the selection.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . To create surface and solid intersections.

Invert also selects the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt. When you are finished selecting objects to join. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges. The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. which also selects other objects. 275 . press Enter.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. Contrast this with the Invert command. Join Join objects. Points selected.Rhino 2. InvertPts inverts point selection only. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. select objects.

It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. or Patch. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. and resetting the tolerance. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. For the group joiner. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Booleans. depending on what you may do with the model. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. but are not coincident. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. then the second one gets moved.Rhino 2. When two edges are joined. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed. use MergeSrf. Using the Millimeter template. If you use JoinEdge. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. a 3. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). Booleans. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance.015 units apart. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. 276 . Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. If not. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. For simplicity. BlendSrf. NetworkSrf.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. BlendSrf. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. NetworkSrf. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. no join occurs. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. and intersections go across the seam without gaps.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. you can have some problems later on. Do you want to join these edges?". but the surfaces aren't changed at all. doing a Join. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. use MergeSrf. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. If the edges are too far out of line. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. or Patch.

Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. The action performed is reported on the command line. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. use MergeSrf. BlendSrf. If there are naked edges. 277 . They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. select curves. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. This command does not work in all cases. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. or Patch. y.000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded. No mesh points are moved. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. The picking order can make the difference. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first.Rhino 2. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. Booleans. NetworkSrf. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. merged or deleted. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one.

You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Select Points. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. See the PluginManager command. press Enter to close the lasso. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Lasso Select points with a lasso. Start the Lasso command. but you cannot select them. Click the Lock option. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. In the Edit Layers dialog box. select the layers you want to lock. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit.Rhino 2. Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. 278 . From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.

surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three". surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt. Click the On option.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). LayerOff Turn a layer off. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. In the Edit Layers dialog box. LayerOn Turn a layer on. separate the layer names with commas: One.Two. select the layers you want to turn off. type the name of the layer to lock.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt.Layer Two. unlike the Lock (object) command.Layer Three".Two.Rhino 2.Layer Three" 279 . type the name of the layer to turn on. from the list. separate the layer names with commas: One. The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change.Layer Two. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Note For layer names with spaces. Note For layer names with spaces. from the list select layers you want to turn on. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. separate the layer names with commas: One. type the name of the layer to turn off. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Layer Two. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Two. Note For layer names with spaces. Click the Off option.

At the Next point of leader. you must edit your Rhino.Rhino 2.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . At the Next point of leader. Press Enter to stop the command. pick the start of the leader. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. pick additional points. Left Set to world left view. They will not show in the perspective view. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. This is the arrow end. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Press Enter when done prompt. pick the next point on the leader line.

Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter.Rhino 2. The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. The line extends on both sides of the start point. Line Draw a line. you can select any of these curve objects. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. circles. pick the end point for the line. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. and meshes. ellipses. arcs. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. surfaces. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. select a curve or edge. BothSides option selected 281 . polylines. polysurfaces. Line. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. pick the start point for the line. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. and can be used to create other curves. including lines and polylines. At the End of line prompt.

The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. At the End of base line prompt. enter the start of the base line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. At the End of line prompt. enter the start of the base line.Rhino 2. At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. 282 . enter the second point. enter the start of the line. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. enter the end of the line. Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves. pick the end of the line.Rhino 2. 283 . The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. and parallel to the current construction plane. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. type an angle and press Enter.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. enter the end of the line. At the End of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. At the Pivot angle prompt. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. enter the end of the base line. At the Select object prompts. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line.

Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt. press Enter.Rhino 2. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. enter pick endpoints for segments. When you are finished drawing lines. At the End of line prompts. enter the start of the first line segment. 284 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. enter the end of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn.Rhino 2. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. 285 . LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve.

LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. 286 . At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve.Rhino 2. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line.

Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. At the End of line prompt. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane. enter the second endpoint.Rhino 2. Line vertical to construction plane. or enter a length and press Enter. LineV Draw a vertical line. BothSides option selected 287 .

or press Enter to accept the default. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line.Rhino 2. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. from www. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. 288 .rhino3d. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. select one object. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. Close Closes the dialog box.com/plug-ins. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. enter an integer. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. Load Loads a selected script file. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. the code interpreted and run immediately. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. You can download plug-ins. on the Options dialog box. If the script file just contains script expressions. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. See the PluginManager command.

Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock.exe is located (e. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. Lock Lock objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts. In the Loft Options dialog box. At the Location of seam point prompt. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. You can snap to locked objects. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2.0 Beta\System).Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.0 Beta). Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. Note You cannot select locked objects. In the folder where Rhino. select the objects you want to lock. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. adjust options.0 Beta\Scripts). pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers. 289 . C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Select open curves near the same ends. Preview. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. pick on a seam point marker.g. In the install folder (e..g. and move it along the closed curve. In the scripts folder (e. press Enter. When you are done adjusting the connections. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them. The unlocked objects lock.g. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction..

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. reversing the direction of the curve. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. 291 . Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves. Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.

Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Units tab before lofting. 292 . Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting.Rhino 2. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Available when you have selected three shape curves. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. This is also known as a ruled surface.

but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. Preview Click to preview the loft. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. These are called ruling lines. 293 . If the curves have kinks. and some steel ship hulls. or wrinkle. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. You may get no surface or a partial surface. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). If the surface is not linear in one direction. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. you may get unexpected results.Rhino 2. cones. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. Surfaces can be created in other ways. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. the surface is not developable. too. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. tear. You must use at least three curves to activate this option.

It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives.D surface. You just have to be careful. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves.Rhino 2. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. thereby smoothing the surface. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur.0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. 294 .

using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3. 4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. 295 . Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf). Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane. expand the plates. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. select the layout and object visibility options. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft.D models.y-plane. though. aluminum).Rhino 2. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view.

If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name. Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. 296 . ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. If two surfaces pass through each other. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports).Rhino 2. they may not appear on the correct layer. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown. There is no way to avoid this.D drawings from mesh objects.D view. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. Note This command does not create 2.

select the edge of the surface to make periodic. Match Match two curves. If a joined curve is made periodic. Then use control point editing on both curves. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded.0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. it is closed. Sometimes. Other closed curves. select a curve to make periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. At the Choose an object prompt. select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. To get a feel for what the command does. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt.Rhino 2. At the Select curve to match . like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. select the first curve at the end that will move. This command tries to fix those surfaces. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. Close the dialog box. If the curve was open. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. 297 . You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic.pick near end prompt.

This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch. Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other.Rhino 2. 298 .

Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. The curves are merged together after the match. 299 .Rhino 2. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. If you edit this curve with control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly.0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched.

Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface. choose the type of match. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. If the target surface is also untrimmed.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces.select near edge prompt. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity).Rhino 2. At the Select target surface . Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.select near edge prompt. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). This surface must be an untrimmed surface. reversing the direction of the curve. In the Match Surface dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. 300 . select the edge of the surface to match. select the edge of the target surface. Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two.

Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one. It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. If necessary. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to. Generally. 301 . If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked.Rhino 2. or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge.

Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge.Rhino 2. in units. 302 .0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. percent. in degrees. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals.

If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge). but it will still be a valid trim. Something like position = 0. In these cases. If it isn't.2. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified.knot spacing to curvature vector. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want.) In usable terms. especially if the surface is being changed a lot. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. it can twist the surface near the edge. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. If the surface being changed is trimmed. If you need to match to part of an edge. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. it may be useful to preview without refinement. If refinement is specified. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. This is sometimes useful. but you will get something. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. If refinement is interrupted. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. This is the hardest condition to meet. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. but if the conditions are wrong. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. it will stay roundish. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. especially if tight tolerances are specified. 303 . If it is roundish. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching. That may be several seconds. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target.Rhino 2. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface.

and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. and the prompt repeats. Maximize Maximize Rhino. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. 304 . Note The edges must be naked. must belong to the same surface. Or. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. select the second surface. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0. then click Maximize. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. select the first surface to merge. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join.Rhino 2. double click the viewport title bar. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. select an adjacent edge. must share an endpoint. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. if possible. Or.1 ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. double click the viewport title bar. Right click the viewport title bar. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. then click Restore. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends.

but may alter the shape of both surfaces. End view of original surfaces .Rhino 2. Smooth The surface will be smooth. This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces .

Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth). The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. The default is 1 (full smoothing). and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces.0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . editable surface. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. The resulting surface can be edited.notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. For closed surfaces. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. In some ways. mirroring it. with finer or coarser mesh. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. 306 . Generally. A mesh can be preview and then created. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. This is useful for modeling half of an object.Rhino 2. Once you have trimmed surfaces. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. you have to approach things differently. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh.

The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. Jagged seams is not selected. Limits the size of the polygon edges. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. and adjustment for trim boundaries. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. When the Refine is checked. In practice. more accurate meshes. which is the default. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. edge to Srf options. When this Refine is checked. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. 307 . less accurate meshes. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). The default is zero. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Default is 0. Zero means no limit. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. and higher polygon count. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. By default. and lower polygon count. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. and higher polygon count. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. more accurate meshes. Max dist. Scale independent.Rhino 2. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value. after initial meshing. When the Refine is checked. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Scale independent. No refinement results in faster meshing. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Simple planes is not selected. which is the default. Scale independent. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. Setting Max dist. Zero means no minimum. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Scale-dependent. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid.

choose the cone's point. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. or type in a height and press Enter. choose a center point for the base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt. not editable. or type in a width and press Enter. Or type in a length and press Enter. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a corner of the box. choose a width by picking. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. At the Height prompt. choose a radius. Or type D to choose a diameter instead. 308 . to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. If a length was entered. choose a height. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. at the Width prompt.Rhino 2. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. At the End of cone prompt. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. choose a diagonal corner. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. At the Other corner or length prompt. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible.

and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt. At the Height prompt. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. joined from a base and top circular meshes. joined from a base circular mesh. choose a height.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. Or type D to choose a diameter instead.Rhino 2. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a radius. choose a center point for the base. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. and a open cone-shaped mesh. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base.

or type in a width and press Enter. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. choose a corner of the plane. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane.Rhino 2. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. at the Width prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. choose a the diagonal corner. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. choose a width by picking. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. Or type in a length and press Enter. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. If a length was entered. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. 310 . At the Other corner or length prompt. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction.

0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines. Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. choose a center point. MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.Rhino 2. 311 . At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt.

Minimize Minimize Rhino.Rhino 2. As you move the cursor.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Note Mirror makes a copy. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects. choose a point to move the objects from. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. The original is left selected. 312 . The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Move Move objects. choose a point on the mirror plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Mirror Mirror objects. Press delete to delete the original. Select the objects. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy.

corner2. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. choose a location for objects. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. At the Choose offset point prompt. pick a new location for the base point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. you can type corner1. MoveUVN Use u-. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. to move the objects vertically.sliders to move the selected control points. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. During the command. v-. Modeling Aids tab. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. UV Move mode Along tangent The u.Rhino 2. or z-direction. Slider scale affects this mode.0 Command Reference Or.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. Along control polygon The u. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale. y-. 313 . and n. corner3. type V and press Enter. pick a base point. To move objects small amounts. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. At the Point to move to prompt.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction.

Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. All points to edit have to be selected. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. 314 . You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. All points to edit have to be selected. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves.Rhino 2. NamedView Edit named views. rename or delete unwanted construction planes. rename or delete unwanted named views.

you will be prompted to select the curves manually. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. The default is the system tolerance. If a curve and surface edge overlap. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. The surface will be created. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. you can turn the automatic sorter off. 315 . Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge.0 Command Reference Select the curves. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. The default is the system tolerance x 10. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Edge Matching After the command is done. the best guess is made at the surface. the surface will have four edges.Rhino 2. be sure to select the surface edge. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. If you want to select the curves individually.

Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Position. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Tangent. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 .Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities. Select from Loose. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes.

0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .Rhino 2.

318 . Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. New Create a new model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. drag a window for a new viewport. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units.0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail.Rhino 2. units. Use New to open the template you want to change. grid settings. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. For example. and tolerances. viewport layout. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. NewViewport Create a new viewport. layers. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. select a template to base your model file on. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template.

Start the NextU command. Select a point on the surface. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. Start the NextV command. The next control point in the u-direction is selected.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. 319 . The next control point in the v-direction is selected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.

select a surface. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. At the Length of line prompt. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt.Rhino 2. choose a point on the surface. pick a point for the end of the line. The marker is constrained to the surface. 320 .0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface. At the Point on surface prompt. or enter a length and press Enter.

0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Offset Offset a curve. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. it will be open next time the model is opened. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box. type information you want to save with the model. Line normal to a surface. Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. copy. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 .

At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. click on one side the curve. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. the resulting surface is exact. Otherwise. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves.Rhino 2. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Negative values offset the other way. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. sphere. enter an offset distance and press Enter. select a curve or edge. select the surfaces to offset and press Enter.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. cylinder. or cone is offset. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Note For best results. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. When a plane. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. A surface and its offset 322 . OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. torus. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect.

not the trim edges. In the File name box. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. so the fact that they are locked is lost. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. type a filename. File. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. they are not converted to NURBS objects. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. Note Rhino supports several file types. Click Open. All other layers will be turned off. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. Open Open an existing model. select the layer to turn on. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt. and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. they are also unlocked. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. 323 .0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. When you turn the layers back on. select Rhino 3D Models.Rhino 2.

The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. The objects are moved. type s and press Enter. the screen position of each toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. select a workspace file.Rhino 2. pick a target point for the second reference point. pick a target point for the first reference point. the buttons in them. In the Open Workspace dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and whether it is hidden or showing. to orient copies of the objects. type c and press Enter. Options Opens the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. from the File menu. or some of them may be hidden. whether it is floating or docked. but objects remain the same size. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. 324 . The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. Scale If Scale=No. and the number of columns when floating. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. click Open. The prompt will change to Scale=No. Or. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

pick a point that. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. The two triplet of points define two planes. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Select surface to orient on prompt.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. Or. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. pick a point on the surface to define the target point. to orient copies of the objects. select the surface. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. 325 . and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. If the curve does not start on the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. with the other two reference points. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points.Rhino 2. select objects and press Enter. At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. The three points are not interchangeable. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane.

The Mirror option toggles between them. pick a point on the surface to define another target point. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V). Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.and v-directions. As you move the cursor over the surface. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. 326 . This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. There are four possible orientations on the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. SwapUV Swaps the surface u.

The cursor tracks along the curve. you will get different end results. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8.Rhino 2. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down. and the F8 key. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. select the curve you want to align the object to. If you pick this point in different views. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. clicking Ortho in the status bar. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. click a point on the curve to move the object. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. 327 . are all toggles. Shift Note The Ortho command. select a base point on the object. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. At the Base point prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.

When Ortho is on. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. Note When Ortho is on. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. Modeling Aids tab. Off. type the new angle and press Enter.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. the packed texture coordinates are created. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. The default angle is 90 degrees. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. If more than one object is selected. The default angle is 90 degrees.Rhino 2. and Toggle. Polysurface made of four surfaces. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. 328 . Packed textures. At the Ortho Angle prompt. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. When polysurfaces are meshed. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers.

0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. PanDown Pan the view down. PanRight Pan the view right. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Front. use the Pan command.Rhino 2. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. 329 . use the Pan command. PanLeft Pan the view left. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. Pan Pan the view. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button.

Rhino 2. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola. This is the "open" direction. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. Direction.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Focus From the Curve menu. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. click Parabola. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. From the Curve menu. click Parabola. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. 330 . The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. Focus. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. show a direction for the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. use the Pan command. This is the "open" direction. Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. and then click Focus. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola.

Uncapped paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. 4 Vertex and focus. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. End. type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. 331 .0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. enter a point on the parabola's edge. 4 Focus and direction.

Rhino 2. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. If the layer does not exist. Object properties and location are restored with the object.0 Command Reference End. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. it is created when the object is pasted. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard. When you Paste objects into Rhino. 332 . they are pasted into your model. Uncapped paraboloid.

Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. For a trimmed patch. use a starting surface with a similar shape. it will be very close to reasonable input. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. select curves that form a closed shape. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. adjust options. 333 . but it also can produce some unexpected results. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). Note This command can be very useful. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. select the point objects. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. Even for a relatively flat patch. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. These don't have to be connected. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts.Rhino 2. you may need a starting surface. Minimum of 8 points per curve. curves. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. but with proper configuration. and edges to base the patch on. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. To make a highly curved surface. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. In the Patch Options dialog box.

Rhino 2. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. you must edit your Rhino. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport. and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. 2 The wallpaper image. Pause is a built in command option. Perspective Set to perspective view. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. 334 . and type PerspectiveMatch. aliases. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt. It can be used to stop macro execution for user input.

