Command Reference

Version 2.0

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference © Robert McNeel & Associates 2001. All Rights Reserved. Printed in U.S.A. Robert McNeel & Associates 3670 Woodland Park Avenue North Seattle, WA 98103

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Table of Contents
Welcome to Rhinoceros.............................................................................................................................. 17
Why Rhinoceros? Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Frequently Asked Questions Help Shortcuts Built-in aliases Enter construction plane coordinates Enter world coordinates UseWCSCoordinates UseCPlaneCoordinates Enter relative coordinates Enter polar coordinates Enter relative polar coordinates Elevator mode Use Tab to constrain along a line Angle Constraint Distance Constraint Toggle crosshairs on and off 17 17 17 17 18 21 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 30 31 31

Coordinate points........................................................................................................................................ 26

Modeling aids .............................................................................................................................................. 28

Trimmed surfaces ....................................................................................................................................... 31 Document properties .................................................................................................................................. 33
Document Document Document Document Document Document Document Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog dialog box, box, box, box, box, box, box, Dimensions tab Grid tab Notes tab Render Mesh tab Render tab Summary tab Units tab 33 34 35 35 36 38 38

Viewport layout............................................................................................................................................ 39 Select objects .............................................................................................................................................. 40
Selecting parts of objects Rhino 1.0 file exchange 3D Studio file exchange 3D Studio MAX 2.5 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 2.0 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 1.2 file import plug-in 3D Studio MAX 3.0 OBJ file exchange RemoveFlippedNormals ACIS file export Adobe Illustrator file exchange Applied Geometry file exchange AutoCAD DWG file exchange AutoCAD DXF file exchange AutoCAD export options Export object properties GHS file export Lightwave file exchange Moray UDO Export Parasolid X_T file export RenderMan RIB export POV-Ray export Raw Triangle file exchange SLC file exchange STEP file exchange STL file exchange VDA file exchange VRML file export Viewpoint Technologies file export 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 49 49 50 51 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 58 58 59 60 61

Import and export file types ....................................................................................................................... 41

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Windows Metafile file export DirectX file exchange Moldex PostScript file exchange IGES file exchange Troubleshooting IGES import Edit IGES export types Edit IGES export type details OBJ (Wavefront) file export IGES polygon mesh export IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3.0 IGES file exchange Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange AUTOFORM IGES file exchange AutoShip IGES file exchange Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange CADCEUS IGES file exchange CamSoft IGES file exchange CATIA IGES file exchange Cosmos/M IGES file exchange Delcam IGES file exchange FastShip IGES file exchange FastSURF IGES file exchange IronCAD IGES file exchange Integrity Ware IGES file exchange LUSAS IGES file exchange Mastercam IGES file exchange Maya IGES file exchange ME30 IGES file exchange Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange Microstation IGES file exchange Multisurf IGES file exchange NASA GridTool IGES file exchange Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange OptiCAD IGES file exchange Pro/E IGES file exchange SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange Softimage IGES file exchange Solid Edge IGES file exchange Solid Designer IGES file exchange SolidWorks IGES file exchange SUM 4.0 IGES file exchange SURFCAM IGES file exchange Tebis IGES file exchange TekSoft IGES file exchange Unigraphics IGES file exchange Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 61 61 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 83 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 89 89 90

Context menu .............................................................................................................................................. 90 Select Color ................................................................................................................................................. 91 Object snaps................................................................................................................................................ 92
Osnap NoSnap End object snap Near object snap Point object snap Mid object snap Cen object snap Int object snap Perp object snap Tan object snap Quad object snap Knot object snap From object snap PerpFrom object snap TanFrom object snap Along object snap AlongParallel object snap 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 97 97 97 98 98 99 99

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap ProjectOsnap Between OnCrv object snap SnapToLocked Object Properties, Object tab Object Properties, Dimensions tab Object Properties, Light tab Object Properties, Material tab Object Properties, Text tab Options dialog box Options dialog box, Aliases tab Options dialog box, Appearance tab Options dialog box, Files tab Options dialog box, General tab Options dialog box, Keyboard tab Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab Options dialog box, Shade tab Options dialog box, View tab 100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 106 106 108 108 110 110 112

Object properties....................................................................................................................................... 101

Shade ......................................................................................................................................................... 114 Render........................................................................................................................................................ 114 Troubleshoot rendering............................................................................................................................ 115
Troubleshoot OpenGL Layer materials Select Layers Create a new layer Rename a layer Change the color of a layer Delete a layer Filter the layer display list 117 118 119 119 119 120 120 120

Layers......................................................................................................................................................... 117

Surfaces through a sequence of curves ................................................................................................. 121 Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers........................................................................................................... 124 Troubleshoot Booleans ............................................................................................................................ 129 Edit the Rhino.ini file................................................................................................................................. 135 Toolbars ..................................................................................................................................................... 135
Close a toolbar HideToolbar Open a toolbar ShowToolbar ToggleToolbar Move a toolbar Dock a toolbar Float a toolbar Reshape a toolbar Rename a toolbar Import a toolbar from another layout file Change toolbar name or button size Create a new toolbar Delete a toolbar Create a flyout toolbar Flyout a toolbar Hide a flyout toolbar Tear off a flyout toolbar Move a toolbar button Delete a toolbar button Copy a toolbar button Create a floating flyout button Unlink a flyout toolbar 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 138 138 139

Manage toolbar buttons............................................................................................................................ 138

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Customize toolbar buttons ....................................................................................................................... 139
Create a new toolbar button Change the toolbar button tooltip Programming the toolbar button functions Clear the bitmap image Draw or edit a bitmap icon Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon Import a bitmap from another source Save your bitmap to a file VBScript and JScript 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 142

Customize toolbar button bitmap icons.................................................................................................. 139

Scripting tools ........................................................................................................................................... 141 3-D digitizing.............................................................................................................................................. 143 Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................ 143 Error messages ......................................................................................................................................... 144 Scripting Rhino Installers......................................................................................................................... 145 Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo).................................................................................................. 146 Rhino plug-ins ........................................................................................................................................... 146 Glossary..................................................................................................................................................... 146 Commands................................................................................................................................................. 151
34View 3DFace 3View 4View AddNextU AddNextV AddPrevU AddPrevV AddToGroup AlignBackgroundBitmap AlignProfiles AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn Angle ApplyCrv ApplyMesh Arc Arc3Pt ArcDir ArcSER ArcTTR Area AreaCentroid AreaMoments Array ArrayCrv ArrayCrvOnSrf ArrayPolar ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead AssignBlankTexture Audit Autosave Back Baseball BaseballEllipsoid Bend Bisector Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection 151 151 151 151 152 152 153 154 154 155 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 159 160 160 160 161 161 161 164 165 165 166 167 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 170 171 172 173 176 176

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference BooleanUnion Bottom BoundingBox Box Box3Pt BringViewportToTop Cap Chamfer ChamferSrf ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf ChangeLayer ChangeToCurrentLayer Check CheckInLicense CheckOutLicense Circle Circle3Pt CircleD CircleTTR CircleTTT ClearAllMeshes ClearUndo CloseDisplayWindow ClosestPt CloseViewport CommandHistory CommandPaste CommandPrompt Commands Cone Conic ConicPerp Continuity Contour ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight ConvertToBeziers ConvertToPolyline Copy CopyClip CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneElevation CPlaneFront CPlaneNext CPlaneOrigin CplaneOriginAll CPlanePerpToCrv CPlanePrev CPlaneRight CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneTop CPlaneToView CPlaneV CPlaneX CPlaneZ CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CSec 177 178 178 178 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 184 184 184 184 184 185 186 186 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 189 190 192 192 193 194 194 195 195 195 196 196 196 197 197 197 197 197 197 198 198 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 200 201 201 203 203 203 204 205 205

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CullControlPolygon Curvature CurvatureAnalysis CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn CurvatureSrf Curve Cut CutArea CutAreaCentroid CutAreaMoments CutPlane CutVolume CutVolumeCentroid CutVolumeMoments Cylinder Delete Delete control points on curves DeleteAll DetachTrim Dig DigCalibrate DigClick DigDisconnect DigPause DigScale DigSection DigSketch DigSpacing DimAligned DimAngle DimDiameter DimHorizontal DimOptions DimRadius DimRecenterText DimRotated DimVertical Dir DirectionalLight DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap Distance Divide DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot DraftAngleAnalysis DragMode Drape DrapePt Dup DupBorder DupEdge DynamicShading DynamicShadingPerspective EdgeSrf EditDim EditPtOn EditText Ellipse EllipseD Ellipsoid EMap EndBulge EndBulgeSrf Enter Erase EvaluatePt 206 207 208 211 211 213 213 214 215 215 215 216 216 217 217 217 218 218 218 219 219 220 221 221 221 222 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 234 234 235 236 236 237 238 239 240 242 242 243 244 244

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EvaluateUVPt Exit Explode ExplodeMesh Export ExportCommandAliases ExportWithOrigin Extend ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm ExtractPt ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeSrf ExtrudeToPt Fair Faro Fillet FilletEdge FilletSrf FitCrv FlatShade FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll FlattenSrf Flip Flow Front GCon Grid GridAxes GridOptions GridSections GridSize GridThick Group HBar Heightfield Helix Hide HideBackgroundBitmap HideOsnap HidePt HideSwap Hotspot Hydrostatics Import ImportCommandAliases Improve IncrementalSave Insert InsertEditPoint InsertKink InsertKnot InsertLineIntoCrv InterpCrv InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect Invert InvertPt Join JoinEdge 244 244 245 245 245 246 246 246 247 248 248 249 249 250 251 251 252 252 252 254 254 254 255 255 255 256 256 257 257 258 258 259 259 260 260 261 261 261 261 262 262 262 262 262 263 264 265 265 265 265 266 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 269 269 270 271 271 272 273 274 274 275 275 276

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0 Command Reference JoinMesh JoinSrf LabelCurveEndpoints Lasso LayerLock LayerOff LayerOn Leader Left Length Line Line4Pt LineAngle LinearizeTrims LinePerp LinePP Lines LineTan LineTP LineTT LineV List LoadPlugin LoadScript Lock LockSwap Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match MatchLayer MatchSrf Maximize MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf Mesh MeshBox MeshCone MeshCylinder MeshDensity MeshPlane MeshPolyline MeshSphere MeshToNurb Minimize Mirror Move MoveBackgroundBitmap MoveUVN Mscribe NamedCPlane NamedView NetworkSrf New NewViewport NextOrthoViewport NextPerspectiveViewport NextU NextV NextViewport NextViewportToTop Normal Notes Offset OffsetSrf OneLayerOff 277 277 277 278 278 279 279 280 280 281 281 282 282 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 287 288 288 288 289 289 289 295 297 297 297 297 299 300 304 304 304 304 304 306 308 308 309 309 310 310 311 312 312 312 312 313 313 314 314 314 314 318 318 318 319 319 319 320 320 320 321 321 322 323 x .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference OneLayerOn Open OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientCrvToEdge OrientOnSrf OrientPerpToCrv Ortho OrthoAngle PackTextures Pan PanDown PanLeft PanRight PanUp Parabola Paraboloid Paste Patch Pause Perspective PerspectiveAngle PerspectiveMatch PictureFrame Pipe PlaceBackgroundBitmap PlaceCameraTarget PlaceTarget Plan Planar PlanarSrf Plane Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PluginManager Point Point filters PointCloudSection PointDeviation PointGrid PointLight Points PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polygon PolygonEdge Polyline PolylineOnMesh PolylineThroughPt PopupMenu PopupToolbar PrevU PrevV PrevViewport Print PrintSetup Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff PtOffSelected PtOn Pull PushViewportToBack Radius RailRevolve 323 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 329 330 330 330 332 333 334 334 334 334 336 336 337 338 339 339 339 340 340 340 341 341 341 342 342 343 344 345 345 346 346 346 347 348 349 349 350 350 350 351 351 352 352 353 353 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 xi .

0 Command Reference ReadCommandFile ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile ReadNamedViewsFromFile ReadViewportsFromFile Rebuild RebuildEdges RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV Redo RedoMultiple ReduceMesh RefreshShade RemapCPlane RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveFromGroup RemoveKnot RemoveMultiKnotSrf RemoveWallpaper Render RenderAGEdges RenderCrv RenderEdges RenderOptions RenderPreview RenderPreviewAll RenderPreviewSelected RenderPreviewSelectedAll ReparameterizeSrf Restore RestoreCPlane RestoreView Revolve RevU RevV Ribbon Right Rotate Rotate3D RotateCamera RotateCameraDown RotateCameraLeft RotateCameraRight RotateCameraUp RotateCPlane RotateDown RotateLeft RotateRight RotateUp RotateView Run RunScript Save SaveAs SaveAsTemplate SaveCPlane SaveDisplayWindowAs SaveSmall SaveView SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale Scale1D Scale2D ScaleBackgroundBitmap ScaleNU ScreenCaptureToClipboard ScreenCaptureToFile 358 359 359 359 359 360 360 361 362 362 363 364 364 364 365 365 367 367 367 367 368 368 368 369 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 375 375 375 376 376 376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378 379 379 379 379 379 380 380 381 381 382 382 382 xii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference ScreenCaptureToFile256 Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelColor SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv SelDim SelDup SelGroup SelID SelLast SelLayer SelLayerNumber SelLight SelMesh SelNakedMeshEdgePt SelName SelNone SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPrev SelPt SelSrf SelU SelUV SelV SelWindow SetActiveViewport SetCurrentRenderPlugIn SetGLShade SetGroupName SetLayer SetLayerMaterialProperties SetLayerToObject SetMaximizedViewport SetObjectMaterial SetObjectMaterialProperties SetObjectName SetObjectNameMultiple SetOrtho SetPlanar SetPt SetRedrawOff SetRedrawOn SetSnap SetViewportWindowSize SetWorkingDirectory Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShadedViewport ShadeOptions ShadeSelected ShadeSelectedAll Shear Show ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowCamera ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowOsnap ShowPt ShowSelected ShrinkTrimmedSrf Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch 383 383 383 384 384 384 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 388 389 389 389 389 390 391 392 392 392 392 393 393 393 393 393 394 394 394 395 395 395 395 396 396 396 396 397 397 398 398 399 399 399 399 399 400 400 400 401 401 401 401 402 402 402 403 403 404 xiii .Rhino 2.

0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Smooth Snap SnapSize Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Spiral Split SplitEdge SplitSrf SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical Spotlight SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv SwapUV SwapView Sweep1 Sweep2 SynchronizeViews Taper TCone Text TextObject TiltLeft TiltRight Title ToggleOsnap Toolbar Top Torus Trim Tube Turntable Twist Undo UndoMultiple UndoSelected Ungroup UnifyMeshNormals Units UnLock UnLockSelected UnpackTextures UnrollSrf Untrim ViewCPlaneBack ViewCPlaneBottom ViewCPlaneFront ViewCPlaneLeft ViewCPlaneRight ViewCPlaneTop ViewportProperties ViewportTitle Volume VolumeCentroid VolumeMoments VRBSrf Wallpaper Weight Weld What WireframeViewport WireShade1 WorldAxes 405 405 406 407 408 408 409 409 410 411 412 412 413 413 414 414 415 415 416 416 416 416 417 418 420 421 422 423 423 425 425 425 425 425 425 426 426 427 428 428 429 430 430 430 430 431 431 431 431 432 433 435 435 435 435 435 435 436 436 436 437 437 437 438 438 439 441 441 441 441 xiv .Rhino 2.

..........Rhino 2.......0 Command Reference Zbuffer Zebra ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomIn ZoomNext ZoomOut ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomTarget ZoomWindow ZoomX 442 442 444 445 445 445 445 445 445 446 446 446 446 446 Index.... 447 xv ........................................................................................................................................

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference xvi .

Why Rhinoceros? The software developers started calling this program "Rhino" as a prototype name early in the development process. For a complete list of Rhino commands with a brief description.rhino3d. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Help > Help Topics F1 The Help Topics: Rhino dialog box appears. and Find.rhino3d. 17 . click the See Also button at the top of each topic window. We have made every effort to explain the commands in detail and give examples of how they work. To explore the related topics. It has the standard Windows Help tabs of Contents.com/rhino By sending e-mail to rhino@rhino3d. This is to make the graphics easier to see either in the help file or when you print the topic on a black and white printer.com Frequently Asked Questions Find the answers to frequently asked questions about Rhino on Web at www. A note about the graphics in the Help file The graphics used to illustrate the commands often display alternate color schemes for the Rhino viewports than the default gray background. Rhinoceros knickknacks and pictures started accumulating in the office.Rhino 2. Here are some tips for getting the most from the Help file You can get Help for most commands by pressing F1 while the command is running. Help Access Rhino's Help file. under the topic Help.com Web site www.rhino3d.0 Command Reference Welcome to Rhinoceros So you can get the most out of using Rhino. see the Rhino Command List. and by the time the product was in beta testing.com/support/faq. the name stuck. a lot of time has been spent developing the information in this Help file. Index. Contacting Robert McNeel & Associates Get technical support: By posting a question to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. This page you are viewing is part of Rhino's help file.

F11 F10 Shift+Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+P Ctrl+Y Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Arrow 18 . Lens length displays on status bar. Try pressing F1 frequently as you work. and Right view.Rhino 2. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Ctrl+G Ctrl+U Ctrl+N Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+O O. Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Rhino displays the Help topic linked to the command you are running or the dialog box that is open. Pan backward Pan forward Paste Planar mode Points Off Points On Previous viewport active Print Redo Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+V P. Click digitizer Command History Copy to Clipboard Copy while dragging Cut Delete Grid toggle Grid snap Help Layer Group Ungroup New Next viewport active Open Ortho toggle Pan Shift+Page Up Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse button drag F12 F2 Ctrl+C Alt + drag Ctrl+X Delete key F7 S F1 Right click the Layer pane on the status bar. Shift or Ctrl + arrow keys.0 Command Reference Rhino fully implements context-sensitive help: when you press F1. drag with the right mouse button. F8. Shortcuts Shortcuts by function Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Ortho pane on the status bar. Front. In parallel views like the default Top. click the Planar pane on the status bar. Shift. Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Snap pane on the status bar. Alt + click Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Z Ctrl + drag up right mouse button. Rotate mouse wheel. Rotate mouse wheel. PageDown. PageUp. Rotate camera Tilt the view Save Select all objects Set current layer Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Perspective Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Top Snap toggle Suspend object snaps Tilt left Tilt right Undo Zoom in Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+S Ctrl+A Status bar: Layer pane Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F1 F9. Zoom Next (Redo view change) Zoom out End Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button. Perspective views and parallel views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. Ctrl+A Crossing selection Endpoint object snap Move Otho Planar mode Grid snap Undo Window selection Zoom window Suspend object snaps Copy while dragging Rotate Down Rotate Left Rotate Right Rotate Up Zoom out Zoom in Select all objects Home 19 . Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Shortcuts by key C E M O P S U W Z Alt + click Alt + drag Arrow Down Arrow Left Arrow Right Arrow Up Ctrl + drag down with the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Rotate view Ctrl + Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl + drag up with right mouse button.Rhino 2.

Lens length displays on status bar.Rhino 2. Rotate camera Next viewport active Paste Ungroup Cut Redo Undo Delete Zoom Next (Redo view change) Help Points On Points Off Click Digitizer Command History Grid toggle Ortho toggle Snap toggle Zoom Previous (Undo view change) Zoom out Zoom in Zoom in and out Ortho toggle Pan Previous viewport active Ctrl+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Tab Ctrl+V Ctrl+U Ctrl+X Ctrl+Y Ctrl+Z Delete End F1 F10 F11 F12 F2 F7 F8 F9 Home PageDown PageUp Rotate mouse wheel Shift Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Shift+Ctrl+Tab 20 .0 Command Reference Ctrl+C Ctrl+F1 Ctrl+F2 Ctrl+F3 Ctrl+F4 Ctrl+G Ctrl+N Ctrl+O Ctrl+P Ctrl+Page Down Ctrl+Page Up Ctrl+S Ctrl+Shift + drag with the right mouse button. Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Ctrl+Shift+Alt+ Right mouse button drag Copy to Clipboard Set maximized viewport Top Set maximized viewport Front Set maximized viewport Right Set maximized viewport Perspective Group New Open Print Pan backward Pan forward Save Rotate view Tilt right Tilt left Tilt the view Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view.

Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Keyboard tab and Aliases tab. Command Name 34View AlignBackgroundBitmap AllCPlanesThroughPt AllLayersOn ApplyCrv Arc3Pt ArcDir ArrayCrv ArraySrf Arrow Arrowhead Blend BlendSrf BooleanDifference BooleanIntersection BooleanUnion BoundingBox Box3Pt ChangeDegree ChangeDegreeSrf Circle3Pt CircleD ClosestPt CommandPrompt ConicPerp ControlPolygon ControlPolygonDensity ControlPolygonHighlight Aliases Toggle34View AlignTrace AllCPlanesThroughPoint ShowAll ApplyCurves 3Arc Arc3Pts DirArc ArrayCurve ArraySurface AnnotateArrow AnnotateArrowhead CurveBlend SrfBlend bd bi bu CrvBox CurveBox 3box Box3Pts UpDeg UpDegSrf 3Circle Circle3Pts 2Circle ClosePoint ShowCommandPrompt PConic CPTog CPDash CPHighlight 21 .Rhino 2.click Layer pane Status bar: Snap pane Many of these shortcuts can be changed and you can add new shortcuts and aliases. Set current layer popup Ortho toggle Display Edit Layers dialog box Snap toggle Shift+PageUp Status bar: Layer pane Status bar: Ortho pane Status bar: Right. Built-in aliases Rhino contains built-in aliases for many commands.0 Command Reference Shift+PageDown Adjust the lens length of the camera in a perspective view. Others are old command names left from earlier versions that are included for the convenience of users who have written scripts and customized buttons using these names. See Options dialog box. Some are designed in to be shortcuts.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ConvertToPolyline CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll CopyCPlaneToAll CopyViewToAll CPlane3Pt CPlaneThroughPt CPlaneToObject CPlaneToView CPlaneV CreateUVCrv Crv2View CrvDeviation CrvEnd CrvSeam CrvStart CrvThroughSrfControlPt CullControlPolygon CurvatureGraphOff CurvatureGraphOn DigSpacing DisableOsnap DisplayBitmap DivideByLength DocumentProperties Domain Dot Drape DrapePt ConvertToPolylines MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame MakeAllCPlanesTheSame MakeAllViewsTheSame 3CPlane CPlane3Pts CPlaneThroughPoint CPlaneObject CPlaneView VCPlane CreatePCurves c2view CurveOverlap CurveEnd CurveSeam CurveStart SrfCVCrv CullCP COff COn SetSketchSkip FreezeOsnap LockOsnap Display Measure FileProperties QueryDomain AnnotateDot ZBufferSrf ZBufferPoints ZBufferPt ZBufferPts DupBorder EditPtOn EllipseD Ellipsoid EvaluatePoint EvaluateUVPt Exit Cob ShowGrev EllipseEnds PolarEllipsoid EvaluatePt MeasurePoint QueryUVPoint Logoff Logout Quit ExtendByArc ExtendByArcToPt ExtendByLine ExtendCrvOnSrf ExtendSrf ExtractControlPolygon ExtractIsoparm CArc CArcPt CLine XtndB XtndF CreateControlPolygon Flowline 22 .

0 Command Reference ExtractSrf ExtractWireframe Extrude ExtrudeAlongCrv ExtrudeToPt FilletEdge FlattenSrf Grid GridAxes HBar HideBackgroundBitmap HidePt HideToolbar Hotspot Import InsertKink InsertKnot InterpCrvOnSrf InterpPolyline Intersect JoinEdge JoinSrf Line4Pt LineAngle LinePerp LineTan LineV Lock Loft Make2D MakeCrvPeriodic MakeSrfNonPeriodic MakeSrfPeriodic Match Xtra ConvertToCurves sxtrd SrfSum ExtrudeCrvToPt FltE OldFlattenSrf ShowGrid ShowGridAxes HBarSrf HideTrace HidePoints HidePts HideToolbox SetHotspot Merge InsertKinks InsertKnots InsertKnotSrf InterpCrvSrf InterpolatePolyline IntersectCrv EJoin JoinFaces ELine Line4pts AngleLine PerpLine TanLine Vline Freeze Ghost LooseLoft Rule Make2d4View MakeCurvePeriodic MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic MakeSurfacePeriodic Attach AttachEnd FixCurveEnd MatchSrf MaxViewport Menu MergeEdge MergeSrf MeshPolyline Move MoveBackgroundBitmap SrfMatch ToggleMaxViewport ShowMenu EMerge SrfMerge TriangulatePolyline m MoveTrace 23 .Rhino 2.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference NamedCPlane NamedView OneLayerOn OpenWorkspace Options Orient Orient3Pt OrientOnSrf Ortho PerspectiveAngle PlaceBackgroundBitmap Planar Plane3Pt PlaneThroughPt PlaneV PointDeviation PointsAtNakedEdges PointsFromUV Polyline PolylineThroughPt Project Projection ProjectToCPlane Properties PtOff NamedCPlanes NamedViews HideAll OpenWS Settings Align Align3D AlignOnSrf srfalign o SetPerspectiveAngle TraceBitmap p 3Plane Plane3Pts FitPlane VPlane PointTest EnakedPt EvaluateUV Pline SortPoints Proj TogglePerspective ProjCP Texture HideCV POff PointsOff PtOffSelected PtOn PointsOffSelected POffSelected PointsOn POn ShowCV RailRevolve Rebuild RebuildSrf Rectangle Rectangle3Pt RailRev Elmo ElmoSrf Rect 3Rectangle Rectangle3Pts Rect3Pt RectangleCen RectangleV RefreshShade RemoveBackgroundBitmap RemoveKnot CRectangle RectCen RectV VRectangle ClearMesh RemoveTrace RemoveKnots RemoveKnotSrf 24 .

0 Command Reference RenderCrv ReparameterizeSrf Revolve SaveWorkspace SaveWorkspaceAs Scale1D ScaleBackgroundBitmap Section SelAll SelBadObjects SelConnected SelCrossing SelCrv RenderCurves ReparameterizeSurface Rev SaveWS SaveWSAs Stretch ScaleTrace Sect All SelectBadObjects SelectConnected c SelCurve SelCurves SelCrvs SelDup SelID SelLayer SelLight SelMesh SelName SelNone SelDups SelectID SelectLayer SelLights SelMeshes SelectName Deselect DeselectAll None SelPolyline SelPolysrf SelPolylines SelPolysrfs SelSolid SelSolids SelPt SelSrf SelPoint SelPts SelSrfs SelSurface SelSurfaces SelUV SelWindow SetPt SetSnap Shade Shade1 ShadeAll ShowBackgroundBitmap ShowBrokenEdges ShowEdges ShowNakedEdges ShowPt SrfCV w SetPts GridSnap SetGridSnap QRender QRender1 QRenderAll ShowTrace ebroken eshow enaked ShowPoints ShowPts UnhidePoints ShowToolbar ShowToolbox 25 .Rhino 2.

the marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Silhouette SimplifyCrv Sketch SketchOnMesh SketchOnSrf Snap Sphere Sphere3Pt SphereD Horizon SimplifyCurve CurveSketch ZBufferSketch CurveSketchSrf s PolarSphere Sphere3Pts 3Sphere 2Sphere Sphere2Pt Sphere2Pts SplitEdge SplitViewportHorizontal SplitViewportVertical SrfControlPtGrid SrfPt SrfPtGrid StatusBar SubCrv Title ToggleToolbar Toolbar Undo UnLock ViewportTitle VRBSrf WorldAxes ZoomDynamic ZoomExtents ZoomExtentsAll ZoomPrev ZoomSelected ZoomSelectedAll ZoomWindow ESplit SplitViewHorizontal SplitViewVertical CreateUniformSurface SrfPoints SrfPts SrfPointGrid ShowStatusBar SubCurve ShowTitle ToggleToolbox Toolbox u Thaw UnGhost ShowViewportTitle vrbf ShowWorldAxes ZoomMouse zm ze zea ZoomP zp zs zsa z Zoom Coordinate points When prompted for a point.Rhino 2. the cursor moves around the last point in increments of the specified angle. Angle If you type an angle with < prefix. you can click the mouse in a viewport to define the point coordinates or you can or type the coordinates in several ways: Distance If you type a distance. 26 .

type coordinates in the format: wx.3 and press Enter.y plane. type 0. type w0.and y-coordinates. type coordinates in the format: rx. UseCPlaneCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to construction plane coordinates. Note If you enter only x. and with wr prefix world relative coordinates. with r prefix relative coordinates. The line is drawn from the world origin to a point 12. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt.10 in the construction plane coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.0 Command Reference Coordinates You can type x and y coordinates or x.0 and press Enter.y (relative construction plane coordinates) or wrx.6. y and z coordinates to place points.z and press Enter.0 and press Enter. type 12. Enter construction plane coordinates At the command prompt. type coordinates in the format: x. type w12. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type r2. The line is drawn to a point 2 units in the x-direction and 3 units in the y-direction from the last point. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar. With w prefix you can type world coordinates. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. click Line. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. Enter relative coordinates At the command prompt. This starts the line at the world coordinate origin. the point will lie on the construction plane. It has the same effect as clicking the pane in the status bar.and y-coordinates. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. click Line. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Enter world coordinates At the command prompt. then click Single Line.y. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.y.10 and press Enter. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu.6. 27 .Rhino 2. enter the starting point for the line.y (world relative coordinates) and press Enter.6.0.10 and press Enter. Note If you enter only x. UseWCSCoordinates Sets the dislay and entry modes to world coordinates. then click Single Line. This starts the line at the construction plane origin.10 in the world coordinates.z and press Enter. Note Use this command to change the display in a script or button. The line is drawn from the construction plane origin to a point 12.6. click Line. then click Single Line. the point will lie on the world x.0.

indicating that the marker is constrained to move perpendicular to the construction plane. 28 . then click Single Line. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. A white tracking line will display. hold the Ctrl key and pick a point in the perspective viewport. Enter relative polar coordinates At the command prompt. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt.Rhino 2. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the last point entered. Drag the mouse around in the perspective viewport. Notice the location of the marker in the other views. Drawing using elevator mode Drag objects perpendicular to the construction plane using elevator mode 1 2 3 Select the objects to move. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. type r4<45 and press Enter. type coordinates in the format: rd<a or wrd<a (world relative polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the last point and a is the angle from the x. click Free-form. then click Interpolate Points. then click Single Line. enter the starting point for the line.0 Command Reference Enter polar coordinates At the command prompt. click a point in the perspective viewport.axis) and press Enter. Draw a curve using elevator mode 1 2 3 4 5 From the Curve menu. type coordinates in the format: wd<a (world polar coordinates) (where d is the distance from the construction plane origin and a is the angle from the x. Press Enter when done ( Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. At the Next point of curve. at a 45 degree angle from the construction plane x-axis.axis) and press Enter. click Line. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Undo ) prompt. Hold the Ctrl key and click and drag with the left mouse button on the selection set. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. Modeling aids Elevator mode Use elevator mode to pick a point off the construction plane. At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord ) prompt. click Line. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. indicating the new location of the selection set. A white tracking line will connect the point you picked to the marker. The line is drawn to a point four units away from the construction plane origin. Click the left mouse button to select the point. For example: 1 2 3 From the Curves menu. enter the starting point for the line. type 4<45 and press Enter. click another point in the perspective viewport. at a 45° angle from the construction plane x-axis.

Rhino 2. then click Single Line. and click again. You can start elevator mode in another location. release Ctrl. Or press Tab twice.D input devices (the mouse and monitor) is aided with construction planes. then press Ctrl and click. Cancelling elevator: 1 2 Elevator from direction lock: Elevator mode can now also be activated from direction lock. A new elevator mode starts relative to the new construction plane. Note You can type a number at the command prompt to specify the elevation of the point. Use Tab to constrain along a line 1 2 3 4 Use the Tab key to constrain the marker movement along a line. press Ctrl. but only if the point can be truly 3. negative numbers are below. click Line. This makes it possible to do point filtering in Rhino.0 Command Reference 4 1 2 Elevator mode. Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. Press Tab. After starting elevator mode. Elevator mode allows you to specify a point that is a given distance above or below a point on the construction plane. 29 . Release the left mouse button to place the objects. From the Curves menu. Positive numbers are above the construction plane.D. Specifying 3. was when you pressed Tab. Change viewports. Continue with picking locations. Place the first line point. Release Ctrl. The marker is now constrained along the line between the first point and the point where the marker. Drag the mouse out. Turn off elevator mode if you have started elevator mode in error Other ways to use elevator mode Multiple elevator: 1 2 Press Ctrl and click to start elevator mode. type NoElev.D points using 2. Anything drawn in Rhino by simply picking points is always drawn on the construction plane of the current viewport.

When you move the cursor close to the end of the curve. Your line will pass through the end of the curve. Click to place the point. the marker snaps to the curve end. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Press Tab and then move the mouse beyond the curve end and pick. Angle Constraint The angle constraint ensures that the next point will be placed at a specified angle relative to the last point. If grid snap is on and ortho is activated. 1 2 For example: 1 2 3 30 .0 Command Reference Line snapped to endpoint The mouse constrained to the line between the first point and the Tab point Note You can use Tab constraint when you want the line to pass through the end of a curve and then go beyond it. Turn on end object snap. then click Single Line. If grid snap is on and ortho is not activated. click Line. Tab direction lock snaps to grid lines. type <60. The cursor moves along a line at the specified angle.Rhino 2. You can use Tab constraint combined with the Distance constraint to draw a curve of a specified length and then constrain the angle with the Tab key. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the starting point for the line. Tab direction lock snaps to the snap points. The line is restricted to 60 degree angle from the last point. Or. type a distance and press Enter. Type an angle at the command prompt in the format <a and press Enter. From the Curves menu.

If you have a trim curve that runs diagonally across a surface. The trim curves don't define a surface—they are only markers on the surface as to which part is to be considered trimmed away. Those trimming curves exist on the underlying surface. Type a number at the command prompt and press Enter. Or. The underlying surface may be larger than the trim curves. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance and in increments of the specified angle. but you won't see the underlying surface because Rhino doesn't draw anything for the part of the surface that is outside the trim curves. you can turn them on. The marker moves around the last point at the specified distance.0 Command Reference Distance Constraint The distance constraint ensures that the next point will be placed a specified distance from the last point. Only the underlying surface defines the actual geometry of the shape. At the Start of line ( BothSides ) prompt. Click to place the point. From the Curves menu. the trim curve itself doesn't have any real relationship to the control point structure of the surface. type 10. At the End of line ( BothSides ) prompt. The line endpoint moves around the last point 10 units away. Menu: Tools > Options On the Appearance tab select Crosshairs. 1 2 3 1 2 3 For example: Toggle crosshairs on and off Rhino provides full-screen crosshairs in addition to the smaller cursor.Rhino 2. enter the starting point for the line. type an angle in the format <a and press Enter. Click to place the point. then click Single Line. and there are trimming curves that either trim away the outside portion of the surface or cut holes in its interior. Trimmed surfaces A trimmed surface has two parts: there's a surface that underlies everything that defines the geometric shape. You can see this if you select such a trimmed 31 . click Line. If you are used to using full-screen cross-hairs.

you can see that even though the surfaces can touch up to one another nicely at their trims. When you have a trimmed surface where the underlying surface is much larger than the outside trimming boundary. the surfaces cannot be merged.0 Command Reference surface and turn its control points s on. this will become more clear. 32 . Control points on trimmed surface Here's what happens when two surfaces are merged—the surfaces are defined by their control points. and it's the underlying surfaces that provide the actual definition of the shapes involved. If you turn on the control points for two trimmed surfaces.it can be zinging around all over the place and squiggling around instead of being lined up in a straight rectangular grid like the control points are. their control points don't line up because the trim curve just doesn't have anything to do with the control points . you can use the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command to shrink the surface back so that it is only large enough to hold the trimming boundaries and doesn't have a large extra unused area. Surfaces trimmed with same curve have overlapping control points If the control points don't line up on two trimmed surfaces. since control points are merged together to make a single surface out of two individual surfaces. their underlying surfaces aren't lined up with one another in any way. by using the Untrim or DetachTrim commands to remove holes or outside boundaries. so it's really a matter of merging the two surfaces' rectangular control point grids together. If you use Untrim on the two trimmed surfaces that you want to merge.Rhino 2. which doesn't necessarily have any connection with the trim curves. You'll see the control points for the whole underlying surface. Untrimmed surfaces You can remove the trim curves and get back to the underlying surface. You'll see that even though the trimming edges of the two surfaces are connected. so those are the things that need to be merged.

Text height The text height in Rhino units.0 Command Reference Document properties Menu: File > Properties Document Properties dialog box. extension line extension. The text height.Rhino 2. and arrow length are multiplied by this number. extension line offset distance. Dimension features Extension line extension The length of the extension line above the dimension line in Rhino units. Arrow length The length of the dimension arrow in Rhino units. Extension line offset The distance from the dimension point on the object to the start of the extension line in Rhino units. 33 . Dimensions tab Options Appearance Dimension text font Sets the font for the dimension text. Decimal Fractional Feet & inches Precision Sets the number of decimal places the dimension will use. Size Scale factor This is normally the inverse of the print scale. This option also affect annotation text created with the Text command.

0 Command Reference Text alignment Above dimension line Places text above the dimension line. regardless of the direction of the dimension line. 34 . Dimension text above the dimension line In dimension line Cuts the dimension line and centers the text inside it. Dimension text horizontal to the view Document Properties dialog box. Grid extents Defines the extents of the grid in Rhino units. Toggle snap by clicking the Snap pane on the status bar. Rotates the text to align with the dimension line. Dimension text cut in the dimension line Horizontal to view Draws the text horizontal to the view.Rhino 2. Grid spacing Sets the grid spacing in Rhino units. Grid tab Options Snap spacing Sets the snap spacing in Rhino units. Major lines every Defines the thick grid line interval in number of minor gridlines.

when not zero. Render Mesh tab Menu: File > Properties > Render Mesh tab Whenever you shade or render a NURBS surface. Show grid axes Toggles the visibility of the red and green grid axes in the middle of the grid. Notes tab Add notes to your model. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files. but may take very long to shade and render. is from 1 to 100. and higher polygon count. but should shade and render relatively fast.0 Command Reference Show grid Toggles the visibility of the grid. This setting is scale independent. Apply to all viewports Clear this check box to adjust the grid settings in the active viewport only. the surface is converted into a polygon mesh first. type information you want to save with the model. whenever you start a new model without a template.Rhino 2. Smooth & slower Objects should look smooth. This setting is scale independent. World axes icon Toggles the visibility of the world coordinate icon in the bottom left corner of each viewport. The default value for this option is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral and nicely shaped polygons. more accurate meshes. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. Document Properties dialog box. the mesh is refined until the angle between adjacent polygon vertex normals is smaller than this value. The default value for this option is zero and the suggested range. 35 . these settings are used. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. Options Jagged & faster Objects may look jagged. Use as defaults If the grid settings are stored as defaults. Document Properties dialog box. Custom Set the custom options. When the Refine check box is selected. Menu: File > Properties > Notes tab On the Notes tab. Custom options Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. Note These notes can also be accessed through the Notes command. These detailed render mesh options control the way the NURBS surfaces are converted to polygon meshes. You may want to adjust these values if you are not satisfied with the default shade and render quality. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count.

This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Render tab Options Resolution Viewport resolution The active viewport is rendered using the viewport resolution. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. more accurate meshes. Jagged seams is not selected. When the Refine check box is selected. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface.Rhino 2. and higher polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. 36 . This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. By default. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. edge to Srf options. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Jagged seams Causes faster meshing. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. Refine is selected. Setting Max dist. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option.0 Command Reference The default value for this option is 0. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Document Properties dialog box. Clearing this box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles. By default. and lower polygon count. Min edge length. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Max edge length. After initial meshing. When the Refine check box is selected. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. This is also approximately the minimum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Max dist. The default values is 16. Refine mesh Clearing this box results in faster meshing.0001 units and the usable range depends on the size of the model. By default. When the Refine check box is selected. Simple planes is not selected. less accurate meshes. All planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. In practice. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. The suggested range is from 0 to 10000. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. This option is scale dependent. The default values is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. a polygon is not refined further if any edge is shorter than this value. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. Simple planes Causes in slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. and Max dist.

Best and Slowest A pixel color is calculated from 25 samples taken from the pixel area. In practice. if the shadows are unnaturally far from the objects in the rendered image. all objects cast and receive shadows from all spotlights. The color of areas of the model in low light be a blend of the object color and the ambient light color. there is no need to change this setting unless you are modeling very small or large objects. Shadows Control the shadow quality in the rendered image. With small objects. Render wireframe The wireframe curves of surfaces and curve objects are rendered with the surfaces.0 Command Reference Custom The active viewport is rendered using the custom resolution. Render colors Ambient light Sets the overall ambient color in the scene. Antialiasing Antialiasing in Rhino means that each pixel in the rendered image is calculated by averaging several samples taken from the pixel area. With large objects. This makes the image appear smoother. None No shadows. if the shadows are turned on. In general. Misc Render backfaces Controls whether the backsides of polygons are rendered or not. but makes it necessary to make sure all surface normals are set correctly. Map size Defines the width and height the shadow map in pixels. A shadow map is a z-buffer rendering of the scene as seen from the spotlight location. Offset Defines the distance in units a point on a surface is moved towards a spotlight before checking if it is in the shadow or not. if you see self shadowing artifacts like streaks on surfaces in the rendered image. Render polygon mesh edges Polygon mesh object wireframe curves are rendered with the objects. Not rendering the backfaces speeds up rendering. Normal and Slower Objects cast hard shadows. Background Sets the color of the render background. This option is used for compensating the inaccuracy of the shadow map z. Type the custom width and height resolution in pixels. this option sets the color of the darkest spot on the objects in the scene in the rendered image. use smaller shadow offset. Normal and Slower A pixel color is calculated from nine samples taken from the pixel area. In Rhino. 37 . None Each pixel is sampled once. use bigger shadow offset. Use lights on layers that are off Controls if spotlights that are on hidden layers are rendered or not.buffer to prevent surfaces from shadowing themselves. Best and Slowest Objects cast soft shadows. but also slows down rendering.Rhino 2.

5" 1' 1ft 1foot 1feet Miles 1mi 1mile(s) 38 . Angle tolerance Sets the angle tolerance used in some commands. trimming surfaces.2mic 1. Summary tab Shows summary information about the file: Author Last saved by: Revision number: Application name: Date and time created: Date and time last saved: This is similar to what is displayed when you right-click a 3DM file and select Properties in Windows Explorer.2kilometer(s) Microinches 1. In those commands.2centimeter(s) Meters 1. You can mix fractional and decimal input. For example. Relative tolerance Sets the relative tolerance used in some commands.Rhino 2. Units tab Options Model units Controls the units used in the model.0 Command Reference Document Properties dialog box. Unit systems Enter distances using any of the Rhino unit measurements including fractions. Custom units Enter a unit name and a scale in units per meter.2km 1.2meter(s) Kilometers 1. Document Properties dialog box.2mm 1.2micron(s) Millimeters 1.2(") 1-1/2" 1.2mil(s) Feet and Inches 1" 1in 1inch(es) 1'2-1/2(") 1'2. Rhino asks if you want to have the geometry automatically scaled to match the unit change. Absolute tolerance Tolerance in units used when creating new geometry that cannot be absolutely accurate. doing offsets and Booleans operations usually create approximate geometry. the relative tolerance is used instead. Mils 1. Fractional.2cm 1.2millimeter(s) Centimeters 1.2c 1. if the relative tolerance based on a certain dimension in the object is smaller than the absolute tolerance setting. When you change from one units to another.2microinch(es) Distance display Sets the distance display for the status bar and distance and length commands. Select Decimal. Example types and forms are: Microns 1. or Feet & Inches.2m 1.

A dialog box will warn if the units do not match.0 can work in any unit system and with any tolerance. Note It is best to select a tolerance when you start modeling and stick with it. You can move and resize viewports by dragging the title bar or borders. The following three items are a good guide to choosing tolerances. and the "size" of the model is <= 100000. The Viewport menu: Activate the viewport menu by right-clicking the viewport title. 39 . Close the viewport. In general.001. step through the viewports. If you frequently need to work in more than one unit system or with more than on tolerance. and use predefined viewport configurations. You can create new viewports.0 Command Reference Display precision Sets the number of decimal places for the distance display. Each viewport has its own construction plane that the cursor moves on and a projection.01 millimeters. The default unit system is millimeters and the default tolerance is 0. You can toggle the viewport title and world axis icons display to make more room for your work. Importing a model in a format that supports units and tolerances does not adjust units or tolerances in Rhino. The Viewport menu From the viewport menu. the "size" of a small feature (like a tiny fillet or small curve offset distance) is >= 10 x tolerance. Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode. Extents. rename viewports. and place a named viewport on top. Rhino will work best if you choose a unit system so that the absolute tolerance you need is around 0. set multiple templates. Use defined and named views. Using an absolute tolerance that is smaller than 0.Rhino 2. Swap the viewport position with a different viewport. You can specify which viewport is maximized. Rhino 2. you can: Maximize and restore the viewport. Viewport layout Viewports are windows on the Rhino screen that show you a view of your model. or Extents of the selected objects.0001 will noticeably slow some intersection and fitting processes. You can change the default unit system and tolerance by setting up a template. Zoom Window.01 to 0.

all objects inside or partially inside the selection rectangle are selected. from the View menu. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click objects. click Set View > Plan. To select additional objects. Lasso) so you can change your view in the middle of a command. When the selection menu pops up. Crossing. When you make a Window selection. To remove an object from a selection set. the current object and its designation in the list highlight. 40 . To bring all your objects into view. click Zoom Extents All. When you make a Crossing selection. Press and hold Shift when you drag the selection rectangle to add objects to the selection set and press and hold Ctrl when you drag the selection rectangle to remove objects from the selection set. Edit viewport properties. Shaded display mode Refresh the shade mesh. Selection menu A selection menu pops up if several objects appear to be stacked in the area you picked an object and Rhino is not able to tell which one you want to select. Note Navigating with the keyboard works at all times except during view-dependent selections (Window. Select objects General Click an object to select it. press and hold Shift or Ctrl and click the object again. Edit Grid properties.0 Command Reference Wireframe display mode Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. objects completely enclosed in the selection rectangle are selected. Drag a selection rectangle from left to right to do a Window selection and from right to left to do a Crossing selection.Rhino 2. from the View menu. To set your view so you are looking straight down on the construction plane.

0. Click the left mouse button at the original pick point to cycle through the list and click the right mouse button to accept the current choice.x file from Rhino 2. Saving 1. Rendering information includes: render meshes • analysis meshes • shaded viewport mode • point and directional lights • Flamingo render materials • object color • locked and hidden objects are unlocked and displayed • Loading 1. In the Save as type box. There is a separation between commands that work on any type of object (Move. To cancel the selection process: Click None. select Rhino 1.0 file exchange 1 2 3 From the File menu. Click another object.0 Command Reference To select an object: Click the object name in the list. Sweep1. It selects the whole boundary of a surface or a hole.x file. but if you picked it as a boundary. then you'd get the whole rectangle that defines the outside of the plane. Sweep2). click Export or Save As. The things you can type are: for curves: curve or crv or c for edge: edge for boundary: boundary or bnd for face (surface): f or face for shell (solid): s or shell Boundary is different from curve. These commands let you use filters to pick a sub-part of an object rather than the whole object. and you picked an edge as a curve. When object is highlighted.3dm).Rhino 2.0 If you save as a 1. Copy. press Enter or the spacebar. Import and export file types Rhino 1. Selecting parts of objects This will only work for commands that ask you to pick objects after the command starts (Extrude. Delete) that let you pick the object beforehand and commands that look for specific types of geometry and where the order you pick is important (Loft and Extrude). you'd get one line. no 2. type a filename. For instance if you have a plane.0 rendering information is saved in the 1.x 3D models (.0.x file into Rhino 2.x files into Rhino 2.0 If you load a 1. In the File name box. mesh information is lost including: render meshes • 41 .x files from Rhino 2.

select 3D Studio.0. select 3D Studio. 42 . Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.2. 2. or MAX 2. For version 3. type a name for the 3DS file. Or. When building morph targets. MAX 2. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Each version of MAX has its own plug-in.0 Command Reference • • analysis meshes shaded viewport mode 3D Studio file exchange To open 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. whereas MAX renders surfaces one sided. Rhino is able to read texture mapping coordinates from 3DS files. Note Rhino writes texture mapping coordinates and bump map names to 3DS files. the most curvy surface should be meshed first and the mesh then applied to less curvy surfaces with the ApplyMesh command. from the File menu.0 use IGES to transfer files.5 of 3D Studio MAX using a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in.Rhino 2. Making morphs in Max Rhino supports doing morph targets from a single surface to another single surface.5. in the Files of type. the object name is truncated to 6 characters and a 3-digit index is added. from the File menu. If so. click Open. You can import geometry from Rhino 3DM files into versions 1. 2. The result looks like this: RhinoObjec Rhino then checks whether or not the object name has already been used. If no object name is defined. In the File name box. click Import/Merge. like this: RhinoO_010 The index is the last three digits from the mesh counter used in the exporter. Turn off backface rendering in Rhino with render properties. In the File name box. Or. To export to 3DS MAX: 1 Save a Rhino 3DM file. Click Save. In this case the index is the last six digits from the mesh counter. click Save As. In the Open dialog box.0. 2 Read the 3DM file with a Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for MAX 1. Polysurfaces or doing several connected surfaces separately does not work. This way the surfaces that have their normals pointing the wrong way show up in Rhino before exporting the model. Note 3DS files contain polygon mesh objects. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. To save 3D Studio files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. They are not converted to NURBS. Tips on exporting to 3D Studio MAX Surface direction in MAX By default Rhino shows and renders everything two sided. type a name for the 3DS file. because MAX and 3DS only support object names up to 10 characters. If the object name in Rhino is: RhinoObjectName. Click Open. click Export Selected. 3DS export uses the first 10 characters of the name.2. 3D Studio export uses exact object names whenever possible. Rhino uses a generic name: Obj_000010. In the Save as type box. Use the Flip or Dir commands to fix the normals.

or 3D Studio R4. NURBS trimmed surfaces When the Rhino to MAX2. It avoids the hassle of having to mesh the objects first and then export them in 3DM format and use the plug-in. From the MAX2. RhinoMax25imp. The Rhino web site at http://www. Attempt trimming? 43 . This helps if you have long flat and skinny surfaces. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported Meshes Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.dli.5 File Import dialog box. and RhinoMax20imp. Tips on Exporting Curves from MAX to Rhino 3D Studio MAX 2. Delete all NURBS surfaces and keep only the meshed model. an Attempt Trimming dialog box asks: MAX is unable to import some trimmed surfaces. In the MAX2. use 3DS file format.dli. Only Spline objects get exported. Open 3D Studio MAX2. 3DS MAX version 2. This happens because MAX2.Rhino 2.5.5 reads polygon mesh and NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. You can either attempt to trim or import untrimmed surfaces and 3-D trimming curves. If you need to export curves from MAX3 to Rhino.5) Copy the file RhinoMax25imp. To export the meshed model as a 3DM file 1 2 3 4 5 Explode model if it is joined or if it has any flat surfaces.5\plugins\" directory. MAX does not export NURBS curves.dli. Now mesh your curved surfaces. (3dmimp. 3DM format is good if you want to transfer untrimmed surfaces or models with polygon counts too high for 3DS.5 importer encounters a Rhino file that may contain trimming curves. RhinoMax20imp.5 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. This happens because the MAX2.dli into your "3dsmax2. If they touch each other or flow into each other you may need to go to a higher mesh setting depending on your model. or RhinoMax25imp.dli.5 File menu.5 plug-ins path. NURBS surfaces Some surfaces. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. click Import.3dm.0 Command Reference File formats In general. RhinoMax2imp.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD.dli.5 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2.dli from the directories in your MAX2. Select all the flat surfaces and mesh using minimum setting you should end up with one polygon per flat surface. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp. Open the 3dm mesh file in Max.dli are versions the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that work with earlier versions of MAX.5 does not support linear NURBS surfaces. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands. are imported in several pieces. Select the 3DM file to import.dli is the version of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in that works with MAX2. Some surfaces are imported with additional control points. RhinoMax2imp. select Rhino 3D Models. Clear all render meshes and save file as yourfilename.5.rhino3d. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or polygon mesh geometry in Rhino. from the Files of type box. export to a DWG. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. NURBS curves All NURBS curves are correctly imported.

rhino3d.5 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming off a silver spool)." Other news Sometimes it takes a long time to import surfaces with complex trims.0 Command Reference If you answer yes. you should save your MAX scene before importing anything. then sometimes that trimmed surface is imported with the trimming intact. answer "yes" to the "Attempt trimming?" question.0 file import plug-in The Rhino 3DM file import plug-in for 3DS MAX 2. it is not possible to say what is going wrong. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. This plug-in will not work with 3DS MAX version 1. The bad news If a trimmed surface cannot be imported into MAX 2.5 as a single surface and you answer yes to the "Attempt trimming?" question.dli into your "3dsmax2\plugins\" directory. To closely examine and edit MAX2. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette. Curve. from the Files of type box. To install this plug-in: 1 Delete any files called 3dmimp.5 as a single surface.Rhino 2. If MAX crashes. In the MAX2 File Import dialog box.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop-down box. 3D Studio MAX 2.0 reads polygon mesh and untrimmed NURBS geometry from a Rhino 3DM file directly into MAX2. Note Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object wire color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color. it will contain one or more of SurfaceCV. Sometimes MAX crashes when attempting to import trimmed surfaces. NURBS curves: 44 . Click the MAX2. Select the 3DM file to import." then the plug-in will import a Rhino trimmed surface as a MAX untrimmed surface together with the 3-D curves that lie along the trims. then the plug-in will attempt to import a Rhino trimmed surface into MAX as a trimmed surface.5 or 3DS DOS. CurveCV. If you answer "no. 3DS MAX version 2. The Rhino web site at http://www.0. Save the 3DM file from Rhino.dli from the directories in your MAX2 plug-ins path. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Given the information we have. 2 Get the plug-in from: What is imported: Meshes: Mesh geometry plus UV texture mapping coordinates are imported.5 NURBS objects you need to: Select a MAX2.dli or RhinoMax2imp.5 NURBS object. then it is imported as multiple untrimmed surfaces. The first time you attempt to import a Rhino file. From the MAX2 File menu. To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create NURBS or mesh geometry in Rhino. all we can determine is that the crashes are occurring after MAX has completely finished executing the code in the plug-in and is running code in a MAX2.5 module called "ACISMAX2. In general.dli are earlier versions of the Rhino -> MAX plug-in. attempt the import a second time and answer "no" to the "Attempt trimming?" question. Surface. (3dmimp. select Rhino 3D Models. Open 3D Studio MAX2. The 3D trimming curves are imported along with the untrimmed surface pieces.) Copy the file RhinoMax20imp.dli and RhinoMax2imp. click Import. Using developers tools. The good news If a trimmed surface uses a surface that can be imported into MAX 2. Be patient. click the Sub-Object button.

from the Files of type box. Curve. click Mesh. Clear the Weld control. On December 10 1997. In the File Import dialog box.0 Command Reference Almost all NURBS curves are correctly imported. Get the plug-in from: The Rhino web site at http://www. are imported in several pieces. It should help with closed smooth shape seams too. Create NURBS geometry in Rhino.dli into your "3dsmax\stdplugs\" directory. click Import." NURBS surfaces: Any trimming information is lost because MAX2 does not support trimmed NURBS. Mesh your objects in Rhino using detailed settings. then click From NURBS Object to create mesh entities. The Kinetix Developer Consulting Group reported that "…there is a bug in the multiple knot reduction code… This is just a bug that has now been logged and will be fixed for 2.0 OBJ file exchange The free OBJ file exchange plug-in is available from http://www. From the Tools menu. Note 1 2 Rhino geometry is imported with the MAX object color set to the Rhino geometry's layer color.com/plugins/max/ The Plug-ins directory on your Rhino CD. Select a MAX2 NURBS object. 3D Studio MAX 3. Use one object per layer or put objects that should be grouped together on the same layer.1. Click the MAX2 Modify tab (the tab whose icon is a red thread coming of off a silver spool). To use this plug-in: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Copy 3dmimp. then that material definition is applied to the imported MAX object. it will contain one or more of the following SurfaceCV. including those created by Rhino's default cylinder and sphere commands.2 file import plug-in This plug-in will read polygon mesh data from the 3DM file directly into 3D Studio MAX 1. Open 3D Studio MAX. obj+number is used as a name. If there is no Rhino object name.2 or 3D Studio VIZ. select Rhino 3D Models.htm supports OBJ groups and thus makes it possible to get layers names to come through. Surface. Some surfaces.habware. To the right of the Sub-Object button there is a drop down. Click the Sub-Object button. CurveCV. From the File menu. the vertex scale setting in the MAX OBJ import dialog box must be set to 1. Depending on what NURBS objects you imported. otherwise there will be nothing for the plug-in to read. Save the 3DM file from Rhino. To closely examine and edit MAX2 NURBS objects you need to: 1 2 3 4 5 3D Studio MAX 1. Select the type of object you want to modify and then use the appropriate tools. Select the 3DM file to import.Rhino 2.at/duck3. 3D Studio MAX uses the first 10 characters of the object name. Note To make the MAX OBJ import work as expected. This happens because the MAX2 does not support NURBS surfaces with fully multiple interior knots. 45 . This plug-in will read in the mesh geometry and UV texture mapping coordinates. If the Rhino object had been assigned a Rhino render material. You will need to Mesh the objects in Rhino before saving. There is a multiple knot reduction bug in MAX2 that causes NURBS circles to be imported with a bulge near their start/end point. This OBJ plug-in supports vertex normals which makes it possible to get optimally smooth results from rendering Rhino models. In the Modifier Stack section of the Modify palette there is a Sub-Object button.rhino3d.

but not all programs based on ACIS can import curves. select surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Some actions cannot be performed on imported NURBS objects. It does not fix geometry problems. The RemoveFlippedNormals command adjusts the surface u. ACIS types Default ACIS version: 4. Or. These products do not fully implement ACIS file support.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 2. For all of the AutoCAD products and for Mechanical Desktop: Curves are read by these products. In the ACIS SAT Detailed Export Options dialog box. Note: These products will not export splines to an SAT file. select ACIS SAT. select the options for the export. In Rhino. there is an additional flag attached to every surface called that tells if the surface normal matches the natural normal or is reversed.0 ACIS Version: 2.0 ACIS Version: 3. Note Use the Dir command to see the normals graphically. The normals are recalculated to match over the whole surface or polysurface. Using ACIS Version 5. Hidden geometry is skipped when creating the SAT file. but import in as bodies. type a name for the file.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split 46 . ACIS file export To save SAT files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. A natural surface normal is defined as the cross product of the u. At the Select object prompt. select the curves and explode them.5 ACIS Version: 1.0 is currently not suggested.0 curves are not exported curve knots and surface knots are clamped closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 1. The options can be changed by editing the INI file.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. All of the version types export curves. Click Save. Note There are 12 different types for saving Rhino files as SAT files.0 Command Reference RemoveFlippedNormals Remove flipped normals from NURBS surfaces.and v-directions to match the current normal direction so the flag can be cleared. click Export Selected. click Save As.and v-direction vectors. from the File menu. In the File name box. To change these into splines.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split ACIS Version 3.

47 .5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD 2000 ACIS Version: 4.5 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks 99 ACIS Version: 4.0 ACIS Version: 4.0 Command Reference ACIS Version 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Mechanical Desktop ACIS Version: 4.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor ACIS Version: 4. type a name for the AI file. Adobe Illustrator file exchange To open Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the AI Import Options dialog box. Preserve units Set the scale for conversion to Rhino units from inches in Adobe Illustrator. Or. from the File menu. In the Files of type box. Option Fit to default screen Objects are scaled to be visible in the default Top viewport. Click Open. under Scale. select Adobe Illustrator.0 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R13 ACIS Version: 1. click Open.Rhino 2.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split SolidWorks ignores anything that is not a surface or a solid.0 Does not export curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split Inventor does not read any ACIS object that is not a legitimate solid. SolidWorks 98 ACIS Version: 1. click Import/Merge. In the File name box.5 Exports curves Curve knots and surface knots are clamped Closed surfaces are split AutoCAD R14 ACIS Version: 1. select a scale option.

In the File name box. In the AI Export Options dialog box. click a scale option. Rhino only reads curve geometry. In the File name box. This happens because the Adobe Illustrator file format can only contain non-rational cubic Bezier curves that are commonly used in illustration programs.5. click Export Selected. In the Open dialog box.1 units from the original curve. This can result in a curve with more control points than the original. curves need to be refit before exporting. click Save As.11 fall off the page in Illustrator. not text. Click Open. Note Adobe Illustrator is based on an 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper (by default in the US) with the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. type a name for the AG file. To save AGLib binary files: 48 . Or.ini. from the File menu. click Import/Merge.0 files. Or. position the objects in the viewport the way you want them to fit the page in the illustration program. To save Adobe Illustrator files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Before exporting. from the Files of type box. from the File menu. In the File name box. You cannot preserve scale and units from a perspective viewport. All curves will be refit if you use a perspective viewport instead of an orthogonal parallel viewport. This means any objects that have coordinate values outside 0. they won't get refit and will look exactly the same in Adobe Illustrator. click Save As. Save your file from Adobe Illustrator as a version 8 or older file format. type a name for the AG file.0 Command Reference Note Due to a file format change. Rhino is based on a 3-D environment centered around the world origin. click Export Selected. Options Snapshot of current view Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. Convert text to curves before saving or exporting the Adobe Illustrator file. Applied Geometry file exchange To open AGLib binary files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 From the File menu. type a name for the AI file. In some situations. select Adobe Illustrator. click Open. under Scale. Adobe Illustrator may fail to read files that have objects far from the page. In the Save as type box. Click Save.Rhino 2. From the File menu. Under some circumstances. From the File menu. Rhino exports NURBS geometry and polygon meshes as wireframe curves. In the Save as type box. If you draw curves using the free-form curve tools degree 3 or lower and export them from the top view. select AG. Make the viewport you want to export from active. Rational curves or curves higher than degree 3 are approximated with a cubic Bezier that by default is within 0. Rhino centers the curves from the Adobe Illustrator file around the world origin and scales them so you can see them easily. Rhino exports text and dimensions to AI files. select AG. Or. Preserve unit scale Sets the scale factor and units you want to use. You can change the refit accuracy by changing the ExportRefitTolerance setting in the Adobe Illustrator section in the Rhino. Rhino cannot yet open AI 9. from the File menu.0 > 8.

Click Save. They are not converted to NURBS. AutoCAD DWG file exchange To open AutoCAD DWG files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select the options for DXF export. from the File menu. AutoCAD line types are ignored. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. the combined layer will be off in Rhino. Or. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. select AutoCAD DXF. In the Save as type box. Click Open. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. Or. or anything in paperspace. from the File menu. type a name for the DXF file. For this reason you can use AGLib format to create NURBS part libraries for Rhino. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. Or. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. select AutoCAD DXF. click Import/Merge. OLE objects. In the File name box. regions. select AutoCAD DWG. From the File menu. AutoCAD DXF file exchange To open AutoCAD DXF files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. select the options for DWG export. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. click Import/Merge. select AutoCAD DWG. type a name for the DWG file. From the File menu. To save AutoCAD DWG files: Note Importing ACIS solid objects in R13 or R14 DWG files is not supported. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. You can transfer NURBS geometry between AutoCAD and Rhino using IGES with the IGES import/export module. To save AutoCAD DXF files: 49 . click Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Open. Or. Click Save. but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. Object properties. type a name for the DWG file.Rhino 2. Rhino will not import images. Click Open. click Save As. from the File menu. DWG files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities. Note The AGLib binary file format stores NURBS geometry information only. In the File name box. click Export Selected. from the File menu.0 Command Reference 4 Click Save. click Export Selected. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. viewport settings and mesh information is lost. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. You can export Rhino geometry to AutoCAD using the ACIS SAT file format. In the AutoCAD Export Options dialog box. rays. In the File name box. XREF's are imported. The AGLib binary file format is not publicly documented. type a name for the DXF file. In the Files of type box. In the Files of type box. click Open.

Write meshes as: Polygon meshes can be written as polyface mesh entities or as 3D Face entities. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangles and quadrangles. regions. Polylines If you export curves as polylines. arcs. export curves as splines. or circle. Use the Write curves as setting to specify how these and other curves are exported. Polyface mesh and 3D face entities are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. AutoCAD line types are ignored. Curves If you export surfaces as curves. Some programs that read DXF files do read 3D Faces. and line entities.Rhino 2. wide polylines will be imported as Rhino polylines. Other Rhino compound curves will translate as separate splines. This means if the curve is just one line. the Create Mesh from NURBS object dialog box lets you adjust the way Rhino creates the polygon meshes. They are not converted to NURBS. 2-D curves are simplified. Rhino curves will be exploded upon export if this option is turned on. you can export either polyline or spline entities. To break a polygon mesh into triangles. You can adjust the way polylines are created in the Curve options. Wide polylines are converted to Rhino surfaces. Import it back into Rhino and use ExplodeMesh. 3-D curves are never simplified. AutoCAD export options Write surfaces as: Surfaces can be exported as polygon mesh approximations or as curves. If you have mostly Rhino polylines. all curves are approximated with polylines before exporting. Off and frozen layers import into Rhino as off layers. circles. it is exported as a bulge arc in a polyline. Rhino will not import images. Layer names and colors are preserved during import and export. OLE objects. Rhino exports the wireframe as curves. each polygon in a polygon mesh is exported as a separate 3D Face. arc. arc. but do not properly read polyface meshes. If the polylines are narrower than Rhino's current tolerance setting. or circle. circle. If any of the layers contributing to a merged layer is off or frozen in AutoCAD. and lines are exported as AutoCAD arc. Splines All curves are exported as AutoCAD spline entities. it is exported as an AutoCAD line. When exporting to R13 and R14 DWG/DXF. The lock status of layers in AutoCAD has no effect in Rhino. you will probably want to export curves as polylines. use RAW instead. curves are approximated with polylines. Meshes If you export surfaces as meshes. 3D Faces If you export polygon mesh objects as 3D Faces. Polyface meshes Polygon meshes are exported as polyface meshes. XREF's are imported but XREF layers with the same names as the base drawing layers are merged. If there are arcs in the curve with discontinuous curvature at the ends. Write curves as: When exporting curves to R12 DWG/DXF. If the Use simple entities checkbox is checked. Rhino polylines will translate as multiple separate AutoCAD linear splines. or anything in paperspace. rays. Export it in DXF format writing meshes as 3D Faces. 50 . If you have mostly non-compound curves and want to have real curvature in AutoCAD. the combined layer will be off in Rhino.0 Command Reference Note DXF files can contain polyface mesh and 3D face entities.

or later DWG/DXF.0 Command Reference Entities only DXF file: Only the entities are written to the DXF file. If the simplify tolerance is too large. Export object properties To export object properties to a comma-delimited file: 1 2 3 4 5 Select objects. line. it will be exported as such. some curves may not be exported as simple entities when they should be. Click Save. The Polyline max angle setting combined with the Polyline chord height and Polyline seg length settings determine how the polylines are created. In the File name box. This option is available if the AutoCAD version is set to Release 12. In the Save as type box. click Export Selected.01 will result in millions of polyline segments and a huge DWG/DXF file. lines. For silhouette lines. If the simplify tolerance is too small. select Object Properties (.000 units long with a maximum segment length of 0. ellipse. arc. arcs. not the file header. This setting uses current model units. Smaller numbers make the polyline fit the curve better. If a curve is within simplify tolerance of an arc. and ellipses as NURBS curves. Note The physical size of the model should be taken into consideration when using this setting – exporting a boat that is 100. line. type a name for the file. If the curve is within the simplify tolerance of one of the simple entities. circle.csv). Polyline max angle When exporting curves as polylines. see the Silhouette and Make2D commands. Rhino compares each curve with an exact arc. Rhino must approximate each curve with a polyline. They will appear on the world XY plane in the DWG/DXF file. circle. and lines are exported as AutoCAD circle. The larger this number. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. and ensures that all polyline segments are shorter than this setting. some curves may be exported as simple entities when they shouldn't be.Rhino 2. and line entities. arcs. From the File menu. The default simplify tolerance should work well for most cases. it is exported as a simple entity. it must evaluate each curve to determine if it is a simple entity. Exporting this way does not automatically include silhouette lines. and ellipse to determine if it can be exported as a simple entity. Curve options: Project to plane Objects are projected to the plane of the view in the active viewport before export. The Polyline max angle option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. Simplify tolerance Because Rhino represents circles. Options Layer properties Layer name Layer color Layer index 51 . ellipses. or ellipse. Use simple entities Circles. Some programs support DXF files that contain the entities only. Polyline seg length The Polyline seg length is the maximum length of a polyline segment. Polyline chord height The distance from the polyline segment midpoint to the curve will be less or equal to this number. but increase the number of polyline segments. AutoCAD version: You can export as AutoCAD Release 12.

Rhino must approximate each polyline. 52 . Effectiveness Specifies the permeability of the component.C). pick a point that is a point on the longitudinal axis of the boat. Each component will have the same name as the shape. This setting determines how the station lines are created. Station Spacing The distance between slices for the currently selected shape. GHS file export To save as GHS: 1 2 Select the surfaces/polysurfaces you want to save. Rhino produces one component for each shape. object name.Rhino 2. You can give each shape the name you would like here. The larger this number.S) or only half (. Component Symmetry Specifies GHS's side factor. At the Select endpoint of centerline prompt. If you have previously selected a centerline. the farther away the polyline segment midpoints will be from the original curve. This option sets the maximum angle between adjacent polyline segments. layer color.0 Command Reference Object properties Object name Object ID Object description Object color Object material Mass properties Length Area Area centroid Area moments Perimeter Volume Volume centroid Volume moments Cumulative mass properties Include header file Note Creates a comma-delimited text file in CSV (comma separated value) that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. you can press Enter here to use the last centerline specified. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. object render color and selected mass properties. This is normally a point on the bow at centerline. Break Angle The angle between segments of each station polyline.0. Shape names must be valid GHS shape names.0. All component origin shift is considered 0. pick another point at the end of the longitudinal axis. Specify whether you are modeling the whole hull shape (. When exporting curves as polylines. 3 Options Shape Name Each independent surface or polysurface selected in the drawing will become a separate shape in the GHS file. At the Select the base point of the centerline prompt.