4 All points picked on the model. All points picked on the image. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model.Rhino 2. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. 335 . The first point on the model.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image. The first point on the image. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs.

and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render.Rhino 2. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. select a bitmap file to use. Pipe Draw a pipe. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 .0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. In particular. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. Make the image view large. This aids in accurate image point picking. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. you have modified your model. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. At the Length of picture frame prompt. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. etc. Pick carefully. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. If possible. Note The image must be a true perspective image. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions. changed the viewport settings.

At the First end radius prompt. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. For an open curve. if the curve is closed. If the pipe objects are capped. At the Second start radius prompt. type T and press Enter.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the First corner prompt. enter the radius for the pipe. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe.Rhino 2. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. Thick The pipe has two walls. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. Or. select a curve. At the Starting radius prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. At the Starting radius prompt. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. At the Second corner or length prompt. select a bitmap file. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. select a curve. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. 337 . and the closed pipe is created. Click Open. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. At the Starting radius prompt. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. at the End radius prompt. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second end radius prompt.

The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. At the New target location <X. TGA. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. Front. You can move the background bitmap. PCX. 338 . You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. not a part of the scene that will be rendered. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. enter the target point. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. and temporarily hide it. BMP. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan.Y. remove it. Placing a second deletes the first. align it (move and scale in one operation). see Place a bitmap backdrop. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. To place a backdrop behind your model. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG.Z> prompt. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. scale it.Rhino 2. 3-D Digitizing. In PARALLEL viewports.Y. and JPG. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. By default the Top. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location.Z> prompt. enter the camera point. and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines.

click Free-form. Without Planar on. From the Curve menu. then those objects are not visible on the screen. In PERSPECTIVE views.Z> prompt. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). regardless of where the previous point was picked. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. 339 . Planar Toggle planar mode. enter the target point. PlaceTarget Place the target location. then click Control Points. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. 3-D Digitizing. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. In PARALLEL viewports.Y. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu Set View. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. In PERSPECTIVE views. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

enter additional vertices for the polyline. 349 . enter the start point of the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. press Enter. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. start the polyline.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. making a closed polyline. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt.Rhino 2. To end the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. At the Next point of polyline prompts. select a mesh object. To end the polyline. press Enter. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. enter additional vertices for the polyline.

PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. 350 . Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. making a closed polyline.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex.Rhino 2. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands.

Start the PrevU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. Start the PrevV command. 351 . Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface.Rhino 2.

Rhino 2. print to a file. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. the contents are printed on top of each other. the objects outside the viewport are printed. If viewports overlap. No viewport edge is printed. When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport. print scale. color. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. 352 . The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. and number of copies. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. the central part of the view is printed.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. The part that does not fit is not printed. and each viewport is printed in its area. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. If you fit the image to the page. Always.

you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper.Rhino 2. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. If you want to print at some other scale. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. It will crop objects that are visible. Curve projected to a surface 353 . Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. If the objects don't fit. if they don't fit on the page. Then. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. (Actually. PrintSetup Set up your printer. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Print. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Light objects do not print.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. as the paper you're printing on. hide them. too. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. not printing from perspective viewports. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. and same orientation.

lines. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. and polysurfaces. circles. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command.Rhino 2. choose to keep or delete the input objects. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. This command works on points. curves. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. surfaces. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. however. Project will never work correctly for this. set the projection type for the viewport. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. Basic shapes like ellipses. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. and free-form curves work well. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. Properties Edit object properties. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder.

The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects. STL Tools. Point Editing. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 . and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. surfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. Organic. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. Organic. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points.Rhino 2. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Point Editing. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. To control point edit a polysurface.

Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. select the surface to pull the curves back to. When drawing the curves. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. Both commands ask for the viewport name. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. select a curve to measure. Radius Measure the radius of a curve.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. Then. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt.0000. use the fewest control point possible. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves. RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail.Rhino 2.

in addition to being revolved.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. rail curve. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. the result looks exactly the same both ways. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. In this case. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . select a rail curve. select a profile curve. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis.Rhino 2. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. Profile curve.

4.8. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands. If you read in a particular file often. a file dialog box appears. If the rail curve is closed.2.9 Enter etc….5.0 23.9.Rhino 2.1. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename. select the file to read. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it.txt Click the button to read the file.0 23. 358 . If you leave off the filename. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.4.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.8. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin.2.1.7. readcommandfile myfile.0 27.0. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. You can then select a file from the list. ! Interpcrv 23. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar.4.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.5. Note When building command files. use the Enter command.1. The file contents are copied into the command line.1 26. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.5.1. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file.9. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.

select the 3DM file to read viewports from. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. Delete Input Deletes the original curves.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. If more than one curve is selected. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. but a more accurate fit. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. When you are satisfied with the results. the highest number of control points is shown. leaving only the rebuilt curves.Rhino 2. 359 . use the FitCrv command. The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. click OK. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file.

The degree can be set to 1 through 9. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. To see what it does. Joined and exploded polysurface. Edges are pulled away from the surface. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. in the Point Count boxes. in the Degree box. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. select an object. draw two planes several units apart.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface.

Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. 361 . choose a corner for the rectangle. enter the length of the rectangle. Or.Rhino 2. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u.an v-directions. Delete Input Deletes the original surface. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. If you are creating a rounded rectangle. at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. At the Other corner or length prompt. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. You will be prompted for the width. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation.

Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. select a corner point. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. 362 . enter the width of the rectangle. At the Width prompt. Or. enter the length of the rectangle. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections.Rhino 2. enter the end of the same edge. At the Corner or length prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center. select the center point of the rectangle.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. You will be prompted for the width. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. At the End of edge prompt.

RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. At the End of edge prompt. 363 . The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt. At the Height of rectangle prompt. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs.Rhino 2. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle.

Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. General tab. click Preview. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. This makes this command scriptable.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. set the polygon count. To see the results of the reduction. 364 . An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo.Rhino 2.

click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. After RefreshShade.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. type c and press Enter. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. to remap copies of the objects. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. avoid clearing meshes. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). 365 . Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. For one thing. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. Or. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with.Rhino 2. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model. which may be undesirable in some cases. This command replaces the ClearMesh command. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. To reduce the size of the model file. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split.

Rhino 2. 366 .0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object.

At the Select knotline to remove. At the Click knot to remove prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. In particular. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. Sweep2. and Blend commands.Rhino 2. which is equal to the degree. select objects. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Use the Group command to group objects together. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. select a curve. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. select a surface. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. 367 . Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts.

Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport. It has a single menu: File. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. When on. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes.Rhino 2. Render tab. increase the size of the viewport. and render again. expanded to fill the page. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. Render tab. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. 368 . unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box. the current working folder.

Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Toolbar: Render 369 . RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. zoom. When on. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option.Rhino 2. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. Does not show shadows. Basically. or bump mapping. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render.

the texture is not distorted.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface.length of righty is about 11. The x.and vdomains for the surface. 370 .) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. Example You have two surfaces side by side. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty. set the new limits of the u. At the New U begin domain prompt. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.Rhino 2. The y. (In this example. the x. and similar prompts. However.length for both is about 22 units. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization. ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. it is distorted. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command.and v. let's call them lefty and righty. including the domain unless you apply textures. First you must set the u. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. In this example.

choose a point on the revolution axis. Right click the title of a viewport. select the construction plane to restore. RestoreView Restore a named view. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. select one or more curves. then click Set View. Or. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. Use the NamedView command to edit named views. 371 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. then click the name of the view to restore.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box.Rhino 2. or to restore only the view. select the named view to restore. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Revolve Revolve a curve.

select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. In the Revolve Options dialog box. Enter the Start angle and End angle. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt. defining the revolution axis. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. If you choose Deformable. select a curve. choose a second point. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. click Exact or Deformable. 372 . Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside.Rhino 2. select a surface that is not a polysurface. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. enter the number of control points. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. The marker tracks on the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt.

373 . Right Set to world right view. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. choose a start angle. choose a point to rotate the objects around. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Or. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects. you must edit your Rhino. choose an end angle. or a point to rotate from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance.Rhino 2. type C and press Enter. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. or a point to rotate to. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. to rotate copies of the objects.

type c and press Enter. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. to rotate copies of the objects. 374 .0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.Rhino 2. At the End of rotate axis prompt. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. the following prompt appears. type in an angle. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. choose a point on the rotation axis. or choose a point to rotate from. etc. Or. If you entered a point to rotate from. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. choose a second point on the rotation axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object.

Or. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis. etc. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. place the construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. 375 . At the Angle or first reference point prompt. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. enter the end of the rotation axis. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. pick a point. enter the start of the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. At the End of rotation axis prompt. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. At the Second reference point prompt.Rhino 2. etc.0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. etc. etc.

RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. type the name and path of the file to run. use the RotateView command.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Run Run another application from Rhino. use the RotateView command. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. 376 . Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. RotateRight Rotate the view right. use the RotateView command. Press the arrow keys. At the Name of program to run prompt. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. RotateUp Rotate the view up. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. RotateView Rotate the view. use the RotateView command.Rhino 2. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard.

File. Click Save.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. Push Pin When the button is depressed. 377 . Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller.Rhino 2. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Note Rhino supports several file types. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. select Rhino 2 3D Models. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. type a filename. In the File name box. Save. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Language Specifies the language of the code. you can use RunScript command. Otherwise. See the PluginManager command. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Save Save your model. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Cancel Closes the dialog box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. layers. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. Save. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Click Save.0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Files tab. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box.Rhino 2. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. Click Save. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. Note Rhino supports several file types. type a filename. In the File name box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. viewport layout. You can set up grid settings. type a filename. You can also save default geometry with the template. 378 . units. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. and tolerances and save them in a template. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

381

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

?." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc.) to select multiple objects. all objects with no name are selected. SelNone Deselect all objects. SelPolyline Select all polylines. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. 388 .Rhino 2. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. enter an object name. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. Note You can use wild cards (*. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name.

Start the SelU command. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set.direction based on previously selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. SelPt Select all point objects. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Note SelLast clears the current selection set. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u. 389 ." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.Rhino 2. SelSrf Select all single surfaces. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit.

move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select. select the surface. At the Select row of points prompt. A surface with control points selected 390 . Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. The control points on the surface display.direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.and v.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u.Rhino 2.

v-direction.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction.Rhino 2. Start the SelV command. SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 .direction based on previously selected control points. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. or both directions. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v.

ShadeAll. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. and FlatShadeAll. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. Shade tab. from www. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. FlatShade. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. Note Type w to start a window selection. This is not the same as restoring a named view. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications.Rhino 2. You can download plug-ins. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. 392 .

You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.Rhino 2. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. In the Edit Layers dialog box. SetLayer Set the current layer. select the layer to set current. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. Lets you name or rename a group. 393 .0 to 1.0 to 255) Transparency (0. The Undo command will work. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script. select an object on the layer you want to be current.

This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. POV-Ray. Note The object material can be used by RIB. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. double-click the viewport title bar. Object names are exported to IGES. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist.0 to 255) Transparency (0. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. This is not the same as restoring a named view. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. Or. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. If the object name has already been used. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. POV. If no object name is defined. and RenderMan RIB.Rhino 2. To set names for a group of objects. 394 .0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. Moray UDO. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Rhino uses a generic name. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export.0 to 1. 3DS. Or. and OBJ material/shader export.

SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. enter one of the options. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. POV-Ray. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. For example.Rhino 2. Select the objects. Options Prefix Sets the name prefix.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. check the coordinates you want to set. At the Planar is On. if you selected ten unnamed objects. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. 395 . the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. To set names for individual objects. enter one of the options. Starting number Sets the starting number. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. and RenderMan RIB. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetPt Set control point location. Object names are not used in Rhino. In the Set Points dialog box. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. use the SetObjectName command. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number. This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. At the Ortho is Off.

At the Viewport height prompt. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt.Rhino 2. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt.0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. enter the viewport height in pixels. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. 396 . At the Grid snap is Off. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. enter the viewport width in pixels. etc. You still see interactive drawing of curves. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff.

select the working directory. If OpenGL is turned on. and no antialiasing. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. click Options. Pan. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. with no shadows. It may not be very quick the first time. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. In the Browse for Folder dialog box.Rhino 2. zoom. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. The grid and axes are not shown. the OpenGL shade options will be available. monochrome. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Shade Shade a viewport.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. this shading mode may be faster. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. and a special background color appears. Subsequent renderings may be faster. On the Shade tab set the options. Note Be patient on the first shade. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 .

If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. It may not be very quick the first time. click Options. monochrome. If you use OpenGL Shade. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. click Use OpenGL. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu.opengl. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab.org/ and www. click Options. 398 . If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. and a special background color appears. then Rhino will use it. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. zoom. with no shadows. and no antialiasing. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card.Rhino 2. The grid and axes are not shown. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. On the Shade tab. Pan. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. object highlighting.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. Subsequent renderings will be faster. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. axes. this shading mode may be much faster. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. see www. Be patient on the first Shade.sgi. For more information. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. If OpenGL is turned on. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. On the Shade tab. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. click Use OpenGL.com/software/optimizer/. The grid. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. The objects in current viewport are shaded. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino.

Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. Shear Shear objects. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. points. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. The click cannot be near curves. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. If there are several objects behind each other in the view. you can click on a shaded object to select it. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. 399 . or annotation or the object will be selected. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode.Rhino 2. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. select the objects to shear. isoparms. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. You do not have to select an isoparm.

At the Reference point prompt. If your object has broken edges. Show Show hidden objects. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. The edge is highlighted. 400 . If you exit the model and reopen it. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Visibility. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. select objects and press Enter. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. The base point does not move with the shear. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. pick the base point for the shear. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic.Rhino 2. ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges.

Camera icon. Edge Tools. At the Press Enter when done prompt. Sometimes. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. press Enter to terminate the command. The edges highlight. If you cannot see the naked edges. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. Status bar: Osnap 401 .Rhino 2. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. At the Press Enter when done prompt. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. terminate the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box.

select the objects you want to show. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Original trimmed surface. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. You will see no visible change in the surface. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Organic. When textures are applied to surfaces. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. To fix this.Rhino 2. At the Select objects to show prompt. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface.

the silhouette is two circles. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. the silhouette looks like an oval. if you look at a doughnut from the top. SimplifyCrv Simplify curves.Rhino 2. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off.D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects. only backwards. 403 . Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. If you look at a doughnut from the side. For example. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2.

Release the mouse button.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Options Closed Creates a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Or. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. drag the mouse.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. The curve will close when you stop dragging points.Rhino 2. Sketch Sketch a curve. a polyline appears along your path. 404 . Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse.

At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. Sketch on surface 405 . Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. Or.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. type C.form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. The marker is constrained to the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. select the surface to sketch on. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. drag a curve. At the Click and drag to sketch. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. press Enter. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve. drag a curve.

The default is 0. The selected entities will appear to melt.2. too. From the Edit menu. select the curves. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing.00. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. In the Smooth dialog box. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. The selected control points will move slightly. meshes. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. click Point Editing. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. adjust the Smooth factor. click Smooth. the more smoothing is done by Smooth.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. From the Transform menu. The larger the number.01 and 1. then click Control Points On.Rhino 2. 406 . Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. Smooth works on mesh objects. smoothing the curve or surface. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points. Smooth Smooth objects. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode. Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .

Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Sphere Draw a sphere. At the Radius prompt. or enter a distance and press Enter. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Modeling Aids tab. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. A sphere is single closed surface. Grid tab. Note When Snap is on. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. SnapSize Set snap size. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box.0 Command Reference When Snap is on.Rhino 2. Note This is different from the grid size. choose a center point. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. When Snap is off. choose a point for the radius. it is grayed out. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. SnapSize sets the grid snap increment. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark. 408 .

Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. A sphere is a single closed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the second circumference point. choose an endpoint for the diameter.Rhino 2. At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. choose the first circumference point. At the End of diameter prompt. 409 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt. At the Second point on sphere prompt. choose the third circumference point.

Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport.Rhino 2. select Turns or Pitch. enter the end of the spiral axis. enter the start of the spiral axis. If you select Turns. At the End of axis prompt. 410 . This is the line the spiral will wind around. enter the radius for the spiral. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box. enter the number of turns for the spiral.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. If you select Reverse twist. At the Radius prompt. If you select Pitch. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. the spiral will twist counterclockwise. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral.

the polysurfaces are ignored. and points. select the objects to split. At the Select cutting objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. 411 . You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. press Enter. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. select the cutting objects. select the curve to split. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. When you are finished selecting cutting objects. The marker moves along the curve. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects.Rhino 2. surfaces. type p and press Enter.