If the same name is used for multiple objects. You can enter new names for more parts and group different components in each part. Type Specify the part type: Displacement. In the Save as type box. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. To save Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. type a name for the UDO file. Note Rhino exports line and point objects to LWO. click Import/Merge. They are not converted to NURBS. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. 53 . Use ExtractControlPolygon to convert smooth Rhino surfaces into polygon meshes that you can convert into MetaNURBS objects in Lightwave. select Lightwave.Rhino 2. Note Object names are supported. You will need to export large Rhino models in pieces or export as OBJ file format. In the File name box. This setting includes the specific gravity of the fluid named. click Export Selected. which does not have the 65. Object names will be used when exporting the . set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. LWO files contain polygon mesh objects. from the File menu. Note Rhino imports line and point objects from LWO. Or. Click Open. Rhino breaks apart objects into separate meshes and sorts them into layers by surface type. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Each component will initially be a member of this part. Or. from the File menu. Fluid The name of the fluid that the vessel floats on or contains. Moray automatically numbers the objects. Click Save. In the Save as type box. Lightwave file exchange To open Lightwave files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. The 40-character limitation is defined in the POV-Ray specifications. type a name for the LWO file.535 points for the entire file. In the Open dialog box. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. click Open. select Moray UDO. from the File menu. The LWO file is limited to 65. Or. In the File name box.000 polygon limitation. Moray UDO Export To save Moray UDO files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In the File name box. from the Files of type box. click Save As. click Save As. Click Save. type a name for the LWO file. click Export Selected. select Lightwave. or Windage (sail).lwo file instead of a generic name. UDO export uses the first 40 characters of a string layer_name_object_name. Containment.0 Command Reference Part Name The default part name is HULL.

Use the Properties command to ensure your models are closed solids. A simple plane is one that is defined in Rhino as four control points arranged in a rectangle. Rhino creates a . and ShowNakedEdges command to ensure there are no naked edges. they will be ignored with no warning. Many feature-based modelers (SolidWorks in particular) only allow sketching on planar surfaces defined by a plane primitive. click Export Selected. In the Save as type box. If you choose the File Open menu command in SolidWorks 99 and choose a X_T file.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge 7. surfaces. Exporting the UDO file to …\Moray For Windows\PovScn\ folder seems to help you avoid the hassle of having to move the INC file before rendering. If the file consists of only open surfaces then the resulting window in SW99 will just be blank. but when I open it in SolidWorks 99 I just get a blank screen. Planes are important primitives. When you export to UDO. Solid Works 98 Plus and Solid Edge 6. only closed solids will be imported.0 by choosing the "Export Surfaces as Solids" option which simply sets a flag in the file. Simple planes are supported as Parasolid primitives. If the file contains open surfaces. surfaces. from the File menu.stmuc. and curves Solid Edge 6.0 Imports solids and surfaces Solid Edge Viewer Imports solids and surfaces SolidWorks 98+ Imports solids and colors SolidWorks 99 Imports solids. Moray is a shareware wireframe modeler available from http://www. click User Defined.com/moray/. select the target application for the export. Flat NURBS surfaces are not the same. You can lie to Solid Edge 6. Parasolid X_T file export To save X_T files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In general your model should consist of objects which are joined solids with no naked edges. The wireframe view in Moray is a line approximation of the wireframe you see in Rhino and for that reason Moray screen redraw is faster than if you viewed the polygon wireframe. the exported geometry is scaled by the appropriate factor.UDO file and a . Opening the model in SolidWorks 99 Problem "I exported a model from Rhino into X_T format. type a name for the file. the trick is how to properly import it into SolidWorks 99. Note Parasolid X_T files are always in meters. Import the surfaces and solids separately into SolidWorks. Export solids into one file and surfaces into another. If Rhino units are set to a real-world unit other than meters. In the File name box. 54 .0 Command Reference Use this format if you want to define POV textures and set other POV specific information in Moray. To import the object into Moray. Click Save.INC file. they display a blank window. Neither program gives any feedback that it is ignoring open surfaces. click Save As." Solution The model probably exported just fine. File Export types: Mastercam Mill Imports solids. and colors. Or. from Create menu. select Parasolid X_T.0 will not read in open surfaces. In the Parasolid Export Type dialog box. Solid Works 98 Plus will not be fooled by this deception.Rhino 2.

however. Advanced RenderMan: Creating CGI for Motion Pictures by Anthony A Apodaca and Larry Gritz. select RenderMan. from the File menu.rhino3d.com/rhino There is also a RenderMan newsgroup: news://comp.0 Command Reference To import files containing open surfaces you must make a new part or import into an existing part model. 55 . type a name for the RIB file.rhino3d. click Export Selected.bmrt. Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN: 1558606181. toolbars for assigning materials and lights are included in the Rhino toolbar layout.rendering. Use the buttons in the BMRT Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. RenderMan RIB export To save RenderMan RIB files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. BMRT is not completely supported in Rhino. Then choose the Insert> Surface > Imported … command and choose the exported file.renderman Books about rendering with RenderMan include: The RenderMan Companion: A Programmer’s Guide to Realistic Computer Graphics by Steve Upstill. BMRT can be installed from your Rhino CD.Rhino 2. There are links to these book on the Rhino web site: www. Click Save. The BMRT web site will also be a good source of information: www. Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) Blue Moon Rendering Tools (BMRT) are a set of rendering programs and libraries that adhere to the RenderMan standard. In the Save as type box.com To use BMRT inside Rhino: 1 2 Open the BMRT toolbars: BMRT Materials and BMRT Lights. Or. It is important that any solids in Rhino be joined before exporting to X_T.graphics. ISBN: 0201508680.org Get answers to questions about using BMRT from the Rhino newsgroup: news://news. Addison-Wesley Pub Co. BMRT Materials toolbar Documentation for BRMT is included in HTML pages in the folder where you install BMRT. In the File name box. click Save As. Rhino rendering BMRT rendering with reflective and refractive materials In an effort to make BMRT easier to use with Rhino.

Set up your scene with materials and lights. Rhino writes the surface. and highlight. Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray) POV-Ray is a free raytrace rendering program available from http://www. and opacity statement for each object. A name attribute definition is inserted before each light.rib reboot your computer. The transparency color is the color of the object. Use Properties to set the object names. The intensity is always set to 1. click the big blue "R. Click Save. Rhino spotlights are exported to RIB. A Rhino compliant spotlight shader makes the RIB scenes look very close to Rhino scenes when rendered with default settings. To cancel the rendering process. In the Save as type box. from the File menu.1. the MS-DOS Command Prompt window and a preview window for the test render." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color." Two windows will open. close the Command Prompt window or press Ctrl+C. Save or export your scene as a RenderMan file. POV-Ray export To save POV Ray files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. the beam distribution to 2 (these are shader defaults). select POV-Ray Mesh. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. To test render the scene. In an effort to make POV-Ray easier to use with Rhino. Export to RIB file format supports render background color. color. Rhino’s POV-Ray export requires POV-Ray version 3. type a name for the POV file.povray. Make sure the correct view is active when you export. 3 4 5 6 7 Error message If you get the following message: Unable to run program renrib -d16 c:\temp. transparency. click Export Selected. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Use normal Rhino lights or use the BMRT Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.0 Command Reference The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal.org.Rhino 2. however. In the File name box.org.povray. 56 . a toolbar for assigning materials has been added to the Rhino toolbar layout. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. POV-Ray is not completely supported in Rhino. Note Rhino uses the active view for the RIB export. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer. Documentation and tutorials are available from on the POV-Ray web site: http://www. This makes it possible to define custom search paths in . It makes it easier to parse the RIB file and replace the settings with something else if necessary. Or. click Save As. Object names are exported to make it easier to identify surfaces in the RIB file.rendribrc. Export to RIB file format appends the Rhino search paths to existing paths instead of replacing them. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object.

or into one large POV file. Render the file by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer.inc) that contain example materials and a list of variables you can use for writing custom materials. click Import/Merge. type a name for the RTF file. Point object on layers whose names begin with the letters "POV" are exported as point light sources. Or. from the Files of type box. Rhino can write each object in a scene to separate POV files. select Raw Triangles. Click Open. Assigning a color to the point objects in Rhino (like you would any other object for rendering) causes the point lights to emit that color of light. Surface normal information based on the original NURBS surface is exported to POV. The left mouse button assigns a material property like "glass" or "shiny metal. Set up your scene with materials and lights. To save Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Save or export your scene as a POV-Ray file. and highlight. but object colors are. In the Open dialog box.Rhino 2. Click Save. click Save As. Raw Triangle file exchange To open Raw Triangle files: 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Raw Triangles. The view in the POV file is the same as the active viewport when the object is exported. Object names are exported to POV to make it easier to detect objects in the POV file. click Open. from the File menu. In the File name box. click Export Selected. type a name for the RAW file. Textures are not exported. You can use Properties to set the names of the objects. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. They are not converted to NURBS." The right mouse button opens the Rhino Object properties dialog box where you can set the object color. All Rhino objects are exported as polygonal mesh objects to POV.0 Command Reference POV Materials toolbar To assign POV-Ray materials to Rhino objects: 1 2 Open the POV-Ray toolbars: POV Materials and POV Lights. from the File menu. Note RAW files contain polygon meshes consisting of triangular polygon faces. Rhino does not support POV solid primitives or CSG (constructive solid geometry). Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects. In the File name box.inc and lights. You can also use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. 3 4 5 6 Note There are two files in the POV directory under the main Rhino directory (materials. Use the buttons in the POV Materials toolbar to assign properties to objects in Rhino. In the Save as type box. This will provide better quality renderings than those done with files converted from DXF or RAW files. Or. The first option is useful for hand editing textures on each object. 57 . transparency. Use normal Rhino lights or use the POV Lights buttons to assign light types to Rhino lights.

0762mm. select SLC. click Save As. the longer it will take to export and the smoother the final result. type a name for the STEP file. To break a polygon mesh into separate triangular faces.0127mm. click Save As. Click Save. click Import/Merge. from the Files of type box. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. and use ExplodeMesh. Or. Click Save.) Angle between polyline segments The angle that determines how smooth the polylines of the slice curves will be. pick a point that will be start of your slicing normal. To break a polygon mesh into triangles and quadrangles. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. type a name for the STEP file. 0. In the File name box. The slices will be evenly spaced. click Import/Merge. In the Save as type box. (you can modify the distance between slices in an upcoming dialog box) and perpendicular to the slicing normal. from the File menu.0254mm. The distance should be based on the slice thicknesses of your final output device. Export it in RAW format. In the File name box. Use meshes to generate slices The curves for each slice generate by intersecting the object mesh with a plane. In the Open dialog box. click Export Selected. type a name for the SLC file.Rhino 2. (For example. Or. 0. To save STEP files: STL file exchange To open STL files: 1 From the File menu. Or. The ModelMaker II has slice thicknesses of 0. pick a point that will be the end of slicing normal. The greater the number of polygons. click Export Selected. The final output is based on the number of polygons chosen for the mesh in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog. click Open. When the number is small you will get a smooth final output but it will take more time to export. STEP file exchange To open STEP files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt. the Angle between polyline segments data is no longer used.0508mm and 0. All quadrangles are converted to triangles. select STEP. 58 . Import it back into Rhino. From the File menu. Click Open.0381mm. 6 Options Distance between slices The distance between the slices or layers of curves that your final output will contain. Note RAW files contain polygon mesh objects that consist of triangular polygon faces only. from the File menu. 0. At the Select the base point of slicing normal prompt.0 Command Reference 5 In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. from the File menu. use DXF instead. click Open. select STEP. from the File menu. SLC file exchange To save SLC files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Consequently.

UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. then click Unify Normals. Note STL files contain polygon mesh objects.) Select the new mesh object. Polygon mesh objects are imported into Rhino as polygon mesh objects.Rhino 2.ini file to look like this. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. from the Files of type box. To save STL files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. then Weld (angle=180). Instead. Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. The tolerances you set in the Document Properties dialog box. If a mesh point is highlighted. select STL. 3 4 5 6 7 Note When exporting NURBS objects to STL. Units tab do not effect the STL export tolerance. Use JoinMesh. the Export Incomplete Solids dialog box asks if you want to export anyway. Rhino converts the NURBS objects to polygon mesh objects. They are not converted to NURBS. type a name for the STL file. To see if the result has any holes or gaps. [STL] Default=ASCII ObjectTag=PART0001 VDA file exchange VDA stands for Verband der Automobileindustrie. if two triangles share an edge. click Save As. From the Tools menu. An angle tolerance of 180 tells the Weld command to glue adjacent triangle points together no matter what. click Export Selected. type SelNakedMeshEdgePt. change the [STL] section of the Rhino. You can specify the ASCII STL tag Rhino uses. At the Angle tolerance prompt type 180. For example. Click Open. In the File name box. then click Join. select STL. from the File menu. This changes all the triangles so they are oriented the same way. to get JCAD to work. In the File name box. then it is part of a "naked" triangle edge. click Polygon Mesh. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 In the Open dialog box. From the Tools menu. click Polygon Mesh. 59 . then they have the same idea of up. then click Weld. Click Save. to control STL accuracy. but doesn't glue the edges together. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. Set the Max distance edge to srf value to the STL tolerance you desire. From the Tools menu. To test for watertightness 1 2 Select the mesh objects. If Rhino cannot create a closed STL file. that is. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Select between ASCII and binary STL files. Or. type a name for the STL file. (The situation is similar to having a bunch of surfaces that all fit together but have not been Joined into a Solid. use the mesh tolerance settings from the Detailed Controls section of the mesh dialog that appears during STL export. Conceptually this gets all the triangles into one bag. It is a neutral file format defined by German association of automobile industries consortium for exchange of CAD data across systems. In the Save as type box. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. click Polygon Mesh.

D geometry and topology information. Some VRML clients are incompatible with the material shininess (specularity) set to zero.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference VDAFS file supports representation of 3. views. This is the view in the default Top view in Rhino. In the File name box. Or. and transparency determine the render material properties exported to the VRML file. select VRML. Using Cortona and Cosmo Player. Note Rhino exports VRML files with the camera looking down the world z. In the Save as type box. symbols. Use the SetObjectMaterial command in Rhino to assign a material to an object. The render background color exports as a background color to VMRL2. click Import/Merge. click Export Selected. Click Save. click Save As. In the File name box. objects with shininess set to zero shade completely white. select VDA. type a name for the VDA file. It does not support assembly and feature information. shine. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. from the Files of type box. To open VDA files: 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Or. Rhino now 60 . etc. From the File menu. It does not support representation of drawing information. Click Save. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Or. click Export Selected. click Open. In the Save as type box. click Save As. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. In the File name box. from the File menu. Render color. To save VDA files: Options Sender data Sending company Sender's name Telephone number Address Part data Project name Object code Variant Confidentiality Date effective Receiver data Company name Receiving department Export PointDeviation hairs as MDI VRML file export To save VRML files: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. Click Open. type a name for the VDA file.axis toward the x. from the File menu. type a name for the WRL file.y plane. select VDA. In the Open dialog box. Texture assignments are currently not exported. from the File menu.

You can download it from http://developer. In the File name box. Convert the 3DS file into a DirectX file with conv3ds. but the value does not matter) and the specular color to black. In the Save as type box. enter the size and resolution of the WMF file. Options Vertex normals Only the polygon mesh vertex normals calculated from the NURBS surfaces are exported to the VRML file. setup an HTML file to view your MTX/MTS combo.0. click Export Selected.0 and 2. To adjust the mesh settings see "Document Properties dialog box.zip and get the accompanying documentation from http://developer. select Viewpoint Technologies Export. type a name for the WMF file. Viewpoint Technologies file export To save as MTX/MTS: To save Metastream files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Attach materials (jpg files with dimensions in powers of 2) or change the Rhino render setting of objects if desired. (The MTS file contains the actual data.Rhino 2. In the File name box. you should try 2. In the WMF Export Options dialog box.0. but will make the WRL file much larger. Rhino exports surfaces and solids as a polyline wireframe and curves as polylines. from the File menu.com/software/docs/vpmtx2html. Texture coordinates The UV texture mapping coordinates are exported to the VRML file. In the Save as type box. DirectX file exchange Rhino does not directly support the DirectX file format. from the File menu. The Black specular color results in a matte surface in the VRML viewer.pdf. Render Mesh tab. and if so. 61 . To export a DirectX file: 1 2 Export a 3D Studio 3DS file from Rhino. From the File menu. a utility that comes with DirectX SDK.0 first. Export options Version You can choose between version 1. Or. click Export Selected. Pay attention which viewport is active when you export." 7 8 Windows Metafile file export To save Windows Metafiles: 1 2 3 4 5 From the File menu. In general. sets the shininess to something bigger than zero (we used 1. click Save As.0 Command Reference checks if the shininess is zero. select Windows Metafile.viewpoint. Click Save. Or.com/software/mtx2html. If it does not work with your VRML viewer.viewpoint. Note Rhino exports the curves as a 2-D snapshot from the active viewport. There is a small application provided by Viewpoint Technologies to simplify the creation of the HTML file. type a name for the file. This can be tricky.) Outside of Rhino. click Save As. Click Save. Arrange the view/viewport you would like to export.exe. This plug-in uses render meshes to generate the final output. You will get an MTX file and an MTS file as output. This may improve the appearance of the objects in the viewer. try 1. The MTX file is an XML file that describes how the data in the MTS file is to be diplayed.

IGES export settings Each product has its own interpretation of the IGES file format. From the File menu. type a name for the DXF file. Detailed options Author.0 Command Reference Syntax: conv3ds -h yourfile. IGES tolerance In general the IGES tolerance should match the absolute tolerance setting in Rhino taking account the possible unit conversion. click Export Selected. in the Save as type box. 1 2 In the File name box. This means various settings have different values for each product. In the Export Selected Objects dialog box. IGES export detailed options In the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box. Sender's product ID. and Receiver's product ID These are text fields in the IGES file that can be used for identification purposes. Simple and detailed IGES export options In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Include notes in the IGES file Check to save notes in IGES start section. In the File name box. IGES file exchange To export to an IGES file 1 2 3 4 Select the objects you want to export. Click Save. Or click Detailed Controls to open the IGES Export Detailed Options dialog box.3ds A file yourfile. select an IGES type. The IGES tolerance does not affect the accuracy of the geometry. Note You must use the -h option with conv3ds. Otherwise the layer color of the object is used as the IGES entity color.x is created. select IGES. IGES units The units used for the IGES export. enter a name for the file. Organization. Render color as IGES entity color Check to use the render color of objects as the IGES entity color. and click Save. from the IGES type box.Rhino 2. To save PostScript files: You can save PostScript files from Rhino by printing to a file using a PostScript printer driver. you need to use an illustration program to convert the PostScript file into AI format and then import the AI file into Rhino. PostScript file exchange Rhino does not have direct PostScript support. To open PostScript files: To open PostScript files. click Edit types to edit and create new IGES export types. Moldex Export a DXF file for Moldex. Otherwise the IGES start section is a blank line. Not using this option with Rhino 3DS files crashes conv3ds. because Rhino does not export key frame information to the 3DS file. 62 .

change CreateImportLog=n to CreateImportLog=y in the IGES section in the Rhino.0 Command Reference The Rhino IGES export is customized to give the best possible results for the product import of a Rhino file. change Import3dTrimmingCurves=n to Import3dTrimmingCurves=y in the IGES section in the Rhino. Polygon meshes are not exported to IGES file. except they use a number instead of a text name as an identifier. the IGES file will be empty. If the IGES units do not match the Rhino units. Level/Layer translation between Rhino and IGES IGES "levels" are like Rhino layers.0 reads an IGES file using the "IMPORT / MERGE" command.3 CRLF (MS-DOS/Windows) LF (Unix) CR (Mac OS) 1. The settings controlled are: Variable IgesVersion EOL Values 5. the user gets informed and is given the option of scaling the imported IGES geometry so that it matches the current Rhino unit system. with some adjustments made to keep Rhino from setting a too small/big tolerance based on a bogus IGES file tolerance.0 116 (separate points) 106-2 (layer point sets) No limit 3 5 Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No 143 144 128 + 3D trim curves 0 (separate surfaces) 402-7 (unordered group) skip No limit 3 5 0 (separate surfaces) 184 186 (manifold B-rep) 402-7 (Unordered group) Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Scale Points MaxCurveDegree CurvesAsSingleBspline SimplifyCurves FitRationalCurves ClampCurveEndKnots Surfaces PolySurfaces Meshes MaxSurfaceDegree Solids SimplifySurfaces FitRationalSurfaces ClampSurfaceEndKnots Note When Rhino 2. Companies with layer standards for products that use IGES to exchange data need a way to define a 63 . To create an IGES import log. the Rhino system tolerance is never changed.ini. To import trimming curves as curve objects.2 or 5.ini. the Rhino units are set to those in the IGES file and the Rhino system tolerance is set to the IGES file tolerance. If you import a 3DS file (which is a polygon mesh file) and write out an IGES file.Rhino 2.0 reads an IGES file using the "OPEN" command. When Rhino 2. The tolerance used in rebuilding bogus IGES trims is automatically computed and is always smaller than or equal to the Rhino system tolerance.

" For example. You’ll see a report that looks similar to the this: IGES global section settings in "myfile.Granny Smith" = 7232 "Grape" = 1 This file defines rules for mapping Rhino layers to IGES level numbers that will be used during IGES export and for mapping IGES level numbers to Rhino layers that will be used during IGES import.txt" LayerLevelMappingFlavor = "Fruit Stand" 2 Note In general. This happens when an IGES file has no valid independent geometry. When Rhino reads an IGES file. you need to do a bit of sleuthing. it prints a summary of the IGES file’s contents in the command history window..txt" and you want to use the "Fruit Stand" type. This file defines two sets of Rhino layer-IGES level correspondence rules (flavors) named "3 Stooges" and "Fruit Stand. If you read an IGES file and nothing is imported. A flavor is terminated by a blank line.) are ignored.ini that tells Rhino the name of this file and the name of the "flavor. Use the CommandHistory command to view the command history.Delicious" = 13 "Apple . Lines that begin with semi-colon (. The Rhino layer name appears between the quotation marks. A flavor has a name enclosed in square brackets [ ] followed by lines that look like: "<RhinoLayerName>" = N where N is a non-negative integer (0. If an exported Rhino layer name is not listed in the set of rules.IGES level translation rules [3 Stooges] "Default" = 0 "Larry" = 13 "Curley" = 7 "Moe" = 32000 [Fruit Stand] "Default" = 0 "Orange" = 9876 "Apple .Rhino 2.). The IGES file may contain usable IGES geometry entities that are not marked as geometry. To see if this is the case. This file can contain multiple flavors. Rhino displays an IGES Import Summary Information message box that says: Rhino found nothing to import from this IGES file.igs" Author: … Author's organization: … 64 ." In order for Rhino to use this file you must add a line in the [IGES] section of Rhino. A layer to level function is available in Rhino. if your file is called "iges_level_mapping. A summary of the file's contents is printed in the command history window. Spaces and tabs are ignored. an IGES level number is automatically selected. 1. To set up correspondence between Rhino layers and IGES levels: 1 Create a text file like the following example: . that level will automatically be imported to a layer called "IGES_LEVEL_N". then you would add the lines: [IGES] LayerLevelMappingFile = "C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\iges_level_mapping. it is a good idea for Rhino's "Default" layer to correspond to IGES's level 0. 3.. . Type "CommandHistory" to view the entire summary. Troubleshooting IGES import Problem: You read an IGES file and nothing shows up. If an imported IGES file contains a level number that is not listed in the set of rules and does have a IGES level name. but this is not required. 2.0 Command Reference correspondence between Rhino layer names and IGES level numbers.

igs normally. type ReadEveryIgesEntity Open the questionable IGES file. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box.Rhino 2. then you can use an advanced Rhino command to attempt to read this IGES file. Rhino reads alpha.igs open gamma. To import all IGES entities 1 2 At the Command prompt.igs Rhino attempts to read every entity only from beta. then it may be that there is valid geometry in the IGES file that is incorrectly marked as something besides geometry. Other(). it should ignore all category settings in the IGES file and try to read everything.igs. If one of the Annotation(). set the options for the IGES type. regardless of type. click New. 65 . or Logical/Positional(). ReadEveryIgesEntity command Imports all IGES entities. lines has (…/…/…/n) and n is not zero. If you think there is a chance that an IGES file contains valid geometry that is not being read because the IGES file has put the geometry in the wrong category.igs. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command tells Rhino that the next time an IGES file is read. then it may be that valid geometry is in the IGES file. If there is any geometry at all in the IGES file. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. accepting only entities marked as geometry. If you do something like: open alpha. but that geometry is incorrectly marked as dependent. It is likely you will also get lots of geometry you didn’t want and will have to dig through the pile to find the items you need. Definition().0 Command Reference Sender model name: … Receiver model name: … Sender file name: … Sender system ID: … Sender IGES preprocessor: … IGES file created time: date month year hour:minute:second Model created/last modified time: date month year hour:minute:second Unit system: millimeters Unit system name: MM IGES tolerance: 0. click Close. The ReadEveryIgesEntity command only effects the next IGES file that is read.01 Maximum coordinate: 101 Scale: 1 model units = 1 world unit … IGES file contents summary Number of invalid directory entries: 0 Null entity count: 0 Transformation matrix entity count: 1 Attribute information entity count: 0 All other entities: Category (independent count/physically dependent/logically dependent/total count) Geometry (0/…/…/Ng) Annotation (…/…/…/Ng) Definition (…/…/…/Ng) Other (0/0/0/ No) Logical/Positional (0/0/0/0) 2d Parametric (0/0/0/0) Construction Geometry (0/0/0/0) Imported 0 entities from IGES file myfile.igs ReadEveryIgesEntity open beta. Edit IGES export types To create a new IGES type: 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If the Geometry(…) line looks like Geometry(0/…/…/n) and n is not zero.igs and gamma. you will get it.

3 using four digits. and MacOS style line endings.2 and 5. Unix. select an IGES type you want to base the new type to. or IGES 402-7 (Unordered group) entities. and click Edit.0 Command Reference To create a new IGES type based on existing type: 1 2 3 1 2 3 In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Fit rational curves With this setting all rational curves (curve objects and trim curves) are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. set the options for the IGES type. MS-DOS uses carriage return + line feed (CRLF). select an IGES type. and click Delete. this number should be one. all NURBS curves with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. all NURBS curves with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. IGES 186 (Manifold BRep) entities. Points and Curves Point Objects Point objects can be exported as separate IGES 116 point entities or all points on a single layer can be exported as a single IGES 106-2 point set.3. To edit an IGES type: To delete an IGES type: Edit IGES export type details General Name Type a name for the IGES type. 66 . The difference is 5. If the max degree is set to five. and maximum degree five. or IGES circles. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. Unix uses LF. or circles (within the IGES tolerance) as IGES lines. IGES version Choose between IGES version 5. select an IGES type. click Close. set the options for the IGES type. from the IGES type list box. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. and click Copy Type.Rhino 2. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS curves are exported as NURBS curves with clamped end knots. and MacOS uses CR. maximum degree three. In the IGES Export Type Details dialog box. click Close. In most cases. Text file type Choose between MS-DOS. Use simple entities when possible Use this setting to export NURBS curves that are lines. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. Scale Set the default scale factor for the IGES type. The number must be bigger than zero. IGES 184 entities.2 stores years using two digits and 5. Composite curves as single B-spline Curve made from two or more B-splines can be exported as an IGES 102 (composite curve) entity or as IGES 126 entities. In the IGES Export Types dialog box. If the max degree is set to three. IGES arcs. from the IGES type list box. arcs. Surfaces Solids Solids can be exported as separate surfaces.

If the max degree is set to three. when possible. Click Save. from the File menu. Max degree Choose between no degree limit. you can adjust the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. IGES 128 means all trimmed surfaces are exported as untrimmed surfaces. 67 . Fit rational surfaces With this setting. If you get better results with one export type. Or. OBJ Export Options Export geometry as NURBS Rhino curves and surfaces are exported as NURBS curves and surfaces.0 Command Reference Polysurfaces Open polysurfaces can be exported as separate surfaces or IGES 402-7 entities. post the results to the Rhino newsgroup news://news. 1 2 3 Export your geometry using the "Test 143" export type. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than five are approximated with non-rational quintics to the specified IGES tolerance. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file.Rhino 2. the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. rational NURBS surfaces are be approximated with non-rational cubics to the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance. click Save As. If the max degree is set to five. In the Save as type box.com/rhino so we can document this file format. the surface is split so each half has just one pole. IGES 143 and IGES 144 entities. select Wavefront OBJ. In the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus). Split bipolar surfaces If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere). in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. OBJ (Wavefront) file export To save Wavefront OBJ files: 1 2 3 4 5 6 From the File menu. Curves are not exported. Split closed surfaces If a surface is closed (like a cylinder). Polygon mesh Surfaces are approximated with polygon mesh objects. select the options for OBJ export. and maximum degree five. Use simple entities when possible With this setting NURBS surfaces that are planar (within the tolerance specified as the IGES tolerance) are exported as IGES planes or IGES trimmed planes. Surfaces Surfaces can be exported as IGES 128. Clamp end knots With this setting periodic NURBS surfaces are exported as NURBS surfaces with clamped end knots. click Export Selected. when possible. Try to load both files into your product. If you export geometry as polygon mesh. In the OBJ Export Options dialog box. Export the same geometry again using the "Test 144" export type. type a name for the OBJ file. all NURBS surfaces with degree higher than three are approximated with non-rational cubics to the specified IGES tolerance. Troubleshooting IGES Export Problems If you read IGES files created from Rhino into another product and some surfaces are missing. In the File name box. when possible.rhino3d. try the following test. maximum degree three.

The OBJ import plug-in for 3D Studio MAX is one example. Export layer names should be cleared. the trimming curves are NURBS curves. By default. These settings make it possible to export data to programs that do not support nested grouping. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. Currently the only way to enable mesh export for an IGES flavor is to edit the appropriate Meshes = skip | 106-12 | 106-13 line in the Rhino. We don't have enough information to know what the proper settings should be for all the flavors in the current list. Each facet is represented by a 3 or 4 segmented closed polyline that outlines the edges of the facet. The vertex normals are stored at the vertices.0 Command Reference Export trims as Polylines When exporting NURBS surfaces. To export to MAX. 68 . 106-13 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets.mtl file contains one material definition per object. 106-12 Export meshes as groups (402-7) of facets. This is more accurate than exporting trims as polylines. The option you choose depends on where the file is going. the trimming curves are approximated by polylines. Export object names Exports object names. There are also references to these materials added to the . Note Use SetObjectMaterial in Rhino to assign a material to an object. Export layer names Exports layer names. This option was originally included for exporting to Alias. LF (Unix) Line feed only.obj file.Rhino 2. IGES polygon mesh export Rhino supports a limited ability to export mesh information to IGES files using entity type 104-12/13.obj file. This appears to be the accepted and best way to deal with mesh data in IGES files. Export material definitions Creates an . If is far from 100% satisfactory. Layer names and object names are exported into the OBJ file as OBJ group names. CR (Mac OS) Return only. The geometry is not as accurate as if you export trims as curves. Y Up Translates the the exported model from a z-up orientation to a y-up orientation.ini file. Curves When exporting NURBS surfaces. MS-DOS) Return + line feed.mtl file with the same name as the . Options Skip Don't export meshes. The . mesh export is disabled. This material name is exported for use by the renderer. End of line character CRLF (Windows. Spaces in the layer or object names are converted into underbar (_) characters. Now you should be able to use IGES for exporting to Alias instead.

select IGES. it is recommended that you use groups or levels when exporting from the originating application. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. select Alias V8. change your viewport layout to a single viewport.x.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. MAX4 has two places where you can set the units: Customize > Unit Setup. From the IGES Type box. All data that is not grouped. and set the display to wireframe. Or. select 3D Studio MAX 3. The IGES importer uses IGES group and level information to distinguish between objects.0 Command Reference IGES Types 3D Studio MAX 3. In the File name box. In this case. from the File menu. Set these to match the units in the Rhino file. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. make it independent. and then restart MAX. type a filename. After a large IGES import. select IGES. There may be some instances where the IGES import is trimming the wrong portion of the surface. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export Selected.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 69 . it is recommended that you save your work first. select the surface. and Customize > Preferences. Note When merging an IGES file. select the trim curve. click Export or Save As. type a filename. it is recommended that you save your work. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. try using OBJ format instead. Note If you have problems transferring files to older versions of Alias using IGES. To distinguish between separate entities. For the fastest import. and resides in the same level will import to the same object.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N Alias|Wavefront IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. and flip the trim.

In the Save as type box. select IGES. type a filename. select AUTOFORM.000000 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y 70 . type a filename. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select Ashlar Vellum. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 Max Curve Degree=3 Curves As Single B-spline=n Simplify Curves=y Fit Rational Curves=y Clamp Curve End Knots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip Max Surface Degree=0 Solids=0 Simplify Surfaces=y Fit Rational Surfaces=n Clamp Surface End Knots=y AUTOFORM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select IGES.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 Text file type=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference AutoShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select IGES. click Export or Save As. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=Y FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=Y FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CADCEUS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES. 71 .0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Breault Research's ASAP IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. select IGES. From the IGES Type box. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Breault Research's ASAP. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select CADCEUS. select AutoShip. In the File name box.

0 HideDependentObjects=Y 72 . IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y CATIA IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CATIA. select IGES. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N CamSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select CamSoft. type a filename. In the File name box.

Surfaces and Solids. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. In the Save as type box. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. click Export or Save As.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 73 . then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. select Cosmos/M. In the File name box. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces. Cosmos/M IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.Rhino 2. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole.0 Command Reference Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=Y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. From the IGES Type box. even those that are trivially trimmed.

From the IGES Type box. select Cosmos/M.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the Save as type box. select FastShip. 74 . select IGES. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y FastShip IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N FastSURF IGES file exchange 1 2 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference Delcam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.Rhino 2. select IGES. click Export or Save As. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.

type a filename. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.3 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Integrity Ware. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. select IGES. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0 Command Reference 3 4 In the File name box. click Export or Save As.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=Y SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=Y FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y Integrity Ware IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y 75 . From the IGES Type box. In the File name box. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. select IronCAD. In the Save as type box. type a filename.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n IronCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select FastSURF.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.

click Export or Save As.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=Y Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N Mastercam IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the File name box. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select IGES.Rhino 2. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y 76 . select LUSAS. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box.0 Command Reference Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y LUSAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. type a filename. type a filename.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Mastercam.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select IGES.

click Export Selected. select IGES. In the Save as type box. 77 . select IGES. type a filename. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n ME30 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select Maya. In the File name box. from the File menu. Surfaces and Solids. In the File name box. From the IGES Type box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box.Rhino 2. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Or. select ME30. type a filename. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together.0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Maya IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As.

0 Command Reference Mechanical Desktop IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Start and Global. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select IGES. in the Description box. 78 . click DE Mappings.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Exporting From Mechanical Desktop The best way to get geometry from Mechanical Desktop (MDT) release 2. In the IGESOUT Geometry Options dialog box. set IGES Version to either 5. type a filename. To save these settings. check Color Definition Entity (314) and click OK. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. click Geometry. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. In the Autodesk IGES Translator R14 . type a filename. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the IGESOUT Start and Global Options dialog box. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. You may set these options as you see fit. In the Save as type box.opt. In the IGESOUT Structure Options dialog box. and set Trimmed Surface Mapping to Bounded surface (143) and click OK. From the IGES Type box.0 into Rhino is to use the MDT IGESOUT command. To get the best results.IGESOUT dialog box. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Note For the solids modelers there are now two types.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. select Microstation. From the IGES Type box. In the IGESOUT DE Mapping Options dialog box. click Structure. select IGES. Save the options in a file called something like MDTtoRhino. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. (The MDT defaults work fine.2 or 5. There are lots of MDT IGES options that are not mentioned in the discussion above.3 stores years as 4 digit numbers. Version 5. click Export or Save As. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. click Edit options. type something like MDT to Rhino and click Save As.3. set Map Layer Names to Level Property (406:3) and click OK.) Microstation IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 stores years as 2 digit numbers. select Mechanical Desktop. you may need to adjust the MDT IGES export options. In the File name box. Version 5.Rhino 2. Surfaces and Solids. In the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. set 3D Solid/Designer part mapping to Surfaces. in the IGESOUT Options Editor dialog box. and click OK. To export: 5 6 7 8 In MDT start the IGESOUT command.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note When exporting to Microstation. This changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. Multisurf 3. it may be useful to use the LinearizeTrims command before exporting. If you add the following section to your Rhino. click Export or Save As. Remember not to overwrite the original 3DM file with a file with linearized trims. Note that an IGES file created with these settings will not contain any trimming information. type a filename. type a filename.Rhino 2.000000 79 . the current version of Multisurf is 3.1. In the Save as type box. Multisurf IGES file exchange At the time of this writing. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select NASA GridTool. select Multisurf.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. In the File name box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.1 will not completely import IGES trimmed surface entities or curve geometry. click Export or Save As.1 using an IGES file. then you can export surfaces (trimming will be lost) to Multisurf 3. 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.ini file.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=128 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y NASA GridTool IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. select NuGraf. click Export or Save As. select IGES.0 HideDependentObjects=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=y 80 . select IGES.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. From the IGES Type box. From the IGES Type box.Rhino 2.000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=Y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=402 Meshes=106-13 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y OptiCAD IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. select OptiCAD. In the File name box.0 Command Reference HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N NoZerosInTSection=Y Points=106 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. click Export or Save As. type a filename. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. In the Save as type box.

01 units.0001 will produce good results.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. when exporting to IGES. depending on the platform Pro/E is running on. Anything lower than that tends to slow Rhino down too much. you should set your absolute tolerance to something lower than the default 0.pro file or save them as rhino. IGES_OUT_ALL_SRFS_AS 128 IGES_OUT_SPL_CRVS_AS_126 YES IGES_OUT_SPL_SRFS_AS_128 YES IGES_OUT_TRIM_XYZ YES IGES_OUT_MIL_D_28000 NO IGES_OUT_TRM_SRFS_AS_143 NO IGES_OUT_TRIM_CURVE_DEVIATION DEFAULT INTF_OUT_BLANKED_ENTITIES NO INTF_OUT_MAX_BSPL_DEGREE 5 INTF_OUT_AS_BEZIER NO INTF3D_OUT_FORCE_SURF_NORMALS YES INTF3D_OUT_SURFACE_DEVIATION YES INTF3D_OUT_EXTEND_SURFACE YES IGES_IN_106_F2_AS_SPLINE NO IGES_IN_DWG_LINE_FONT YES IGES_IN_DWG_PNT_ENT YES IGES_IN_DWG_COLOR YES FIX_BOUNDARIES_ON_IMPORT YES Prior to constructing any geometry.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Pro/E IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. use the "All Parts" option.Rhino 2. In the File name box. click Export or Save As. select IGES.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y 81 . If you set your tolerances right. Note With Pro/E version 20.pro file then read it in before exporting. select Pro/E NT or Pro/E UNIX. To optimize export of Pro/E files into Rhino.001 to 0. In the Save as type box. you should only have to perform a minimal amount of manual stitching once inside Pro/E. IGES Settings for Pro/E Windows IgesVersion=5. somewhere around 0. use these settings in the Pro/E config.

When modeling in Rhino. make sure all surfaces overlap so you can do a un-trim if IGES splits open on import. If a surface has poles at both ends (like a sphere) and Split bipolar surfaces=Y. 82 . and can be replaced with insert mode in Pro/E and managed as a feature. Pro/E 20-21 have problems shading free-form surfaces. Surface replace is another good tool to use. If the curves are planar. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. re-export to Pro/E and do a native Pro/E trim because the surfaces will not zip gaps. and better yet is a single surface import of exploded parts from Rhino because each surface is a feature. The more trims you have. then the surface will be split into four quarters in the IGES file. Things like fillets and drafts .0 Command Reference FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y IGES Settings for Pro/E UNIX IgesVersion=5. Open surfaces can be made into a solid in Pro/E providing the open edge is buried in solid material in Pro/E. There are times you may need to go back to Rhino and do a un-trim. Use Rhino for the surfacing tool and Pro/E for the detailing tool. If a surface is closed (like a cylinder) and Split closed surfaces=Y. the surface will be split into two halves in the IGES file. Large spaced isoparms and things like caped ends will fail as a solid import so rebuild surfaces or up the degree to add more control points to clamp things together. to be exported as IGES trimmed surface entities. Set the resolution to 10 in Pro/E to help see the surface.Rhino 2. so all features are native to Pro/E but developed in Rhino. The curves used with NetworkSrf in Rhino can be exported to Pro/E and used with the surfacing module using Surface\Advanced\Boundary with similar results. This will bypass the tolerance issue if your overlapping surface distance is enough. then the surface is split so each half has just one pole. This also means don't do a ShrinkTrimmedSrf in Rhino if it will prevent a un-trim without a overlapping edge. If a surface is closed in both directions (like a torus) and Split closed surfaces=Y. even those that are trivially trimmed. Keep away from weights on cv's in Rhino if exporting via IGES. they can be used and made parametric with use-edge and un-aligned then re-dimensioned and adjusted. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. then splitting it in half would make it harder to get nice deformations. The ForcedTrimmedSurfaces export option forces all surfaces.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=y ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=184 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Split closed surfaces=Y Split bipolar surfaces=Y ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y Note For the solids modelers like Pro/E.all internals should be saved for Pro/E. Cutting a surface into halves or even a four-way split can help with the shading problems. Surfaces and Solids. Don't do in Rhino what you want as a parametric feature in the model. then. there are now two types. Make sure you have enough information in the file to do a translation.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. Model with tight tolerance in Rhino and make sure the start part in Pro/E has a lower tolerance than the export. Check the surface in Pro/E with the mesh command to see if they are in sync. the worse the odds are for a solid import in Pro/E. Tips from an expert user: Below are a few tips from a Rhino user that should help working with IGES files and Pro/E 21. The drawback of splitting is that if you had a closed surface and wanted to deform it in some other application.

It is a parent file to the assembly and is sent out as IGES when you send out all parts but has no information Rhino can use since Rhino does not support assemblies. Pro/E with split and rebuild the surfaces on import unless you split them first where you want them. SDRC's I-DEAS IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. In the File name box.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. To get an assembly into Rhino you can set up a layer/level mapping file or load one IGES file at a time and put them on layers as you go. There is no geometry information in it. Assembly files are not supported The Pro/E . From the IGES Type box. If you go round trip from Rhino to Pro then back to Pro.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=n Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=186 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=n Note I-DEAS uses a black background. Make sure all surfaces pass draft check for molding parts before export and before any work starts in Pro/E. Exporting from I-DEAS Types to Export to IGES Points Groups Curves/Edges Convert to Curve Type: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Surfaces Convert to Trimmed Surface type: 143:0 Bounded with Model and Param Space Curves Convert to Base Surface Type: 128:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Trim curves convert to: 126:0 Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) Solids Convert to Representation Type: 186:0 Solids with 3D Model and 2D Param Space Curves 83 . select IGES. In the Save as type box.0 Command Reference Don't forget that Pro/E can use a IGES as a cutter. Use a white or light colored layer color in Rhino so objects will show when imported into I-DEAS. It keeps track of exploded dimensions and layer colors for the assembly. and a solid. type a filename. Exporting from Rhino: IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. a surface. Make sure you send the IGES parts out from the default coordinate or top level coordinate in the 'assembly' so the parts come in based on the assembly coordinates and not the part coordinates. you will not get back what you sent.asm file is a pointer file telling Pro/E how to assemble the parts. select SDRC's I-DEAS. Quilts can grow in Pro/E with multiple inputs from Rhino. Finding culprit surfaces is always a learning curve for every design.Rhino 2. Read the Help file topic about layer/level mapping IGES files if you want to go that route.

3.0 Command Reference Maximum number of points per IGES Polyline: 1000 Chordal Deviation Tolerance: 0. select IGES. Open Softimage.igs MyDSCFile.com Plugin download link page: www. and OBJ file formats created in Rhino.okino. From the File menu. Type a filename and click Save. select Softimage.dsc [RSRC_DIR] = Softimage resource directory (often c:\soft3d_3.phoenixtools. Use Polytrans file exchange utility: Polytrans by Okino can read IGES files and write Softimage files.7sp1 and 3. This makes the conversion process less complicated on import into Softimage as each imported section will be brought in under a parent null.01 Maximum Degree of Curves and Surfaces: Softimage IGES file exchange There are three options for getting NURBS models from Rhino into Softimage.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y 2.txt contains command line option information.com/products/GreenCD/freeplugs. All three have their own problems and benefits.exe with the following command line switches: iges2soft -f -L -S3 -s3 -T5 -t3 -v3 -R [RSRC_DIR] MyIgesFile.html The actual download page with plugins for Alpha. In the IGES Export dialog box.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Use Softimage’s file utility: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Create a NURBS model in Rhino. from the IGES Type box. In the Save As dialog box.Rhino 2. select Softimage. Use Phoenix Tools plug-in: Advice from an expert Rhino user: Download the free Phoenix Tools Iges Import plug-in for Softimage from: Main page: www. This is so things are easier to sort out in schematic view when you recombine the scene elements later. Run iges2soft.phoenixtools. for SI versions 3.phoenixtools. Softimage can also import 3DS.8: ftp://ftp. 1. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. from the Save as type box. It is best to export your objects separately if it is a very large model.com. DXF. 2 84 . then click IGES. In the IGES Export Options dialog box. Check out their web site for more information: www.7\3d\bin\rsrc) iges2soft.com/pub/download/Free_Plug-ins/ The best way to get objects from Rhino into Softimage correctly trimmed is: 1 Export the model to the Softimage IGES flavor: From the File menu click Export. SGI and x86 (Intel). click Save As.

In the File name box. type a filename.) Accept Phoenix Tools Iges Import default settings. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the File name box. select IGES. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y 85 . The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.Rhino 2. 5 6 7 8 Solid Edge IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. Select all models [spacebar+a] and rotate -90 in the X axis: Model > Effect > Freeze > Rotation. (I suggest creating a new Softimage directory specifically for the task of IGES importing. click Export or Save As.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. Surfaces and Solids. select Solid Designer 6 or Solid Designer 7. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. The model will be translated and then appear in Softimage. Save scene/model to await merging into desired Softimage scene. Select the database where you want the imported IGES file to be saved upon conversion to Softimage format. select Solid Edge. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings Solid Designer 6: [IGES_SolidDesigner 6] IgesVersion=5. click Export or Save As.0 Command Reference 3 4 Import the file: Tools > Import > Objects > PT_IgesImport. From the IGES Type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. select IGES. Solid Designer IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.

To export models to Rhino. Experiment with different settings for optimal results. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. select SolidWorks.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.001 or 0. the IGES unit system and/or tolerance may need to be tweaked. In the File name box. Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. type a filename.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=402 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SolidWorks IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. click Export or Save As. Rhino SolidWorks For SolidWorks post-IGES "knitting" to succeed. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.0001 before building the geometry. select IGES. To make more watertight geometry in Rhino.0 Command Reference ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=143 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N IGES Settings Solid Designer 7: IgesVersion=5. In the Save as type box. you need to set the Rhino absolute tolerance to a small number like 0. From the IGES Type box. SolidWorks Rhino SolidWorks Standard IGES export type uses analytic surfaces. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products.Rhino 2. use one of the other IGES types like SURFCAM or Mastercam that use NURBS surfaces.0 Points=116 86 . Surfaces and Solids.

000000 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=N FitRationalCurves=N ClampCurveEndKnots=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=N ClampSurfaceEndKnots=N SURFCAM IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. Nothing replaces experience. click Export or Save As. which within human perception. and after you successfully work with a few imported models in SolidWorks. type a filename. Also. SUM 4. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. you will gain an intuitive feel for the types of things that work well. SolidWorks helps with these problems with its right-click > Select Tangent feature.0 IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. In the Save as type box. In the File name box. SolidWorks usually does not consider Rhino tangencies to be tangent. This is an enormous help when filleting imported models. Fortunately SolidWorks provides some workarounds with face fillets. select SURFCAM. to test feasibility. which works on both edges and faces. for SolidWorks. Use SolidWorks "What's Wrong" feature to highlight problem areas. From the IGES Type box. Import a number of "mini models" as your Rhino model progresses. Shelling.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. and investigate alternative approaches. type a filename. Model only the organic parts of the model in Rhino. leaving features such as fillets. select IGES. In the Save as type box. then shelling is likely to fail. select SUM4. over-sized slab surfaces whenever possible.Rhino 2. shelling.0 Command Reference MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Advice from a user: Use an absolute tolerance of 0.. and the filleter will build a piece-wise fillet with "near tangent" segments. 87 . etc. small wrinkles with stall the sheller if the curvature of the wrinkle is smaller than the requested wall thickness. ribs. Generally. sometimes requires that some surfaces be extended. select IGES. But if your Rhino model has a singularity or other peculiarity where the extension should occur. Another thing you can do is select the entire chain of "near tangent" edges in SolidWorks. is tangent. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.0001. try to model with smooth. by nature. In the File name box.

click Export or Save As. select Tebis Windows or Tebis UNIX.0 Command Reference IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.000000 [IGES_Tebis UNIX] IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. IGES Settings: [IGES_Tebis Windows] IgesVersion=5. type a filename.Rhino 2.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Tebis IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu. From the IGES Type box. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000.2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. In the Save as type box.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 88 .

2 EOL=CRLF Scale=1. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. In the File name box. select IGES. type a filename. type a filename. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. In the Save as type box. select Unigraphics. select IGES. select TekSoft.000000 TekSoft IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Command Reference CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=Y SplitBiPolarSurfaces=Y NoZerosInTSection=N ForceTrimmedSurfaces=Y CATIAVersion=N CATIA_TOLSIZE=100000. From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As. In the Save as type box.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n SimplifyCurves=n FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=n FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Unigraphics IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.0 Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=0 CurvesAsSingleBspline=n 89 .2 EOL=LF Scale=1.

From the IGES Type box. click Export or Save As.Rhino 2. select Yamaha ESPRi. The Solids type should be used when exporting anything you expect to be able to join back together. In the Save as type box. Surfaces and Solids. The Surfaces type should be used when exporting a single surface to those products. In the File name box. IGES Settings: IgesVersion=5. type a filename. 90 . Yamaha ESPri IGES file exchange 1 2 3 4 From the File menu.2 EOL=LF Scale=1. select IGES.000000 HideDependentObjects=N DoublesUseE=N Points=116 MaxCurveDegree=3 CurvesAsSingleBspline=N SimplifyCurves=Y FitRationalCurves=Y ClampCurveEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnCurves=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnCurves=N FlagDependentCurvesAs03=N Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 MaxSurfaceDegree=3 Solids=0 Meshes=skip SimplifySurfaces=N FitRationalSurfaces=Y ClampSurfaceEndKnots=Y UseParentLabelOnSurfaces=Y ForceBezierKnotsOnSurfaces=N FlagDependentSurfacesAs03=N SplitClosedSurfaces=N SplitBiPolarSurfaces=N Context menu You can right-click on an object or in a viewport to access a context menu.0 Command Reference SimplifyCurves=y FitRationalCurves=n ClampCurveEndKnots=y Surfaces=144 PolySurfaces=0 Meshes=skip MaxSurfaceDegree=0 Solids=0 SimplifySurfaces=y FitRationalSurfaces=n ClampSurfaceEndKnots=y Note For the solids modelers there are now two types. Context-sensitive menu with object selected.

Select Color From the Color List: In the Select Color dialog box. holding the Shift key while right-clicking will display the context menu immediately. That's why custom colors selected for layers and screen items may change when you exit the color selector. actions related to objects appear in the menu.txt in the Rhino install directory. you can also repeat the last command using a double-right click. Rhino screen uses only 256 colors. In addition. Edit the Rhino. The cursor changes to indicate you can either release the button to access the menu. 91 . Green. you can still access the context menu by right-click and hold. Customize the menus Context menus are customizable. For maximum speed. Drag the marker vertically in the square to define the brightness value. click in the upper left corner of the shade square to make sure you're seeing the hue at full saturation and value. and Blue boxes. Context-sensitive menu indicator.0 Command Reference If an object is selected.ini file to add or change menu items. from the Named Colors list. or drag to manipulate the view. If context-sensitive menu is on. The first item is always to repeat the last command. Turn off default menu display You can turn off the immediate display of the context-sensitive menu using a setting in the Rhino. The same limitation does not apply to render color. Drag the marker horizontally in the square to define the saturation level. type RGB values in the Red. Context-sensitive menu in viewport. The named colors are loaded from an ASCII text file called colors. actions related to viewport properties appear in the menu. From the HSV and RGB boxes: To select an red/green/blue (RGB) color. You can customize the file if you want to define your own color palette. select a color.Rhino 2. and Value boxes.ini file. If no object is selected. which is usually c:\Program files\Rhinoceros. Saturation. type values in the Hue. [RightMouseButton] ContextMenus=n If ContextMenus is set to no. Note If you change the hue but don't see much of a change in the sample box. To create an hue/saturation/brightness value (HSV) color. From the color selector: Drag the marker around the wheel to define the hue.

Near. and Point persistent object snaps are set in the Osnap dialog box. Quad. right-click the Lock checkbox. on the status bar. You can lock all persistent object snaps with the Lock checkbox. One-shot object snaps only work when Rhino is requesting a point. the end object snap constrains the marker to the endpoint of the curve closest the cursor. Tan. Perp. but snap to different parts of existing geometry. Locking the object snaps suspends their use until you unlock them. or can be activated for one pick only. Only Near. When activated. To display the Osnap dialog box. and Point will not work for that pick. Press the Alt key to temporarily suspend object snaps. When an object snap is active. This means how close you have to move the cursor to the point before the marker jumps to the point. Persistent object snaps Use persistent objects snaps to maintain an object snap through choosing several points without having to reactivate the object snap. Point. One-shot object snaps override all persistent object snaps for one pick. End. End snaps to the endpoint of a curve. moving the cursor near a specified point on an object causes the marker to jump to that point. After the pick. Select or clear the desired object snap checkboxes. End. 92 . click Osnap. If object snaps are locked. Object snaps can persist from pick to pick. if End. Midpoint. For example. the persistent object snaps will reactivate. and Knot object snaps can persist. All Object Snaps Off End Object Snap On Multiple object snaps You can have more than one object snap active at the same time. To clear all persistent object snaps. Intersection. You can set the radius of influence for object snaps. One-shot object snaps Object snaps can be turned on for one pick only. and you set the Mid object snap for one pick. press Alt to toggle them on temporarily. the appropriate object snap displays. Center.0 Command Reference Object snaps When Rhino asks you to choose a point. you can constrain the marker to specific parts of existing objects by turning on object snap modes. Near.Rhino 2. Multiple persistent object snaps can be set in the Osnap dialog box. As you pass your cursor over an object. All object snaps behave similarly.

Modeling Aids tab controls the appearance of the cursors: Object snap list Along Track along a line AlongParallel Snaps parallel to a line formed by two points.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Cursor color The CursorMode setting in the Osnap section in the Options dialog box. Between Snap midway between two points Cen Snap to the center of a circle End Snap to the end of a curve From Snap from a point Front Set to world front view Int Snap to the intersection of two curves Knot Snap to a knot on a curve or surface Mid Snap to the midpoint of a curve Near Snap near a curve OnCrv Snap to a curve OnSrf Snap to a surface Perp Snap perpendicular to a curve PerpFrom Track along a line perpendicular to a curve 93 .

Rhino 2. If the NoSnap command is run at the Command prompt. The normal object snaps are evaluated first. and Knot. You can temporarily suspend the effect of the object snaps with the LockOsnap command. and with OnSrf one-shot object snap. At the Persistent Osnap prompt. This command is useful for command files. Perp. click Object Snap. Knot is not in the dialog box because it is not often used. Move the cursor near the endpoint of a curve. Click to enter the endpoint. Isoparm object snapping is "weaker" than normal object snaps. The currently-set persistent object snaps are displayed between angle brackets <>. Intersection. type the names of the persistent object snaps you want to set. 94 . End object snap Snap to the end of a curve. InsertKnot. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > None The command context determines whether this command turns persistent object snaps off. NoSnap Turn object snaps off. with no spaces. Center. all others will be cleared. because it can set any object snap combination from command line. it turns off all persistent object snaps. Quad. or just suspends them for one pick. from the Tools menu. If a command is active.0 Command Reference Pt Snap to a point Quad Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse Tan Snap tangent to a curve TanFrom Track along a line tangent to a curve Isoparm snapping You can snap to surface isoparms using the Int object snap whenever the input is constrained to a surface. then click End. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. OrientOnSrf. Tan. End. for example in ExtractIsoparm. and only if they fail will Rhino try to snap to the isoparm intersections. NoSnap turns off persistent object snaps for one pick. Only these object snaps will be set. Midpoint. Near. Osnap Set a persistent object snap from the command line. Point. separated by commas. The marker jumps to the endpoint. Valid options are NoSnap.

click the Osnap pane. click Object Snap. 95 . In the Osnap dialog box. from the Tools menu. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Mid. The marker moves along the curve. then click Point. from the Tools menu. Set persistent Midpoint object snap Cen object snap Snap to the center of an arc or circle. Set persistent Point object snap Mid object snap Snap to the midpoint of a curve. On the status bar. click the Osnap pane. Move the cursor near a point. then click Near. click the Osnap pane. click Near. Set persistent end object snap 1 2 On the status bar. click Object Snap. Near object snap Snap near a curve. Click to enter a point on the curve. Move the cursor near a curve or the edge of a surface. click Mid. click the Osnap pane. and the "corners" of surfaces. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter the midpoint. Set persistent Near object snap Point object snap Snap to a point. click End. click Object Snap.0 Command Reference Note The End object snap also snaps to interior vertices of polylines and joined curves. click Point. The marker jumps to its midpoint. On the status bar. the seam point on closed curves. In the Osnap dialog box. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Click to enter the point. The marker jumps to it.Rhino 2. In the Osnap dialog box. On the status bar. Move the cursor near a curve. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point.

In the Osnap dialog box. 96 . then click Perpendicular To. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Click to enter the center point. On the status bar.0 Command Reference Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. click the Osnap pane. perpendicular to the curve. Click to enter the point of intersection. then click Tangent To. The marker jumps to it. click Int. from the Tools menu. tangent to the curve. Set persistent Perpendicular object snap 1 2 On the status bar. Move the cursor near an intersection. Click to enter one of these points. from the Tools menu. click Object Snap. In the Osnap dialog box. then click Center. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to its center point.Rhino 2. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line from the last point. from the Tools menu. click Cen. click Object Snap. The marker jumps to the points on the curve that can make a line to the last point. Toolbar: 1 2 3 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Perp. Click to enter one of these points. On the status bar. then click Intersection. click the Osnap pane. click the Osnap pane. Set persistent Center object snap Int object snap Snap to the intersection of two curves. click Object Snap. Move the cursor near a curve. Move the cursor along a curve. from the Tools menu. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 When a command is requesting a next point. Tan object snap Snap tangent to a curve. Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. Move the cursor along a curve. Set persistent Intersection object snap Perp object snap Snap perpendicular to a curve.

Move the cursor near a curve. click Object Snap. You can use another object snap to pick this point. In the Osnap dialog box. click Quad. From object snap Snap from a point. then click Knot. then click From. type Knot. Click to enter one of these points. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. and relative coordinate entry. Toolbar: Object Snap The From object snap differs from the rest of the object snap because it is used to set the base point for ortho. On the status bar. At the Choose a base point prompt. click the Osnap pane. from the Tools menu. Ortho constrains the marker to lines radiating from the last pick point. distance constraint constrains the marker to a circle of a specified radius from the last pick point. click the Osnap pane. The quadrant points of circles and arcs are at the extremes in each construction plane axis direction. The quadrant points for ellipses are at the ends of the ellipse axes. without entering that point for the original command. You can set this point. click Object Snap. Quad object snap Snap to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. pick a point. Set persistent Quadrant object snap 1 2 Knot object snap Snap to a knot. The marker jumps to the knot points on the curve. and finally choose the point for the original command.Rhino 2. Similarly. from the Tools menu. click Tan. angle constraint. Move the cursor along a circle. then click Quadrant. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. from the Tools menu. with From. click Object Snap. Set persistent Tangent To object snap 1 2 On the status bar. The base point for constraints is set to the point you picked. distance constraint. In the Osnap dialog box. Set your constraints relative to the base point. Set persistent knot object snap At the Persistent Osnap prompt. Click to enter the knot point.0 Command Reference Note This object snap is ineffective if it is used for the first point for a command. or similar surface edges. without picking it. arc or ellipse. The marker jumps to the quadrant points of the curve. 1 2 When a command is requesting a point. 3 Example 97 .

Click to enter a point along the perpendicular line. Mid. you can use simple snaps. select the point on the curve to extend the perpendicular line from. and Quad. At the Choose a point prompt. The marker is constrained to a circle of radius 2 centered at the endpoint of the line. Cen. At the Choose a base point prompt. At the Click near the curve prompt. Int. Near. for greater precision. Point. click Object Snap.Rhino 2. PerpFrom object snap Track along a line perpendicular to a curve. then click From. select the curve. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. The cursor moves only along the curve. The marker tracks along the perpendicular line. click Object Snap. TanFrom object snap Track along a line tangent to a curve. from the Tools menu. 3 At the prompt requesting a point. from the Tools menu. select the curve. 98 . snap to the end of the line. click Object Snap. At the Click near the curve prompt. End. then click Tangent From. type 2 and press Enter. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Toolbar: 1 2 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. then click Perpendicular From. from the Tools menu. Crosshairs appear to indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve.0 Command Reference To constrain the marker to a circle 2 units from the endpoint of a line 1 2 When a command is requesting a point.

Near. Click to enter a point on the line. Mid. in the Object Snap toolbar. Int. Point. Note When selecting points during this sequence. Mid. and Quad) for greater precision. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Object Snap > Along Parallel When a command is requesting a point. select a first point to specify the tracking line. The marker moves only along the line. Point. and Quad) for greater precision. At the End of base line prompt. Mid. select the point on the curve to extend the tangent line from.0 Command Reference The marker moves only along the curve. 3 4 Note When selecting points during this sequence. Cen. Toolbar: 1 Object Snap 2 3 4 When a command is requesting a point. At the Start of base line prompt. 99 . Note When selecting points during this sequence. Or. select a second point. Point. At the Point for parallel tracking prompt. At the Start of tracking line prompt. Int. Click to enter a point along the tangent line. The marker moves only along the line. select a second point. Near.Rhino 2. Crosshairs indicate the perpendicular and tangent lines that extend from any point on the curve. select a first point to specify the line you want to track parallel to. you can use simple snaps (End. At the End of tracking line prompt. At the Choose a point prompt. then click Along Line. and Quad) for greater precision. Int. type AlongParallel. The marker tracks along the tangent line. Cen. click Object Snap. AlongParallel object snap Track parallel to a line defined by two points. Cen. Click to enter a point on the line. pick a point for the start of the parallel line. you can use simple snaps (End. Along object snap Track along a line. Near. from the Tools menu. you can use simple snaps (End. right-click the Along toolbar button.

Note When selecting a point on the surface. ProjectOsnap Project object snaps to the construction plane.0 Command Reference OnSrf object snap Snap to a point on a surface. 100 . for greater precision. Intersection. By default. it is off. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Object Snap When a command is requesting a point. Near. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > Between OnCrv object snap Snaps along a curve. This is useful if the model is complex and Near osnap alone does not lock to the object you would like it to. from the Tools menu. you can use simple snaps. The marker moves only along the surface. and Knot. the marker projects to the current construction plane with a white tracking line between it and the cursor. It constrains the marker to a selected curve. This can be toggled with a script" ! projectosnap on ! projectosnap off Between Snaps to a point midway between two points. At the Click near the surface prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Project to CPlane Or. Status bar: Osnap Project Osnap projection is toggled on or off. Menu: Tools > Object Snap > On Curve OnCrv is similar to OnSrf. Tools > Options On the Modeling Aids tab. select Project to CPlane. Center. SnapToLocked Sets the ability to snap to locked objects or objects on locked layers. End. When Osnap projection is on. and the cursor is over an object snap point. click Object Snap. then click On Surface. select the surface. Mid. Click to enter a point on the surface. but works on curves. Point.Rhino 2.

1. You can turn off surface isoparms by clearing this checkbox. The Properties dialog box displays information on the first 50 objects. Layer You can change layer the object is on by selecting a layer from the list. Other tabs Tabs may be added to this dialog box by a plug-in application such as a renderer. General tab. Dimensions tab Edit dimension properties. or just the knot isoparms. Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. Information Technical information about the command displays. To change the default isoparm density for new objects. 0. POV-Ray. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditDim command. One isoparm on knot-free spans. Object tab Name Object names are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. and RenderMan RIB. The valid values are -1. You can use SetObjectName to set the name of a selected object or a selected group of objects. 101 . go to the Options dialog box. Layers can be created and their properties changed in the Layer dialog box. and the other positive integers. 2. The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. Object Properties. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. Color The color of the object can either inherit the color of its layer or be set individually. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Definition (Show surface isoparms unchecked) means no isoparms display. and OBJ file export.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties.0 Command Reference Object properties Object Properties. Isoparm density This options defines the number of isoparms Rhino draws on the surface. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Match Properties With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of a single object. You can also use ChangeLayer to change the layer the object is on. Isoparms at surface knot locations.

Turns light on or off. finish. Toolbar: Menu: Assign By Standard Edit > Object Properties. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. spotlight hardness ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Object Properties. From top left to bottom right. texture. Spotlight Hardness This option defines the hardness of the spotlight edge. Layer The object inherits the render material assigned to the layer. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Rendering properties can be assigned to layers. Light tab Edit light object properties. this tab displays the properties for that light type. To change the material assignment of the layer. Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. using a plug-in library.0 Command Reference Object Properties. use the Edit Layers dialog box. Material tab Edit object material properties. Toolbar: Menu: State Standard Edit > Object Properties. transparency. Color Sets the color of the light. If the object you are setting properties for is a light. you can set the color. Shadow Darkness Sets the darkness of the shadow for spotlights. This option applies only when spotlights are selected. Setting the color to shades of gray dims the light.Rhino 2. or to objects to be used with the basic Rhino renderer. 102 .

Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. polysurface. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black.0 Command Reference Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties.Rhino 2. 103 . Unlike more advanced renderers. Library [This is not currently used by Rhino. From top left to bottom right. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Text tab Edit text properties. Object Properties.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. To change the color of the wireframe display. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene. The tab acts the same as the dialog box for the EditText command. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. The PackTextures and UnpackTextures commands determine how textures are mapped over polysurfaces. Clear this option to remove the texture map. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. or a polygon mesh. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping.

Aliases tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Aliases tab Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. Click New to create a new command alias and click Delete to delete the highlighted command alias. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. Note You can also Export and Import command aliases.0 Command Reference Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Options dialog box. set Annotation Scale factor to 4.Rhino 2. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Scaled size This is set by the Annotation Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. Example If your units are inches. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.25 inches. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Appearance tab Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Appearance tab Options in the Appearance tab define the colors and visibility of Rhino display items. 104 . When you place annotation text. Command string Command alias definitions. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. Options dialog box Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options dialog box. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product. The two sizes update each other. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. Options Alias The list of existing command aliases.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Options
Colors Command area Sets the color of the command area background below the menus. Command area text Sets the color of the command area text. Viewport background Color of the working area background behind the grid lines. Major grid line Sets the color of major grid lines. Minor grid line Sets the color of minor grid lines. X axis line Sets the color of the x-axis on the construction plane. Y axis line Sets the color of the y-axis on the construction plane. Selected objects Sets the color of selected objects. Locked objects Sets the color of locked objects. New layers Sets the color of new layers. Feedback Sets the color of the feedback curves. One example of a feedback curve is the line you see when you drag objects. Tracking Sets the color of the tracking line. One example of a tracking line is the line you see when you use elevator mode. Crosshairs Sets the color of the crosshair cursor. Show Command area Toggles the command area display. Command area at top Toggles whether the command area is above of below the viewports. Crosshairs Toggles crosshair cursor. Menu This option toggles the visibility of menus. Status bar Toggles the visibility of the status bar. Viewport titles Toggles the visibility of the viewport titles. Main window title Toggles the visibility of the main Rhino window title. Command area Height in lines Sets the command area height in lines. Command area is the area below the menus that consist of the command prompt and the scrollable command history. Font Sets the font used in the command area and the command history window.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Reset Resets the values to what they were when the Options dialog box was opened. Defaults Restores the built in default values.

Options dialog box, Files tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Files tab

See also Autosave command.

Options
Template files Location Defines the location of the template files. AutoSave Save every <x> minutes Turns on the autosave feature and defines the save interval. When autosave activates, copy of the model you are working on is automatically saved to the Autosave file. Autosave file Defines the name and location of the autosave file. Always save before Sets a list of commands that will save the file before the command starts.