Type u. The edge is split into two edges. or b.Rhino 2. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. surfaces and polysurfaces. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the marker is constrained to the edge. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. and Right view. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. At the Split point prompts.press Enter when done prompt. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. At the Point to split edge prompt. Front. to access option directly. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. v. select a point. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. 412 . select points at which to split the surface. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter. Options control the direction of the split. Select a surface. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane.

413 .and v-directions of the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically.Rhino 2. and then deleting the extra isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces. and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. then Split.

enter a u-direction degree for the surface. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. Or. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. The spot light icon does not render or shade. enter a v-direction degree for the surface.it stays the same. light the scene less. and position. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape. At the Degree in V prompt. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . The shape of the cone affects the lighting. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Darker colors. pick a target point for the spotlight. beam angle.Rhino 2. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. pick a location for the spotlight. At the End of cone prompt. set the radius of the spotlight. length. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. hotspot angle. like gray. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. not the range of the light.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. choose the fourth corner. At the Point prompts. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. At the Number of points in a column prompt. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the second corner. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points. press Enter to create a triangular surface. 415 . At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. Or. At the Third corner of surface prompt.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. enter points until all the control points have been entered. choose the first corner. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter points until all the points have been entered. At the Second corner of surface prompt. choose the third corner.Rhino 2.

Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.0 0.33.2.2.-2.33.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.5. select a curve.5. click in the other viewport to swap. select a surface that is not a polysurface. copy it. pick a point for the new end point.5. and run the CommandPaste command.33.5. 416 . the surface is created but not point objects.33.5. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.5 4.-5.2.5 0.5 -4.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points. KeepPoints When on.33. SwapUV Swap a the u.5 4. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.5.10 4.5.and v-directions of a surface. When off.5.10 -4.33. The marker is constrained to the curve. At the End of curve prompt.10 -4.5.0 -4.33.Rhino 2. pick a point for the new start point.5.-5.33.0 4.0 0.5 -4.33.5.-2.33. At the Start of curve prompt.2. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.-5.5 0.5.10 0.5.5. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt.-2.-2.33. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.0 4. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command.33.0 -4. select the following text.-2.2.10 4.5.-2.2.

select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. the new surface should also be tangent. select the single rail curve for sweeping. Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface.Rhino 2. the shape will twist with the surface edge. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. 417 . Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. adjust options. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge.

At the Select cross-section curves prompts. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Note To create a single surface. 418 . With closed rail curves. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. select two curves as the rails for the sweep.) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. adjust options. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. the cross section curves need to be compatible. If you use the Smooth option. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. If you don't use Smooth. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. (The original curves are not modified. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. Preview Click to preview the surface. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. The swept surface is created.Rhino 2. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.

Rhino 2. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. use the Maintain height option.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. 419 . Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep.

SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. but want to control where the sweep ends.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep.) With closed rail curves. Preview Click to preview the surface. To create a single surface. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails. Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. and it touches the rail curves at their ends.Rhino 2. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. If you get the wrong surface. one of two possible surfaces appears. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. If you don't use Rebuild. If you use the Rebuild option. and continues to the ends of the rails. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. (The original curves are not modified.

pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing.Rhino 2. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. Taper Taper objects. 421 . At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects. Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. At the Start of taper axis prompt. At the End of taper axis prompt. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper.

choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. choose a center point for the base. End of cone prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. curves. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly. TCone Draw a truncated cone. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis.Rhino 2. choose a radius for the base of the cone. surfaces. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. and meshes. you will only taper that part of the object.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. 422 . Taper moves the control points of objects.only control points. Radius prompt. second Radius prompt. You can't taper a polysurface .

enter the start position for the text. When you place annotation text. In the Edit Text dialog box. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. 423 . 2000. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT. Type the text. in the form of curves. or solids based on TrueType fonts. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size).Rhino 2. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. The two sizes update each other. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. and XP.25 inches. surfaces. set the options. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. It will not show in a perspective view. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. surfaces. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. or solids. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. Example If your units are inches. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing.

In the Font Style box. In the Text box. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box.Rhino 2. specify the height of the text characters. select Surfaces. in the Font box. In the Text height box. in the Font box. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. Under Create. The text appears in the Sample window. In the Font Style box. select a style. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . In the Text box. type text characters to make into surfaces. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. specify the height of the text characters. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. type text characters to make into solids. Under Create. select a font. The text appears in the Sample window. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. select a style. select a font. In the Text height box. select Solid.

adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. adjust the size of buttons. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. the buttons in them. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. The workspace holds the toolbars.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace.Rhino 2. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Title Toggle the display of the title bar. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. import toolbars from a different workspace file. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. the screen position of each toolbar. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Top Set to world top view. create new toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing. Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. add new buttons to toolbars. 425 .

When you are finished selecting objects. select objects you want to trim other objects with. When you are finished trimming.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. you must edit your Rhino. choose a center point.Rhino 2. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. press Enter. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Second radius prompt. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. press Enter. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube. 426 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Radius prompt. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. click the parts of objects to trim away.

0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. or use Split. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. surfaces and polysurfaces. choose a center point for the tube's base. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space.Rhino 2. use trim several times. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. imaginary extensions of the line are used. Front. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. To trim a surface with more than one curve. choose a radius for the tube wall size. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport. At the first Radius prompt. and Right view. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves. 427 . Tube Draw a tube. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top.

choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. Note The view rotates about the target point. Shade. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation.Rhino 2. Twist Twist objects. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Press Esc to stop the turntable. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. 428 . and Render Preview. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable. Turntable Continuously rotate your view.

or transform commands. surfaces. edit. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. type c and press Enter. viewports. the following prompt appears. General tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. you will only twist that part of the object. or choose a point to rotate from. 429 . At the End of twist axis prompt. curves. type in an angle. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. or construction planes.only control points. The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. choose a point on the twist axis. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. to twist copies of the objects. choose a second point on the axis. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. Undo Undo the last command.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. Twist moves the control points of objects. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. The opposite to undo is Redo. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You can't twist a polysurface . If you entered a point to rotate from. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. and meshes. Or. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view.

Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. You can then apply commands to the individual objects. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. This makes this command scriptable. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. their normals are flipped. If some of the faces that should render disappear." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. For example. Render your mesh. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. 430 . Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio.Rhino 2. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together.

the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. If you see inside the mesh. 3DFace object. Export in desired format. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. normals point the wrong way.Rhino 2. explode it. If more than one object is selected. The 431 . For example. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. In general. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. select the objects you want to unlock. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. UnLock Unlock locked objects. Once the normals are correct. Use UnifyMeshNormals. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. the packed texture coordinates are created. re-join the meshes. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. When polysurfaces are meshed. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. All polygons have a face normal direction. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all.

Unpacked textures. 432 . Packed textures. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. select a surface or curves. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. Polysurface made of four surfaces. If the surface is developable.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt.

Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. In Rhino. you can remove the trim curves. pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. a developable surface has to be single span linear. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. This is not like folding out a box. Surface Tools. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). removing any attached geometry. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. but not meet that requirement.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. 433 . an information message is printed at the command line. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Curves on a surface can also be developed. it may be geometrically developable. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Main. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. tori. an information message is printed at the command line. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. Surfaces such as spheres. This command may take some time. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option.

Trimmed surface. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry. Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim joined polysurfaces. Untrim removes the trimming curve.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. 434 .Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.

Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target.0001). Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. 436 . Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera.3921 (+/. you can change the lens length of the camera. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection.0. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. Appearance tab.Rhino 2. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles.

First moments. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. select a surface or part of a polysurface. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start.2e-007. select a surface or part of a polysurface. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.1. enter or drag a radius. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. enter a radius for this point.9553974. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the Start radius prompt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.6. second moments.-4e016.4649522 (+/. choose a point on the edge. At the Point on edge prompts. 437 . product moments.7e-007). Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces.3. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. At the End radius <x> prompt.7e-007. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.6.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces. If an edge point was picked.

Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. or rotate your view. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Weight Edit control point weight. like adjacent surfaces in a cube. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. It does not change when you zoom. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. 438 .0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points. pan.Rhino 2. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. In other cases. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles.

A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. we can use weld with an angle of 40. No points in the blue mesh are welded. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky. When shaded. To perform a similar operation with control points.Rhino 2. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. texture mapping on mesh objects. This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. and file export for stereolithography. At the Angle tolerance prompt. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. If we want a smooth roof. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. To get this to happen. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. In our case. 439 . see the SetPt command. they are replaced by a single mesh point.

Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. 440 . See Importing and exporting STL files. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. Welding in MAX is different. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example.1) and top right (1. The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. then Weld (angle=180). They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex.1). Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. Thus. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture.0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. Use JoinMesh. they must be joined before welding is effective. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. they always get welded. 3D Studio MAX). That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. It does not physically fuse the vertices. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. Weld does not report the results on the command line.Rhino 2. the bottom right is (1. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls.0). The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved. top left is (0.

select a curve. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display.0 Command Reference What Display object information. The wireframe of the objects. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. World axes icon on 441 . At the Select object prompt.Rhino 2. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. or polysurface. surface. object highlighting. the grid. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. axes.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form. In the Zebra Options dialog box. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings. the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. and color. size. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough.ini file set the color for the icon. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. where white is the closest to your eye. It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box. WorldYAxisIcon=. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. and black is the farthest away. on the Shade tab. When objects are rendered in Rhino. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. set the stripe direction.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw.Rhino 2. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. 442 .

the surfaces touch. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes.Rhino 2. These meshes can be large. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. tangency. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. and other important properties. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. Tangent matches. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. and curvature between the surfaces match. MatchSrf. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. Position. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. curvature. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. 443 . The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. curvature. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. this means the position.

When More reliable is selected. in the Options dialog box. If you have a wheel mouse. When Faster is selected. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. on the Shade tab.Rhino 2. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. select More reliable. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. 444 . Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. under Zebra and EMap. but will always work.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports. ZoomNext Redo the last view change. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab.

The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. Note In a perspective view. This is particularly useful in perspective views. ZoomWindow Zoom window. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. type a zoom factor and press Enter. drag a window to zoom. ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts.Rhino 2. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. At the Zoom factor prompt. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. pick a point for the center of the view. 446 . especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in.

5. 33. 33. 5. scale factor. 152 arrowhead on curve. 393 3View command. 144 ArcSER command. 150. 180. 368. to copy while dragging. 207. 135 4View command. 180. 5. 232. 140. 32 AGLib file exchange. 145 AreaCentroid command. polar. 151. 53 aliases. import. 28. 35. 221. 24 AddNextU command. 215. 141 ApplyCrv command. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. 135 3DM file exchange. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 5. 230. 27. 152 AnnotateDot command. 307. VIZ. 361.5. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 26. export. 10. 205. 163 3Circle command. 205. 207. MAX 1. 210. 148. 5. 5. 197. 149 ArrayPolar command. 203. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 207. 221. 362 3Plane command. 5. 27. 206. Release 12 export. 151 array:. 152. 170 2-D drawings from model. toolbar button function. 151 ArraySurface command. 125 array: along a curve. on a surface. 127. 5. 251. 144 arc:. 206. 149. 29. 3. 3DS file format. 149 Array command. 149 ArrayCurve command. 10. 143 3Box command. arrowhead on curve. 149. 152 AutoCAD. MAX 3. 14. 88. with FaroArm. 207. 206. measure between two lines. 232 Arc3Pt command. 139. 76. 141 arc: extend by. 135 ACIS file export. DXF file exchange. 255. 143 ArcDir command.0. 151 ArrayCrv command. 152. 312 Angle command. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. to suspend object snaps. 144 Area command. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 82 Alt key. 305. 136 AddPrevU command. 139 Align3D command. 251. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. 215 annotation. DOS. 150. options. 144. 28. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. built into Rhino. 152 Attach command. rectangular. 151. 279 2Sphere command. 143. 206. 152. 5. 149. 30 add object to selection. 135 3Arc command. from the last point. 151 arrow annotation object. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 150. 229. set spacing between points. MAX 2. 138 adjust end bulge. profile curves. 27. 231. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 230. set ortho. 144. 206. 140. 140 angle:. 150. 143. MAX 2. from start. 140 Align command. export options. 205. 308 align:. MAX 3. 28.Rhino 2. 2. 204. 212. 412 Annotate toolbar. 266 animate view. 34. 203. 152 Arrow command. extend to a point. 5. 28. end and radius. 5. with a MicroScribe. 5. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. command aliases. 204. 123. 333. tangent to two curves. 138 AddToGroup command. 5. 5. initialize. 83 AlongPerp object snap.0 IGES. 239. 203. 198. 150 ArraySrf command. 143. 145 AreaMoments command. set up function key for click. 281 Audit command. 187. 31 AG file exchange. 123 Arrowhead command. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 55 Ascii STL tag. 5. 5. 205. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 133. add notes to the model. 265. 150.0 OBJ. 88 align: background bitmap. 137 AddPrevV command. 323 3-D digitizing:. 140 Along object snap. 204. 2. 141 ApplyMesh command. 5.0 Command Reference Index !. 255. 330. 169 3CPlane command. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 5. 251. 281 AttachEnd command. 139 AlignTrace command. 192. 142 Arc toolbar. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 393 34View command. 205. 215. 140. 426 angle: constraint. pause input. 53. 152 ASAP file exchange. 245. set scale. 346 3Sphere command. 162. 5. 195. 5. 333. suspend autoclose. 305. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. disconnect. 141 ApplyCurves command. 144 ArcTTR command. 34. 231. 5. 144 Arc command. 29 3DFace command. 144. 407. shortcuts. 127. 5. arrow. 251. 5. 330 3-D digitizing: about. end and direction. 205. 255. 148. 251. 142. 309 AlignProfiles command. calibrate. 33. 123 2Circle command. 136 AddNextV command. 340. 53. 426 Analyze toolbar. from three points. 298. create planar sections. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 29. 220. 143 Arc3Pts command. 5. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 29. 152. 139 All command. 322. 62 447 . 82 AlongTan object snap. dot. 5. 148 Array toolbar. 385 analyze:. 312 AngleLine command. 5. circular. 168. DWG file exchange. around a pole. sketch curve with. 324 3Rectangle command. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 14. dimension. 5. 146 arguments at the command line. 5.2.

297. edit toolbar. 156. display grid. 159. 161. 351. 166 ChangeLayer command. clear button image. 363. 250 Center object snap. 162 box: from length. 163. 231 CArcPt command. 133 BU command. clear undo. 90. 164. 367. edit button image. place. 133. set construction plane x. radius. 168 choose one object. 5. 139. 249. render meshes. 153 back view. 145 chamfer: two curves. copy toolbar button. 170 CircleTTR command. 165 change. selection. 90 ChangeDegree command. 125. 198. 392. 384 bad objects. width. 321. move toolbar button. 56 cancel command. edit button icons. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 156. hide background. 171 Circle3Pt command. 169. 366. 5. 123. surface. 184. toggle world icon. 162. 349 ClearUndo command. 122. 171. 5. 145. 139. ortho angle. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. polygon mesh. 321. 362 ClearMesh command. 365. 351. 163 B-spline. 425. 172 CLine command. 160 bi-rail sweep. 184. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. 90. 170 Circle command. remove. floatation. convert NURBS curve to. 170. 154. 90. 133. 39 BMP file format. 123. import button image. 84 Bezier curve. 24 circle: by diameter. 351. height. use for tracing. toolbar layout. move background. cut. tangent to three curves. to current layer. 366. 249. 312. 322. 102. 351. two surfaces. 124 C command. 161 BooleanDifference command. 152. 153 background bitmap: align. 13. 168 Check command. 384. 409. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 124 capture viewport. 368 Baseball command. 172. from three points. 162 bottom view. variable radius between surfaces. 316. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. 164 capture image for toolbar button. from center. 297. show hidden background. 169 CircleD command. 124. 170. 123. 124. 365. 160. 101. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 90 Autosave command. select. 123. 169 Circle3Pts command. 156 blend:. capture button image. 122. 171. ellipsoid. surface degree. 163 box:. 322. with toolbar button. sphere. 168. 171 clear. 199. 168 check objects for errors. backdrop for rendering. 316 448 . undo buffer. toolbar. 56 center: buoyancy. 123. 5. snap size. 297. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 321. 122. 55 axis. 250. 161 buffer. 113. 154. 125. 245. 163. 363. copy to. 123. 245. 165 Chamfer command. settings. undo levels. 172. 123. 172 built-in aliases. 367. 365. area. 124. 320. layer. 425 Back command. 139. 2. 323. 55 BringViewportToTop command. 169. 167. 167. scale background. center of. 249. difference. 124. 312. union. as 256-color bitmap. 54 autosave: file location. 115. command. 179 BI command. 243. 243. troubleshooting. 170 CircleTTT command. 158. 155 bitmap. 116. 153 BD command. 168. 165 ChamferSrf command. object properties. 322 CamSoft file exchange. 366 CArc command. 123 Cap command.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. set construction plane z. lock. 130. 392. scale. 321. hide. 139. 179. 250. 292 Box command. show. place. 157. 124. 161 Bottom command. 250 button. 39 Boolean. 168. 166. with Esc key. 292 Box3Pt command. 122. as bitmap. 160. 204 camera. 160 Bend command. 153. 322. 369 C2View command.0 file exchange. 101. 85. 162 Box toolbar. 152 autosave:. 160 BooleanUnion command. 168. 338 buoyancy. align backgound. 172. 133. 232 CATIA file exchange. 160. 161. 154 baseball-style seams. 157. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 164. 163 Box3Pts command. 249. remove background. 139. 297. place background. 338. 365. from three points. 171. render meshes when saving file. 249.Rhino 2. 402 Bisector command. 232 Clipboard. 184. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 198. 5. delete toolbar button. 118. 421 Blend command. time control. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 39 BMRT support. paste from. toolbar button image. 170. 5. the layer of an object. intersection. 12. 168 CheckInLicense command. 171 circle:. 123. use. 322 blend: curve. 5. 170. tangent to two curves. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. toolbar button tooltip. 320. 162. 368. move. 162 BoundingBox command. 79 center:. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. 114. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 421 BlendSrf command. 229. 321. 384. 250 centroid. 154 Between object snap. 180. 124. 365. 322. 297. 5. 164 cap open planar ends. 164 chamfer:. 171. 168 Circle toolbar. 5. to the Clipboard. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 322. 384. 180. 5. 5. 157. 351. 162. 384 background bitmap:. 166. 168. 124. 133. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. background. save button image to file.