Options dialog box, General tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > General tab

Options
Mouse group select You can force a window/crossing/combo selection any time by pressing the Alt key and dragging with the left mouse button. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Combo Window select by dragging a selection rectangle from left to right, and crossing select by dragging a selection rectangle from right to left. Window Box Always window selects unless you use SelCrossing command. Crossing Box Always crossing selects unless you use SelWindow command. Popup Menu When you right-click in the command area, or program your middle mouse button to display the popup menu, this menu displays at the cursor location. This menu contains a list of recently used commands and the commands you have entered as your favorites. Number of items The maximum number of items that appear in the most-recently-used command lists. Favorites Your favorite commands will always display in the popup menu at the top of the popup menu above the most-recently-used commands.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Command lists Startup Defines a list of commands that run automatically when you start Rhino. Don't Repeat Defines a list of commands that do not repeat when you press Enter. Undo Min number of undos Defines the minimum number of undo steps kept in the undo buffer. Rhino makes sure the minimum number of undo steps is always stored, regardless of the amount of memory used. Max memory used Defines the maximum size for the undo buffer in kilobytes. The actual size may be bigger if the minimum number of undo steps takes more memory. Default surface isoparm density Show surface isoparms Surfaces are displayed in Rhino as wireframe curves. The wireframe consists of surface edge curves and isoparms. You can turn off surface isoparms for new objects by clearing this checkbox. Isoparm density Defines the default surface isoparm density for new objects. By setting this to –1 you can tell Rhino not to draw isoparms on new surfaces. The valid values are -1, 0, 1, 2, and the other positive integers. Value -1 0 1 2 3 Dragging Drag selected objects only Turns off instant "select and drag instantly." This forces you to select objects first and then click again to drag the selected objects. Object drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag objects on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Point drag threshold Distance in pixels you have to drag points on the screen before the drag initiates. Set to higher values for high resolution display. This helps prevent accidental dragging. Middle mouse button You can choose the action performed by clicking the middle mouse button on a three-button mouse. Popup Menu Pops two-part menu up at the cursor location. You can list your favorite commands in the top section. The bottom section is the list of most recent commands used. You can then click a command from the menu to use. Popup Toolbar Choose a toolbar to pop up at the cursor location. You can create a toolbar of mini-buttons of your favorite commands or object snaps to use as a popup toolbar. Macro You can enter a series of commands that run when you click the middle mouse button. For example, ! ZoomExtentsAll SynchronizeViews ShadeAll Definition No isoparms display. Isoparms at surface knot locations. One isoparm on knot-free spans, or just the knot isoparms. One non-knot isoparm drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms Two non-knot isoparms drawn between knot locations plus the knot isoparms

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button Delayed context menus Delays the display of context menus on right mouse click. Click and hold to display the menu instead of displaying the menu immediately.

Options dialog box, Keyboard tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Keyboard tab

Command aliases are custom commands you can define to run Rhino commands or command scripts. You can type command aliases just like normal Rhino commands. You can use them to create abbreviations for often used commands or command scripts. You can also use them to overwrite existing Rhino commands or to make Rhino share command names with another product.

Options
Key Available shortcut key combinations in Rhino. Command string Shortcut key definitions. See scripting tools for more information on the command string format.

Options dialog box, Modeling Aids tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Modeling Aids tab

Options
Grid snap Snap on Turns on snap. Shortcut: click the Snap pane on the status bar. Shortcut: s Ortho Snap every <x> degrees Turns on ortho and sets the ortho angle. Planar mode Planar mode on Turns on planar mode. Shortcut: p Object snaps Snap radius <x> pixels Sets the object snap activation area radius in pixels. When the cursor is within this distance to the point to snap to, the marker jumps to the point to snap to. Disable object snap Temporarily suspends set object snaps. Shortcut: In Osnap dialog box, click Disable. Project to CPlane This option projects object snaps to the construction plane in the active viewport. Snap to locked objects Snaps work on locked objects and on objects on locked layers. Use horizontal dialog box Toggles between horizontal and vertical Object snap dialog box.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Dynamic object snap display Controls the appearance of the object snap label. Black on white Displays black lettering in a white box.

White on black Displays white lettering in a black box.

None Turns off dynamic object snap display.

Nudge Options
Nudge steps in units Nudge feature lets you move selected objects or points by small increments. Nudge key alone Defines the nudge increment of plain nudge keys in Rhino units. Ctrl + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Ctrl is pressed with the nudge keys. Shift + nudge key Defines the nudge increment when Shift is pressed with the nudge keys. Nudge keys and direction Arrow keys Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use PageUp and PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction. Use Alt+arrow keys to rotate a view. Alt + arrow keys With this option Alt+Arrow keys are used for the nudge keys. Use Alt+PageUp and Alt+PageDown to nudge in the z- axis direction Use CPlane axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the construction plane axes in the active viewport. Use world axes The nudge keys move the selected objects in relation to the world axes. Control Polygon Control polygon display Control polygon is a dotted network of lines you see connecting control points when you turn on control points on curves and surfaces. Display control polygon Toggles the visibility of the control polygon. Highlight control polygon Toggles if the parts of the control polygon that are connected to selected points are highlighted or not. Display density Defines the dot spacing of the dotted lines in the control polygon in pixels.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Trim and object snaps Use apparent intersections Objects are trimmed in relation to the view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.

Options dialog box, RhinoScript tab
Sets script configuration.
Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript.rhp

Options
General Options Load when Rhino starts Specifies whether or not RhinoScript should be loaded when Rhino is loaded. Otherwise, the plug-in is loaded when a Rhino script command for example, LoadScript or RunScript) is invoked. Reinitialize when opening new models Specifies whether or not RhinoScript will release all global subroutines, functions and variables from memory between modeling sessions. Default text editor Specifies the editor that is launched when you click the Edit button from the LoadScript dialog box. Startup File Settings Use a startup file A file that is loaded (similar to running the LoadScript command) every time the Rhinoscript plug-in is loaded. Startup File The startup file name and path.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

Options dialog box, Shade tab

Toolbar: Menu: Command

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > Shade tab ShadeOptions

These settings control the appearance of the OpenGL shade mode.

Options
General Background color Click the color swatch to change the color of the viewport background. Surface color Click the color swatch to change the color used for shading when OpenGL is not selected. This is not the same as the layer or render color.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Background and surface color set Use OpenGL OpenGL shading will be used for Shade, ShadeAll, FlatShade, FlatShadeAll. Use wireframe color for objects Uses the wireframe color for shading objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade using wireframe color Show Curve objects Displays curve and point objects. (OpenGL shade only.) Objects are displayed black unless the Use layer color for objects option is selected. Wireframe Displays the surface isoparms. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with wireframe turned on Polygon mesh edges Displays the edges of polygon mesh objects. (OpenGL shade only.)

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Shade with polygon mesh edges turned on Grid Displays the construction plane grid. (OpenGL shade only.)

Shade with grid turned on Grid Axes Displays the construction plane grid axes. (OpenGL shade only.) Zebra and EMap Windows 2000's default OpenGL drivers do not calculate environment mapping correctly, causing the EMap and Zebra commands to shade incorrectly. Faster Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. More reliable Rhino uses it's own environment mapping functions. The default setting causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers, but will always work.

Note
OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card, see Troubleshooting OpenGL.

Options dialog box, View tab

Toolbar: Menu:

Standard and Tools Tools > Options > View tab

Options
Pan These options control keyboard pan behavior. Screen fraction When you pan with the keyboard, Rhino pans in steps. The pan step is defined as the screen fraction times the smaller viewport dimension in pixels. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino pans the camera in the direction of the arrow key pressed. Select this check box to make Rhino pan the scene instead.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Right mouse button pan Always pan parallel views Sets parallel viewports so they will not rotate if the view is not looking straight at the construction plane. Zoom Scale factor When you zoom with the keyboard or wheeled mouse, Rhino zooms in steps defined by the scale factor. Only values between 0.01 and 0.99 are available for the scale factor. Large values zoom less, small values zoom more. Rotate These options control view rotation. Some options affect both keyboard and mouse rotation, some only the keyboard rotation. Increment in divisions of a circle When you rotate a view with the keyboard, Rhino rotates the view in steps. The default step is 1/60th of a circle, which equals six degrees. Reverse keyboard action By default, Rhino rotates the camera around the scene. Select this check box to make Rhino rotate the scene instead. Reversing keyboard pan and keyboard rotation to makes them in sync with the mouse controls. Stop at poles Select this check box to limit the vertical view rotation to 180 degrees. This limit does not apply when Rotating relative to the view is selected. Trackball mode mouse rotation By default the mouse rotation in the upper half of a viewport is opposite to the rotation in the bottom half. Select this check box to make the mouse rotation be the same in the whole viewport. Trackball mode means the viewport is not split horizontally into two panes in which the rotation directions are reversed. With Trackball mode mouse rotation the rotation is always the same: right mouse button dragging left in the Perspective view always rotates the scene clockwise around positive world Z. Rotate around world axes This option makes the views rotate relative to the world axes. You can Tilt to rotate the view around the view depth axis. Rotate relative to view Makes the views rotate relative to the view. Named views (Top, Front, …) Named views set CPlane When you change to a named view, the construction plane saved with that view is also reset. Named views set projection When you change to a named view, the viewport projection that is saved with the view is also reset. Dynamic shade redraw When you pan, zoom, or rotate a view, the scene is redrawn dynamically. With large models, the dynamic redraw can be very slow. By default, to make sure the feedback is reasonably fast, Rhino cancels the redraw if necessary. Use these options to control the speed and responsiveness of the views. Interrupt delay Defines how long Rhino can spend drawing the shaded preview before the redraw is cancelled when you pan, zoom or rotate a shaded preview. Dynamic wireframe redraw Always interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on complex models or on a slow computer and you need the views to be more responsive. With simple models this can cause unnecessary flicker. Never interrupt redraw Use this option if you are working on simple models or on a fast computer.

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some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Rotate plan parallel views Swap pan and zoom Allow tilt Shade The shade commands create a monochrome preview image in one or more viewports. this shading mode may be much faster. Also. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. For highest quality results. use the Export command your model to a separate rendering application. spotlighting. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. and a backdrop image. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for shading in reasonable time. Choose between the quick render preview. Rhino takes that time to calculate. highlights. and the color-andshadows Render. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. Render Mesh tab. Smaller numbers make the puck more sensitive. SpaceMouse/SpaceBall Set view rotation to Rotate relative to view when using a SpaceMouse or SpaceBall. The rendering capability in Rhino may be adequate for your needs. Translation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. To turn on OpenGL shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. The more sophisticated Render shows shaded colors. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. you will see improved performance. shadows. click Options. 114 . Rotation scale Sensitivity of the 3-D controller. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The next time you shade the same model. Wireframe Shade OpenGL Shade Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. On the Shade tab.0 Command Reference Requested framerate The number of frames per second Rhino will attempt to redraw when zooming or rotating a view. But Rhino is not designed to be a fully-featured renderer. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Rhino may be slow to shade them the first time.Rhino 2. click Use OpenGL. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. for easy viewing of your model under various conditions. from the smooth geometry. Render Render your model to see a realistic view. If the objects you are rendering are very complex.

of the view in the active viewport. We recommend 32 megabytes as a good starting point. Jagged shadows and self-shadowing. Jagged spotlight edges and self.5. They are the result of the shadowing methods used in Rhino's renderer: the objects are shadowing themselves. In some situations. a hidden mesh that is used for the rendering. Rhino takes that time to calculate. Rhino needs adequate of RAM for rendering in reasonable time.shadowing Jagged spotlight edges look like strange rectangles near the edges of the shadows. so it won't be deformed. Also if you increase the Shadow offset value to 1. The first solution to this is to increase the shadow map size on the Document Properties dialog box. Render tab. 115 . the patterns may probably disappear. Also. it also keeps the plane to be in the same aspect ratio of the image. Troubleshoot rendering There are some problems that can crop up in rendering. If a strange cracks show between surfaces when you shade them. Self.0 or 1. and there are various settings that you can change to work around those problems.0 Command Reference Render preview Render The Render command produces a color rendering in a separate display window. Change render options on the Document Properties dialog box. Then Rhino will mesh those surfaces so that the mesh vertices for each surface will be exactly shared along their common edge and there won't be any holes or cracking. Render with curves displayed enables rendering the wireframe view lines as well as the full render shading. you may see moiré patterns in the renderings. Add spotlights creates spotlights that are used for full rendering. from the smooth geometry. Note If the objects you are rendering are very complex.shadowing makes an object look like it has some black spots on it. When you draw the plane.Rhino 2. The most common cause of these problems is a very squat and wide spotlight that is casting light out into a large area even though all the objects in the scene are use a small area in the model. some surfaces many need to be joined into polysurfaces. first try increasing the density of the render mesh on the Document Properties dialog box. Render Mesh tab. Preview render produces a dynamically moveable quick preview in the viewports using OpenGL display. It can sometimes look like dirt or acne of some sort. You can type PictureFrame to make a plane with an image attached to it. Rhino may be slow to shade or render them the first time. which might appear in waves. you will see improved performance. It draws the plane to be vertical with respect to the construction plane. Rhino Render tab. The PictureFrame command lets you draw a rectangular plane with a bitmap attached that will fullrender as a backdrop. Tries to exclude the hidden lines. The next time you render the same model.

Change the size of the light. That will usually solve the problem. If you’re getting self. Sometimes the conversion 116 . there will be areas that will be illuminated that should have been in shadow. If you make such spotlights more focused only on the area to be illuminated. If you are creating objects that are very small or very large. If the problems still persist. This will help to reduce the jagged shadow edges. Jagged objects Another possible problem with rendering is jagged looking objects that should be smooth.Rhino 2. you can change some values in the Document Properties dialog box on the Rhino Render tab. adjust this value to some fraction of the scale that you’re working on to make the shadows work very well. but can also consume a lot of memory if you set it too high. Self-shadowing artifacts. Shadow offset controls how far Rhino will pull a point towards the light’s origin point before it tests if the point is in shadow or not. This is because Rhino converts all NURBS objects into polygon meshes before rendering them.shadowing effects. you can increase this number slightly to get rid of them.0 Command Reference The cause—the light is too big. Correct shadow. If you increase it too much. The scale of the objects is very large. Increasing Map size will make Rhino use more memory to calculate shadows.

Visit the web site of your hardware vendor. Start Rhino.microsoft. change the color of the wire frame. Open the OpenGL\Win95 folder inside the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros\OpenGL\Win95) Copy OpenGL32. If this does not fix the problem. and since the polygons are flat. Right-click the column heading buttons to change the visibility and display order of all the columns or the sort order of an individual column. Change the settings in the in the Document Properties dialog box on the Render Mesh tab to set the Render mesh to Smooth & slower. Otherwise. 117 . you might have all the parts that are going to be skin colored on one layer and the clothing parts on others. Columns Current A check indicates current layer. available from Microsoft at www. Layers Layers are a way of grouping objects so you can manipulate them all or keep track of them in some way. Even if you got the card last week. For example.com/windows/downloads/winntw. When objects are on a layer. and the computer running Rhino has Windows 95. Or you can organize your parts a different way. Windows NT Windows NT ships with stable OpenGL drivers that vary depending on the NT Service Pack that is installed. This helps you organize your model. On indicates the layer is visible and you can edit objects on this layer. Using layers is very flexible because you can decide how you want the parts organized.dll from this folder into the Rhino installation folder (probably C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros). you may not have the current drivers.0 Command Reference doesn’t use enough polygons. Windows 95. Troubleshoot OpenGL OpenGL Hardware The most common problem with OpenGL is outdated drivers. Toolbar: Standard and Layer To set columns Click the column heading button to change the sort order of the column. To update Windows NT drivers. which can make the individual polygons distinguishable. and download the latest drivers. This way you can turn off the clothing layers and just work on the skin parts when you are applying textures. contact Rhino Technical Support.dll and Glu32. download the latest Windows NT Service Pack. Windows 95 To fix OpenGL problems in Windows 95: 1 2 3 4 Open Windows Explorer.Rhino 2. if you were working on a human figure. To update your OpenGL drivers. Off indicates the layer is not visible and you cannot edit objects on this layer. you can turn them all off at once.asp. To set the column width. please read section the next section. select them all with one selection. Off Status of layer. The layer dialog box gives you tools for managing the layers in your model. On Status of layer. drag the column heading or set the width in the Columns dialog. they look jagged. Name Layer name.

You can snap to objects on this layer. Lock indicates the layer is visible but you cannot edit objects on this layer. Basic Render materials are assigned to individual objects and are used by Rhino's built-in renderer. Match With this option you can change selected properties of objects to match the properties of another object. Use the slider to adjust the highlight from matte to glossy. change the color of the layer the object is on or set the color on the Object tab. or a polygon mesh. in Rhino the shadow of a transparent object is always black.Rhino 2. Change the material library of individual objects with the Properties command. Unlike more advanced renderers. Material Library The material library assigned to objects on this layer by default. transparency. Metallic Sets the highlight color to match the color of the object. Transparency This option adjusts the transparency of an object in the rendered image. Plastic Sets the highlight color to white. Assign By Rendering properties can be assigned to layers using a plug-in library or with the basic Rhino renderer. 118 . Basic properties If you select the Basic option for assigning render properties. and bump for use by the built-in Rhino renderer. Change the display color of individual objects with the Properties command. Material Assigns a rendering material to an object just like the SetObjectMaterial command. you can set the color. To change the color of the wireframe display. finish. Plug-in Render materials are assigned using the current rendering plug-in application. Change the render color by clicking the color swatch and choosing a color in the Select Color dialog box. This option does not affect the color of the wireframe display.0 Command Reference Lock Status of layer. Material The material assigned to objects on this layer by default.] Color Rhino uses this color for rendering a surface. Library [Rhino does not use this at this time. polysurface. Layer materials You can apply a render material to all objects on a layer. texture. Reflective Finish With this option spotlight color highlights appear on the surface in the rendered image. Color The color assigned to objects on this layer by default. Change the material of individual objects with the Properties command.

119 . You cannot create new layers with these names. and Invert the selection. click By Object and select the layers by picking objects in the model. In the Layer dialog box. If you don't remember the layer names. transparency ranging from 0 to 100 in steps of 25 Texture This options defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface when you render the scene.Rhino 2. select a set of layers. but know which objects are on the layers you want to select. Create a new layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. select layers the same way you select files in Windows Explorer. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Clear this option to remove the bump map. Rename a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click Layer pane on the status bar. The only mapping method available in Rhino is called UV texture mapping. Note The layer names "hidden" and "locked" are reserved for internal use by Rhino. click New. Bump This option defines the name of a bitmap file that will be mapped on the surface as a bump map when you render the scene. Select Layers In the Edit Layers dialog box. You can select all layers. You can also drag over a list of layers to select them.0 Command Reference From top left to bottom right. In the Edit Layers dialog box. type a new name and press Enter. The Edit Layers dialog box reappears with the corresponding layers selected. Clear this option to remove the texture map. select the name on the list.

On Layers Displays only those layers that are on. In the Select Color dialog box. The layer color affects only the wireframe display and not the color used for rendering. Layer filters allow you to adjust the visibility of the layers in the dialog box. When a model has a large number of layers. Click Delete.Rhino 2. In the Edit Layers dialog box. In the Edit Layers dialog box. select a color for the layer.0 Command Reference Change the color of a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. To delete empty layers. the list of layers in the Edit Layers dialog box may get difficult to manage. from the list select the layers you want to delete. Options All Layers Displays all layers in the model. Locked Layers Displays only locked layers. In the Show box. Filtered Layers Allows a custom filter 120 . Off Layers Displays only those layers that are off. Selected Layers Shows only the layers you have selected in the layer list. click the color column of the layer you want to change. Delete a layer Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Empty Layers Displays only layers that contain no objects. click a filter option. use the Empty Layers filter. Filter the layer display list Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. select all the displayed layers and delete. Layers with Objects Displays only layers that contain objects. Note Objects are displayed in the color of the layer they are on.

" are on or locked. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: To show all layers that start with "part 1.0 Command Reference To filter layers: 1 In the Show box. use the command that requires the least amount input to generate the surface you desire. set the Show Filtered Layers dialog box like this: Surfaces through a sequence of curves When you want to create a surface that passes through a sequence of shape curves. A-Z) character Set the layer attributes to match (on. You can include wildcard characters: * = match zero or more characters ? = exactly one character # = exactly one numeric (0-9) character & = exactly one alpha (a-z. and whether or not there are objects on the layer). 2 3 4 In the Show layers that match box. A list of possible commands is: Extrude Loft. or locked. off. click Filtered Layers. In the Show Filtered Layers dialog box. and have objects on them (useful for selecting all visible layers that contain objects and match a certain word). Filter examples: To show all layers that are on or locked.Rhino 2. set the desired filter options. type a string of characters to match the layer name to. with Straight sections style ExtrudeAlongCrv Loft with Loose style Loft with Normal style 121 . In many cases you can use the predefined filters in the Show box and do not need to define a custom filter.

then use a ruled surface. generally. the harder it becomes to generate surface that is smooth and which meets your requirements.Rhino 2. If you are after a tent-like. then ExtrudeAlongCrv is probably the best bet. If you are after a flag-like surface. Sweeps. If you use loft and can't get the edges of the resulting surface to go where you want them. depending on whither it is easier for you to come up with a spine-like curve or the two desired edge curves. then the surface created by loft will. or accordion bellows-like surface. The surface is smooth. stair-like. then use the one closest to the top of the list. If ExtrudeAlongCrv with a path curve doesn't quite work. Rules.0 Command Reference Sweep1 (1-rail sweep ) Sweep2 (2-rail sweep ) If two of these commands generate acceptable geometry. Think of each curve you select in Loft. you might want to use Sweep1 instead. Revolves All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. If this doesn't help. If you are creating closed lofts/sweeps or you have three or more shape curves. As far as meshing and rendering are concerned there is no reason to prefer Loft over Sweep1 and Sweep2. Lofted surfaces can be easily edited and look best when rendered. and Sweep2 as a requirement you are placing on the resulting surface. A loft with straight sections is the same as a ruled surface. The basic guiding principal to keep in mind is that the more requirements you place on a surface. The Loft command with normal style creates a smooth surface with no creases as it passes over the shape curves. This surface has creases at the shape curves and straight segments connecting the shapes. A ruled surface has creases at shape curves and straight lines connecting the shapes. The rail curve directs the surface along it. Loft with straight sections A lofted surface has no creases. If you are trying to create a smooth surface through a list of cross-sections. then you may want to try making the surface from four edge curves using EdgeSrf. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. then try Loft. The Loft command with straight sections style creates a ruled surface. try adding a few more cross sections. Lofts. then try using Sweep1 or Sweep2. Lofted surface If you find yourself adding lots of extra shape curves to get the surface to make the shape you want. Sweep1. be more amenable to editing than the surface created by Sweep1 or Sweep2. 122 .

Two-rail sweep Revolve a curve around an axis to create a surface. while keeping the other end fixed. Revolved surface Rail revolve creates a surface by sweeping one end of a profile curve along a shape curve. If surfaces are twisted with open curves. some of which are oriented clockwise and some counter-clockwise. the surface will twist. 123 .Rhino 2. Don't pick on one side of one curve and then select another curve by picking on the opposite side. use a Sweep2. Rail Revolved Surface Note If surfaces from closed curves become twisted you might have to use Flip to change the direction of some of the curves before lofting. It matters where you click on the curve when you are picking it. The two-rail sweep lets you select the surface's edges. If you have a several of closed curves. you need to consistently pick one end of the cross section curves.0 Command Reference One-rail sweep If you are having trouble getting the edges of a loft or one-rail sweep to go where you want.

Since there are two choices of offset direction for each surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference You don't need to worry about the point order or point count. Rhino can loft between curves that have different numbers of points. then intersecting the resulting surfaces. All surface creation commands in Rhino result in the same object: a NURBS surface. The various methods for creating NURBS surfaces only exist to let you choose the method that suits your immediate needs. Picking The line segment between the pick locations on the two surfaces determines which fillet or fillets are created. the intersection of the offsets can have one. or no curves. several. Troubleshoot fillets and chamfers Rhino's ability to fillet and chamfer objects is limited by its underlying mathematics library. 124 . The surfaces will be offset in the combination of directions such that the center curve. For each of these four ways. The endpoints of the arcs lie on a pair of curves called the rails. Filleting Surfaces A rolling-ball fillet is defined by a collection of circular arcs of a fixed radius. which is found by offsetting the two surfaces by a distance equal to the fillet radius. there can be many fillet surfaces associated with a pair of surfaces. and thus the fillet. there are four ways to fillet. The centers of the arcs lie on a curve called the center curve. will be on the same side of the surfaces as the segment. This topic tries to clarify some of the problems and strategies for working around the problems. For a given radius.

Rhino 2. 125 .0 Command Reference As mentioned. FilletSrf will build the one closest to the segment and any others that are in its connected component. there may be several fillet pieces. These pieces can be grouped into connected components. for this choice of sides.

then the surfaces are left intact. Extend Option A fillet exists only where the circular arcs touch both surfaces. then the surfaces are split by the rails and all parts remain. When that is the case. the surfaces are trimmed by the rails and the parts behind the fillets are discarded. 126 . When Extend = yes. Because of this.Rhino 2. No. If no. and split.0 Command Reference Trim Option There are three choices for this option. If yes. the surfaces cannot be trimmed by the rails. the rails may not extend to the surface boundaries. If split. yes. the fillet is extended to the boundary where possible.

Fillet radius has to be small enough so that the offset surfaces do not self-intersect along the rails. Otherwise the fillet will be a mess. their offsets may intersect.Rhino 2. then no fillets will be created. 127 . and a fillet will exist.0 Command Reference Even if two surfaces do not intersect. If two surfaces are tangent.

FilletEdge will build the fillet surfaces that are closest to the picked edges. Fillets across seams of closed surfaces.Rhino 2. all fillets and corner patches that could be built will show up as surfaces separate from the original polysurface. rather than arcs. Always use the ShowNakedEdges command after FilletEdge to see if everything is joined properly. 128 . or fillets of closed edges can sometimes be done more reliably with FilletSrf. Everything is the same as filleting surfaces.0 Command Reference Chamfering Surfaces ChamferSrf command. If the surfaces on either side of an edge are tangent. Filleting Edges Pick any combination of mated edges of a polysurface. everything will be integrated into a single polysurface. If some fillets that should have been built weren't. except cross-sections are lines. and will fill in the corners with a reasonable surface where possible. Otherwise. or if the connections among fillets at a corner could not be established. no fillet will be created.

and all fillets are on the same side of the polysurface." For closed polysurfaces or single surface solids. The picking order can make the difference. the lower left corner of B will be snapped to the lower right corner of A. but it may not fit. it doesn't. Surface Normals All surfaces have a normal. especially if the curve is nearly parallel to the seam. The one exception is if all edges meeting at the vertex are chosen. Objects have overlapping surface areas.0 Command Reference In general. because the short edge of C is too short for the joiner to recognize. If one is a polysurface. Polysurface or surface with polysurface or surface. In this case. Surface with curve If the curve is not on the surface. on an open surface or polysurface. 129 . Often. Joining Surfaces Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces and some edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. the problems are: Curve passes near a singularity. The result will have a hole at the corner. Curve passes through a singularity but is not an isoparm. it is usually best to do those with larger radius before those with smaller. B and C. Trim and Join Trimming a surface or polysurface with another object. do not pick A and B first. In this case. Do each surface individually. Curve crosses seam of a closed surface. Additionally. if more than three edges meet at a vertex. When joining A.Rhino 2. However. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. Polysurface with curve Not handled unless single surface. then the result to B will work. So all the problems associated with trimming with a curve apply. If you do. no corner patch will be attempted. Troubleshoot Booleans Rhino Booleans can fail for a number of reasons: Normals not pointing the way you expect. You can force it to work by calling JoinEdge to join the short edge of C to A. control points stack up at intersection of the two objects. a spherical patch will be made. FilletEdge has the same restrictions on radius size as FilletSrf. then the procedure is to intersect the surfaces and trim with the intersection curves. the normal always points "out" like you would expect. then this is similar to a Boolean operation and has the same pitfalls. it is projected. which is a direction that points toward the side that you can think of as "outside" or "up. If both are single surfaces. When filleting edges of the same polysurface with different radii. overlapping or tangent surfaces and edges of one surface on the other will cause problems. joining A to C. Once we have a curve on the surface. the direction of the normal is arbitrary.

0 Command Reference Sphere with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction displayed Polysurface with normal direction flipped The Boolean operations use the surface normal to determine which parts to keep and which to throw away.Rhino 2. When a singularity point like this is located at the intersection of two objects you want to Boolean. This occurs in Rhino naturally at the tip of a cone or the pole of a sphere or a three-sided plane. You can also move control points to the same location. You can examine and change the direction of the surface normal with the Dir command. Coincident Control Points Coincident control points occur when the control points at the edge of a surface are at the same location. the operation can fail. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not Boolean. When you attempt a Boolean Difference and instead you get a Union. For success using the Booleans. this is because the objects have normals that are reversed from what you expect. Boolean operations tend to not work well if the objects have overlapping surface areas or only touch each other at a point or along edges. This point is also called a singularity. Rhino Boolean operations only work on NURBS objects. the objects should push all the way through one another and not be tangent. not mesh objects. 130 . or visa versa.

select one object.Rhino 2. we chose the cone first. click From Objects. the point of the cone is exactly at the corner of the box. Depending on the order the objects are selected. In this example. The boxes have overlapping surface areas What To Do If your objects won't Boolean. the two boxes are just touching along one side. To create intersection curves: 1 2 3 From the Curve menu.0 Command Reference The cone has coincident control points at the tip Overlapping Surface Area Overlapping surface areas occur when two surfaces share the same area. but Difference. and Intersection do not work. there are three possible intersection curves. create curves that represent the intersection of the two surfaces. select the second object. and then click Intersection. Use this curve to Trim and/or Split to create the parts and then Join them back together. In this example. At the Select object for intersection prompt. The objects will Union. the Intersect command may give different results. you can use other techniques to get the results you want. This is one of the situations that can cause the Booleans to fail. Instead of using Boolean operations in this case. At the Select object to intersect prompt. In this example. 131 . In this example.

if your objects are polysurfaces. so we will ExtractSrf those two surfaces. this may not happen. You may not need all the possible curves to be able to trim or split the objects. you would expect to get all three curves. The box has six surfaces and we only need to deal with two of them. you might have to run the Intersect command more than once and select the objects in a different order. but for the same reason the Boolean failed. the cone contains only two surfaces anyway. you will have to either Explode the polysurface into individual surfaces or ExtractSrf the individual surfaces. Therefore. Explode or Extract the Surfaces to Trim You cannot Trim or Split a polysurface with a curve. Rhino has a command for this: ExtendCrvOnSrf. so we will Explode it. In our simple example. We are going to use this curve for our cutting object 132 . you will probably want to use ExtractSrf so you won't have as many surfaces to Join back together later. To get all the possible curves. however. In some cases you may have to extend the curves to reach the edges of the surfaces.0 Command Reference Three possible results of Intersection command If you select the objects first and then run the Intersect command.Rhino 2. If your objects are very complex.

Delete the small wedge of the cone. click Extract Surface. use a window section to select the two curves and press Enter. Explode the cone.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference To prepare the polysurfaces: 1 2 3 4 Select the cone. From the Solid menu. 5 1 Surfaces to extract Hide the box parts temporarily. At the Select object to split prompt. 133 . At the Select cutting objects prompt. To remove the unnecessary parts of the cone: 2 3 4 5 Hide everything except the cone and the two curves shown From the Edit menu. click Split. At the Select surfaces to extract prompt. select the cone. select the two faces of the box as shown below. Explode the curve and Hide the two parts at the bottom. 6 7 The split cone Show all the parts Repeat this procedure using the bottom of the cone and the two lines.

In this case. select the two curves. From the Edit menu. for example if one solid is completely contained in another. This can only happen if at least one of the polysurfaces is not a solid. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and an edge from the other. 134 . Use the Join command to join all the parts together. A – B = A intersect ~B. difference. Will not work if: Polysurfaces do not completely cut through each other. At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. select the face of the box in the area you want to remove. union. where ~ is the set theoretical complement. and is achieved by flipping the normals.0 Command Reference The split cone base To remove the parts of the box sides: Because the box faces are simple surfaces.Rhino 2. So. The intersection involves a surface singularity from one polysurface and the surfaces are tangent or overlapping. intersection. you can use Trim instead of Split to cut and remove the parts in one step. The intersection involves isolated points. 1 2 3 4 5 The trimmed box faces Show all the parts. The surfaces are joined to form a solid Boolean programming code All three Booleans. go through the same code. Remember those formulas from high school … A intersect B = ~(~A union ~B). At the Select cutting edges ( Options ) prompt. all comments refer to any Boolean operation. the curves of intersection do not form closed loops. click Trim. There is no intersection. and the intersection of two polysurfaces will mean the intersection as surfaces.

Open a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The toolbar name shows in the title bar of toolbar only when the toolbar is not docked against a side of the Rhino graphics display. Surfaces overlap.ini to open it for editing. May not work if: Intersection is close to a singularity. etc. Double-click Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to hide? prompt. In Windows Explorer. find the folder where Rhino is installed. enter the name of a toolbar that is displayed on the screen. and the surfaces involved are not special case surfaces such as spheres. Drag a docked toolbar to display its title bar. By default the folder is C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros.0 Command Reference The polysurfaces are tangent at some point or curve which is not on an edge. Surfaces are tangent at part of the intersection.ini and restart Rhino. Two surfaces have both regions of overlap and curves of intersection. Note A floating toolbar can also be hidden by clicking on the small rectangle at the upper left end of the title bar. one must imagine this polysurface as part of a larger solid which encloses a volume on the side opposite the normals of the polysurface. To edit the Rhino. select the check box for the toolbar.ini file Some settings can only be changed by editing the Rhino. planes. cylinders. For a polysurface that is not a solid. then the order of picking has an effect on the appearance of the output faces. the outside is the side to which the normals point. HideToolbar Hide a toolbar. Edit the Rhino. At the Name of toolbar to show? prompt. Exit Rhino. but not on the overall shape of the polysurface. Find the setting you want to change. Surfaces within a polysurface that share an edge do not meet within a reasonable tolerance. ShowToolbar Show a toolbar. To understand the results. especially if edges of overlapping surfaces also overlap. Expected behavior that may seem strange to the uninitiated: If surfaces partially overlap. Toolbars Close a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. clear the checkbox for the toolbar. 135 . Change the setting and save the changes to the Rhino.ini file. enter the name of a hidden toolbar of the current toolbar layout.Rhino 2.ini file: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exit Rhino.ini.

and click Properties.Rhino 2. The toolbar appears or hides. 136 . Move a toolbar Drag the title bar of the toolbar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. Note Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Release the mouse button to dock the toolbar. Or. and from the Toolbar menu. Reshape a toolbar Drag the border of a floating toolbar to change it to a different shape. select the toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Float a toolbar 1 2 Drag the small blank area at the top or left of a docked toolbar. Use the Toolbar command to view the list of toolbars in the toolbar layout. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when dragged near viewport edges. and is docked. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Rename a toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. Note If the toolbar is docked against a side of the Rhino graphics area.ini file. This is a setting in the Rhino. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. The toolbar reshapes. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. until the preview frame of it changes shape.0 Command Reference The toolbar appears. The toolbar moves to a new position. Release the mouse button to place the toolbar. ToggleToolbar Toggle the display of a toolbar. and two buttons wide when docked on the sides of the Rhino graphics area. type the new name. press and hold Ctrl while you drag the toolbar. Drag the narrow blank area at the top or the left of the docked toolbar to undock it. it has no title bar. loses its title bar. enter the name of a toolbar of the current toolbar layout. which can be on or off the Rhino window. click Properties. Dock a toolbar 1 2 Drag the title bar of the toolbar to the edge of the Rhino graphics area. The title bar appears on the toolbar. The title bar appears. You can reverse the Ctrl key behavior by changing the setting: DockingToolbars=y to DockingToolbars=n Toolbars are always one button high when docked at the top and bottom of the Rhino graphics area. Note To prevent a toolbar from docking when floated near viewport edges. At the Name of toolbar to toggle? prompt.

Press and hold Ctrl. Click Open. select the toolbar. The toolbar is permanently removed from the toolbar layout. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. click both mouse buttons simultaneously to flyout the linked toolbar without a delay. Delete a toolbar Menu: Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. Import a toolbar from another layout file Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The linked toolbar appears. select the toolbar. Click Import. Create a new toolbar Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. click New. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and will not be present in a workspace file if the toolbar layout is saved. Or. The names of the imported toolbars are added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. select the toolbar. The linked toolbar appears. and click Delete Toolbar. The new toolbar name is added to the list in the Toolbars dialog box. Place your cursor over a button in the second toolbar. select the toolbar. In the Toolbar Properties dialog box. select the toolbars to import. right-click the toolbar name in the list. and click New Toolbar.Rhino 2. Flyout a toolbar 1 2 Move the cursor to the link button. and from the Toolbar menu. right-click the toolbar name in the list. enter the name of the workspace file that contains the toolbar. Or. Open the toolbar that will be linked from it. click Delete. and from the Toolbar menu. and click Import Toolbar. In the Import Toolbox from Workspace dialog box. In the Import Toolbars dialog box. 4 Note The toolbar button size is set in the toolbar definition. Use the right mouse button to drag the button to the first toolbar. it will distort the bitmap icon. enter a name for the toolbar and select a button size. and from the Toolbar menu. Change toolbar name or button size Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. and from the Toolbar menu. Create a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Open the toolbar that will contain the link button. and click Properties.0 Command Reference The new name appears in the toolbar name list. click Import. 3 137 . If you link a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. and drop in the desired position. click Properties. Or. Release the mouse button. but with the link symbol of the white triangle in its corner. Or. the word "LINK" appears in a white box above the cursor. enter a new name for the toolbar and select a button size. The button you dragged appears duplicated in the first toolbar. which has the white triangle in the corner. right-click the toolbar name in the list. Or.

Press and hold Shift. it will distort the bitmap icon. Delete a toolbar button 1 2 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. Note Toolbar button size is set by the Properties option of the Toolbar command. The buttons rearrange. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button to a different toolbar. Use the left mouse button to drag the toolbar button outside the toolbars and drop The remaining buttons rearrange. 3 Copy a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. The linked toolbar vanishes. In this case. Press and hold Shift. you probably want the one you used most to always appear on the link button. Tear off a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 Move the cursor to the link button. The toolbar appears. Or. The link button will show the last button used from the linked toolbar. Press and hold Shift. Press and hold Ctrl. When you pass your cursor over a toolbar button. the word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. or to a different position in the same toolbar. Hold down a mouse button for a moment. clear Float to Top. Release the mouse button. click both mouse buttons simultaneously. 1 2 3 Note If you normally use one button in a linked toolbar and rarely use the others. 4 Manage toolbar buttons Move a toolbar button 1 2 3 Move the cursor over the toolbar button. you might want the icon of the last button you used to be the button icon that appears on the link button.Rhino 2. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor. and click the right mouse button.0 Command Reference Hide a flyout toolbar Click anywhere away from the cascaded toolbar. Move the cursor over a link button. 138 . The word "COPY" appears in a white box above the cursor. select Float to Top to make the link button float. If you copy a different sized toolbar button into a toolbar. Drag the title bar of the toolbar to a new position on the screen. Create a floating flyout button If you use many different commands in a linked toolbar. The toolbar is floating. Use the left mouse button and drag the button to another location in the same toolbar or to a different toolbar.

You can clear the image. Line drawing tool Draws a straight line. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into the mouse button command box. Press F2 to view the command history. and click the right mouse button. Customize toolbar button bitmap icons The Edit Bitmap dialog box lets you create icons for your toolbar buttons. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. right-click the toolbar name in the list. You can change the ToolTip. type text in the ToolTip box. In the Delete Button dialog box.0 Command Reference Unlink a flyout toolbar 1 2 3 4 5 Move the cursor over the linked button. The word "MOVE" appears in a white box above the cursor.Rhino 2. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Add Button. Create a new toolbar button Menu: 1 2 Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. draw with the paint tools. and click Add Button. Change the toolbar button tooltip 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. If you don't know what to enter. Release the left mouse button. or import a bitmap created with a paint program. Use this area to edit your bitmap. Press and hold Shift. select the toolbar. The icon on new toolbar buttons is a plain gray background. the left and right mouse buttons commands. Programming the toolbar button functions 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Drawing area Enlarged view of your bitmap. for example: Zoom In | Out. Type a command in the Left mouse button command and/or Right mouse button command boxes. Customize toolbar buttons The Edit Toolbar Button dialog box lets you create new or change Rhino toolbar buttons. and click the right mouse button. capture a portion of the screen. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click OK. Press and hold Shift. 139 . Note Separate left and right mouse functions in the ToolTip with a vertical bar. A blank button is added to the toolbar. and from the Toolbar menu. Or. Press and hold Shift. Use the left mouse button to drag the linked button outside the toolbar. type text in the ToolTip box. Click Close. Area Button image Upper right square showing your icon in its actual size. and the bitmap icon.

up. That color appears in the left box of the upper pair. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Draw or edit a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. and click the right mouse button. as changing the size at that time distorts the bitmap image. Press and hold Shift. then click or drag over the squares in the main image with either mouse button to change their colors. and click the right mouse button. It is not a good idea to change the size after you have the bitmap created with the Toolbar Properties.0 Command Reference Paint can tool Fills a single-color area with the selected color. Press and hold Shift. from the Edit menu. The button image is blank in the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click Edit Bitmap. 140 . To undo a mistake. click Grab. click Clear. 7 Note Bevel edges that make your bitmap icon look three-dimensional appear automatically on the buttons. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. Click the left mouse button to grab that portion. Press and hold Shift. and down using the keyboard arrow keys. Click the pencil tool. click Edit Bitmap. Pencil tool Edits the bitmap icon pixel by pixel. Or. click Edit Bitmap. right. then OK. click the paint can tool to fill single-color areas with the selected color. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Note You can shift the image left. Move the cursor square over the portion of the screen to grab. Palette Squares with the colors you can use in your bitmap icon. and click the right mouse button. and click the right mouse button. click Edit Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. A square replaces the cursor. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. from the Edit menu. The new bitmap pattern appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box. This is the time to set the toolbar button size. 6 7 Import a bitmap from another source 1 2 3 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Or. That color appears in the right box of the upper pair. Right-click a square in the palette to load the right mouse button with that color. the button is blank. Clear the bitmap image 1 2 3 4 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. This square represents an area of your screen the same size as the button bitmap. click a square in the palette to load the left mouse button with that color. Move the cursor over a toolbar button whose bitmap you want to replace.Rhino 2. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. Press and hold Shift. The two squares above the palette show the colors loaded into your left and right mouse buttons. from the Edit menu. click Undo. Warning: If you click OK the former button image is no longer in the toolbar layout. Capture a portion of the screen to use as a bitmap icon 1 2 3 4 5 Make sure the region you want to capture is visible on the screen. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. click the line drawing tool to draw straight lines with the selected color.

In the Import Bitmap dialog box. or by pasting a script from the Clipboard into Rhino's command stream.4 -4. type a bitmap file name.5 with a radius of 10: ! Circle 5. 141 . A space between characters or a new line act like pressing Enter at the command line.Rhino 2. Scripting tools Many commands were written specifically for use in a command script. The bitmap icon is saved to a file. but makes sure no objects are selected before asking you to select objects to move: ! SelNone Move A More Advanced Command Script This script creates a set of points from a text file list. whose size (resolution) is determined by the size set for the source toolbar in the Properties option of the Toolbar dialog box. Adjust the Save as type setting as needed. which stops the creation of point objects.4 13. This script moves objects. select a bitmap file.-3 1.1 4. A Simple Command Script This script creates a circle centered at 5. Command scripts can be run from toolbar buttons. and click the right mouse button. Press and hold Shift. Writing Command Scripts Write command scripts just as you would type the command sequence at the command line. command aliases. Save your bitmap to a file 1 2 3 4 5 6 Move the cursor over a toolbar button. Click Open. click Edit Bitmap. click Import Bitmap. In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. In the Export Bitmap dialog box. from the File menu.0 5.0 Command Reference 4 5 6 In the Edit Bitmap dialog box. shortcut keys.5 10 The spaces between the entries are the same places you would press Enter when typing the command by hand.6 Enter Invert PolylineThroughPt How this script works: ! SelAll Cancels all previous commands and selects all the objects currently in the model. from a text file. Enter Simulates pressing Enter. In the Edit Toolbar Button dialog box.-4 8. click Export Bitmap. then selects them all and fits a polyline through the points: ! SelAll Points -4. Points Takes coordinate pairs or triples for each point object. An exclamation point (!) and a space in the beginning of a script cancels any previous command. If necessary the exclamation point can be used also at the end of the script. Click Save. from the File menu. The bitmap file or a portion of it appears in the display of the Edit Bitmap dialog box.

Options are 0=Interpolate. PolylineThroughPt Creates a polyline through the point objects.5. The default is 20. 142 .Rhino 2. browsing for files. Microsoft JScript 5. Press Ctrl+C to copy it to the Clipboard. Automation servers. variable names. VBScript and JScript Rhino supports Visual Basic scripts and JScripts. Commands That Accept Command Line Arguments Bend StraightEnd=Yes/No Copy=Yes/No BlendSrf Degree=3/5 ChangeLayer Layer=layername Curve Close=Yes/No Extrude Cap= Yes/No Fillet Join= Yes/No FilletSrf Trim= Yes/No/Split Extend= Yes/No FlattenSrf Verbose=1/2/3 shows the triangulation on Target/Source/Both InterpCrv Close=Yes/No LayerLock Layer=layername LayerOff Layer=layername LayerOn Layer=layername MergeSrf Smooth=Yes/No NetworkSrf Autosort=Yes/No Orient Scale=Yes/No OrientOnSrf SurfaceBased=Yes/No Pipe Cap=Yes/No. From the Tools menu. To try this script: 1 2 3 Select the script right from this Help topic (from SelAll to PolylineThroughPt). There is a new plug-in for running VBScript and JScript scripts. layername3 SetLayer Layer=layernamewithnospaces or "layer name with spaces" Taper Flat= Yes/No UndoMultiple Steps=number UnrollSrf Mode=1 Divs=1-128 Fit=0/1. Note Place an exclamation point and a space (! ) to cancel the previous command. Divs is the samples per knotspan. queries. pick the commands from the menu or toolbars. is a fast. Thick=Yes/No SelLayer Layer=layername1. lightweight interpreter for use in World Wide Web browsers and other applications that use Microsoft ActiveX Controls. click Commands. a scripting language targeted specifically at the Internet. a subset of the Microsoft Visual Basic programming language. All visible objects in the scene were selected at the beginning of the script. and Java applets. then click Paste from Clipboard. Here are the commands to use: LoadScript RunScript ConfigScript StopScript These handle either Visual Basic or JScripts. If you don't know what to enter. the Web's only standard scripting language. The default is 1. 1=Fit. is the first scripting language to fully conform to ECMAScript. Mode is always 1. and other Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition.0 Command Reference Invert Inverts the selection. so after Invert only the newly created point objects are selected. Fit is the fitting method. layername2. Highlight and copy the command sequence and paste it into your script text. Press F2 to view the command history. portable. These scripting languages allow loops.

The exact procedure depends on what specific problem is there. These damaged areas can cause problems. and Check doesn't check for those things. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. You can just use the list to indicate that you might need to tune up the model. are very time consuming and difficult to automatically detect. trimming edge that then gets joined to a larger trim curve on an adjacent surface. these often look like a little loop that's coming off of the highlighted endpoint.microsoft. sometimes the tiny trim curve edge can get compressed even further so that it is really just a point. Some bad model parts. Get rid of these by untrimming/retrimming. The calibration can be changed in the middle of the digitizing process to allow digitizing of the underside of an object. Drawing tiny little lines to connect pieces of a trim curve instead of moving the two endpoints of the curves together generally messes up joining other edges together and tends to cause problems. 2 Run the LoadScript command to load a script into memory. and join everything back together again. you may find some of those microscopic edges. There are Rhino tools you can use to examine your model for these defects. it doesn't automatically mean that it is 100% properly structured. If you zoom in enough. or an object that is larger than the reach of the digitizer. There are modeling techniques you can use to increase the overall robustness of your models. see: [link to come] 3-D digitizing Rhino supports two 3-D digitizing arms. Rhino VBScripts use the file extension . If a model passes Check. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. It may have been through not lining objects up properly or not joining them in a clean manner.rvb. The first one to try is the Check command. Sometimes the microscopic edges can be generated through other means. It's difficult to say exactly how these problems are generated.for instance. If your model doesn't pass Check. For more information on scripting. That compressed edge no longer has a meaningful orientation and causes problems. like Booleans where the objects are just off from each other by a little bit. if you trim a surface with a selfintersecting curve.0 Command Reference The basic steps are: 1 Write a script function. MicroScribe 3-D from Immersion and the Space Arm by Faro. But it can check the general overall structure of the object. Rhino's interface is the same for both digitizers. If your model doesn't pass Check. Diagnostics Sometimes a model can become damaged. If you zoom in on some of the problem areas. 3 Use the RunScript command to run the function name. Digitizers can be calibrated so that a coordinate system in the real world corresponds to a coordinate system in Rhino. then you can use the ShowBrokenEdges command to highlight which specific edges are not passing Check.Rhino 2. re-trim the surface. like having surfaces that fold back on themselves or self-intersect. but the result will be a poorly defined model that will cause problems later. Rhino will let you do it. To fix broken edges. If Rhino matches the large edges. Trimming edges that are very small or curved back on themselves are the biggest cause of problems in models. then edit the trim curves. Before you start you must initialize and calibrate the digitizer. The DigClick command allows you to pick points from within Rhino. 143 . see: http://msdn. you have to explode the model. That's because the edge's endpoints are on top of each other. but then there's a little bit of the middle of the edge that is looping around. Another problem is having a tiny. then it will list some specific problems. then use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove the trimming information from the problem areas. You can set up a function key (such as F12) so that when you press the function key. You can set the scale factor for digitized points. One inch in the real world is one Rhino unit by default.com/scripting/ For more information on Rhino-specific scripting. though. It is possible to build bad models using Rhino tools .

This test does not check the geometry. Solution: Rebuild the curve.4 Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at end Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. use Curve (Degree=3) and place points at these locations: 0. Bspline is not G1 and has degree >= 2 The single curve has a kink in it. Split the curve at the kink.Rhino 2. FitCrv. Thus. open up the kink by control point editing. Draw a Curve (Degree=3). and then use JoinEdge to manually mate the proper pairs. and then turn on control points and stack three points on top of each other. Trim again. Solution: Remove knots manually with RemoveKnot.10 5. Illegal non-positive weight If you make a high degree rational curve. These tools are on the Analyze menu under Edge Tools. Solution: FitCrv or Rebuild fixes the curve by reconstructing it. you can Undo changing the degree. This means two subsequent knot values are too close together. Error messages Knots descending or too close together The curve usually has lots of points. Avoiding Modeling Errors In general. try to avoid creating tiny edges in models. the Join command can get confused when that happens.0 Command Reference The workaround is to Explode. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup.5 5. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. simple edge-to-edge matching.0 5. You may need to use several of these tools to fix difficult broken models as well. Pedge is not contained within domain of face->srf Solution: Rebuild the edge. Pedge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Additionally. then you may have to use the SplitEdge command to split all edges so they have a compatible structure. You will get this error message. the result may be a curve with negative control point weights and you will get this error message. Don't use curves where there is a tiny line in the middle of the curve that joins two pieces together. and Join. or remove knots at the kink with RemoveKnot. Try to make sure that adjacent parts mate cleanly with a good. the low level manual JoinEdge can work as a replacement. To draw a non-G1 curve. Untrim or DetachTrim. When there are long things and tiny things adjacent to each other. 144 . If there are lots of tiny edges. or Rebuild or go back to the shape curves and reconstruct the surface using Rebuild or Refit option if possible.4 10. Tedge and pedge not within tolerance at start Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. it is possible to have curve that is not G1 and it still passes Check.0 5. Rebuilding or refitting the shape curves is also possible. and then lower the degree with ChangeDegree.

The warning lets you know when this has happened. fix curve and retrim. /key=[cd-key] [cd-key] is the CD-Key for the installation. Edge direction. Use this to install as a standalone node. and the actual error in the edges is still within absolute tolerance. Surface is not G1 The surface has a kink in it. 145 . You can also try RebuildSrf on the surface. The CD-Key can be one of two formats: XXXXYYYYZZZZ or XXXX-YYYY-ZZZZ /workgroup_node Install Rhino as a workgroup node. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You can put control points very close to each other. You can put control points very close to each other.0 installers accept the following command-line options: /autoinstall Tells the installer to run automatically without asking any questions. You can create shortcuts to simplify installation of Rhino from the network. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. There are stacked control points in the middle of the surface. /path=[installpath] [installpath] is the fully qualified destination path for the installation. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. Scripting Rhino Installers Rhino installers are scriptable. Rhino tries to keep track of the true accuracy of the joins in your model.Rhino 2. Solution: Open up the stacked points. You will get this error message. You will get this error message. The selected points indicate the location of the stacked up points. but not right on top of each other. Solution: Rebuild the edge. Extrude it. Usually. This option takes precedence over the /key option. Join and Booleans in particular. In short. the tolerances associated with an edge are much less than Rhino's absolute tolerance. Solution: Split the surface at the kink (if you can find it). Solution: DetachTrim. Edge or pedge is not within tolerance on interior (e_tol+pe_tol=0) The Check command gives the warning when the edges are not accurate to the given tolerances. pedge direction and revedge flag do not jibe Probably a tiny messed up edge. Rhino 2. and then control point edit the extrusion.0 Command Reference Edge is not G1 Solution: Untrim and then re-Trim the face. Some operations. Internal control points are coincident. Non-singular edge has coincident control points. There are stacked control points along a surface edge. occasionally cause Rhino's assessment of the accuracy to be inaccurate. Make a deformable Plane and then stack two control points on top of each other along the ege. Must be surrounded by quotes if the path contains spaces. but not right on top of each other. One way to find stacked up points is to do ExtractPt on the surface and then do SelDup. Draw a Circle.

All the nodes will keep working even if the network connection or server is down. The Zoo will run on any system in a network workgroup.com/plugins/developer. run the installer this way: rh20beta_20010425.0 as a workgroup node. All of the nodes must be in the same workgroup. Rhino licenses can be checked out so laptop users can disconnect from the network.exe /autoinstall /workgroup_node /path="D:\Software\Rhino 2. The Zoo uses an interprocess communications mechanism that is used by several Windows networking services. Many plug-ins are currently available for download from www. 146 .0" as a workgroup node.0 will work either as a standalone license or as a network node.0 Command Reference Remarks: For Rhino to install automatically.rhino3d.0" Workgroup License Manager (The Zoo) To script the installation process and allow more efficient use of Rhino licenses. When a Rhino workgroup node starts. For details on setting up a workgroup. unlike standalone Rhino. the Zoo should operate reliably in both Microsoft Workgroup and Domain networking environments. and the number of available licenses is reduced by one. The Zoo can be downloaded free of charge. Workgroup nodes obtain license keys at run time from the Zoo. the Zoo assigns a key to the workstation. The Zoo will run on any system in the workgroup. network administrators now have the option of installing Rhino 2. Rhino plug-ins Plug-ins are programs that extend the functionality of Rhino.Rhino 2. you must: use the /autoinstall option provide a /path= use one of the following options: /workgroup_node /key= Examples: To install Rhino in "D:\Software\Rhino 2. which requires that a license key be entered on each system. A workgroup can have a mix of nodes and standalone licenses.htm. If the number of available keys has not been exceeded.com/plug-ins. If you are interested in developing plug-ins for Rhino. No special hardware is needed. This is an installation option. it does not modify the shape of the surface. When a node shuts down. Standalone licenses can easily be converted to network nodes and back. Bumpmap is used only for modifying the surface normals. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. visit www. The license keys are typed into the Zoo instead of on individual systems.rhino3d. a request for a license key is sent to the Zoo. Commercial versions of Rhino 2. contact your network administrator. Thus. the license is added back to the available license pool. That is why the silhouette does not appear bumpy. but no new ones can start up without access to the Zoo. The license can be checked in again when the laptop is reconnected to the network. Very little administration is required. Glossary Bumpmap Bumpmap is a bitmap image that is used for making a surface appear bumpy in a rendered image. Features include: No special version of Rhino is needed.

0. After the initial grid is made. 3. The 3. the marker will be constrained to a tracking line perpendicular to the construction plane. 147 . Rhino meshes all trim edges.0 Command Reference Command area The command area consists of the command prompt and a scrollable command history. Initial mesh grid Initial mesh grid is a quad mesh Rhino creates on each NURBS surface in the first stage of meshing. and is supposed to be accurate to within the tolerance e_tol. Control point Control points are coefficients of NURBS basis functions. If an object snap is on. Each 2.D edge is to the surface. If the surface is not joined to another along the edge. 1/3. 1. This term is commonly used in 3-D modeling. If the surface is vertical (perpendicular to the construction plane). Some programs use the term node to mean something similar to a control point. A control point is the same thing as a control vertex.D curve given by evaluating the pedge is to the 3. When using elevator mode. Edit points Edit points in Rhino are points on a curve evaluated at knot averages. Edges and pedges The representation of an edge of a polysurface consists of a 3. The pe_tol associated with a pedge is the accuracy of this approximation. Tracking Line When picking points in Rhino. trim curves are ignored. 3 the edit points are points on the curve evaluated at these parameter values: 0. the cursor turns into a crosshair. If the surface is horizontal (parallel to the construction plane) the draft angle is + or .D curves. if the curve degree is three and the knot vector is: 0. which also approximates the intersection. two 2. the draft angle is 0. Marker. By default the command area is above the viewports and below the menus. one in the parameter space of each surface joined along the edge. False color A technique that uses color to display non-chromatic properties of a surface. For example. When the initial mesh grid is made. Cursor. called the edge. 2.D edge.D pedge can be evaluated on its surface to give another 3. the marker will snap to the snap point. 2. 8/3. then e_tol tells how close the 3. 3 Please see the "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information knots and NURBS in general. and tolerance values for each of the curves. called the pedge.Rhino 2.D curve (the one you see).90 degrees to 90 degrees. 3. 1.90 degrees The range is from . Draft angle The draft angle is the angle of the surface normal in relation to the construction plane in the active view. 0.D curve. and pe_tol tells how close the 3.D edge is an approximation to the intersection of the surfaces. connects the initial grid to the trim edges and then refines the mesh if the Refine option is selected.

Normals are also used for lighting a surface. Knot A value of the curve parameter where the polynomial definition of the b-spline changes. flat constant on the other). If you hold it at the ends. There are many other uses for normals such as slope calculations. which means it doesn't matter which direction the normals face. Rhino can't automatically determine which side is supposed to be pointing which direction. Sphere with normal direction displayed However. The other side is the inside. the normals are all automatically pointing outwards like you'd expect. The only way this can be done is by determining the direction of the given surface's normal. etc. which is a direction that points toward the side of the surface that is the outside. so it may be necessary to use the Flip option of the Dir command.0 Command Reference Isoparm Isoparm or an isoparametric curve is a curve of constant U or V value on a surface. when you have a single surface. Some renderers support double-sided shaders. the stiffness of the rope. Normal direction Every surface has a normal. or reflective metal on one side.Rhino 2. red on the other. Rhino uses isoparms and surface edge curves to visualize the shape of a NURBS surface. Some renderers allow for multi-shader double-sided features so you can have a single surface that has a different shader property for each side (for example. Polysurface with normal direction displayed The Boolean commands use this normal direction to determine what parts to keep and what to throw away. By default isoparms are drawn at knot locations. If the surface is a single knot-span surface like a simple rectangular plane. When you have a finished solid. blue on one side. Solid objects do not have naked edges. Imagine a rope. the most important use and/or need for the normal is that it is used to determine the direction in which a surface is facing.) with a polynomial definition. 148 . there will be a different polynomial definition (sag) for each segment between the knots. If you tie it off somewhere along its length (by putting knots in it). or a polysurface. By computing the angle between the normal and a given light source. isoparms are drawn also in the middle of the surface. However. the amount of light that falls on a particular point can be computed. the rope will sag according to the laws of nature (gravity. Naked edge A surface or polysurface edge that is not connected to another edge.

It is a mathematical way of defining curves. Periodic surfaces are automatically created when the input curves are periodic." Press Enter In addition to pressing Enter. you can press Spacebar or click the right mouse button when the cursor is over the viewport area.0 Command Reference NURBS NURBS stands for non-uniform rational B-spline. Esc key Press Esc once to cancel a command. surfaces. The key combination Ctrl+Shift+Alt + Right mouse causes the camera lens length to change. Polysurface Polysurface consists of two or more surfaces joined together. Press Alt after starting to drag objects to make a copy instead of simply moving the object. Periodic curves stay smooth when you edit them. Press Alt and drag with the left mouse button to force a window/crossing selection. Snap pane. Press Alt to temporarily suspend Polyline/Curve/InterpCrv autoclose. Right click Layer pane to open the Edit Layers dialog box. Panes There are five clickable panes on the Rhino status bar. Non-periodic curve A non-periodic curve is a closed curve with a kink at the start/end of the curve. Planar pane Click Planar pane to toggle planar mode. Periodic curve A periodic curve is a smooth closed curve. Deforming non-periodic curves near the start of the curve may result in kinks. Ortho pane Click Ortho pane to toggle ortho mode. Please see "About NURBS" chapter in the Rhino User's Guide for more information. and solids. Rhino works primarily with NURBS objects. The Osnap pane also shows which object snap is currently in effect. Snap pane Click Snap pane to toggle grid snap. This lets you start your window/crossing very near object isoparms. Alt key Press Alt to temporarily suspend object snaps or to temporarily unlock locked object snaps. If the polysurface fully encloses a volume. Planar pane and Osnap pane. it is also a solid. this is called a "quilt. but it does have a few commands for working with triangular meshes. Periodic Surface Periodic surfaces are closed surfaces (such as a cylindrical surface) that can be deformed without developing kinks. 149 .Rhino 2. Text "Osnap" turns black when one or more object snaps have been set persistent. From left to right they are: Layer pane. Osnap pane Click Osnap pane to open Osnap dialog box. Layer pane Click Layer pane to open a layer list and select a new current layer from the list. This zooms in and out like a zoom lens on the camera without changing the camera position. Ortho pane. Text "Snap" turns black when Snap is on. In some other 3-D programs.

The normal direction is indicated by the white arrow. A rectangular surface with the u. U. and normal. and some objects have control points or edit points turned on. and normal directions displayed A circular surface can be like a spider web with one direction converging in the center. units. This is valuable for export to STL rapid prototyping files. You can display the u.direction is indicated by the green arrow. The u.and v-directions Every surface is roughly rectangular. v. Esc clears the command prompt.and v-directions are like the weave of cloth or screen. Esc deselects all objects.direction is indicated by the red arrow. the meshes along the joined edge have coincident vertices. there will be no holes in the mesh.Rhino 2. Texture mapping coordinates Texture mapping coordinates are two dimensional coordinate values attached to polygon mesh vertices. or use the default templates that are installed with Rhino. 150 .0 Command Reference If you are typing a command. Esc turns off the points. and the v. Rhino automatically applies UV texture mapping coordinates to all polygon mesh objects created from NURBS surfaces. no objects are selected. If a mesh is generated from a solid. Seamless Mesh Rhino creates quadrilateral and triangle meshes for export into various file formats. and tolerances. You can save your own templates to base future models on. Surfaces have three directions. v. u. UV texture mapping coordinates used by Rhino mean that every polygon mesh vertex has its own two dimensional texture mapping coordinate based on the parameterization of the NURBS surface the polygon mesh is created from. Polysurface with normal direction displayed These directions are used when mapping textures and inserting knots. They define which pixel in the texture map is attached to which vertex on polygon mesh. The u. Template A template is a 3DM file you can use to store has basic settings like layers. If objects are selected and no command is active. When no command is active. All the other points on the polygon mesh in the rendered image are interpolated from the vertex points. When surfaces are joined together in Rhino. grid size.and v-directions and the normal direction with the Dir command.

Turn control points on for an existing mesh. using Point object snap and JoinMesh. Press Enter for triangle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 3 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to three views. Use 3DFace to add on to a mesh. Or. At the Fourth corner of polygon.Rhino 2. Note Use 3Dface for patching holes in meshes where moving control points isn't appropriate. pick a point to create a fourvertex mesh polygon. 3View Three-viewport layout. Use 3DFace to build individual mesh polygons. and Third corner of polygon prompts. You can shade and render the wireframe view. 151 . press Enter to create a three-vertex mesh polygon from the first three points. Surfaces and solids are represented as 3-D curves that look like wires wrapped around the surface. Using the command twice resets the views to the internally defined defaults. 3DFace Draw a 3-D polygon mesh face. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > 4 Viewports Resets the viewport layout to four views. Toggles between 3 and 4 view layout and resets any custom layout to 3 or 4 views. Use 3DFace to add a mesh polygon. pick points for the mesh polygon vertices. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Primitives > 3-D Face At the First corner of polygon. Commands 34View Toggle between 3-viewport and 4-viewport display. Second corner of polygon. Using the command twice resets also the views to the internally defined defaults.0 Command Reference Wireframe Wireframe view is how Rhino displays objects while you create them. Placing the points in counter-clockwise order makes the polygon normal point towards you. The wireframe consists of border curves and isoparms. 4View Four-viewport layout.

Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddNextV Add the next control point in the v-direction to the selection. The next control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next u Show control points on a surface. 152 . Start the AddNextV command. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add next v Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference AddNextU Add the next control points in the u-direction to the selection. Select a point on the surface. Start the AddNextU command. The next control point in the v-direction is added to the selection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev u Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Surface with four control points selected 153 .Rhino 2. Start the AddPrevU command.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddPrevU Add the previous control point in the u-direction to the selection. The previous control point in the u-direction is added to the selection.

Use the Group command to group objects together. 154 . The previous control point in the v-direction is added to the selection. select an object to add to a group. 1 At the Select objects prompt.0 Command Reference Previous control points in the u-direction added to the selection AddPrevV Add the previous control point in the v-direction to the selection. prompt select the group or enter a group name. Start the AddPrevV command. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the v-direction added to the selection AddToGroup Add an object to selected group. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Add prev v Show control points on a surface. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. 2 At the Select groups.Rhino 2.

The bitmap is scaled so that the first reference line length matches the second reference line length. At the Base point on CPlane prompt. select the curve that will be translated and scaled so that its bounding box aligns with that of the first curve. World Front. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Align At the Base point on bitmap prompt. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Bitmap placed in Top viewport Bitmap aligned with point objects in model Note Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane. pick a point in Rhino where you want the bitmap base point to line up. At the Reference point on bitmap prompt. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. pick a point in Rhino that defines the second reference line from the second base point to the second reference point. The translation and rescaling is in the world axis directions The bounding box is the smallest box that holds the object. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. AlignProfiles Align two curves. and the plane of each must be parallel to one of the World construction planes World Top.0 Command Reference Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group.Rhino 2. AlignBackgroundBitmap Align a background bitmap. pick a point that defines the first reference line from the base point to the reference point. The curves must be planar. 155 . or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. or World Right. At the Select curve to change prompt. with the sides of the box parallel to the world construction planes. 1 2 Select the objects. At the Reference point on CPlane prompt. pick a base point on the background bitmap to adjust.

select a point that defines the end of the second angle line. 156 . At the Point for all CPlanes to pass through prompt. select a point that defines the end of an angle line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At the At the At the line. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > All Layers On Angle Measure the angle between two lines.0 Command Reference Original profile curves Profile curves aligned with each other AllCPlanesThroughPt Move all construction planes through a point. select a point that defines the start of an angle line.Rhino 2. Start of second line prompt. AllLayersOn Turn all layers on. pick a point for all construction planes to pass through. Note The construction planes in all viewports are moved along their z-axes until they pass through the point you pick. select a point that defines the beginning of the second angle End of second line prompt. End of first line prompt. At the Analyze Analyze > Angle Start of first line prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Apply to Surface Select a polygon mesh.0 Command Reference The angle between the two lines displays on the command line in the format Angle is 1. the mesh is sized to the untrimmed surface. A new mesh will be created that has the same number of control points as the source mesh.Rhino 2. At the Choose a surface to apply the mesh to prompt.0000 degrees. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Apply UV Curves Select planar curves in the world x-y plane that you want to apply to a surface. Note Use the CreateUVCrv command to generate planar versions of the u and v curves of a surface so you can use them as a guide to orient your text. select the surface to apply the mesh. and fitted onto the selected surface. If the surface is trimmed. Planar curves on the x-y plane are mapped into the surface's control polygon. You must then also map the u and v curves along with the curves you are applying so they will act as a placeholder. UV curves of the cylinder Text rotated and centered then mapped with uv curves to cylinder ApplyMesh Apply a mesh to surface. ApplyCrv Apply a curve to a surface. select the surface on which to apply the curves. and corresponding 3-D curves are created on the surface. At the Select surface to apply the planar curves to prompt. 157 .

ApplyMesh maps each "sub-mesh" of a joined mesh onto the full size of one surface of a polysurface. Generally. ApplyMesh is sensitive to the u and v directions of a surface. you don't have to worry about this if you only use ApplyMesh on objects that were deformed from one single source. For example. At the Center of arc ( Deformable PointCount=12 ) prompt. Or. Morphing is usually used to make frames between two copies of the same shape. you can make such morphs.0 Command Reference Note ApplyMesh succeeds only on meshes that are generated from NURBS objects. it flips the surface internally so that the normals will be pointing in the same direction as the original object. If you use the Mirror transformation. Angle At the Center of arc ( Deformable ) prompt. so if you Mirror something. Then. you'll need to use SwapUV to do a proper mirrored ApplyMesh.Rhino 2. So it may be best to do ExplodeMesh on meshes and Explode on surfaces before using ApplyMesh to avoid confusing results. so that the meshes have uv-direction information embedded in them. ApplyMesh guarantees that. Start. and apply that mesh to the simpler surface. When you're in ExtractIsoparm. The direction the arc goes from the start point depends on where your mouse is. imagine that you had made a face out of a single surface and then wanted to have an animation of it's nose pulling out and wiggling around. one of which has been squished around in some way. each of which has been altered to be a keyframe. and v to get a curve in the v direction (or both to get both). Make several different copies of an object that you've built inside of Rhino. 158 . Arc Draw an arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc and Main Curve > Arc > Center. enter the start point of the arc. although if you understand the process and work at it. You can determine the u and v directions by using the ExtractIsoparm command. Let's say you made 10 keyframes out of this. mesh the most complex surface first. enter the end point of the arc. enter the angle for the arc. You can use SwapUV to swap the u direction and v directions with each other. Nearly all morphing mesh animation programs require that the vertex count of each mesh and the structure of it to be identical. The uv-direction information determines the direction of applying the mesh to the surface. But that swaps u and v on the surface. At the End point or angle prompt. you wouldn't be able to morph between them in your animation program because the meshes for the face with the pulled out and wiggled nose would have more polygons in them in the nose area than the plain face shape. you can type u to get a curve in the u direction. At the Start of arc prompt. enter the center of the arc's radius. and then use ApplyMesh to create the other meshes to match its structure. If making morph targets. enter the center of the arc's radius. then it's probably going to give you something that's laid out on the surface in a way that you didn't want. Export these meshes to your animation program to perform the morphing. you can use Dir on the ExtractIsoparm to determine which way the u or v direction is going. So create a mesh on the most complicated shape first. Then use ApplyMesh to create the meshes for each of the keyframe objects. If you have one surface has uv's going in different directions from the original surface. The way that morphing is implemented in most animation programs isn't designed for morphing between totally different shapes. If you were to use Rhino's normal meshing tools to create meshes out of each face.