115. 179. 217 COff command. 126 conic: curve. bend. show hidden. AutoCAD. render. polygon mesh. 297. 180. set origin of all construction planes. select row on surface. turn on. set top. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 125. 183. 181. shortcut. 89. 14. distance. 12. 339. curve and surface. 181. paste from clipboard. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 104. view bottom of. view front of. 166. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 172 CloseViewport command. list. 90. 398. 75. 131 control points. 246. undo. 10. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. toggle construction plane entry. 379. View top of. 11. 342. make all have same orientation. 89. options. perpendicular to curve. v-. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. named construction plane. 246. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 123. 359. 164. 379 control polygon. select next in v-direction. 84. 245. set to x-axis. 137. holes in surfaces. 138. 75. 11. 88. 219 coordinate entry. 195 color. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. 14. 5. 125. 173 commands:. 137. 174. 422. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. set to view. 182 CPlaneO. 5. 11. turn grid on or off. 375. 172 CommandPaste command. display axes. 11 coordinates. 375. 5 CPlaneObject command. false. 2. objects. 179. 5. 413 command aliases. 177 continuous shading. 345. 11. 362. 249. 292. 173. 75 comma-delimited file export. toggle display of. 339. 419. 183. 183. 303. next. 182. assign to mouse buttons. 173 CommandPrompt command. 303. weld. previous. set to object. 336. display recently used. 180. 178 control vertex. viewport. 11 copy: command shortcut. 172 Closest point to an object. 172 ClosePoint command. 85. 136. 140. taper. display. 75. 184. entering coordinates. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. move along Z. 172. 88. 373. 12. 178. set the number of thin gridlines. 4. move through a point. render window to Clipboard. 245. list all. construction plane coordinates. macro. 413 CommandHistory command. 2. 344. 339. add next in v-direction to selection. 181 CopyClip command. 335. add next in u-direction to selection. 327. 234. highlight. 172. 323. 245. 173. 338. truncated. 246. 155. 13. move to coordinate location. draw curve using. 218 Contour command. curve. 182. 12. 373. 133. delete from a curve. move in u-. options. 155. 88. 131. 18. 173. 386. set distance between grid lines. 183. 138. 177. 202. 5. Esc to cancel. 177. 172 ClosestPt command. world coordinates. 304. render window. project object snap to. for spotlight editing. 10. 298. 136. 228. 176. 180. 197. 182 449 . 125. 176. 172. 115. save. 126. 398. 297. 422. 173 cone:. 180. hide. 10. 179 CPlane View toolbar. toggle world coordinate entry. display for a point. polar coordinates. 177 contour curves. 245. along line. toggle display. 303. 123. 323. 2. 154. layer. 180. 11. 343. 172. set to z-axis. set to previous. 126. 419. 5. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 406 Cone command. 235. 5. 176 ConicPerp command. 133. display in clipboard or history. 178 CPHighlight command. 173 commands: list of all. rendering to Clipboard. 173 command names. coincident. 75 continuity. 406. 250. 359. turn off. select previous in u-direction. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command.Rhino 2. G2. 374. 183. set to next. 419. 173. 131. 176 constraint. 419. rotate. arguments. 2 command line. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. 181. 173. objects to Clipboard. 88. view right of. 88. 5. 181 CPlaneFront command. 183. wheel. 131 ControlPolygon command. 405. 342. 11. extract. 140. 379. 180 copy:. 21. 173. 174. set display density. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 126. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. copy settings of one to the all. 179 ConvertToCurves command. add to surface. 249. set weight. set extents of. 175. 75. 419. 338. 184. set right. 419 context menu. move all through a point. add previous in u-direction to selection. 419 CPlane3Pt command. 380. plan view. 181 Copy command. 406. 11. 104. settings of one construction plane to all. add previous in v-direction to selection. coordinates. 202. 178 control point definition. 338. 173 COn command. 172 cloud of points. 245. select row in vdirection. import from 3DM file. script. 335. view left of. 176 Conic command. 122. 195 cone: cone. 164. 180.0 Command Reference close. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 182. project objects to. 182. 245. 90. 181. 5 command:. 74. relative coordinates. 182. 114. 174. 125. set to 3 points. 406 ConfigScript command. 184. set to vertical. 84. read from file. 181 CPlaneNext command. 327 Cob command. 173. 251 command area. 5. 298. view back of. 184. 15 construction plane. and ndirections. 35 command: alias. 362. 119. 181. G1. dialog box. 184. set normal to curve. 174 conic:. G0. create curve from. 75. 343. old. set front. select next in u-direction. 119. 419. angle. 246. 136. toolbar. 5. view to all viewports. 57 CPDash command. 166. place point objects on. 178. toolbar button. 235. 292. 335. 181. 114. 15. relative polar coordinates. 181. 5. 122. select previous in v-direction. 173 Commands command. 182. history. 183. 386. 234. 179 Coons patch. 131 command history. 228. 89. set origin. 197.

155. 157. 239. 218. 388. 177. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 257. 2. interpolate through polyline. fair. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. 131. 177. bounding box. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. 239. 133. 391. 248. 226. 4. 367. 351. chamfer. line normal to a surface. 346 cross sections through profiles. 236. 238. line tangent to two curves. 355. 189. 334. toggle. 337. divide by number of segments. fillet. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 182 CPlanePrev command. parabola. contour. 388. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 195. 270. 197. 281. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 3. interpolate on surface. 233. 304 Ctrl+A. 323. 184 CPlaneView command. 183 CPlaneTop command. 2. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 241. 387 curve:. 389. 196. curvature graph. 184 CPlaneZ command. 230. 213. 256. match ends. 187. 327. 133. flatten section of. extract isoparms from surface. 189. 232. project onto surface. 395. constrain parallel to view plane. align in two views. 394 CurveBlend command. 330. silhouette. 189 crosshairs. 255. display graph. 142. curvature graph off. 198 Ctrl+Y. 268. 144. spiral. insert edit point. 389. 258. 197. 387 Curve toolbar. duplicate border of surface. 187. 156. 168. 195. 339. 226. line vertical to construction plane. 162 CrvDeviation command. 13. select all. 197. 330. 231. 306. 15. 194. extend by line. 241. 179. sketch on surface. 305. 177. 198 CutPlane command. 367. 15. 165. 170. 162. 231. polyline. 343. 185. 165. raise degree. 271. 174. 187 CurveSketch command. 387. 355. 162 CurveEnd command. arc tangent to two curves. 235. line segments. 253. add knots. 188. duplicate edge of surface. 24. 236. 254. revolve. 256. 195. arc from start. 184 CPlaneV command. 390. 232. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 213. 165. refit. line. 271. 221. 24. rebuild. 191. sketch. from point cloud. measure between two curves. 217. 143. 257. 143. radius. 4. 4 Ctrl+V. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 188. 253. 141. 298. periodic. from control points. from 2 views. 326. crosshairs. 24 curvature: analyze curve. single line. simplify. direction. 169. 389. constrain along line. 279. 333. 241. 269. polyline through point objects. 139. 190 CullCP command. 200 450 . graph on. extend by arc. 337. 268. line perpendicular to two curves. 194. extend. 187 CurveSeam command. 221. 222. 255. 139. 234 CreatePCurves command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 164. 187. 156. 184 CPlaneX command. 164. 239. 187 CrvSeam command. 304. 267. 239. extend by arc to a point. 25. 217. 323. 356. 257. mean. 226. 189. 3 crossing:. 230. 389 CurveStart command. 333. 195. 270. adjust seam point. 281. 340. 195. 307 Ctrl+P. ellipse. bisector line. 144. 254. circle from three points. 168. apply to surface. 169. 216. 24. 4. 178. 2. extrude along path. 187 CurveOverlap command. 194. 156 CurveBox command. 236. surface from network. analyze surface. 3 Ctrl+C. conic. 2 Ctrl+S. 267. adjust end bulge. convert to Beziers. 197 curve. 343. 235. 180 Ctrl+N. 239. 197. arc. 269 Curve command. 141. 232. 394. 348 Ctrl+Z. 156. 4. tangent line. 156. 311. 334. 186. helix. 4. 195. 255. 268. 387. 316 Ctrl+X. 131. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. from interpolated points. 351. 184 CPTog command. 144. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. 245 Curvature command. 298. 305. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 191. smooth. 217. section. 268. 14. cross sections through profiles. 202. 179. arc from three points. 2. 305. 343. 195. 249. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 197 curve degree. 170. 189 CSV export. 230. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 183 CPlaneToView command. 305. 185 CRectangle command. delete control points. 369. intersect two objects. 165. 281. 195 CurvatureSrf command. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 197. 337. 162. place point at end. 185. 15. 142. 258. 265. 388. 192. 281. 340. 218. 179. graph off. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. blend. 2. 155. 255. 2 Ctrl+Tab.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 326. circle by diameter. 183 CPlaneRight command. extract wireframe from surface. marker. 90. 216. 2. 187 CrvEnd command. selection. 235. 238. 195. sketch on polygon mesh. 187. 174. 236. 248. 170. make periodic. 390. 185 CrvBox command.Rhino 2. 141. 258. 174. 4. 191 curvature:. 265. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. 202. 339. place point at start. offset. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 2. 311. constrain to ortho. points. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. 164. 367. 189 CSec command. 190 cursor. 256. 187 CrvStart command. 248. measure radius. 169. 183 CPlaneToObject command. extend to surface boundary. extrude to point. end. pull to surface. 369. point. 238. constrain to plane. circle tangent to two curves. 218. 197. 314. extrude straight. 4. 233. 175. 304. 327. 90. 302 Ctrl+O. 387. 339. 369 crossing selection. 314. 185. convert to polyline. Gaussian. 389. tracking line. 369 Crv2View command. remove knots. circle from center.

tolerances. 212. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 22. show. raise curve degree. 251 dot: annotation. 212 display:. 217 drape surface. 208. 208. 178. 217. 209. 372 DetachTrim command. pause input. 209. 33 DynamicShading command. 209 DimVertical command. control polygon. 3-D digitizing. 121. options. 207 DimAligned command. 410. 202 delete:. 218. 22. 206 DigSketch command. curve by number of segments. 206. 22 degree. 250 display: bitmap window. 10. sketch curve. set scale. 220. 45 dirty looking rendering. 208 DimRadius command. Rhino. 416 developable surface definition. 293 Cylinder command. 245. 18. 260. 120 document properties: notes. Notes tab. 243 DirectionalLight command. 15 divide: curve by length. 17. 160. 196. 218. 425. 207. 197. surfaces. 127. 205 digitize. vertical. 205 DigScale command. 212 distance display. 202 DeleteAll command. 396 EdgeSrf command. 395. 330. 107. 265. 17. 168. 202. 213 divide:. broken edges. 206. 372 DeselectAll command. 216. 279. 217 DrapePt command. 210. 19 DocumentProperties command. 208. 133. 202. 123 451 . 410 cylinder: NURBS. 12. 196. diameter. 206 DigSection command. 218. command button. shortcuts. 213. 288. 123. 204 DigClick command. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 104. 121. 205 displacement. 219. 160 Dig command.ini. 208 DimOptions command. persistent object snaps. 213 dock a toolbar. 385. merge. 344. create 2-D curves. 272 date. 422 Display command. edge of surface. toolbar button bitmap icons. 207. 344. 207. 370. 216 Drape command. 209 DimRotated command. join two out of tolerance edges. 205. 209. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. isoparm density. 127. 119. 293 data structure for object. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. polylines. split. 214 domain:. 279 Dragmode. 218. 385. 384 edge: create curve from. 122 Delete command. display curve or surface. 144 direction. 210. 19. in Trim command. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. aligned. 203 DigCalibrate command. change. 396 edge:. 298 DigPause command. 384 diameter dimension. polygon mesh. 217 DupBorder command. 17. 208 dimension. control points. 220. 127. from last point. 288. 165 Delcam file exchange. 205. 19 document properties:. 165. 384. 385. 210 DimHorizontal command. 15. 330. 132. horizontal. Boolean. with MicroScribe. 108 Dup command. radius. 105. 265. 135. 220. 239. 23. select all. 203 develop a surface. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 277 diagnostics. 19. 214 domain: match. grid. points at naked edges. 217 draw. 197. 330. 384. 23 Document Properties dialog box. 215 drafting. 85. 344. 106. naked edges. 217. 195. 167. 208 difference. object. 212 disconnect digitizer. 210 DirArc command. calibrate. 205 DigDisconnect command. 207. 207 DimAngle command. Render Mesh tab. 201. 124. 245. intialize. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. object discription. 395. 384. with FaroArm. 209. 204. 91. 219.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 123. toolbar. 211. 207. 15 Distance command. button image. summary. objects. 210. 372 Deselect command. 215 Dot command. edit text. 260. 219. 166. 212 distance: constraint. angle between lines. lines. units. 202 Deselect All. border of surface. 205. 211 DirectX file export. change degree of surface. disconnect. 58 delete: all objects. 201. hydrostatic calculation. 215 draft angle. recenter text. 218 e_tol. layer. 260. curve.Rhino 2. 206 DigSpacing command. 272. 215 dot:. 2. 208. toggle. 19. toolbar button. 2. 251 Domain command. 131 Ebroken command. dimension text. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 243. 12. annotation text. set up function key for click. 370. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. 23 distance:. wallpaper. 207 DimDiameter command. 217 DupEdge command. edit points. 210 Dir command. planar section. naked. 166. 250. set spacing between points. options. viewport properties. 411. 202. 213 Divide command. 368. 385. 203. 370. 132. display broken. 3-D polygon mesh face. 212. 168. in Split command. 288. 122. 251. rotated. rebuild. 213 DivideByLength command. 212 DisableOsnap command. 88. 99 disable. 217. 135. 218 duplicate. 201 cylinder:. 209. 34 DXF file exchange. 22. reverse object direction. select all objects. 104. render mesh settings. 338. 209 DimRecenterText command. 206. 10. grid axes. 370 DWG file exchange.