Rhino 2. At the Point on arc prompt. enter the end point of the arc. At the End of arc prompt. enter a point on the arc. a start point and an angle Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Arc from three points 159 . enter the start of the arc. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > 3 Points At the Start of arc prompt. Deformable arc with 7 points and a normal arc. Arc3Pt Draw an arc through three points. You can enter the number of control points.0 Command Reference Arc from a center point.

Two arcs are created tangent near the pick points. end point. 160 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. At the End of arc prompt. At the End of arc prompt. If the radius value is too small. End. enter the start point. Radius At the Start of arc prompt. select the second curve. enter the radius of the arc.0 Command Reference ArcDir Draw an arc by end points and direction. Click the part of the curve where you want the arc to go. At the Direction prompt. Tangent. End. enter a radius value. At the Radius prompt. enter the end point. Direction At the Start of arc prompt.Rhino 2. Radius At the Select first curve for ArcTTR prompt. At the Select second curve for ArcTTR prompt. move your mouse to view the possible arcs and click to select the arc you want. end point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Arc Curve > Arc > Start. Arc from start point. ArcTTR Draw an arc tangent to two curves. At the Radius prompt. enter the end point. enter the start point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Arc Curve > Arc > Tangent. pick to set the tangent direction at the arc's start. and radius. you will be prompted for the minimum radius. At the Choose arc prompt. and direction ArcSER Draw an arc by beginning point. select the first curve.

Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Centroid At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt. AreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.0 (+/.0 Command Reference Two arcs from tangents and radius Area Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces. product moments. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area Moments At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moment calculation prompt.1. AreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.34 (+/. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.7e-006.8545412. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.1e-006. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. Rhino computes the area moments and reports them in the command history window.0).1. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.Rhino 2. second moments. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. 2 Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. First moments. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes.0. If you cannot see the entire report.1. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Area At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt.4601236. 161 .014). area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. you can use the CommandHistory command (or press F2).

1e-009) Rz: 3. and sometimes contradictory.1e-007) yy: 2000 (+/.1e-009.1e-006) Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes Rx: 5.1e-007) Iy: 180 (+/.0 (+/.10. if you select a box polysurface.77350269 (+/. like a boat hull made from thin steel plate. The information in the area moments report can be used to compute any of these moments.1e-007) Iz: 2720 (+/.1e-009) The numbers shown in parenthesis report the accuracy of the computation. The AreaMoments command allows you to estimate the volume moments of such a thin shell without having to actually create the boat hull as a complete thin-walled solid.5. For example. the area moments report for a constant z plane with corners at 0. you may have to combine several of the values from the area moments report. If you need to analyze the area moments of a surface that is part of the polysurface.0 is shown below. Mass Properties Analysis Calculations For mass properties analysis purposes.1e-009) Ry: 3.0) Product Moments xy: 900 (+/.1e-007) Iz: 680 (+/.1e-006) zz: 0 (+/. In order to get the particular moment you need.1e-006) Iy: 720 (+/.0) zx: 0 (+/.1e-009) Ry: 1.73300329 (+/.1e-009) Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes Ix: 500 (+/.0) Area Moments: First Moments x: 180 (+/.1e-007) z: 0 (+/.Rhino 2.46410162 (+/.0) Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes Ix: 2000 (+/. with a surface or open polysurface.0) Second Moments xx: 720 (+/.73205081 (+/.0 and 6.1e-009.1e-007) yz: 0 (+/. Different disciplines and textbooks use different.1e-009) Rz: 6.88675135 (+/. Precise descriptions of the values in the area moments report are given below.1e-007) Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes Rx: 2. As an example. then the area moments will be computed using all six sides of the box.1e-008) Area Centroid = 3.0. Area First Moments: 162 . it is frequently convenient to model a real-world solid. then either extract the surface from the polysurface using the ExtractSrf command. Area = 60 (+/. nomenclature and notation when defining various moments. or use the advanced "F" pick filter key when selecting the surface.0 Command Reference Note The area moments are computed on the entire collection of surfaces.1e-007) y: 300 (+/.36650165 (+/.

the area. the area first moments are defined by: Area first moment x: value = integral of x dA over the area. In terms of integrals. the area moments of inertia about the world axes are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about World Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration have units of length.Rhino 2. area second moments. Area Moments of Inertia about World Coordinate Axes: In terms of integrals. The area radius of gyration about a 3-D axis is defined to be the square root of (area moment of inertia about the axis)/area. In terms of integrals. The area products of inertia are useful for computing area moments of inertia about axes that are not parallel to a coordinate axis. an area moment of inertia about any axis can be expressed as a linear combination of the area. the area second moments are defined by: Area Product Moments: The area product moments have units of length and are sometimes called area products of inertia. Area first moment y: value = integral of y dA over the area. Area first moment z: value = integral of z dA over the area. Area centroid y coordinate = (area first moment y: value)/area. In particular. the area product moments are defined by: Area second moment xy: value = integral of xy dA over the area. The relationship between the area first moments. Engineering references and textbooks frequently use R or k to denote radii of gyration. Area centroid z coordinate = (area first moment z: value)/area. Area second moment yz: value = integral of yz dA over the area. area first moments. Area second moment zx: value = integral of zx dA over the area. The area radii of gyration about the world axes in the area moments report are computed as: Area Moments of Inertia about Centroid Coordinate Axes: 163 . Area Second Moments: The area second moments have units of length. and the area centroid is: Area centroid x coordinate = (area first moment x: value)/area.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. and area product moments.

choose the diagonal corners of sizing rectangle. to indicate the x. those distances are applied to the array directions. Transform.and y-intervals. 164 . and Array Transform > Array > Rectangular 2 3 4 5 Select the objects. type the y-interval and press Enter. At the Number in Y direction prompt. The array directions are the x. type the number of copies in the x-direction and press Enter.Rhino 2. type the number of copies in the y-direction and press Enter. At the Unit cell or X spacing prompt.0 Command Reference In terms of integrals. press Enter. Or. type the x-interval. y and z directions of the construction plane of the viewport that is active when the selection is complete. At the Number in Z direction prompt. At the Number in X direction prompt. the area moments of inertia about the object’s area centroid are defined by In terms of area second moments. type the number of copies in the z-direction and press Enter. The unit cell can be chosen in any viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main. The area radii of gyration about the area centroid in the area moments report are computed as: Array Array objects. the area moments of inertia are defined by Area Radii of Gyration about Centroid Coordinate Axes: The radii of gyration about the centroid have units of length. Enter values of 1 or more for the number of copies.

Enter a value of 1 or more for the number of elements. Or. specify twist behavior. Style Freeform twisting Objects are rotated in three dimensions as they are arrayed along the path curve. You will be asked to select a construction plane when using this command. Array along a curve Option Method Choose either the Number of items or Distance between items. select a path curve near then end where you want the arraying to start. ArrayCrvOnSrf Copies and orients an object along a curve on a surface. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. set the number of elements to array. type the z-interval and press Enter.Rhino 2. choose two points that define the z-interval. In the Array Along Curve dialog box. Rectangular array ArrayCrv Array objects along a curve. The selected objects are copied in a box-like array. 165 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Array Transform > Array > Along Curve 4 Select the objects. Roadlike Objects are rotated in the plane but not tilted with respect to the construction plane as they are arrayed.0 Command Reference 6 At the z spacing prompts. or the spacing distance along the curve. At the Select path curve prompt.

choose a center point for the array. You can continue to place objects. curve on surface. 166 . The rotation axis for the polar array is the z direction of the active construction plane at the chosen point At the Number of elements prompt. and object to array. At the Position object or distance from last ( Multiple Divide ) prompt. At the Basepoint prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Array Transform > Array > Polar 3 4 Select the objects. At the Angle to fill prompt. you can: Enter a distance from the end of the curve on the surface Pick a point on the line to place the first object Place multiple equally spaced objects Divide the curve evenly with a number of objects You can continue to place objects after any of these actions. Objects arrayed along line. pick a point on the object to array that will be the point of orientation along the line. type an angle and press Enter. ArrayPolar Array objects around a pole.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Transform > Array > Along Curve on Surface At the Select a curve on a surface prompt. select the surface At the Objects to array prompts. Enter a value of 1 or more.Rhino 2. Surface. select a curve on a surface. At the Select the surface prompt. select objects to copy along the curve. At the Center of polar array prompt. type the number of copies and press Enter. Divide Enter a number of objects to evenly divide the line. Options Multiple Enter a number of objects and a distance between them to place on the line.

Polar array ArraySrf Array objects on a surface. At the Reference normal for arrayed objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Array Transform > Array > Along Surface Select the objects.0 Command Reference Copies of the selected objects appear. type a number of objects.Rhino 2. rotated around the axis defined by the center point. At the Number of elements in surface u direction <2> prompt. Array along a surface 167 . pick a point relative to the objects that will be arrayed on the surface. type a number of objects. At the Base point for arrayed objects prompt. spaced along the U and V directions of the surface. choose the surface to array along. At the Select surface to array along prompt. At the Number of elements in surface v direction <2> prompt. some of the arrayed base points may be outside the trimmed surface but on the underlying untrimmed surface. If the surface is a trimmed surface. pick a direction from the base point that will be arrayed normal to the surface. The objects are arrayed over the untrimmed surface evenly.

otherwise you must select a folder. Note You must use an existing folder for this command to work properly.Rhino 2. Arrowhead Create annotation arrowhead. It should also enhance the exports to Viewpoint Technologies (Metastream). This command is for the simplification of data transfer between Rhino and OBJ MTL file export. it prints a detailed description of the error. Audit Audit layer and material indices to make sure they are valid. AssignBlankTexture Assigns unique textures to selected objects automatically. 168 . the model's folder will be used as the default.0 Command Reference Arrow Create an annotation arrow. enter the end of the arrow. See the PluginManager command. Toolbar: Annotate At the Select curve to add an arrowhead to prompt. At the End of line prompt. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed.rhp Options set the resolution. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Autosave Saves a copy of your model periodically. The arrowhead is placed at the end of the leader. Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Start of line prompt. enter the start of the arrow. and whether to change materials that already have a texture assigned to them. This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. the path. Note The size of the arrowhead cannot be changed. This command will eventually turn into something that audits the entire runtime database and fixes any problems it detects. If the Audit command detects a database error. pick a curve near the end you want to place an arrowhead to. If you have already saved your model or have opened an existing model.

you must edit your Rhino. By default. add the commands to the AlwaysAutoSaveBeforeCommands list in the Rhino. automatic Autosave is turned off. 169 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Radius prompt.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Baseball Draw a baseball sphere. Back Set to world back view.Rhino 2. General tab. Toolbar: 1 2 Sphere At the Center point prompt. Files tab. Baseball sphere Note A baseball sphere has no singularities at the poles. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Back Right-click viewport title > Set view > Back Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.ini. You can change the name and folder of the autosave file on the Options dialog box. The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. This sphere is two joined surfaces. Note By default. choose a radius.0 Command Reference Autosave forces Rhino to save a copy of the model you are working on to the autosave file defined on the Options dialog box. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. If you want Rhino to always autosave before certain commands.3dm" in the folder Rhino was installed. Rhino autosaves to the file called "Autosave. You can turn on Autosave and specify how often to save in the on the Options dialog box. Files tab.

place the point outside the object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Bend 3 4 Select the objects. choose an endpoint. To bend the entire object. choose an endpoint. At the End of second axis prompt. place the point outside the object. At the Point to bend through ( StraightEnd=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of third axis prompt.Rhino 2. At the End of first axis prompt. At the End of spine prompt. choose the amount of bend. To bend the entire object. Baseball ellipsoid from a center point and three axes Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: 1 2 3 4 Sphere At the Center of ellipsoid prompt. or enter the half-axis length of the ellipsoid and press Enter. choose an endpoint. At the Start of spine prompt. choose the second endpoint of the line. choose a center point. choose the first endpoint of a line representing the original orientation of the object. Bend 170 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Bend Bend objects.0 Command Reference BaseballEllipsoid Draw a baseball ellipsoid.

and meshes. pick a point for the end of the bisector line. You can't bend a polysurface . curves. 171 . enter the end of the angle to bisect. At the Length of line ( BothSides ) prompt. enter the start of the angle to bisect.only control points. enter the start of the bisector line. At the Start of angle to bisect prompt. or enter a length and press Enter. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will bend properly.0 Command Reference Options StraightEnd Lets you bend a portion of the object based on your cursor location as you drag.Rhino 2. The bend only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. surfaces. The remainder of the object is kept straight. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. Bend moves the control points of objects. Bend with the StraightEnd option = Yes Bend with the StraightEnd option = No Copy Creates a copy of the object. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. At the End of angle to bisect prompt. Bisector Draw a line that bisects two lines. you will only bend that part of the object. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > Bisector At the Start of bisector line prompt.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Blend At the Select first curve to blend – select near end prompt. At the Select second curve to blend – select near end prompt.Rhino 2. Smooth curve blend between curve ends Option Perpendicular Using blend with the Perpendicular option is currently the easiest way to get a curve to run from one edge to another and meet the surfaces with G2 continuity. 172 . select the second curve near the end where you want the blend to end.0 Command Reference Bisector line Bisector line with BothSides option Blend Blend between two curves. This is useful when setting up curve networks where G2 surface matching is desirable. select the first curve near the end where you want the blend to start.

The curve created by the Blend command is identical to the curve you get by drawing a line between curve endpoints and then using the Match command (with preserve other end checked) to change the line into a curve that smoothly meets the original curves. The arc created by the Fillet command is a type of G1 blend. tangent directions. Note The location. In either case. and curvature at the finish of the blend curve exactly match the location. connect the ends with a line and use the Match command to change the line into a G1 blend. then you should probably use InsertKnot. tangent direction. all other curve segments will inherit the degree of the blend curve.0 Command Reference Blend curves created with the Perpendicular option between two surfaces When the Perpendicular option is invoked before choosing either end of the curve. and curvature. and one of the curves is a blend curve. Two ways to add control point are with the InsertKnot command and the ChangeDegree command. and curvature is called a G2 blend. and curvature of the selected end of the first curve. select a surface edge. it applies to both ends. If you need a G1 blend. then you can replace the arc with a blend curve. and curvature of the selected end of the second curve. The location. If it is invoked after picking the first end. tangent direction. tangent direction. The Blend command creates G2 blends. The EndBulge command lets you change the bulginess at the end of a curve without changing the end's location. If the curve will only be used in Rhino. it applies only to the second end. tangent direction. delete the arc. If you are going to export the curve to other applications. BlendSrf Blend two surfaces. select adjacent edges. If a blend appears to tight or loose. If you are joining curves. and curvature. and then use Blend to fill in the gap. A blend curve that matches location. tangent direction. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Blend At the Select first set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. use the Fillet command to trim the curves back and create an arc that fills the gap. A blend curve that matches location and tangent direction is called a G1 blend. then you will need to add additional control point to the blend curve. To do this. If the arc created by the Fillet command does not provide a smooth enough transition for your needs. the blend curve's end tangent directions and curvatures will not be changed as long as you do not move the first three and last three control point. try using the EndBulge command before attempting control point editing. The Blend command cannot be used to create G1 blends. At the Select first set of edges. then changing the degree to seven will add two middle control point that can be edited. and curvature at the start of the blend curve exactly match the location. This is not always desirable (lines are no longer lines but degree five straight curve segments). or press Enter. The CurvatureGraphOn command is useful with Blend to display the curvature of the blend and the connected curves. If you need to edit the shape of a blend without changing the ends' location.Rhino 2. Press Enter for second set ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt. Use Fillet instead of Blend where possible. 173 . tangent direction.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Select second set of edges ( PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) select the edges to blend to. At the Select second set of edges. Press Enter when done ( All Next Undo PlanarSections Continuity=Curvature ) prompt, select adjacent edges or press Enter. Type A to select all adjoining edges or N to select the next adjacent edge. At the Start of shape and End of shape prompts, pick points on the edges to define shape curves to control the shape of the blend. The sliders determine the distance of influence the surface has on the edge curve.

3 4

5

Add additional shape curves to control the blend

Surface blend

Options
FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point, reversing the direction of the curve. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. PlanarSections Think of a surface blend as a loft through a large number of cross-section curves. Normally the section curves either match the isoparm directions of the input surfaces (untrimmed surface edge) or are tangent to the surface edges (trimmed edge). Usually this means the cross-section shapes are not planar but snake from one edge to another. With PlanarSections, Rhino forces all shape curves to be planar, and all the shape curve planes are parallel to the direction defined with this option. If you define a direction parallel to world Z (vertical), all blend sections will be vertical. Continuity Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Tangent continuous blends are degree 3 with 4 controls points. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). Curvature continuous blends are degree 5 with 6 control points.

174

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Same height shapes If the gaps between the surfaces vary, this option keeps the shape curves the same height throughout the blend.

Natural curve heights

Same height curves

Note
If you try to do a blend between a surface and a hole that is exactly the same size as the surface, Rhino will be forced to make the blend surface dip in quite a bit so that it is smooth to both surfaces.

Hole the same size as surface

Hole larger than surface If the edges of two surfaces you are trying to blend share a corner point, BlendSrf selects all the contiguous edges as one. To choose the second edge separately, press Enter after choosing the first edge, then choose the edge of the second surface. Sometimes some holes in between blend surfaces and their original surfaces appear in rendering. This is due to a visual artifact because the rendering is done with polygon mesh approximations of the true surfaces, and the meshes aren't matching up exactly because the surfaces are all separate objects.

175

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Use Join to join them together into one object so the rendering and meshing won't have any cracks in it and will match up exactly.

BooleanDifference
Boolean difference.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Difference

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects or press Enter to select the second set. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to subtract. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done. ( DeleteInput=Yes ) prompts, select additional objects to subtract or press Enter.

Boolean Difference

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Boolean Difference with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanIntersection
Boolean intersection.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Solid Tools Solid > Intersection

At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select the first object. At the Select first set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter for second set prompts, select additional objects. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces prompt, select an object to intersect. At the Select second set of surfaces or polysurfaces. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to intersect or press Enter

176

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Intersection (Boolean intersection)

Note
You can select the first set of objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can use Intersection with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again.

BooleanUnion
Boolean union.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main and Solid Tools Solid > Union

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union prompt, select the first object. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to union. Press Enter when done prompts, select additional objects to union or press Enter. The objects are combined into one surface or polysurface.

Boolean Union

Note
You can select the first object or all the objects before you invoke the command. Rhino Booleans only work on NURBS objects, not mesh objects. Objects imported from a mesh modeler will not work. You can also use Boolean Union with surfaces and open polysurfaces. What you get will depend on the direction of the normals of the object you select. The "inside" of a surface is everything on one side of it. Use Show direction display to see the direction. If you get results that are the opposite of what you want, reverse the direction of the surface with Flip the direction of a curve or surface and try again. Try Join first on surfaces.

177

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Bottom
Set to world bottom view.

Toolbar: Menu: Menu:

Set View View > Set View > Bottom Right-click viewport title > Set view > Bottom

Note
This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel, you must edit your Rhino.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n

BoundingBox
Create a bounding box for curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze Analyze > Bounding Box

At the Select objects to frame with a box ( CoordinateSystem=CPlane ) prompt, select objects and press Enter. Or type C to toggle between creating a bounding box based on world coordinates and construction plane coordinates. A rectilinear bounding box object is created that encloses the objects. If the objects are contained in a plane parallel to a coordinate system plane, the bounding box is a rectangular polyline. Otherwise, a polysurface box is created. The extreme corners of the bounding box object are reported at the command line in the format min = 0,-1,0 max = 1,0,1 in the chosen coordinate system.

Box
Draw a box.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Main, Solid, and Box Solid > Box > Corner to Corner, Height

At the First corner of box prompt, choose a corner. At the Other corner or length prompt, choose a diagonal corner, or enter a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, enter a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, pick a point, or enter a height and press Enter

178

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Box from diagonal corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

Box3Pt
Draw a box with three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4

Box Solid > Box, > 3 Points, Height

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner for the box. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge of the first box side, or type a width and press Enter. At the Height prompt, choose a location for the opposite side of the box, or type a height and press Enter.

Solid box from adjacent corners

Note
The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane.

BringViewportToTop
Bring a viewport to the top.
At the Name of viewport to bring to top prompt, type the name of the viewport to bring to the top and press Enter.

Note
In most cases, you can bring a viewport to the top by clicking in the viewport title bar. This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other.

179

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Cap
Cap open planar holes in a polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu:

Solid Tools Solid > Cap Planar Holes

At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to cap prompt, select objects and press Enter. Capping surfaces appear on planar holes of the objects.

Cap open planar ends

Chamfer
Chamfer two curves.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Curve Tools Curve > Chamfer

2

At the Select first curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the first curve near the end for the chamfer. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the first curve. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two curves would intersect to the chamfer point on the second curve. At the Select second curve to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Join=No ) prompt, select the second curve at the end for the chamfer.

Chamfer

Options
Distances To change the chamfer distance, type D and press Enter. Or, type the chamfer distance and press Enter. You can type both distances separated by commas (for example 1,2) and press Enter or type one distance and press Enter and wait for the prompt for the second distance.

180

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Join To change the Join option, type J and press Enter. The chamfer line and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the chamfer line and joined.

Note
A chamfer distance of 0 trims or extends the curve to the intersection point. A chamfer may be created in order to extend the other curve to that intersection point. If you enter 0 for both distances, the curves are trimmed or extended to their intersection, but no chamfer is created.

ChamferSrf
Chamfer two surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Surface Tools Surface > Chamfer

2

At the Select first surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the first surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Or, type D and press Enter to change the chamfer distances. The first chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the first surface. The second chamfer distance is the distance from the point where the two surfaces would intersect to the chamfer point on the second surface. At the Select second surface to chamfer ( Distances=1,1 Extend=Yes Trim=Yes ) prompt, choose the second surface. Click on the edge of the surface where you want the chamfer to go.

Two surfaces

Two surfaces chamfered

Options
Distances Distance from the intersection of the surfaces to the edge of the chamfer. Extend Extends the surfaces to meet the chamfer edge. Trim Trim back original surfaces to the edges of the chamfer.

ChangeDegree
Change the degree of a curve.

181

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select curve for degree change prompts, select curves and press Enter. At the Current degree is <> New degree ( Deformable=No ) prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable If Deformable=Yes and the degree of the curve/surface is different from the requested degree, the new curve/surface has simple interior knots. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is LESS than the requested degree, the new curve/surface will have exactly the same geometry and parameterization as the original, but it will have knots of multiplicity = old multiplicity + new degree - old degree. If Deformable=No and the degree of the curve/surface is GREATER than the requested degree, then the new curve/surface will be an approximation of the original with simple knots. If any input has the same degree as the requested degree, that input is not changed.

Note
ChangeDegree changes the degree of the polynomial used to create the curve. It keeps the knot structure of the curves the same, but adds or subtracts control points between each knot span. Often it is better to use InsertKnot and RemoveKnot instead, to add/remove control points more locally. Curves with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. The number of control points added or subtracted depends on the degree entered; the higher the degree, the greater the number of control points.

ChangeDegreeSrf
Change the degree of a surface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Change Degree

At the Select surface for degree change prompt, select the surface that is not a polysurface. At the U degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter. At the V degree is 1 - enter desired degree prompt, type a number and press Enter.

Option
Deformable Increasing the degree of a surface can be used to get more control points and make the surface smoother. If you want a smoother surface, then you can try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to YES. If you want the surface to have the same geometry but more control points for editing, then try increasing the degree to 5 with the deformable option set to NO. In this case, you may want to consider using the InsertKnot command, which will leave the degree unchanged but add control points. If you are going to export your geometry to another application, you may want to make every attempt to keep the degree of your surfaces low. In particular, many mechanical CAD systems have trouble with surfaces that have degrees greater than 3. As always, if a surface command is confusing, use the results of the corresponding curve command to gain a little intuition. The following illustration show a simple curve example that shows a dramatic difference between Deformable=yes and Deformable=no.

182

the higher the degree. It keeps the knot structure of the surface the same.Rhino 2. the greater the number of control points. It is possible to add/remove control points more locally. ChangeLayer Change the object's layer. The number of control points added depends on the degree entered. If you raise the degree of a surface. Usually it is better to use InsertKnot/RemoveKnot instead.0 Command Reference Polyline ChangeDegreeSrf raises the degree of the polynomial used to create the surface. The lowest usable degree is supplied as the default (this number is one more than the current degree). but adds control points between each knot span. 183 . Use MakeSrfPeriodic to restore the periodicity of the surface. This gives you more control over the shape. click the new layer. Raising surface degree makes them more deformable. Surfaces with higher degrees take longer to display and use more memory. it will no longer be periodic. but it will also make editing more difficult because it adds complexity throughout the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > Change Object Layer In the Layer for Object dialog box.

run the CheckInLicense command to check your key back into the Zoo and to turn your station back into a workgroup node. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze. they must run the CheckInLicense command to check their keys back into the Zoo and to turn their stations back into a workgroup node. enter the center point. When users get back in the office.0 Command Reference ChangeToCurrentLayer Change the object's layer to the current layer. When the user gets back in the office. Note Delete or rebuild the object. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Check At the Select object to check prompt. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. CheckInLicense Checks in a license to the workgroup license manager. The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager.Rhino 2. Diagnostics. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle and Main Curve > Circle > Center. Or type a number for the radius and press Enter. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. A report on the correctness of the object shows on the command line. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. use the CheckInLicense command. Circle Draw a circle. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. You must have the workgroup license manager installed. enter the radius point. This converts a workgroup node to a standalone node. This converts their workgroup node to a standalone node. You can then remove your computer from the network and continue to run Rhino. This is primarily a tool for diagnosing potential geometry bugs. CheckOutLicense Checks out a license from the workgroup license manager. select one object. The user can then leave the office and run Rhino without being connected to the network. 184 . The CheckOutLicense command makes it possible for users to check out a license from the license manager. Select objects. Radius At the Center of circle ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve ) prompt. Check Check an object for geeky relationships in geometry data structures. At the Radius <1> ( Diameter ) prompt. To check a license back in.

Toolbar: Menu: Circle Curve > Circle > 3 Points 185 . Circle3Pt Draw a circle through three points. Vertical AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point On curve Diameter Enter the diameter for the circle instead of the radius.0 Command Reference Circle center-radius Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. You can enter the number of control points.Rhino 2. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane.

select the first curve. You can enter the number of control points. enter a third point on the circumference. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent. 186 . enter a point on the circumference. enter the end of the diameter. enter a radius. Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. At the Radius prompt. Circle from three points on the circumference CircleD Draw a circle by its diameter. Radius At the Select first curve for CircleTTR prompt.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 At the First point on circle prompt. Tangent. enter the start of a diameter line of the circle. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. enter a second point on the circumference. At the End of diameter prompt. At the Second point on circle prompt. select the second curve. CircleTTR Draw a circle tangent to two curves. At the Select second curve for CircleTTR prompt. delete the extras. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Diameter At the Start of diameter ( Deformable Vertical ) prompt. There may be multiple circles.Rhino 2. At the Third point on circle prompt. Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines.

At the Second tangent curve or radius <1> ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. select the second curve. It makes it possible to draw circles of fixed radius that are tangent to one curve and either go through a point. There may be multiple circles. At the Third tangent curve. Render and analysis meshes are cleared from all surfaces and polysurfaces. select the first curve. delete the extras.0 Command Reference Circle from two tangent curves and a radius CircleTTT Draw a circle tangent to three curves. Press Enter to draw circle from first two points ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. Point Select a point for input. Note To reduce the size of the model file. or are tangent to a second curve. You can define a fixed radius in CircleTTT when Rhino is asking for the second tangent curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Circle Curve > Circle > Tangent to 3 Curves 3 At the First tangent curve ( KeepMarks Point ) prompt. select the third curve. Circle tangent to three curves Options KeepMarks Places point objects at the tangent points. 187 . Click the part of the curve where you want the circle to be. ClearAllMeshes Clear all render meshes. use the SaveAs command and check Save small.

right click in the Rhino Command History window. Note This is useful for doing multiple renderings. Rhino creates a point object on one of the selected objects. Note Point objects display as small squares. 188 . Note To show the list of recently-used commands. CloseDisplayWindow Close the render display window. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Tools Tools > Commands > Command History F2 The Rhino Command History window appears. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh settings and render or shade the model. At the Base point for closest point prompt. you can create multiple renderings and save them to different files from your script. CloseViewport Close the active viewport. or in the Command area. It lists the last 500 command lines from the current Rhino session. Press F2 again to close the window.Rhino 2. enter a point. When combined with the SaveDisplayWindowAs command. Render meshes are created automatically when you shade or render your model. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Closest Point At the Select objects for closest point prompt. ClearAllMeshes turns off shaded working mode. select the objects for placing a nearest point on and press Enter. ClearUndo Clear undo buffer. Point objects are not a part of any other object. They are not visible in wireframe view mode. To start one of those commands. ClosestPt Find the point closest to an object. It is placed at the closest point on the objects to the base point.0 Command Reference Use RefreshShade to clear render meshes from selected objects. CommandHistory View command history. pick it from the list.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cone At the Base of cone prompt. choose a point for the tip of the cone Solid cone 189 . Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Paste From Clipboard The text contents of the Windows Clipboard are copied into the command line. CommandPrompt Toggle the display of the command area. At the Radius prompt. you cannot tell what Rhino is doing or what Rhino is asking you to do. Commands List all Rhino commands.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference CommandPaste Paste commands from the Clipboard. and interpreted as if you had typed them into the command line. Or. Note The normal Windows Paste function in Version 2. it is pasted as a command script. If there is a Rhino 3DM model in the clipboard. choose a center point for the base. choose a radius.0 will replace this command if it is not nested. look at the Command List in this help file. At the End of cone prompt. If there is text in the Clipboard. Without the command area. Cone Draw a cone. Warning: Turning off the command area is not recommended. it is pasted.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. enter the end point for the conic. This point partially defines the plane for the conic. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base by diameter. At the Reference vertex prompt.0 Command Reference Solid cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Conic 190 . Conic Draw a conic section curve.Rhino 2. At the End of conic prompt. Or. enter the start point for the conic. enter the middle point for the conic. type a number greater than 0 and less than 1 and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Conic At the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

Shoulder Conic Details Given a triangle with corners A. Second reference curve prompt. Hyperbolic Rho values greater than 0.0 Command Reference Conic tangent to two curves Options Tangent 1 2 3 4 5 6 At At At At At At the the the the the the Start of conic ( Tangent ) prompt. Then the number "t" must be strictly between 0 and 1 because S is strictly inside the triangle. The connection between rho and the weight is 191 . select a second curve. let T be the point where line(B. type T to select tangent curves.5. select a curve.0 and less than 0. the homogeneous control points are where w is determined by equation conic(t) = S.C). First reference curve prompt. Point on second curve prompt. Parabolic Rho value of 0. you'll discover that S being strictly inside the triangle means the weight w will always be a positive number. pick a point for the shoulder of the conic.5 and less than 1. If you work out the details. The shoulder conic is the unique solution to the problem: conic(0) = A conic(t) = S conic(1) = B When this conic is presented in canonical 3-D bezier form. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to. C and a shoulder point S strictly inside the triangle.Rhino 2. Point on first curve prompt. select a point on the curve for the conic to be tangent to.5.S) intersects chord(A. B. Curvature point or rho prompt. Conic tangent to two curves Types of conics Elliptical Rho values greater than 0.

5 and 1. At the End of conic prompt.5. enter the reference vertex for the conic. Types of conics Elliptical Rho values between 0. enter the end point for the conic. ConicPerp Draw a conic perpendicular to a curve.0 Command Reference If you solve for rho in terms of w you get Basically. so the w<1 case is elliptical. At the Curvature point or rho prompt. Or. Parabolic Rho value of 0. enter the start of the conic on the curve you want the conic to be perpendicular to. 192 . This point partially defines the plane for the conic. End control points are at the same location. At the Reference vertex on perpendicular prompt. (ignoring orientations and positive coefficients which just muddy the waters) you have doesn't have real roots. 1 2 3 4 At the Start of conic on curve prompt. Hyperbolic Rho values between 0. type a number between 0 and 1 and press Enter.Rhino 2.0 and 0. pick a point for the conic to pass through to define its curvature. Continuity Positional Continuity (G0) G0 continuity means that the end points of a curve or the edges of two surfaces touch each other.5.

polysurfaces.Rhino 2. Three control points of the blend and the adjacent curve line up (up to degree 3 curves). Match. and meshes for contour line creation. choose a base point. Tangent continuity (G1) Curvature Continuity (G2) G2 continuity means that the tangent direction and the curvature of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Fillet arcs form this kind of continuity with the lines or surfaces filleted. At the Contour plane base point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Contour Select surfaces. Blend. and MatchSrf form this kind of continuity. BlendSrf. curvature. Curves and surfaces with G2 continuity are also G1 and therefore G0 continuous. One of the contour planes will go through this point. 193 . Position. The two control points of the arc and the adjacent curve line up.0 Command Reference Position continuity (G0) Tangent Continuity (G1) G1 continuity means that the tangent direction of the two curves or surfaces is the same. Curves and surfaces with G1 continuity are also G0 continuous. and tangency match (G2) Contour Create contour curves of a surface or polysurface.