57. ACIS. 385 EnakedPt command. 35. 232 ExtendByLine command. wireframe curves from surface. 236 ExtractWireframe command. curve by offset. 221. 60. Unigraphics (IGES). 3. 128. 123 edit:. Yamaha ESPRi. 229 Exit command. 65. 231. 220. 45. 72. 42. 330 End key. 31. by line. 64. 237. 45. 37. 44. 3D Studio (3DS). 60. 45. polygon mesh. 230.0 (IGES). 70. 236. 71. insert on curve. Moldex DXF. IronCAD (IGES). 233 extract. show. 2. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. from focus points. 92. 53. CAD 3D SUM 4. 44. LUSAS (IGES). 56. 2. arc to a point. SLA. CamSoft (IGES). 11. 45. 228 exit Rhino. 223 elliptical conic curve. curve on surface. 228 expand a surface. AutoCAD (DXF). IGES. 59. 238. Pro/E (IGES). 2. surface. Maya (IGES). 233. 35. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. Plug-in). 62. 41. SAT file format. FastShip (IGES). 253. GHS. SolidWorks (IGES). Commadelimited file. unable to run program renrib. turn off. 124. command aliases. by arc. 229 export:. curve to point. 61. 26. 36. 58 FastSURF file exchange. Viewpoint Technologies. 223 ellipsoid:. 10. 58. 229. 238. 26. 58 452 . object properties to file. 344 EMap command. 236. 228 EvaluatePt command. 3D Studio MAX 3. control polygon. 133 Escape key. 72. 239 false color display. 58. 71. 230 extend. 238 Extrude command. 3 Enter: command for scripts. 73. curve. 52. 78 EndBulge command. 73. Microstation (IGES). Metastream. CADCEUS (IGES). 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 42. 40. 45. curve along path. 228 Excel. 62. 52. Alias (OBJ). 227 environment map. 55. 35. 74. 55. 70. 221. 41. 230. 228 EvaluateUV command.0 Command Reference edit points. AutoShip (IGES). 236. Cosmos/M (IGES). 62. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 35. 238 F1. 45. 61. 69. surface into a solid. 236. 65. 221 EllipseD command. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). 71. 67. 224 erase objects. 4 F2. 36. 36. 30. mesh to IGES file. 48. 30. 40 errors in model. 220 EditText command. 219 EditPtOn command. 33. 229 Explode command. 233 extend:. Applied Geometry (AG). 133 enter coordinates. 235 ExtractSrf command. space and rightmouse click. NuGraf (IGES). 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 55. 385 ESplit command. 253. 47. 234 Extend command. 33. Lightwave (LWO). 46. 222 Ellipse command. 133. 74 Export command. 239 fair curve. 64. 4 F8. 230. Windows Metafiles (WMF). 4 Fair command. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. 230 Extend toolbar. 202. 235 ExtractPt command. 54. 73. 356 extrude:. Integrity Ware (IGES). 226 endpoint object snap. surface from polysurface. 40. 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 119. 235. POVRay (POV). 229 export. 221 Ellipse toolbar. VRML. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). Mastercam (IGES). 43. 68. 59. Softimage (IGES. 58. NASA GridTool. 234. 37. 69. 51. 229. 236. 232. TekSoft IGES. 46. 233 ExtendByArc command. 64. 236 Extrude toolbar. 29. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 35. 222 ellipse:. 228 error messages. 229 ExplodeMesh command. 54.Rhino 2. raw triangles (RAW). 53.0 (IGES). 31. 232. 12. turn on. 30. Adobe Illustrator (AI). 54. 56. 232. 131 FAQ. 123. 60. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. 232. 12 ELine command. 93. 233. Solid Designer (IGES). 67. 92. 429 End object snap. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 233. isoparms from surface. 51. Delcam (IGES). 231. 229 explode:. 13. 53. AUTOFORM (IGES). 46. 63. Solid Edge (IGES). 236 extrude: curve. 42. 231. 234. CSV file. 45. 13. 224 EMerge command. curve to surface boundary. 59. 69. STL. 236. options. 230. 238. 41. OptiCAD (IGES). 154 Ellipsoid command. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 37. 239 FastShip file exchange. FastSURF (IGES). 32. Tebis IGES. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 55. 231. 420 EditDim command. 63. 61. 63. Alias (IGES). 73. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 220 EJoin command. 32. 29. DirectX. 288 Enaked command. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 46. Wavefront (OBJ). 3D Studio MAX 3. 131. 1 Faro command. 31. 53. SURFCAM (IGES). Multisurf (IGES). 12 Enter:. 127 Esc key. 227. 63. 4 F9. 26. 220. surface. triangles. 260 elevator mode. export to. 396 EvaluatePoint command. Moray (UDO). 222 EllipseEnds command. AutoCAD (DWG). 57. 68.0 (OBJ). 356. 219. 233 ExtendSrf command. 231. 235. 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. PostScript. 56. 58. ME30 (IGES). Catia (IGES). 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 33. 343 ElmoSrf command. 174 Elmo command. 133 EShow command. 226 EndBulgeSrf command.

250 Hyperbolic curve. curve. edit using. 132. 245 GridOptions command. text. 339. object names. texture mapping coordinates. 386 HideAll command. 307. panes. 247 Helix command. 259. 69. 415 Ghost command. 133. 273 ghost:. 241 FlatShade1 command. 18. wireframe. 390. 74. 229. 46. 305. 361. polygon mesh export. swap hidden status. 104 fit a plane through points. toolbar. 131. 60. 245. 1 help:. 244 G0 continuity. Enter key. set the number of lines. 122. cursor. 243 floatation. 130. 171. isoparm. periodic surface. 133. control points. 416. 255. 415 GHS file export. 168. 72. 119 HideToolbox command. 81 Front command. 132. technical support. 103 hidden objects. 239. 273. 386. 361. 380 GridAxes command. 36 glossary terms. 3D Studio MAX 3. 131. 413. toolbar. surface. 380. 249 hide:. 255. 176 G1 continuity. 48. 130. normal. 279. 360. 229. 361. 379. 240 FilletSrf command. marker. 63. 203. 134. 415 Freeze command. 239. 248 help: display Help file. 246 handlebars. 261. 407. 277. 425. 55. 246. 249 HidePoints command. 229. 134. 50. 2. 1. 377 Group command. 386. Ashlar Vellum. 176 G2 continuity. shortcut. tracking line.turn on or off. 426. flyout toolbar. 362 file:. 123. 273. 417 ghost: a layer. 55. 12. 337. 260. 46. 241 FitPlane command. unlock locked objects. 133. 249 HideSwap command. 325 FitCrv command. 246 Group objects for selection. 307. 453 . 243 Flip command. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. 429 Horizon command. 249 highlight in rendering. 338 history. 171. 12 Home key. 407 freeze: a layer. 249 HideCV command. 396. 176 Gaussian curvature. 302. 302. 377. 5. 386. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 240. developable surface. edge of polysurface. 336. 249. 360. turn on or off. simple controls. 70. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. Esc key. world axes. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 67. set distance between lines. 134. text. 251. 245 GridSections command. 246 HBarSrf command. 132. 131. 251 floating license. 119 Hide command. 133. 133. 278. 277. troubleshooting import problems. 130 Flow along a curve. NURBS. 273. 132. 240 Fillet command. 262. 249 HidePt command. types. 1. 250. two surfaces. initial mesh grid. 61. 249. false color. 134. 229. status bar panes. 122. 122 font. tolerance. 362 File toolbar. 75 Hydrostatics command. set snap size. 246 HBar command. CADCEUS. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 124. 54. 240 FilletEdge command. objects. 339 HideOsnap command. 384. periodic curve. 250. 251. center of. 330. 75 hue. 246 GridSize command. 250. 378. 245. command line. 194 GCon command. 246. show selected. 250 hide: background bitmap. 55. 53. 236. Breault Research's ASAP. objects. 172 hold. 131.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. Unicode. 385. 58. 172. 46. 250 HideToolbar command. 417 FlattenSrf command. 246. 395. 52. 228. Osnap dialog box. command area. run application from inside Rhino. 307. 192. 53. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 249. 59. IGES export type details. 249 HidePts command. 119 HideTrace command. 71. 55. open. 50. 214 fillet. 49 IGES export:. 133. Alias|Wavefront. 131. 1 From object snap. 54. 68. objects. 239 fillet:. 242 flatten. 249. 120. spacing. 251. polysurface. 235 FltE command. set the extents of. 56. 246 group. definition. 368. 273 freeze:. 378. show hidden control points. 246. 246. 262. edit points. 120. unlock locked objects. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command. template. 73. save. keep last used on top. 46. seamless mesh. name. 246 Gridsnap command. save as. 262. snap to. control point. reduce size of model. 281 FlatShade command. 379 IGES file types. 54. 251. 133. 380 GridThick command. 244 Flowline command. 135. 53. 250. 46. 386. naked edge. 302. 1 Help command. 131. 220. 348. 245 Grid command. 194. 245 grid:. 131. 64. 46. 131. 262. 387 HSV color. axis lock. 119. 57. 133. bumpmap. 135 grid: axes . 62. 325 FixCurveEnd command. 407. AUTOFORM. 123. import. 123. 131. 65. 425 IGES: file exchange. 249. 244 front view. 380. 2. AutoShip. 362 FileProperties command. units. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 2 hidden layer name. 47. 240 filter the layer display. 410. new. 244 Flow command. 249.Rhino 2. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 212 frequently asked questions. section of curve. 174 icon. 49. 221 fonts. 416.0. edit toolbar button. 273. 246 Heightfield command. 220. 133.

FastSURF. 67. change for an object. 71. 60. filter display. FastSURF IGES. 133 Layer toolbar. CATIA IGES. 102. 52 import. 160 Invert command. Mechanical Desktop. 253 InsertKinks command. 307. turn off by selecting an object. 260. Tebis IGES. 73. 260 JoinFaces command. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 66. change to current. 71. 73. 55. Microstation IGES. 10. 63. 59. 255. Cosmos/M IGES. 377 layer:. display density. 307. 251. 140. Boolean. kink in curve. 85. 58. 2. 263 leader: arrow. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. IGES. 68. 46. 132. Delcam. 366. 63. 73. 58. 56. objects. LUSAS. 263 LayerOn command. 103. 312. 58. 132. 14. Unigraphics. 15 lathe. 160. 26. FastShip. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 254. turn all layers on. select objects by. definition. 71. 312. 253. 168. 152. TekSoft IGES. 258 Intersect command. AutoShip IGES. 63. 262 lasso selection. 41. 60. 46 IGES:. 33. 70. 55. triangles. remove from curve or surface. 377. turn off. 76. purge empty. 62. 253. 263. 168 license manager. 101 Layer pane. 251 IncrementalSave command. 42. 59. 69. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 260. 257 InterpPolyline command. knot. 343. 65. 59. 263 Layer command. 72. 74. delete. 62. 29. 3D Studio MAX 3. 103. 104. 338. 70. 71. IronCAD IGES. 168. 167. 253 InsertKnot command. 53. Applied Geometry AG. 101. Multisurf. 252 information. 69. SDRC's I-DEAS. AutoCAD DXF. 425 ini file. arrowhead on curve. 65. 254. NASA GridTool IGES. one layer on. 70. surface or polysurface. 256 interpolate. SUM 4. 396. CAD 3D SUM 4. 135 jagged shadows. 135. 78. 355 layer: change color. 101. 32. 104. 63. Solid Designer IGES. 29. 371. 90. 425. 259 join:. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 46. surfaces. CATIA. definition. 59 isoparametric curve. 64. 103. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 56. 251. 41. match. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 119 initial mesh grid. 33. FastShip IGES. 307. 131 insert: edit point. translate IGES/Rhino. 101. 261 JoinEdge command. 56. curve on surface. 61. dialog box. 54. 307. 262 last point. 168.0 OBJ. LUSAS IGES. insert in curve. 70. 53. 64. 102. display for object. 377. 81.0 IGES. 255. 265 Length command. 64. ME30 IGES. Mastercam IGES. 254 Insert command. 257 intersect: Boolean. set current. 121. stereolithography STL. 41. AutoCAD DWG. NuGraf IGES. 37. 55. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 262.0. 68. 253 knot. 61. Raw triangles RAW. 104. 64. 61. Delcam IGES. 258 intersection. 254 InsertEditPoint command. 253. 74 Import command. 61. Integrity Ware IGES. SURFCAM IGES. 258 InvertPt command. 258 IntersectCrv command. 42. check out from workgroup license manager. 367 JPG file format. Mastercam. 351. 59. wireframe view. 363. 255 Int object snap. Adobe Illustrator AI. 3D Studio 3DS. 283. 257. NASA GridTool. object snap. 57. Maya IGES. 64. CamSoft IGES. 63. 152 Leader command. 48. 265 length:. 283. 167. two objects. 67. CADCEUS IGES. Solid Designer. 132 isoparm. 132. OptiCAD IGES. 78. 73. Lightwave LWO. TekSoft. 62. 62. 31. 56. Mechanical Desktop IGES. turn on. 252 insert:. 54. 46. Tebis. 140. rename. 254. select from list. 322 JScript. 253. Integrity Ware. 259. set material properties. 160. 259. 104. 371. 263. 104. construction planes from 3DM file. 152. 56. Solid Edge. 71. 72. 69. Pro/E IGES. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 254. 42. 32. Solid Edge IGES. Unigraphics IGES. 261 JoinMesh command. SolidWorks. curve. 254 InsertKnots command. 160. IronCAD. 264 leader:.0 Command Reference CamSoft. Cosmos/M. 251 Improve command. 259 IronCAD file exchange. 130 license:. 33. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 261 Lasso command. 261 JPG. 377 LayerLock command. Softimage IGES. 396. 60. 26. Yamaha ESPRi. angle from. new. 251 import:. 69. 104. 343. 3D Studio MAX 3. 104. 68. Softimage. 63. 62. 46. 77. 264 left view. 37. 103. 60. named views from a 3DM file. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 256. distance from. 59. SURFCAM. 67. 91. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 140. 69. 61. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. 264 Left command. 283. 132. insert on curve or surface. 15. 264 length: measure curve. 57. 14. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. 261 JoinSrf command. 46. 258 intersect:. 71. 160. 58. SolidWorks IGES. 103. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. 60. 59. split surface at. match attributes. 10. 31.0 IGES. 73. 253 InsertKink command. 167. AUTOFORM IGES. 121. toolbar from another layout. 58. Pro/E. 59 InterpCrv command. OptiCAD. 63. 262 LayerOff command. 65.Rhino 2. 126 kink. 255. insert in surface. 54. aliases. snap to. Maya. 81. 168 454 . 10. 58. 99 JCAD STL export. set material. 256. 103. Multisurf IGES. 101. 53. 57. 72. 69. 263. ME30. 55. Alias IGES. Microstation. 73. management. 261 Join command. 67.

232. extend by. 228 LooseLoft command. 251 merge:. 268. 290. 33. pop up at cursor. definition. 145. 266. area moments. 417 Make2D command. 102. 130 manage layers. 415. perpendicular to curve. length. 232. 271 List command. 284 material: for rendering. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. 12. 221. BMRT. 377 Maximize command. 155. polyline through point objects. 338. 145. 273 LockOsnap command. curve curvature. 88. 273 lock:. texture. 187. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 281. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 224. clear render mesh for all objects. 334 LineTan command. set for layer. 333. 134 marker definition. 268. 329. seamless. 148. 146. 266. 284 MatchLayer command. 283. 236. 37 M command. 273 Logoff command. insert straight segment into curve. paste script from Clipboard. 156. 62 menu: context. run with middle mouse. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 272 LoadScript command. 265 line:. 288. 410. 371. 90 Main toolbar. 455 . 288 Menu command. 38 match: curve ends. 331. bump. 271 Line command. 265. 371. 171. 255. point. 265. create. 398. 212. 270 LineTT command. 262. options. 283. 268. 288 menu:. 141. 334. 39. 141. 396. 140. 293. 92. 290. 240. single line. 131 mass properties. 304. 210. 40. 256. axis. 288. reduce density. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. 135. 270 LineV command. radius. 377. 84. swap status with unlocked objects. 23. 180. from closed polyline. 329. 269 LineTP command. 267. 334 Line4Pt command. 420. normal to a surface. 225. perpendicular to two curves.Rhino 2. 296. 358. 179. 265. 229. detailed options.0 Command Reference Light tab. 328. 123. 338 mapping coordinates. 88. 270. 173. 220. 273. from NURBS object. box. volume moments. 191. 212. 339. 267 LinePerp command. 228. 273 loft surface. 273 Lock command. 420. 130 map. 3DFace. 162. 155. 75. set properties for layer. 378 maximize: current viewport. 363. 377 Material properties. distance. 191. 342. 287 Match command. tangent to a curve. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. Rhino. 348. 266 LineAngle command. join. 228. 338. 395. 286. 340. 60 LWO file exchange. 281 match:. 194 measure: angle. 187. 134. 265. deviation between two curves. 292. viewport. 261. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. select all. 290. 92. 37 line: at angle from line. set for export. 155. 365. 213 measure:. 285. 91. 173. 268 Lines command. 371. spotlight. volume. 211. 289. clear render mesh. 245. export to IGES file. 268 Lines toolbar. plane. 330. area. 123. 268. 145. volume centroid. 333. 265. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 145. 288 maximize:. toggle display. 194 MaxViewport command. 267. 288. 74. breaking apart. select naked edges. 211. 273. 288. 269. cylinder. 340. 271. 229. 371. 239. 101 manage:. 348. density for primitives. 125. 103 locked objects. 273. 281. area centroid. 212 LockSwap command. 23. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. set viewport. 212. objects. 399. 267. 333. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 255. 338. 345. 140. 342. 266. 273 lock: a layer. 212. geometric continuity. 270. unlocked objects. surface. 420. 267 LinePP command. 74. 259. 24 menu bar. 266. 270. run from external file. 293. environment. 86 lights. bisector. 269. 245. select all. layer. 421 Measure command. 357. 296. convert each face to NURBS surface. 270. deviation of points and curves from a surface. 421. 304. 135. segments. 61 MDT IGES options. 377 maximum curvature. tangent to two curves. explode. 421 MeasurePoint command. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 145. 224. 288 mesh: 3D face. 288 Merge command. layer attributes. 288 Maya file exchange. 338. 333. run from toobar button. persistent object snaps. 334 merge: surface. 288. 378. run from an alias. 268. 415 locked layer name. 337. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. vertical to construction plane. 294. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 349. 126. 61 mean curvature. 39. 291. run from shortcut key. 52. 326. 266 Line4pts command. 296 macro. cone. 290. 271. 272 LoadPlugin command. 228 Logout command. polyline. two adjacent edges of a surface. 142. 290. 273 Loft command. 279 Make2d4View command. snap to. 304. 283 MatchSrf command. 12. 41. 288 MergeSrf command. clear at save time. 272 list data structure of an object. apply to surface. directional. 334. 292. 262. decrease number of faces. 292. unlock locked objects. 261. 62 ME30 file exchange. 192. 194. 255. 125. 225. 420. 294. 284. 328. 86 material:. 104. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. from four points. 213. 288 MergeEdge command. 145. 161. 212. 281 manage: license. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 84. 105. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 269.

viewport active. 251. 2. save. 294. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 423 MeshBox command. 4. lock. 30. perpendicular to a curve. 85. 290 Mesh toolbar. 349. 303 NextU command. 311. 75 named construction planes. 83. 93. 302 next. 298 Multisurf file exchange. 140. 92. 78. 30. 387. 194 Mirror command. 296. wheel function. 304 normal:. 302 NewViewport command. 362 named view. near. 304 node. 183. 133. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. 297. 298. 294. 243. project to construction plane. 81. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 296 modeling aids. object to align with curve. 62 middle mouse button function. export to. 421 Moray UDO file export. 131 NoElev option. 132 O command. 414. 343. 293. between two points. view. 122 Move command. 52. 312 mold. 309. 83. tangent to a curve. unify normals. 338. 78. off construction plane. 305. 90 move: background bitmap. 35. 79. viewport. 363. set persistent. 379. 212 object snap:. 79. 84. show hidden. 80. 317 nudge. 387. 132. 37 object: description. 92. objects to new construction plane. 343. restore. 296. 78. options. quadrant. 251. 117. 148. 113. 123. 203. 303. toolbar button. toolbar. display. 377. 296 move:. 297. 2. 298 new: file. 81. 306. 122. 80. 295 MeshToNurb command. toggle persistent. 84. surface control points in u-. 307 Offset command. 362. end. export to file. 121. layer. 296 mirror objects. 297 Mscribe command. 81. 303. 304. 414. 79 NetworkSrf command. 305 offset:. 229 Microstation file exchange. midpoint. knot. 384. options. edit. toolbar button. export to RIB. 294 MeshPolyline command. 103. 385. 63 naked edge. 348. 132. 303 NextV command. 90. 123. 82. 298. 302. 82. 205. show. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 311. 363 name:. unlock. 409 object:. center. 378. 84. 46 moments. 362. 292. 78 Notes command. draw line. 103. a view. 349. 379. 308. 251. 425. 423 mesh:. 304. 297 MoveUVN command. 84. 425 offset: curve. 113. 378. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 290. move control points. ortho viewport active. 82. surface display. 81. 212. 298. 135. 355. set for single object. 294 MeshSphere command. multiple objects. 216 Moldex command. set mesh the same. to move objects. 385. 2. 296. 348. 243. reparameterize. viewport to top. perpendicular from a curve. 92. and n-directions. set properties. 4. 338 OBJ file exchange. 80. 298. 145. 308. 79. 409. 114. 338. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 305 notes in Rhino file. 134. 115. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 261. 304. 415. 379. 297. 35 object snap: along. 297 NuGraf file exchange. 371. v-. 91. 141. surface. 234. 215. 251. 249. definition. 302. 302 new:. 229. 385. 378. 2. 362. restore. 297 MoveTrace command. 414. pull direction. 372 non-uniform scale. parting line. objects. 215. 343. export to OBJ. set for multiple objects. 293 MeshPlane command. remove flipped. 249. 379 Named Colors list. 79. 3. 79 minimize: Rhino. 309. scale and rotate. group. 305 N-sided patch. 355. 304. perspective viewport active. 292. 292 MeshCylinder command. export to IGES. 82. parameterization. 311 OBJ export properties. 297. 297. 212. 261. 384. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. disable. 295. 306. 302 New command. 423. 79. 33. 363. 378 object properties. an object. show toolbar. scale and rotate on surface. surface. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 292 MeshCone command. 78. snap to a curve. 305. from. 414. 80. 295. 298 NamedView command. 323 Microsoft Excel. 243. turn off. construction planes through a point. 12. 343. 132. 81. 290. 377. 296 Minimize command. 338. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 79. 141 mouse. 243 456 . 79. 296 Metastream file export. 385. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. read from file. 133. 414 NoSnap command. 297. 171. reverse direction. 296. 229. 338. 63 Near object snap. intersection. 296 minimize:. viewport. 83. 120. 298. 295. 82. hide toolbar. 80. 132. 304 NextViewportToTop command. toolbar. 306 OffsetSrf command. 355 NamedCPlane command. definition. point. 141. 121. 64 NURBS.Rhino 2. on surface. 229. tangent from curve. 41. 309. 12 None command. 424 Mesh command. 80. 302. 206. 212. 84. 183. read from file. 366 normal: definition. 132. 298 NamedViews command. 92. 3. 293. 385 name. 296 minimum curvature. 293 MeshDensity command. 146. 120. 147. 303 NextViewport command. 204. 135. improve.0 Command Reference sphere. weld. 338. 118 Normal command. 355. 12. 415 object names. construction point through point. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. 84. 140. 322. 37 morph target. 90 Midpoint object snap. save named construction plane.

92. set. 2. 386. 312. 324 plane: cut through objects. 96. 176 PCX file format. 325 Plane3Pt command. 3DS MAX 2. 312 PageDown key. 314 parabola. 281. camera and target location. 98. 373. 101. 323 Plan command. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 376. 90. on a surface. 90. by three points. 323. 96.0. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. 206. from three points. object snap radius. 312 Osnap: pane. 318. toggle. 130. toggle. 330. 381 OpenWorkspace command. left. 64 options: aliases. 323 planar section. 320 place. 329. file locations. 200. 313. 119. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. 29. 12. 94. 312. 220. select method. 267 PerpFrom object snap. 188 point cloud. set angle. 90. 321. 311. 90. 94. change interface appearance. 313. background bitmap. 325 Pline command. 131. 133 Osnap command. 366. 426 OpenGL:. 422 Point filters. 309. 90. 366. 253. to curve. 330. 281. 325 plug-ins. 133 P command. 206 PlanarSrf command. 323 Planar command. 133. 68. Osnap. 94. 96 options:. trim options. 316. 379. Shade tab. 133. 329. trackball motion. Ortho. 96. 96. redraw speed. 281. 2 Patch command. 98 Options command. 323. 379. 131 periodic. 326. 324 Plane3Pts command. 326. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. 97. 290. undo number. 2. snap increment. 313 PanUp command. 324. lock to axis. 172. 96. 320 Pipe command. 133. up. on surface from UV coordinates. 92. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. nudge increment. 90. 373. 190. 311 Orient3Pt command. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 2. objects from the clipboard. 133 PanLeft command. General tab. 5. Files tab. 92. 200. 133. 88. 374. 94. 290 Organic toolbar. 326 Point object snap. place one.Rhino 2. 94. 425 Orient. 3DS MAX 1. 307. 68 PNG file format. 94. 98. isoparm density. 133. 92. 88. toolbar. 133. 90. 307 open:. Appearance tab. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 96. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 92. 367 POff command. 84 OneLayerOff command. 314 PanDown command. right. 213. 311 Ortho command. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. digitize. 88. 3DS MAX 2. 27. 351. 27. shortcuts.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 90. Aliases tab. 133 OrthoAngle command. 325. target location. pan distance. 307 OnSrf object snap. 92. 322. 318 PConic command. 133. manager. 92. grid of. load. 262. 133. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. 205 pause for user input in script. middle mouse button function. 363. 309. 330. 92. 309. fit through points. startup commands. 330 457 .5. polygon mesh. 90. 379. 28. 92. 133. 68 PictureFrame command. 28. 328. 339. 325 PlaneV command. 313. 322. 379 Ortho pane. 88. 131 pedge. options. 2 Pan: down. set. 327. 88. 90. 308 Options dialog box. shortcut keys. 101. 316. 363. 174 parameterization. 29. 96. 95. 246. 92. 325. 338.set. 281. 311 ortho mode. 322. 40 perspective angle . 307 OneLayerOn command. create curve from. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 387 paste. 96. 84 open: file. detailed polygon mesh. 323 planar mode. 311. 308 orient objects. 133 Perp object snap. 367 pe_tol. 130. about. 326. 96. shortcuts. ortho angle. 272. 325 Plane command. 323 Pa. use for shade. 130. options.2. 2. 2. Softimage. 290. shade. control polygon appearance. toggle. 311. 325. troublshooting. 308 OpenGL: toggle. Snap. 218. 314 parabolic curve. 351. press shift to toggle. place at start of curve. 314 Pan command. place multiple. 313 Panes. Modeling Aids tab. 313. 38 parting line. 322 PlaceTarget command. 80 Perpendicular line. 4. 119 Open command. 200. options. 324 Plane toolbar. View tab. 308 Orient command. 339 POffSelected command. 339. 2. 376. 224. Keyboard tab. 133. click ortho pane to toggle. 88. 2. 4. Planar. saved toolbar layout. 333 PluginManager command. 308. 88. 253. 5. 92. 318 Perspective command. 314 Parabola command. 90. make surface non-periodic. 93. 258. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 79 point objects. 254. 325 plane:. 249. 272. 313 PanRight command. 92. turn on or off. 313 Pan:. 339 point: control. surface. 321. select all. make surface periodic. make curve periodic. developers. 78 Osnap:. 90. autosave. 373 Point toolbar. 307. 375. 92. 82 PerpLine command. Layer. 324. 2 PackTextures command. 92. 327 Point command. 318. 317 pause digitizer input. view. 308 OpenWS command. no-repeat commands. curve. 187. 318 perspective view. place at end of curve.

weld. 423. control points. add next in v-direction to selection. named construction planes from file. 36. draw on mesh. 202. 336 print. select previous in v-direction. 344. 331. sphere. 425 PtOff command. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. hide edit and control. 188 PointCloudSection command. to file. 136. 333. 337 ProjCP command. 343. 292. select all. 179. 292. 335. 328 polar array. 334 PopupToolbar command. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 64. 228 radius: dimension. 339 PopupMenu command. 420. surface. document. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. select next in v-direction. 190. 85. to Clipboard. 345 Rebuild command. 303. 372. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 340 QRender command. 19. 12. 235. 229. 343. 343 rebuild:. clear render mesh. 10. measure. toolbar. 337. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. 187. notes. 344 RebuildEdges command. density for primitives. 332 polygon:. 340 radius:. 331 polygon mesh. absolute. 333 PolylineThroughPt command.0 Command Reference point:. 343. 333 polyline:. 87. 329 PointLight command. 86. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. 19. 303. 86 Properties Text tab. 12. 136. from NURBS object. add previous in u-direction to selection. 262. 68. 135. delete control on curve. 259. show control. 138. 295.Rhino 2. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 335. 339. 121. edit points. 339 pull curve to surface. material. select connected. 228 quinitics. 293. viewport. select object to turn off. 261. render. 337 Print command. 179. 50 Quit command. 131. 262. set normals the same. from edge. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 291. 366 PrintSetup command. 371. 338 project: curve to surface. 338. 220. 339. 254. 338 Project command. 379 preview. add previous in v-direction to selection. 361. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 197. 339 Pull command. 382 QRenderAll command. 339 PointsOn command. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. select next in u-direction. grid. 382 Quad object snap. 104 PushViewportToBack command. 332 PolygonEdge command. 335 PrevV command. 254. invert selection. 259. 81 QueryDomain command. 334. 333. 336. 295. 259. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. clear render mesh for all objects. 332. 2 PrevU command. 339 PtOn command. 366. 413 Points command. 137. 141. 19. object. 68 POn command. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 35. 378. 425. knot. select naked edges. coordinate points. 260. select all. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 331. 150 polar coordinates. 64. 330 PointsFromUV command. join. 259. 87 properties:. 21. 18. 197. 209. 257. explode. 293. 65 program toolbar functions. 229. 294. 343 rebuild: curve. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 340 RailRev command. through point objects. 202. 171. 414. viewport layout from file. 3D face. 334 PostScript file export. 343. options. 368. 368. explode. 330 PointsOff command. objects to construction plane. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 344. 331 Polygon command. 381 QRender1 command. 344 RebuildSrf command. 412. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 261. 327 PointDeviation command. 220. 257. 41 read. 85 Properties Material tab. hide back. 338 Projection command. 296. 423 Polygon toolbar. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. 337. export to file. 290. 19. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 338. 372. 339 PointTest command. plane. 334 polysurface. 235. 328 PointGrid command. from closed polyline. image of model. 136. 296. 386. 141. box. cone. 334 Polyline command. 249. join. 35. select with lasso. apply to surface. inscribed. interpolate curve through. 229. 338. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 292. twist. 353. create from control points. 339 PtOffSelected command. 121. 335 PrevViewport command. 344 recent commands list display. 135. 223 PolarSphere command. 367. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 333. 294. 293. 340 rail revolve. 290. cylinder. 349. 40. render using OpenGL shade. named views from a 3DM file. relative. 339 purge empty layers. 339. display information about an object. 123 Proj command. render mesh. 12. 41 POV-Ray file export. select previous in u-direction. 294. 353 previous viewport. 340 RailRevolve command. 424. show edit and control. 229. 361. 249. 10. 86. 209. 372 Polytrans. 371. 138. 337 project:. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 331. 386. Polytrans Softimage translation. 290. 338 properties. 90 458 . 335. 330 points:. 303. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 343. 137. 420 Properties command. 349. 414. draw. convert each face to NURBS surface. 340 Radius command. 171. 190. 17.

359 RotateCameraLeft command. 347 Rectangle command. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. edges. 171. 398. 359 RotateDown command. named construction plane. 25 Rhino web page. 381. 25. 352. 39. 96.Rhino 2. through three points. 30. 429 RedoMultiple command. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command. 360 RunScript command. 360 Run command. close render window. 2. 355 RevU command. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 356 Right command. 378. 338.ini. named view. wallpaper. copy to Clipboard. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 355 restore:. 4. 1 Rhino. objects. 346 rectangle: center. 340 Revolve command. 359. 345 Rectangle toolbar. 353. preview using OpenGL shade. 338. 429 Redo command. 3. 355 Rev command. up. 355. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 351 RemoveTrace command. 96. 4. 2. 1. 5. 39. 357. 230. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 353 RenderCurves command. 338. 181. 354 reparameterize. 120. 90 reshape a toolbar. transparency. 346 RectangleCen command. toolbar. 357 right mouse button. 357. 398 RenderAGEdges command. options. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 288. 24. 103. 353. 348. 20 render problems. 360 rotate:. 172. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 320. 309. 363. 309. right. 412 Rotate command. file. save image in render window. 355. 203. 416 rotate: construction plane. curves. 99 Render toolbar. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 3. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 379 RenderOptions command. 354. shine. why the name. 347 redo: last undone command. 308. named view. 361. 363. 4. 119 Rhinoceros. 349 relative coordinates. 360 RotateRight command. 133 right view. 10. 273 ruled surface. 203. 4. 5. Rhino 1. 360 Rule command. 2 redo:. 352. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 75 Rhino 1. 3. 363. 324. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 172. 358 RotateCamera command. 181. 30. 352 render plug-in application: options. 354. 2. 338 Ribbon command. 346. a surface. an object. named construction plane. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 382. 2. 3. 19. 94 RIB file export. 39. 3. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 356 RevV command. length and width. 358. 357 rotate view. surface using rail curve. 355 revolve:. 348 refit a curve. 351 RemoveKnots command. 181. corner. 345 Rect3Pt command. 360. vertical. 349 remove. 353 RenderPreview command. highlight. 353. down. view change. view continuously. 324. 171. image in the render window. 357 right-click menu. vertical to construction plane. 360. 340. 363. place lights. 355. 355 revolved surface.0 file exchange. layer. 346. clearing render meshes. 363. bumpmaps. 338. 363. 3. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 288. 2. 353. edges of polygon meshes.0. 103. 251. background bitmap. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. objects in 3D space. 356 RGB color. trim curve from surface. 352 RenderCrv command. 4. 355. 325. 120 restore: current viewport size. ii roll out a surface. 349 RemapCPlane command. 459 . 2. mesh settings. 30 save: as small file. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. move and scale. 126. scale and move on surface. 354 repeat command exclude list. left. 353 RenderEdges command. 347 rectangular array. 348. 121 render: BMRT. 40. 338 Render command. 346. command aliases. clear render mesh for all objects. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. Front construction plane. 348 ReduceMesh command. curve knots. textures. 24. Top construction plane. sequentially numbered versions of model. 181. 183 Restore command. 412 Rotate3D command. 1 RhinoScript options. 353. 360. 362. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. 183. 352. button image to file. 398. 360. 346. 308. 425 render:. 338. 125. 320. autosave. 241 RefreshShade command. create background image. 338. 346 RectV command. object from selection. 351. 360 RotateView command. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 351. 148 rectangular surface. materials. 252. 345. 359 RotateCPlane command. 355 RestoreView command. 359. 171. 348 Redo command shortcut. 338. 351 RemoveKnot command. 346 RectangleV command.0 Command Reference Rect command. 358 RotateCameraDown command. 360 RotateUp command. 120. 2. 324. 361 S command. 351. 362. 39. 358. file to a different file name or file type. 360 RotateLeft command. from three points. 4. 325 RectCen command. Rhino from being minimized. 309. 19. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. 347 rectangle:. 152. 352 rename. 352. 391 SAT file export.

366. 364. 2. 372. 368. 309 Scale command. 373 SelPt command. 184. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 367 SelBadObjects command. 373. 365. 383. 368. subparts of objects. 370 SelDups command. 373 SelSurfaces command. with mouse method. 373 SelPts command. row of control points in udirection. 354. 136. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. objects non-uniformly. 365. 67 Sect command. 258. construction plane to previously used. coordinates of points. 372 SelPrev command. 246. with a window. 371. 129 scripting tools. move and rotate. 371. 367. rotate and move on surface. 335. 182. 369. 367 Section command. construction plane to x axis. 335. 303. 375 SelWindow command. objects. 374 SelV command. 379. 370 SelDup command. 184. 361 save template. 137. to file in 256 colors. 373. in shaded viewport. construction plane to object. 51. 308. 364. 364 Scale toolbar. 50. IGES. 372 SelSolids command. 377. polylines. template. objects by layer number. 366. 303. with crossing window. VBScript. 369. 367 section curves. 373. 371 SelName command. 376. 368. construction plane to next used. objects in one direction. 373 SelSolid command. 373 SelUV command. 368. 372. 372. 103. 126 scripting:. 50. 183. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 184. objects to unlock. to Clipboard. 369 SelDim command. 354. 372. distance between grid lines. 373. objects in two dimensions. add previous control point in v-direction.Rhino 2. 370. 246. 369 SelCurves command. 363 SaveSmall command. 363. 152. 460 . 362. control polygon display density. 24. 363 SaveWSAs command. 24 SelectLayer command. current layer. 137. connected points. 339. 372 SelNone command. 376 set: active viewport by name. 366 scale:. 377. 25. 370 SelLast command. dimensions. toolbar layout. 262. 309. 368 SelColor command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 75 Select Points toolbar. 246. 230. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. 371 SelMesh command. 415. objects to shade. 362 save:. 375. 181. 370. spotlights. 376. meshes. 370 SelLayer command. 181. 367. 138. construction plane with 3 points. 372. 262. 363 SaveView command. digitizing scale. 363 scale: background bitmap. 372 SelPoint command. 90. toolbar layout as different name. 373 SelPolyline command. 262. objects instead of control points. maximized viewport by name. 371 SelLayerNumber command. by layer. invert point selection. 373 select:. objects for render preview. 371 SelLights command. 372. polysurfaces. 136. 368 SelectConnected command. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. construction plane origin. 178. previous control point in udirection. 182. objects by name. 363. 183. 374. 361. 137. 182. 364. 367. 363 Save command. 365. 368 SelCrossing command. 25. 258. 136. 90 Select Color dialog box. 252. 366 ScaleTrace command. 371 SelMeshes command. 363 SaveAs command. 376. 373 SelSrfs command. 370 selection menu. 362. by object ID. 369. 303. 339. 371. 370. 366. 172. 383. add next control point in v-direction. 138. to file. 375. 136. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 371 SelectName command. 368 SelectID command. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. points objects. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 24. 126. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 367 SelAll command. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. objects uniformly. 383. rows and columns of control points on surface. 364. 288. 309. 138. 335. 372 SelGroup command.0 Command Reference shortcut. construction plane to view. 371. 375 Select toolbar. 259. 374. extents of grid. 371. next control point in v-direction. 366. 372 SelPolylines command. 365. 371 SelLight command. 362 SaveCPlane command. next control point in u-direction. construction plane vertical. lasso. 369 SelCrv command. 367 screen:. 363 SaveWS command. 181. all objects. 125. 369 SelCrvs command. 371. previous control point in vdirection. JScript. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. invert. 262. 184. 374. 125. 103. 372 SelPolysrfs command. construction plane to zaxis. 259. 367. 370. 373 SelU command. 372 SelPolysrf command. 370. 372 SelSrf command. bad objects. 370 SelID command. 126. 25. curves. 364 Scale2D command. 373 SelSurface command. 369 SelCurve command. 369. construction plane origins to a point. 206. 373. deselect all objects. 308. 258. duplicate objects. front construction plane. 303. 366. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. surfaces. layers from list. 368 SelConnected command. add previous control point in u-direction. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 366 Scale1D command. 365 screen capture. 365 ScaleNU command. 335.

working directory. onto a curve. hidden control points. 376. 389. curve with digitizer. 338 shortcuts. 381 shade: continuous. OpenGL. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 387 silhouette curves. with wireframe. 390 smooth curve or surface. 182. 386 ShowStatusBar command. to construction plane. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 162. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 96. along a line perpendicular to a curve. Right. 78. 182. 2. 92. to an object. 2. 384 ShowCamera command. 385 ShowPoints command. 388 sketch:. 241. 79. perspective angle. 84. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 385. 382. 4 Shift+PageDown. to the view. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 184. 3 Points. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 242. 343. 125 show: background bitmap. 376. 382. 355. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. x-axis. 387 sketch: curve. 389 SketchOnMesh command. curve on polygon mesh. 23. 379 SetPts command. 384. 80. 81. to next used. 184. 376. selected hidden objects. 383 Shift key. 409. 409 ShowToolbar command. z-buffer. tangent to a curve. shortcuts. 386 ShowPt command. to a knot. 184. 386 ShowSelected command. change size. 384. 95. 261. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 183. flat in one viewport. 178. along a line tangent to a curve. 2. built-in aliases. 298. 206. 119 ShowToolbox command. 80. 386. 182. 212. 212. 220. 246. selected objects in all viewports. 426 ShowAll command. on surface. 322. 426 Show command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. options. 339. 241. 181. with no smoothing on mesh. grid. 379. 76. to a surface. 184. 79. 21 Shear command. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 382 ShadeAll command. vertical. 82. 386. 74. 425 Shade1 command. toolbar. 298. 380 Settings command. 78. handlebars. 246. 207 SetSnap command. 380 SetGroupName command. 206. viewports. edit points. 119 ShowTrace command. 78 461 . 381 set construction plane. 183. 241.Rhino 2. options. scripting tools. 242. 384 show:. 183. top construction plane. 242. 82. right construction plane. 380. 218. 385 ShowGrev command. 92. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 382. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 92. continuous shaded mode. 383. 140. 78. 42 SLC file exchange. 80. 400 ShowTitle command. 81. 184. 2. 181.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. flat with grid. perpendicular to a curve. 133. 389 Sketch command. 380 SetRedrawOn command. 183. spotlight hotspot. 318. 391. 84. 5. 77. 382 shaded display. 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. object. 409 set:. edges of surface or polysurface. 377 SetHotspot command. 383 ShadeSelected command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. 2. 5. 385. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 218. 184. with grid. midway between two points. 94. Osnap toolbar. 78. 378 SetObjectName command. 84. 119. 385. 379 SetPt command. to the midpoint of a curve. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 119. 84. 218. turn off object snaps. 363. 94. 357. 79. 183. 120. 377. 377 SetLayerToObject command. 386 ShowPts command. 94. bitmap in a separate window. 389 SketchOnSrf command. 337. 383 shadow. near a curve. flat in all viewports. 376 SetGridSnap command. by function. 386 Silhouette command. 183. 388. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 264. 425 Shade command. 183. 385. 392. 362 Set View toolbar. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 383. 183. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 381 shade:. 359. 383 ShadedViewport command. 383 ShadeOptions command. keys. 242. 244. 3. 181. 173 ShowCV command. to surface isoparm. to the center of a circle. 125. 383. 381. 181. 339. 250 SetLayer command. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 206. 389 skinning. naked edges. 261. 246. printer. 318. hidden objects. 220 ShowGrid command. 318. 385 ShowOsnap command. 5 Shift+PageUp. 376 SetGLShade command. 384. 81. 182. 384. Top. 250. toggle object snaps. 250. 76. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. to the intersection of two curves. 220. 42 Smooth command. to previously used. by key. 355. 383 shear objects. 2. display context menu. 79. 5 shine in rendering. toggle OpenGL mode. pane. 183. project object snaps to construction plane. 245 ShowMenu command. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. 83. 94. 339 ShowEdges command. to the end of a curve. 390 snap: along a line. 23. 273 SLA export. broken edges. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 98. from a point. selected objects. 337. 381. 379 SetOrtho command. 382. in all viewports. 323. z-axis. 388. control points. 98. continuous in perspective view. 318 SetPlanar command. to a point object. 386. 153. 420 ShowWorldAxes command.

401. 307. 371 Spotlight command. loft. 236. 288. from grid of control points. 398 SrfCV command. comma-delimited file export. 391 snap mode. 409 SnapSize command. 393 Sphere2Pt. 391. file exchange. 216. 165. 386. 281. 216. 393. 354. 182. 42. 399 SrfPoints command. 223. 396. drape. 173. 398 spotlight:. 240. 94. 384. 84 Softimage file exchange. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. viewport vertically. 317. select all. 255 split: edge of a surface. 201. 133. change degree. hotspot. 426. 281. 317. select all. 380. cutting plane. 96. 238. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 234. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 392. 361. 361. 393 Spiral command. 200. 430 startup commands. extract from polysurface. 287. 402. 161. 302. extend. 160 summary information. 381. 273. 238. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. make periodic. 229. sweep along path. 281. 153. 401. 133. 273. 247. 241. 160. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 189. 83. 233. 324. 192 Surface menu. 371. 249. 401. 229 SrfAlign command. from planar curves. 356. create. 132. box from three points. patch. 261. 165. 394 spline. 395. blend. 406. 307. turn on or off. 416. 250. 217. 104. 372. 364 SubCrv command. 238. 242. periodic. 339. 399. 249. 321. 286. 416. 373. extrude. 411 SolidWorks. 392. sweep two rails. X_T file export. 398. 317. 281. 393 sphere:. 192. 377. tolerance. 398. 101. 306. match. 114. 200. 218. rule. skin. 164. 309 SrfBlend command. 229. 189 SrfMatch command. 396. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 288. 289. 284. 340. 397. 392. 320. 118. 284. 4. 399 SrfPts command. 391. 330. 1. 406. ellipsoid. 397 Split command. 236. 373. 406. 162. 164. 240. torus. 192. 355. 81. 92. 414. 250. 247. 380 snap to locked objects. 157. plane from three points. 344. 417 surface:. 238. 203. 393. from heightfield bitmap. 393 Sphere2Pts. 236. 397 SplitEdge command. 68 Softimage plug-in. from three points. 273. box. 421. 398. from 3 or 4 points. 114. 372. 400 STEP file exchange. 158. 417. 277. unroll. 237. 398.0 Command Reference Snap command. 317. 398 spreadsheet. 324. 263. maximum radius of curvature. 411. 284 SrfMerge command. 171. 192. 352. 398. 392. 391. 154. 69 Solid Edge. 396. offset. 397 SplitViewVertical command. 201. 393 SphereD command. 399 SrfSum command. 201. 360. 426 surface analysis:. 35. 70. 344. 325. extrude curve to point. 395 split:. 243. turn on or off. 275. 421. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 228. 180. merge. 320. chamfer. 392 Sphere toolbar. 288. select all. 399 SrfPt command. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 313. 240. shortcuts. 396 SplitSrf command. 413. 295. 190. 324. 251. 247. 428. 2. 173. surface at isoparms. 189. 288 SrfPointGrid command. 16. toolbar. polygon mesh. 161. 416. tube. revolved. 393 Sphere3Pts command. export object properties to. 426 462 . 160. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 78. 338. 165. 392 SnapToLocked command. 410. 15. 224. cone. mean curvature. 157. 366. 233. 278. draw curve through control points. 386. develop. 162. 400 SubCurve command. developable. 238 Standard toolbar. 163. 374 SrfCvCrv command. Booleans. 90. 243. untrim. 163. 42. 399. 236. 2. 38. create fillet between. from curve network. IGES file exchange. 395. 233. 236. 262. 113. 307. Boolean intersection. panes. Boolean union. 162. by diameter. plane. toggle. 166. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 399. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 153. 395. 306. extrude curve along path. 400 StatusBar command. 367. 166. truncated cone. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 5. 68 solid: Boolean difference. 192. 218. 273. 133 sphere. hide backfacing control points. cap planar ends. rebuild. 115. 35. 277. 417. cylinder. display. 133. 79. 218. 417. 284. 133. 132. 399. 298. 316. 392. 103. viewport horizontally. X_T file export. split. 216. 164. 126 Stretch command. 400. 396. 202. 38 SortPoints command. 160. 159. from grid of points. 385. 325. center. 279. 38 Solid toolbar. 251. 410. 334 spacebar. 295 Sphere command. plane vertical to construction plane. 76. 3. 324. 82. 277. trim. 69. 84 snap:. 340. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 398. 238. 15. 372. 42 Stereograms. for rendering. 84. 385. IGES file exchange. 238. 410. 285. 429. 392. 163. 423 STL:. 88. pipe. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. 19. 354. 324. 348. 409. baseball sphere. 157. 276. 243 Surface toolbar. extrude into solid. minimum radius of curvature. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 223. 90 status bar. create variable radius fillet between. 173. 288. 133. 10. 36. 42 StopScript command. 290. 70. 407. 223. reverse direction. 10. make nonperiodic. 166. 135. 273. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 328. 240 solid:. from 3 or 4 curves. 298. 2. 380. 426 STL: ascii tag. 395. 153. 22 support. 69. 105 surface normal. 306. 38. 190. 382. one object with another. 229. 80.Rhino 2. 198. 161. 355. 92. 344. 298. 160. 320. reparameterize. 402.

379. 123. 342. 90. 226. 308. 273. 426. 385. 268. Edge Tools. 420. tear off flyout. 344. 417. 263. 419. 104. 302. 228. rendering of edges. 168. 409. 241. 425. 292. 297. 120. 247. programming. 203. 407 text:. 218. 78. 50. 386. 81. 242. 232. 150. 143. 338. 422. Annotate. 288. 326. 409 TogglePerspective command. 201. 245. 308. 402 Sxtrd command. 168. 406. 367. 397. unlink flyout. 401. 124. 369. ortho mode. 177. 311. 119. 408. 80. 119. 430. 120. new button. 149. grid on and off. 154. 120. 353. 349. 124. 153. 208. 245. 420. 170. 178. 412. Curve Tools. 405. delete toolbar. 230. 391. 164. 123. 185. 392. 393. 138. persistent object snaps. 309. along path. 365. 389. Circle. 414. 407. 229. 90. 123. 317. 83. 379. 396. 363. 353. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 271. 144. 258. 256. 213. 120 tolerance. 125 Toolbar command. 123. 338 texture mapping coordinates. edit bitmap icon. 396. 233. 337. 330. 122. 121. 409 TiltLeft command. 122. display of command prompt. 218. copy. 79. 311. 173. 362. 124. 165. 122. 269 Taper command. 222. save layout as different name. Diagnostics. 243. 409. 352. 338. 399. 409. 400. 208. Dimensions. 330. 162. 358. 1. IGES export. 15. 420. 221. 253. 184. 409. 352. 162. 267. 189. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. 125. display of menu bar. dragging based on view plane. 409 toggle. 120. 122. 216. 323 TCone command. 390. 121. create cascading toolbar. 124. 411. 323. Analyze. 14 Tan object snap. 281. 204. 429. 179. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 363. hide toolbar. 288. 220. 189. 92. 288. edit. 207. rename toolbar. 401. 220. perspective view on and off. 421. planar curves. change button size. 394. 374. 179. set viewport. model size. 392. 339. 209. 249. 223. 192. 389. 40. 144. 134 TGA file format. 22 toolbar buttons. file location. 330. 337. 269 TanLine command.Rhino 2. display of title bar. 90. 352. BMRT Materials. 410. 141. 209. 205. 120. 404. 343. move toolbar. 183. 297. properties. 339. 121. 217. 338. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 293. 73 template. 163. world axes on or off. 241. 325. 298. delete button. 121. 217. 156. surface u and v. 407 TextObject command. 363. 402. 409 title bar. 205. 254. 407 Texture command. Extend.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 332. 235. 234. control polygon highlight. 248. 395. display of viewport title. 221. 251. open. 245. float icon to top of cascade. 169. change. 167. 180. save. 362. 425 Toggle34View command. 124. left. surfaces. 220. Curve From Object. 210. 351. 384. 190. 370. 272. 173. 246. Background Bitmap. edit annotation. 279. 240. 363. 101. scaled size. 200. edit 2-dimensional. 321. 323. 409 toolbar layout. 368. 323. 122. 409 TiltRight command. 222. 322. 80 TanFrom object snap. 428. 123. two rails. 220. 239. 210. 290. 353. 345. 197. 402. 152. 262. 395. control polygon display. 125. 162. 22. pop up with middle mouse. 39. 51. viewports. 215. 281. 119. angle. 373. 355. 245. 330. 415 tilt view. planar mode. 174. 230. 149. 185. 244. rendering of curves. 379. 367. 82. 120. 361. 165. show toolbar. 171. 120. 139. relative. 90. 230. 145. 333. 322. 388. 264. 260. 385. 221. 231. 39. 403. 390. Array. 160. snap mode. 398. 261. 265. 187. 150. 39. 192. 318. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 212. 249. 362 text: annotation dot. 123 Toolbars. 206. 122. 296. 420. change name. 236. save. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 388. 198. 187. 343. title bar on or off. 140. 224. 122. 155. 260. 407. grid axes on or off. 72 technical support. 135. 279. 232. 139. 269. close. 255. 142. 463 . Ellipse. 178. 124. 239. 19. 272. 423. 351. 372. 187. 381. 420 Title command. 311. 156. 215. 382. 236. 256. 407. save button image to file. 366. 216. 120. 157. 307. menu bar. 400 sweep. 248. 409. 387. clear button image. save. Curve. display of status bar. 366. 13. copy button. 22. 409. 416. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 425. 323. 265. 303. 400. 283. 216. 316. 204. 161. 137. 5. 171. 151. 305. 197. 195. 400. 181. 215. 401. 400. 255. 405 target. 164. 255. 331. 323. display viewport. 385. 194. new toolbar. 407. 207. 245. 90. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. 346. 288. 302. 195. 96. 136. 407. 119. 151. capture button image. 368. 368. right. ortho. 348. Box. 324. 295. toggle toolbar on and off. 134. 320. 121. 172. import button image. 121. 122. cascade. 182. 377. 15. 270. 365. 185. 400 SwapUV command. 400 SwapView command. status bar on or off. 334. crosshairs on and off. 215. 3-D Digitizing. 148. 125. 415. 226. 404 TAB key. 103. 123. solids. 359. 387. 168. 148. 340. 198. 168. float toolbar. toolbar on and off. 84. 384. 371. 121. 122. BMRT Lights toolbar. 125. 420. 308. scripting. 363. 120. 347. 134. 142. 124. 400. 383. edit button image. 288. 266. 384. 259. 94. 302. 409. move. 210. 140. 407. 304. 223. viewport title. 231. import from another layout. move button. 338 texture for rendering. 121. 257. 120. 408 Text command. 409. 135. 143. 401 Sweep2 command. 409. clear the bitmap image. display program. 364. 419. 353. 340. 3-D Digitize. 294. 166. 321. 322. 71 Swap. 257. 258. 235. 51. open toolbar. 409. 169. 82 tangent line. 379. 23. 238. capture icon. new file. 336. 121. 212. 119. 328. 387. 413. 367 Thaw command. 313. Arc. 391. 375. 141. definition. 206. 203. 163. 170. 305. 344. 124. 357. reshape toolbar. 120. 177. dock. 88. 135. CPlane View. 173. 335. 284. hide flyout. 409. 174. 404 Sweep1 command. 152. 356. 306. 221. 360. 179.

322. 1. 362. 421. 249. 414 UnhidePoints command. 358. 414 Ungroup objects. 194. 162. 321. 142. 149. 51. 429. 190. 343. 261. 360. 352. 94. 429. 416. 368. control points. 245. 82. 261. 311. 333. Polygon. 173. 81. 264. 428. 339. 253. 410. 303. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 392. 386 troubleshooting. Rotate3D command. Surface Tools. 108. 365. 99. 140. 245. 288. Orient3Pt command. menu bar. 154. 161. 229. 323. 245. 339. 41. 417. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 157. 395. 296. 342. 404. 364. 358. POV Materials. 308. 427. 425. control points on selected objects. 400. 185 u-direction definition. 305. RemapCPlane command. 2. OrientOnSrf command. 373. 341. 423. 258. 334. 283. 148. 386. in text. 412 transform:. 348. 203. 420. 371. 414 UndoSelected command. 16. 90. view change. 307. 249. autosave. 413. 385. STL Tools. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 358. 294. Scale. 337. 306. definition. 307. 153. 377. 357. 425. 221. 409. 216. 318. 263. Layer. 330. Object Snap. 255. Rectangle. 415 Ungroup command. 349. 413. 339. 2. 180. 276. trimmed surfaces. 412 Transform toolbar. 409. 406 Tube command. 422. 140. 220. 414. 138. 367. 399. 296. 203. 246. 2. 405. 400. 390. Flow command. 296. 413 undo:. 245. 339. 399. 353. 49. 425. 161. 249. 416 UnGhost command. 262. 324. Mesh. menu bar. 261. 92 Trim command. 409. 332. 415. 403. 135. 243. 172. 220. layers. 322. 381. 236. 317. 338. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 101. Viewport Layout. 154. 333. 348. 258. 251. 308. Scale2D command. SetPt command. command line. 104. 349. 365. 288. 413 u-direction: move control points. 398. 229. 344. 349. 162. 19. Rotate command. 356. 355. 386. grid. 242. 347. Tools. 405. 254. 311. 390. 192. 409. Scale1D command. 351. 96. 204. 82 tracking line. ProjectToCPlane command. 337. 321 track. Copy command. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. 409 Tools toolbar. 205. 83. Organic. 335. 323. 425 turn on. 309. Smooth command. 398. Standard. 233. 96. grid axes. 244. 405. 330. 247. 218. 2 Torus command. 182. Set View. Surface Analysis. redo. 382. 386. 295. grid. 288. 370. 256. 348. 339. 50. 148. 92. 173. 88. 290. 339. 84. 366. shrink to trim boundary. 307. Plane. 338. 234. rendering. 309. 342. 363. ArrayPolar command. 212. 238. 259. 407. 365. 213. 410. 364. 386. 162. 409. 372. 339. 373. 103. Select. 396. 268. 414 unfold a surface. 50. 263. 420. 160. 309. 425. 82. 383. Taper command. 349. 401. 269. ArraySrf command. 134. 148. 345. 366. 415 Toolbox command. 290. 151. 410. 268. autosave. 244. layer. 429 Undo command. 311. Scale command. 251. 334. 83. 363. title bar. 386. 171. Surface 2. 298. 357. 425. 198. 2. 381. 261. 266. 153. 412 Twist command. 173. 167. 90. 137. 336. 396. 263. 338. 339. 357. 430. 240. 273. 271. 400. 281. 2. 296. 356. 113. Shear command. pop up at cursor. 48. 151. 374. 239. 94. 365. 90. 330. 410 trim:. Mass Properties. 173. 358. 236. 145. 229. 413. 318. Lines. 15 truncated cone. 244. status bar. 203 trimmed surfaces. 92. 88. 171. 140. 379. 366. 88. 297 u-direction curves. 325. 270. 277. 426 Turntable command. 284. 214. 243. 78. 179. 262. 245. 41. Render. world axes. 379. 208. 361. 398. 108. 372. 352. 402. 236. Fillets and chamfers. 365. OpenGL. 326. 355. 92. 382. 183. 328. 219. 229. 262. 338. 309. 298. 181. 400. 412 transparency in rendering. 265. 375. 304. 83. IGES. 311. 386. Microscribe. ArrayCrv command. 362. 345. 377. Visibility. 228. 236. 236. 229. 101. 149. 409 top view. 94. 19. 412. 244. 203. 79. 417. 140. 357. 375. 48. 180. 206. 405. OrientPerpToCrv command. 339. 417. 105. 259. along a line tangent to a curve. 141. 365. POV Lights. 338. 423. IGES export file types. 308. set. 363. 154. 367. 366. 313. 263. 339. 153. 202. 321. 267. Main. 203. along a line. 173. 218. 296. 429 UndoMultiple command. 356 u-direction:. 16. 133. 168. 409 Top command. 307. 308. 173. 80. grid axes. 161 unit systems. 190. 406. 395. Booleans. 275. 152. 288. shortcut. 413. 180. 351. Select Points. 368. Twist command. 184. 100. 348. Bend command. 203. 292. Move command. Transform. 249. 241. 369. 101. 172. 309. 224. 15 Units command. ScaleNU command. 142. 346. 383. 393. 263. 150. 348. 364. 90. 201. IGES export type details. 384. Point. 263. 357. 19. 152. 208. 172. 391. 238. 338. 260. 262. options. 384. 307. Geometry Fix. 161. 331. 355. 154. 203. Boolean. 299. 326. 383. 103. 330. 358. 392. 135. Extrude. 379. 92. 361. 148. 240. 180. Solid. Surface. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 410 TraceBitmap command. 399. 166. 182. 357. 302. 361. 338. 228. 359. 131 transform: Array command. 135. 153. 304. 251. 123 464 . 180. 390. world axes. 210. 397. 172. 253. 364. 154. 245. 424. 390. 411 turn off. status bar. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 409. 408. command. 134. all layers. shortcuts. 300. Mirror command. control points. 244. layer. 348. 273. 229. 240. 200. Sphere. 293. 155. 302. 104. 148. 342. Solid Tools. 96. 288. 296. 343. 409.Rhino 2. 412. 223. 288. 386 Unicode fonts. 379. 409. 409. 324. 383.0 Command Reference 233. 262. File. 165. 349. 415 units systems. 174. reverse. command line. 82. 331. Orient command. 73 union. 316. 414. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 180. 412 U command. 249. 136. Point Editing. 150. 90. 164. 373. title bar. 374. 384. 173. 102. 298. Set CPlane. 307. 317.

409. 172. 405. set to wireframe display. 45 workgroup: check in license. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 420 ViewportTitle command. 430. 428 Windows Clipboard. 43 v-direction: move control points. 153. 271. construction plane bottom. 249. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. 302. 135. construction plane left. 421 VRectangle command. 304. 343. 429. 314. 162. 338. reverse. 273. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 313. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 45 viewport: bring to top. 323. target. unlock objects. 355. 168 465 . 135. 409. 318. 190. set all to match. zoom window. 430. 383. 404 visibility: control points. 273. 323. 313. 338 wireframe display. zoom. 425 WireShade1 command. 357. 347 VRML file export. 90. 409. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 318. set to shaded display. 185 v-direction definition. 313. 322. 318. 298. 184 VDA file exchange. 415 Visual Basic script. 428. 51 weight: edit control point. 302. 162. 384. 24. 386. 420. 298. 409. 165 UpDegSrf command. 425 WMF file export. print. construction plane right. 250 What command. pan. 420 views. 425. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 376. 322. 244. 264. 343. 288. 336. pan down. 336. 23. rotate down. 304. 181. line. 421 VolumeMoments command. 126 Vline command. next ortho active. close. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. 250. set perspective view. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 415 UnLockSelected command. 397. 420 viewport title menu. 429. 321. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 322. 430. 153. pan up. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 360. 288. selected objects. 318. 168. 376. 404. copy to all. 384. 419. set bottom view. 288. 430. 271 Volume command. 336. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 250 water plane area. 23. 212. 386. 429. 90 window selection. maximize. 404. 153. 420. 163. 190. split vertical. 172. object snaps. 264. 397. rotate left. redraw speed. set front view. 363. 409. set density.Rhino 2. 377. 132. with mouse. 304. set left view. 190. 409. 419. create from surface. 421 VPlane command. 397. synchronize. 302. 347. rotate right. 416 untrim a surface. 314. 428. camera. 135. read named from file. 343. 325. 297 v-direction curves. restore named. zoom in and out by a percentage. 249. 376. 185. 415 visibility:. 415 UnLock command. 2. 1 window: select. next perspective active. 153. 412. save named. 135. 244. zoom in. 325. 313. 313. top view. 302. zoom window. 383. zoom all to the same scale. 429. 244. 323. 400. 420. 273. create new. 131. 11 uv mapping coordinates. construction plane back. 425. 400. 430 view:. 318. zoom extents selected. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. next active. 343. 360. 271. bottom view. 54 vertex. 304. rectangle. continuously rotate. place target. 417 Untrim command. three viewports. 415 UnPackTextures command. 134. 357. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 249. 386. object. 303. 417 unwrap a surface. layout. 425 wireframe:. read from file. 288. 24. 322. menu. make previous active. place camera and target. properties. 379. 430. 423 wetted surface area. 419. 419. 422 weight:. 360. 347 view: back view. zoom extents in all viewports. 420. 303. 400 viewport properties. zoom out. rotate up. 377. 236. move next to top. 425 viewport layout: four viewports. 415 Visibility toolbar. split horizontal. set active by name. 356 v-direction:. 357. 162. 135 WireframeViewport command. 96. 132. 126 VCPlane command. 400. 379 Weld command. 429. 423 weld:. tilt right. 224. 360. 288. 376 Wallpaper command. 422 water level. 323.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. rotate. 363. 415 unroll a surface. 302. 96. edit named. show control points. 412. new. front view. 416 UnrollSrf command. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 423. 131 vertical. swap viewports. 135. pan left. 24. 23. zoom extents. 134 VBscript. plane. 264. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 429 viewport layout:. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 355. lock objects. 198. swap. 249. 44 W command. 415. 163. shade. 360. 162. hide back. tilt left. plan view. 419. 429. 384. 420. 383. 416 UpDeg command. 430. left view. check out license. 422 Weight command. zoom window and set a target point. 264. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. 425 ViewportProperties command. 325 Vrbf command. set maximized by name. 360. 419. 430 viewport:. set top view. 397. set right view. 421 VRBSrf command. 415 unlock:. set viewport. 3 window:. pan right. maximize viewport. 11 user input in script. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. set back view. 244. construction plane front. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 25. wireframe viewport. control points. perspective view. display. 429. control point. zoom extents in one viewport. right view. 181. isoparm. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 343. 357.

168. 429 ZoomSelected command. 4. extents in one viewport. 430 ZoomDynamic command.Rhino 2. 430 ZBuffer command. 217 ZBufferPt command. 430 ZoomX command. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 2. 430 466 . 4. 429. previous view. 308. 2. 429 ZoomIn command. 233 Xtra command. 216 ZE command. 96. save. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. check in license. 74 Z command. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 430. toggle display. 429 ZoomPrev command. out. 430 ZoomWindow command. 428 ZoomExtents command. extents of selected objects in all viewports. window. 429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 363. 429 ZoomOut command. check out license. 428. in and out by a percentage. 130. 168. 130 zoom: dynamic.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 168 working directory. 381 workspace. 2. 429. 430 ZSA command. 3. 430. 428 Zoo. 97. 44 X_T file export. set colors. 428. 429 ZEA command. window and set a new target point. 2. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 429 Zebra command. 429. 308. 430 ZP command. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 429. 233 XtndF command. open. 430. 11 WorldAxes command. 430 Zoom command. 168 workgroup:. 428. 430 zoom window. options. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 429 ZoomP command. 430 ZoomTarget command. 429 ZoomMouse command. 428. 426 ZM command. 3. 363. 430. 38 XtndB command. 429 ZS command. extents in all viewports. 3 zoom:. 217 ZBufferPts command. save as different name. 96. 5. in. 363 world axes. 429. 425. 425 world coordinates. 425. 425 WRL file export. 428 ZoomNext command.

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