Contour curves are created where the contour planes intersect the surfaces and polysurfaces. At the Distance between contours prompt. The contour planes will be perpendicular to this direction. enter the distance between contours and press Enter. The higher this number is. 4 Curve from the contours of a surface ControlPolygon Toggle the display of control polygons. the less dense the control polygon will display. generated in both directions from the base point.0 Command Reference 3 At the Contour plane direction prompt. choose the direction the planes will march in to create contour lines. 194 . The polygon display for the dotted lines between control points toggles on or off. ControlPolygon on ControlPolygon off ControlPolygonDensity Set the control polygon display density. enter the number of pixels between each dot of the control polygon. At the Control polygon display density prompt. You will see a visual effect only when control points are displayed with Show control points.Rhino 2.

then convert the resulting curves to polylines.Rhino 2. Edges can't be converted with this command. 195 . Use the DupEdge command to create a curve from the edge. Larger angles result in coarser polylines. type the maximum angle allowed between adjacent polyline segments. The curves are converted to short Bezier curve segments. Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight on Control points selected with ControlPolygonHighlight off ConvertToBeziers Convert a NURBS curve to a Bezier curve. At the Angle tolerance prompt. ConvertToPolyline Convert curves to polylines. select curves and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Convert Curve to Polyline At the Select curves to convert to polylines prompt. At the Select curves to convert to Beziers prompt. use the ExtractWireframe command first. while smaller angles result in finer polylines. Note To convert surface wireframes to polylines. Menu: Edit > Control points > Control Polygon> Toggle highlight. The original curves are removed.0 Command Reference ControlPolygonHighlight Toggle control polygon highlighting. select an object to create polylines from.

type I and press Enter. Or. Object properties and location are stored with the object. to move the copy vertically. snap spacing. At the Point to copy from ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Copy Select the objects. Or. CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll Copy the settings of one construction plane to the rest. CopyClip Copy objects to the Clipboard.0 Command Reference Copy Copy objects. choose locations for copies. 196 . Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Copy Ctrl+C Note All selected objects in your model are copied and placed on the Windows Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Copy Other Ways of Copying Objects You can also simply select and drag objects while pressing the Alt key. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. If the layer does not exist. and grid settings are the same as in the active viewport.Rhino 2. at the Choose base point ( Vertical InPlace ) prompt. choose a point to move the copy from. A single copy is made in the same place as the original. to copy the object in the same place. At the Point to copy to prompts. it is created when the object is pasted. Press Enter when you finish choosing locations. When you Paste objects into Rhino. All viewports are changed so that the grid spacing. type v and press Enter.

choose the new origin. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. enter the new elevation for the CPlane. At the X axis direction prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Front. Positive numbers move the CPlane up along the positive z. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Elevation Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlane3Pt Set the construction plane with 3 points. At the CPlane origin prompt. choose a point on the x-axis. 197 .0 Command Reference CopyCPlaneToAll Make all construction planes have the same orientation. CPlaneFront Restore the front construction plane.Rhino 2. Negative numbers move the CPlane down. CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard Copy the contents of the render window to the Clipboard. The image in the render window is copied to the Clipboard. At the CPlane elevation prompt. CopyViewToAll Copy the view to all viewports. CPlaneElevation Change the elevation of a construction plane. choose a point on the y-axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > 3 Points Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.axis. At the CPlane orientation prompt. All viewports are changed so that the construction planes are the same as the construction plane in the active viewport.

Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Next Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed.0 Command Reference CPlaneNext Restores the next used construction plane after a CPlanePrev command. you can use drawing tools to draw a cross-section curve in the 3. At the CPlane origin prompt. for example. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneOrigin Set the origin of a construction plane. 2 Select a curve to orient construction plane. At the Origin for all CPlanes prompt. Use CPlanePerpToCrv to quickly position your construction plane at various stations along a central rail curve as preparation for doing a one rail sweep. flip the direction of the curve with the Flip or Dir commands. Note The construction planes in all viewports will be changed so that their origin is at the picked point.Rhino 2. drag the construction plane's new x. This direct drawing method can be quicker and more convenient than drawing the curve on a world plane and then trying to move and rotate it into place in 3. Once your construction plane is positioned. If the construction plane does not go the direction you want. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Perpendicular to Curve. The direction of the curve affects the direction of the axes. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard and Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Origin. 198 . in the dynamic preview. 3 At the CPlane origin prompt. CplaneOriginAll Set all construction plane origins to a point.D. pick a point for the origin of all construction planes. CPlanePerpToCrv Align construction plane tangent to a curve at a point.and yaxes to a new location.D location where it needs to be.

Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Right. 199 . Toolbar: Menu Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Previous Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To Object Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. CPlaneRight Restore the right construction plane. CPlaneToObject Set the construction plane to an object. select a curve or surface. CPlaneThroughPt Move construction plane to go through a point. At the Select object to orient CPlane to prompt. pick a point for the construction plane to pass through.Rhino 2. The construction plane is moved along its z-axis until the construction plane passes through the picked point. CPlaneTop Restore the top construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the Point for CPlane to pass through prompt.0 Command Reference CPlanePrev Restores the previously used construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > World Top. 1 2 Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change.

At the CPlane origin prompt. choose the new origin. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > X Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. CPlaneV Set the construction plane vertical to the active construction plane. 200 . choose the new origin. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Vertical Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. choose a point on the x. choose a point on the z. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > To View Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. At the X axis direction prompt.0 Command Reference CPlaneToView Set the construction plane to the view. At the Z axis direction prompt.Rhino 2. CPlaneX Set the construction plane x-axis. At the CPlane origin prompt.axis. choose the new origin. CPlaneZ Set the construction plane z-axis. choose a point on the x. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Z Axis Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. At the X axis direction prompt.axis.

The untrimmed boundary and trim curves of the surface are mapped onto the world x-y plane as a set of planar curves. Top view of profile curves 201 .Rhino 2. At the Select planar curve prompt. select the first planar curve. use CreateUVCrv on the unrolled surface and then use ApplyCrv to wrap the curves back on the original surface. If true arc-length mapping is desired. A surface and its UV curves Note The size of the uv curves is based on the control polygon. Use UnrollSrf. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Create UV Curves At the Select surface to create UV curves prompt. Crv2View Create a curve from two views. Toolbar: Menu: 3 4 Curve Tools Curve > From 2 Views At the Select planar curve prompt. select the second planar curve. select a surface.0 Command Reference CreateUVCrv Create UV curves. the original surface must be developable. cut openings in the unrolled surface.

Example For an example. see the Rhinoceros User's Guide." 202 .0 Command Reference Front view of profile curves Perspective view of profile curves Right view of profile curves and curve from two views Perspective view of profile curves and curve from two views Creates a third curve from two curves that are planar in different construction planes. Look in the index under "Curve. The new curve looks the same as each of the original curves when viewed in each plane. then the extrusions are intersected to create the curve. From 2 Views.Rhino 2. Each planar curve is temporarily extruded perpendicular to its plane.

Use CommandHistory or F2 key to view the data. The AlignProfiles command is useful for lining up curves in two views prior to creating a curve from two views. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve End Select curves. select closed curves in the order you want the seam to pass through them and press Enter.Rhino 2. CrvEnd Places a point at the end of a curve. At the Location of seam point prompt. or it may report that the curves don't overlap. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Deviation 2 Select two curves. Arrows indicate the direction of each curve. pick on a seam point marker. press Enter to turn off the deviation display. pick a new location for the seam point. The example demonstrates creating a curve that follows the edge of a boat hull from 2-D curves in the top and front views.0 Command Reference Note Use to create a curve when you know its profile in two directions. On use the K option to create three line objects from the indicator marks for each interval. At the Press Enter when done ( KeepMarks=No ) prompt. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the curves all have the same direction. The command may find one or more intervals of overlap between the two curves. 203 . CrvSeam Change the seam point of closed curves. and move it along the curve. and the points of greatest deviation within the interval. For each overlap interval the three deviation distances are reported at the command line together with the world coordinates of the interval ends on each curve. For each overlap interval. three pairs of indicator marks with indicator lines between them appear. The seam point of each closed curve is indicated with a point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust Closed Curve Seam 2 3 4 At the Select closed curves for seam adjustment prompts. joining the ends of the overlap interval. When you are done adjusting the connections. CrvDeviation Measure the deviation between two curves. They are connected with a line. press Enter. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves. At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.

Note This command's functions are built into Loft a surface.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned Curves with seams and directions aligned Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. Seam points need to be adjust because the seam points of the curves are the guide for the "seam" of a surface lofted from them. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command.Rhino 2. CrvStart Places a point at the start of a curve. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Mark Curve Start Select curves. 204 . reversing the direction of the curve. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention.

Rhino 2. select a surface. At the Start of cross-section line prompt.0 Command Reference CrvThroughSrfControlPt Create curves through the control points of a surface. select your profile curves in the order the crosssection curves should pass through them and press Enter. end the line for the cross section plane. At the End of cross-section line prompt. pick near a control point. V or Both directions. When you have drawn the cross section curves you need. At the Select profile curves in order prompt. A curve is created in the plane defined at the cross section line. with the control polygons. press Enter to end the command. Curves are drawn at the control polygons. Press Enter to stop creating curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > CSec Profiles 4 5 Draw profile curves that roughly define the shape of your object. At the Select point on the surface prompts. start a line that will define the cross section plane perpendicular to the current construction plane. Turning on Ortho or Snap may help you control the section planes. 3 Option: Direction Type D and press Enter to create curves in the U. that passes through the profile curves. Profile curves top view Profile curves front view 205 . CSec Create cross-section curves through profile curves. The control point for the surface appear. as the desired control polygons are emphasized. 1 2 At the Select surface prompt.

space the cross section curves relatively evenly. For best results. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility and Organic Edit > Control Point Visibility > Backface Cull 206 . CullControlPolygon Backface cull control point. Lofted and rendered section curves Note The cross section lines must cross all of the profile curves.0 Command Reference Cross section lines Cross section curves Once you have made the cross-section curves. you can use the Loft command to create a surface through them.Rhino 2.

2 207 .0 Command Reference Control polygon culling off Control polygon culling on Note Editing surface control points is sometimes easier when only the control points facing you are visible. select a curve. A white line tangent to the curve is also drawn. Menu: 1 Analyze > Curve > Curvature Circle At the Select curve for curvature measurement prompt. click to create the circle object. but it makes it possible to mark them manually. The marker is constrained to track along the selected curve. This gives permanent feedback when the radius of curvature is infinite (curvature is zero. It is possible to make the surface normal point toward what you would consider the inside of an open surface. and a black circle of that radius is displayed tangent to the curve at the marker. This does not automate finding the inflection points. If the points on the wrong side of the surface are visible. Curvature Measure the curvature of a curve.Rhino 2. for example at inflection points where the curve bulge changes from one side to the other) and cannot be evaluated. try flipping the normal direction of the surface with the Dir command. Backface culling hides the control points for the parts of the surface you are looking at the back side of. press Esc to end the command without change. the curve is locally flat. The radius of curvature of the curve at the marker is displayed in the status bar. Or. A point object is placed at the point to evaluate in addition to drawing the curvature circle. At the Select point to measure curvature prompt.

A smooth surface has two principal curvatures. Points on the surface that have curvature values beyond the red end of the range will be red and points with curvature values beyond the blue end of the range will be blue. green is assigned to zero Gaussian curvature. In the Curvature dialog box. curvature.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Curvature circle display CurvatureAnalysis Analyze surface curvature. Options Gaussian In the images below. and blue to negative value of Gaussian curvature. For example. 208 . The CurvatureAnalysis command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze and Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Curvature Analysis Select objects for curvature analysis. red is assigned to a positive value of Gaussian curvature. A positive Gaussian curvature value means the surface is bowl-like. Any points on the surface with curvature values between the values you specify will be displayed using the corresponding color. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. The Gaussian curvature is a product of the principal curvatures. set the style and range. The Mean curvature is the average of the two principal curvatures. and other important properties. points with a curvature value half way between the specified values will be green.

Areas from green towards red should be viewed with suspicion.0 Command Reference Surface with positive Gaussian curvature A negative value means the surface is saddle-like. (Planes. Blue areas should be safe. Min radius If you are going to offset a surface at distance r or are going to mill a surface with a cutting ball of radius r. Surface with zero Gaussian curvature If you know the range of values of curvature you are interested in analyzing. and cones have zero Gaussian curvature).5 x r Any red you see on the surface indicates you can't offset/mill in that region.>1000) and the red close to infinity. Set RED = r set BLUE = 1. Mean Displays the absolute value of the mean curvature. Set the value for blue rather high (10." The values you enter for red should be different from the value you enter for blue.Rhino 2. then any place on the surface that "curves" with a radius smaller than r will cause trouble. you'll get a twisty mess that goes through itself. In the case of an offset.>100. Surface with negative Gaussian curvature A zero value means the surface is flat in at least one direction. "Does this surface have any place where it bends too tightly?" The Min Radius option should help you answer this question. your cutting ball will remove material you want to keep. In these cases you need to be able to answer the question. Max radius This option is useful for flat spot detection. Red areas in the model then indicate flat spots where the curvature is practically zero. cylinders. but the value for red can be larger or smaller than the value for blue. In the case of the mill. enter those values in the edit boxes next to the red and blue portions of the "rainbow. 209 .

and we compute the normal section curvature in all these directions. the normal section curvature is computed by intersecting the surface with the plane spanned by the point. these values may not be appropriate. In this case you can use Auto Range to automatically compute a curvature value to color mapping that will result in a good color distribution. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. Surfaces with constant mean curvature everywhere are often referred to as CMC (Constant Mean Curvature) surfaces. then there will be a maximum value and a minimum value. Max Range Choose this option if you want the maximum curvature to be mapped to red and the minimum curvature mapped to blue. you must first know what the curvature of curve is. These meshes can be large. such as giving the curvature positive sign if the circle lies to the left and negative sign if the circle lies to the right of the curve. or to the right of the curve. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. Mean curvature The Mean curvature of a surface at a point is one half the sum of the principal curvatures at that point. and the direction. On surfaces with extreme curvature variation. You have to map values to saturated computer colors. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. Gaussian curvature The Gaussian curvature of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures at that point. The CurvatureAnalysis command attempts to remember the settings you used the last time you analyzed a surface. Surfaces with zero mean curvature everywhere are minimal surfaces. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. As a starting point. Note When you use the CurvatureAnalysis command. Gaussian and Mean Curvature To understand Gaussian curvature of a point on a surface. Principal curvatures The principal curvatures of a surface at a point are the minimum and maximum of the normal curvatures at that point. Given a point on the surface and a direction lying in the tangent plane of the surface at that point.Rhino 2. We can also find the best approximating circle that passes through this point and is tangent to the curve. encloses a volume and exists in an 210 . The tangent plane of any point with positive Gaussian curvature touches the surface at a single point. The reciprocal of the radius of this circle is the curvature of the curve at this point. the normal to the surface at that point. (Normal curvatures are the curvatures of curves on the surface lying in planes including the tangent vector at the given point. If we care about this. If we look at all directions in the tangent plane to the surface at our point. If you have dramatically changed the geometry of a surface or have switched to a new surface. the line best approximating the curve that passes through this point is the tangent line. Any point with zero mean curvature has negative or zero Gaussian curvature. unlike a simple soap film. CMC surfaces have the same mean curvature everywhere on the surface. Physical processes which can be modeled by CMC surfaces include the formation of soap bubbles. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box.) The principal curvatures are used to compute the Gaussian and Mean curvatures of the surface. The normal section curvature is the signed curvature of this curve at the point of interest. this may result in a rather uninformative image. A soap bubble. use Auto Range and then adjust the values to be symmetric but with magnitudes comparable to those selected by Auto Range. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. both free and attached to objects. whereas the tangent plane of any point with negative Gaussian curvature cuts the surface.0 Command Reference Auto Range The CurvatureAnalysis command analyzes surface curvature using false color mapping. The best approximating circle may lie either to the left of the curve. This is known as signed curvature. Normal section curvature is one generalization of curvature to surfaces. then we establish a convention. At any point on a curve in the plane.

even when other commands are started. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or close the dialog box. Minimal surfaces are the subset of CMC surfaces where the curvature is zero everywhere. To turn off the curvature graph Menu: Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph Off Or. The curvature graphs and the Curvature Options dialog box persist until turned off. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Curve > Curvature Graph On Select curves or surfaces. CurvatureGraphOn Turn on the curvature graph for curves. This contrasts with a soap bubble.Rhino 2. A white graph showing curvature appears on the selected curves. A soap film is not distorted by air pressure (which is equal on both sides) and is free to minimize its area. Adjust the length. Curvature graph on surface. u. 211 .0 Command Reference equilibrium where slightly greater pressure inside the bubble is balanced by the area-minimizing forces of the bubble itself. close the dialog box.and v-direction display of the curvature indicators using the controls in the Curvature Options dialog box. Physical processes which can be modeled by minimal surfaces include the formation of soap films spanning fixed objects. such as wire loops. which encloses a fixed quantity of air and has unequal pressures on its inside and outside. CurvatureGraphOff Turn off the curvature graph for curves. and the Curvature Options dialog box appears. frequency.

Rhino 2. However. the curvature graph suddenly changes from one value to a different value. the curvature graph of the first span does not progress at the same rate of the graph of the second span. the rate of curvature does suddenly change. Degree 4 curve This curvature graph has no sudden changes of rate. Degree 5 curve 212 . Degree 3 curve There are no jumps in the curvature graph. In other words. They are not curvature continuous. We call this G3 or rate of curvature continuous. The spans of a degree 2 curve are G1. This curve is curvature continuous or G2 across its spans because its curvature does not go from one value to another value suddenly. The curvature graph of the first span connects end-to-end with the curvature graph of the second span.0 Command Reference Curve Analysis Degree 2 curve Even though the curve spans are tangent with one another. or tangent only. the rate of curvature changes smoothly throughout the curve. So even though the curvature does not suddenly change.

there is a circle that most closely resembles the curve at that point. At any point on a curve (except lines). pick a point on the surface.D normal. play with the Curvature command and observe the osculating circle as it travels along curves. Menu: 1 Analyze > Surface > Curvature Circle Select a surface for curvature evaluation. The principal curvatures are the radii of the arcs. negative when the circles point opposite ways. Curve Draw a curve by control points. Gaussian curvature. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free-form > Control Points 213 . but it is scaled by a factor set in the dialog box. At the Point on surface to evaluate prompt.D point. it has the same tangent direction and rate of change in tangent direction. If isoparm display is turned off.Rhino 2. Note On surfaces the curvature hairs only display at surface isoparms. two half-circles display to show you the minimum and maximum curvature at that point. and zero if one of the circles degenerates into a line. Every point on a smooth surface has similar circles. maximum principal curvature. 2 3 The following surface evaluation information displays in the command area. 3. 3. The circle with a biggest radius is always orthogonal to the circle with a smallest radius. CurvatureSrf Analyze the curvature on a surface. The Gaussian curvature is positive when both circles point the same way." Jumps in the curvature graph indicate kinks or abrupt changes in the derivatives of the curve. Note Every point on a smooth curve has a circle that best approximates the curve at that point. The curvature displayed is a graph of (1/radius of that circle). As you move your cursor. Press F2 to show the Command History window. This is sometimes called G4 or rate of rate of curvature continuous. To better grasp this.0 Command Reference For degree 5 curves. the curve is "smooth" or "fair. To see the circle. curvature hairs display only at the surface boundary. that is. If the graph changes smoothly. minimum principal curvature. the rate at which the rate of curvature changes is continuous. Two clicks make the hair twice/half as tall. Surface curvature evaluation at parameter location. A Display scale setting of 100 means a 1:1 curvature scale. use the Curve command to make a smooth curve and then use the Curvature command on that curve to create the circle.

enter the start of the curve. Or move the cursor near the start of the curve. Close Closes the curve smoothly by creating a periodic. Closed curve from control points Undo Removes the last control point you entered. and pick. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. The curve closes. Sharp When you make a closed curve. enter an additional control point. At the Next point. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Cut Ctrl+X 214 . enter additional control points. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. You must draw one more control point than the degree.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Start of curve ( Degree=3 ) prompt. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. press Enter.Rhino 2. When drawing a high degree curve. Curve from control points Options Degree You can set the degree of the curve up to 11. Cut Cut objects to the Clipboard. At the Next point. To end the curve. Press Enter when done ( Degree=5 Undo ) prompts. the output curve will not be the degree you request unless it is complex enough.

Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.34 (+/. If the layer does not exist. select the box.0 Command Reference Note All selected objects are removed from your model and placed on the Windows Clipboard. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.1. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. 4 215 .7e-006. First moments. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.4601236. select the box. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. and area radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line.0 (+/. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding areas under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1. area moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes.8545412.014).0). When you Paste objects into Rhino. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. second moments. CutArea Calculate the area of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. CutAreaMoments Calculate the area moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer.Rhino 2. Object properties and location are stored with the object. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. area moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. CutAreaCentroid Calculate the area centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. The area centroid displays on the command line in the format Area Centroid = -0. select the box. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.1e-006. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates.0. The area displays on the command line in the format Area = 17. product moments. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt.1. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area moments calculation prompt. area radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area calculation prompt. it is created when the object is pasted.

Planes perpendicular to the current construction planes are generated that pass through the selected objects and are large enough to intersect all of the objects. select the box. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. The prompts repeat to make several cut planes.Rhino 2. select the first point of a line to define a plane. press Enter to stop making cut planes. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter.3921 (+/. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. At the Start of cut plane prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Plane Surface > Rectangle > Cutting Plane At the Select objects for cut planes prompt. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline.0. At the End of cut plane prompt. Lines in top view define cutting planes Cutting planes in perspective view CutVolume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. select the objects that the cutting planes will pass through and press Enter. 216 . select the end point of a line that defines a plane.0 Command Reference CutPlane Create cutting planes through objects.0001). Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volumes under a "waterline" defined by the box. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume calculation prompt.

Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data.0). second moments. CutVolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box. At the End of cylinder prompt. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder prompt. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command line. product moments. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. 4 Cylinder Draw a cylinder. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding volume centroids under a "waterline" defined by the box.0 (+/. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Solid cylinder 217 .1. At the Select solid box for cutting prompt. select the box. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -0. choose a center point for the base. Draw a box around your objects to represent the waterline. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Mass Properties This command can be used for finding area moments under a "waterline" defined by the box. select the box.1.7e-006.Rhino 2. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for area centroid calculation prompt.8545412. select closed surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. A point object is placed at the centroid coordinates. choose a point for the center of the top surface.1.0 Command Reference CutVolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces inside a box.4601236. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. At the Radius prompt.1e-006. First moments. choose a radius. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for volume moments calculation prompt. The cylinder is a polysurface of three joined surfaces.

Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with Undo command.0 Command Reference Solid cylinder with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cylinder vertical to the current construction plane. All objects in the model are deleted. Delete control points on curves 1 2 3 Show control points for the curve you want to edit. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Note You can get the accidentally deleted objects back with the Undo command. To start a new model. If you want to post-select objects to delete. use New command instead. Select the control points on the curve to delete. Press Delete. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Delete Delete Pre-select the objects you want to delete. saved views.Rhino 2. Delete Delete selected objects. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cylinder's base by diameter. DeleteAll Delete all objects in the model. Layers. 218 . The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. use the Erase command. and saved construction planes are not deleted.

select the proper serial port and baud rate.axis in the real world.Rhino 2. and the trim curve is created. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. Surface after outside trimming curve detached. choose an origin in Rhino. Rhino will do it for you. Untrims a surface and converts the trimming curve into a curve. Surface before outside trimming curve detached. select your digitizing arm. Press Enter to use the world coordinate system.axis. use the arm to choose an x. 219 .axis is perpendicular to the x. use the arm to choose an origin in the real world. Similar to Untrim . Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is detached from the trimmed hole but left in place. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Connect 6 In the Select Digitizer dialog box. Microscribe. select a boundary to detach. In the Baud Rate dialog box.0 Command Reference DetachTrim Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. This is more convenient than duplicating the trimming curve and then using Untrim. but it creates an independent curve from what used to be the trimming curve. use the arm to choose a y. Dig Start a 3-D digitizer.axis in the real world. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Detach Trim At the Choose a boundary to detach prompt. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. You do not need to ensure that the y. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 3-D Digitizing.it removes a trimming curve from a surface. The surface is no longer trimmed by the boundary. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt.

Mark three reference points on the real object that will be used to recalibrate the digitizer. Thus. Press Enter if you want the origin of the digitizer coordinate system to correspond to the world coordinate system in Rhino. Overview 1 2 3 4 Clamp the arm and the object to digitize to the table. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system.Rhino 2. If it is more convenient. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. or you needed to close Rhino in the middle of the digitizing session. just as if you were choosing the points with the mouse. pick a point on or near your physical model that will be the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. Move the arm so the second and third sets can be reached. arcs.0 Command Reference 7 8 At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. A Method for Repeatable Calibration It is often necessary to recalibrate the digitizer so that Rhino is in synch with the real world. Bypassing the foot pedal The DigClick command simulates pushing the foot pedal. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Setting up reference points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mark reference points on the object. Calibrate the digitizer to properly orient the real object inside Rhino. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the origin of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the Y axis of the digitizer coordinate system. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. choose a y. pick a point on or near your physical model that is on the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system. Rhino will automatically make the Y axis orthogonal to the X axis in the plane of the three points you pick. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Calibrate the digitizer with the second set of reference points. so the Y axis point in the digitizer coordinate system needn't be orthogonal to the X axis. use the mouse to pick a point in Rhino that corresponds to the X axis of the digitizer coordinate system.axis in Rhino Using Other Commands With the Digitizer Whenever Rhino prompts you to choose a point. Digitize the first two sets of reference points. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to (enter for world origin) prompt. it is useful to set up reference points to allow recalibration of the digitizer. Calibrate the digitizer with the table. Sometimes the digitizer gets bumped. Digitize the three reference points in Rhino. You can draw lines. 220 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Calibrate 4 5 6 7 At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. DigCalibrate Calibrate a 3-D digitizer. and is assigned to the F12 key. you can use the digitizer. recording reference points as you go. Digitize the third set of reference points. The digitizer should always be able to reach at least two sets of reference points. all the commands on the curve menu work with the digitizer as input. Digitizing large objects The method for successfully digitizing large objects is like leapfrogging from one portion of the object to the next. and curves with the digitizer. circles. you can use the F12 key to pick points with the digitizer instead of using the foot pedal. Continue moving from one set of reference points to the next until all the reference points are digitized. Whatever the reason. or the object moves slightly.axis in Rhino. choose an x.

use the three reference points on the real object and the three corresponding points in Rhino. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled X. If the digitizer or object moves. Set up a function key (such as F12) with the DigClick command so that when you press the function key. and O. snap to the endpoint of the reference polyline labeled Y. or you need to close and restart Rhino. The first calibration 1 2 3 4 5 Creating reference points 1 2 3 4 5 Recalibrating the digitizer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DigClick Pick a point with a 3-D digitizer. Draw a polyline from X to O to Y. Label each point O. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. Microscribe. use the arm to choose point Y on the real object At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. x.axis on the table. At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt.axis on the table. and Y for the origin. It may be useful to move this polyline to a layer called "reference points" for later use. Menu: Curve > Line >Polyline. use the arm to choose point O on the real object.. press Enter to use the world coordinate system. use the arm to choose an x. and y. snap to the vertex of the reference polyline labeled O. click Digitize. and then click Connect At the Choose an origin with the digitizer prompt. This is the reference polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing. use the arm to choose point X on the real object. click Digitize. use the arm to choose a y. Digitizers use a foot pedal to pick points. it is as if you pressed the foot pedal. Use the Dot command to label the endpoints and vertex of the polyline X. At the Choose an x axis in Rhino prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Pause 221 . At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. From the Tools menu. From the Tools menu. use the arm to choose an origin point on the table. you will need to recalibrate the digitizer so that the new data lines up with the existing data. X. and then click Calibrate.0 Command Reference 5 Whenever you need to recalibrate the digitizer.axes. At the Choose a point in Rhino to map origin to prompt. DigDisconnect Disconnect a 3-D digitizer. At the Choose a y axis point with the digitizer prompt. and Tools Tools > Digitize > Disconnect DigPause Pause a 3-D digitizer.Rhino 2. At the Choose an x axis point with the digitizer prompt. The DigClick command lets you pick points from within Rhino. At the Choose a y axis in Rhino prompt. Y. Mark three points on the real object with a permanent pen.

Type C to create a closed curve. enter the start of the section plane axis. To digitize in millimeters. enter 2. specify how you want to space the planes. When you finish digitizing points on the object. The first section plane will pass through the start of the axis. and spacing. The planes are perpendicular to the line between the base point and the direction point. a planar curve is created in each digitizing plane. enter a point on the base plane. direction. You can press and hold any key on the keyboard as well. DigSection Create sections with a 3-D digitizer. Every time the arm passes through one of the digitizing planes. and drag the arm through the curve to digitize. enter a second point on the base plane. At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt. The planes are defined with a base point. enter a third point on the base plane.54. enter 0.0 Command Reference DigScale Set 3-D digitizer scale. DigSketch Sketch with a 3-D digitizer. In the Section Plane Spacing dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Planar Sections To digitize planar sections: 1 2 3 4 5 At the First Point on plane prompt. To digitize in centimeters. At the Start of axis prompt. Press Enter when you are finished. points will be sampled when the arm crosses over one of the section planes. move the arm to where you want to start digitizing. enter 25. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. 6 7 Note Multiple digitizing planes defined for quick sectioning of your object. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize >Set Scale At the Scale factor for digitized input prompt. Depress the pedal again to continue sampling points. or you can space the planes evenly between the start and end of the axis. At the Second point on plane prompt. At the Third point on plane prompt. The base plane defines the plane that all sections will be parallel to.0254.4. 222 . As long as the pedal is depressed. type the scale factor for all digitized input. To digitize in meters. Toolbar: Menu: 3-D Digitizing and Microscribe Tools > Digitize > Sketch Curve To sketch a curve with the digitizer: At the Push and hold the pedal to sketch prompt.Rhino 2. a point is sampled. hold the pedal. touch your object with the arm and depress the pedal. You can space the planes at intervals. Releasing the pedal prevents Rhino from sampling points so you move the digitizer without keeping it on the object.

pick a line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Angle At the Select first line prompt. enter the distance between sampled points. Rhino samples points. DimAngle Dimension the angle between two lines. When you release the pedal. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.Rhino 2. As long as the pedal is depressed. The points are left selected so you can move them to another layer or delete them. a point is sampled. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Select second line prompt. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. pick a point for the dimension line location. DimAligned Create a dimension aligned with the dimension points. DigSpacing Set the spacing between digitized points when sketching with a 3-D digitizer. pick a second line. a curve is fit such that it is within global modeling tolerance of each point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Aligned At the First dimension point prompt. At the Dimension line location prompt. At the Second dimension point prompt. 223 . To set the distance between digitized points: At the Sketch skip distance prompt.0 Command Reference Points are sampled at increments set with the DigSpacing command. Whenever the arm is moved through this distance. Note You can dimension polyline segments and linear surface and polysurface edges. At the Place the dimension prompt.

DimOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Dimensions tab displayed. pick a point for the dimension line location.Rhino 2. pick a location for the dimension text and leader. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Tools and Dimensions Dimension > Horizontal At the First dimension point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Diameter At the Select curve for diameter dimension prompt. pick a point on the model to dimension to. At the Place the dimension prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Dimensions File > Properties > Dimensions tab Dimension > Properties 224 . At the Second dimension point prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. DimHorizontal Create a horizontal linear dimension. pick a curve. At the Dimension line location prompt.0 Command Reference DimDiameter Dimension the diameter of a curve.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Radius At the Select curve for radius dimension prompt. pick the a point in the model to dimension from.0 Command Reference DimRadius Dimension the radius of a curve. enter an angle for the dimension line. At the Second reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Recenter Dimension Text Note To move dimension text away from the dimension line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Dimensions Dimension > Rotated 2 At the Angle or first reference point prompt. 225 . pick a location for the dimension text and leader. At the Place the dimension prompt. turn on control points for the dimension and drag the control point for the text.Rhino 2. Or the first point of a reference angle. pick a curve. At the First dimension point prompt. enter the second point of a reference angle. DimRotated Create a linear dimension rotated to an angle. DimRecenterText Returns text that has been moved away from its default position to its original location.

At the Second dimension point prompt. The draft angle for surfaces displays on the status bar. pick a point on the model to dimension to.directions at the point. white arrows appear on the object showing the normal (perpendicular direction) at selected points. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Analyze Analyze > Direction 3 At the Select object for direction display prompt. surface or polysurface. pick a point on the model to dimension to. pick a point for the dimension line location. At the Dimension line location prompt. DimVertical Create a vertical linear dimension. red and green arrows show the u. Press Enter to terminate the display. At the Dimension line location prompt. Or. pick a point for the dimension line location. Moving the cursor over the object shows a dynamic white arrow for the normal. Dir Show direction display. pick the a point in the model to dimension from. type F. At the Press Enter when done prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 At the Second dimension point prompt. select a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Vertical At the First dimension point prompt. On surfaces. to change the direction.and v. Curve direction 226 .Rhino 2.

At the Start of light direction vector prompt. VRreverse Reverses the v-direction. VReverse. and SwapUV options change surface order and direction. Directional light icon Note Directional light is a parallel light beam that lights toward the chosen direction.Rhino 2. The location of the directional light does not matter. If the textures don't apply in the right direction. DirectionalLight Inserts a directional light.order and direction. 227 . Menu: 1 2 Render > Create Directional light At the End of light direction vector prompt. The directional light icon does not render or shade. pick a location for the directional light. Note You generally don't need to care about surface u. SwapUV Swaps the u-and v-directions. the UReverse.0 Command Reference Flipping the curve's direction Options UReverse Reverses the u-direction. pick a point at which to aim the directional light. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels.and v. The icon merely indicates the direction the light comes from. FlipNormal Flips the normal direction of the curve or surface. Directional lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer. unless you apply textures.

DisplayBitmap Show a bitmap in a separate window. pick a point. All persistent object snaps will be reactivated. clear the Disable checkbox.Rhino 2. To reactivate persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. When Object snaps are disabled. persistent object snaps are temporarily suspended.0 Command Reference The directional light icon does not render or shade. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Object Snap Tools > Object Snap > Disable Object Snap Osnap Disable DisableOsnap is a toggle command. light the scene less. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze Analyze > Distance At the First Point for distance prompt. right-click the Disable checkbox. like gray. 228 . To clear all persistent object snaps In the Osnap dialog box. DisableOsnap Temporarily turn off persistent object snaps. Distance Measure the distance between two points. Darker colors. Directional light properties Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state.

pick a point The distance between the points displays at the command line. Automatic Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. with angles and distances in the axis directions in world and construction plane coordinates. DivideByLength Divide a curve by length. At the Length of segments prompt. The distance displays on the command line in the format Distance = 1. select the curves to divide and press Enter. To split the curve at the points created by Divide. 229 . Divide a curve into eight segments Options FlipDirection Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. use the Split command. At the Number of segments prompt. Natural Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Note Point objects display as small squares.0000 units. select curves and press Enter. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. enter the length of segments to mark with point objects. Point objects are not a part of any other object.0 Command Reference 2 At the Second Point for distance prompt. Point objects are created evenly spaced along the curve and one at each end of the curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point Object > Divide Curve by > Number of Segments At the Select curves to divide prompt. reversing the direction of the curve. The lengths of the curves are reported at the command line. Divide Divide a curve by number of segments. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Curve > Point > Divide Curve by > Length of Segments At the Select curves to divide by length prompt. type an integer number and press Enter.

The curve domain or the U and V domains of a surface are printed on the command line. At the Select curve or surface for domain prompt. 230 . select a curve. or polysurface to evaluate. use the Split command. If you want points to start at the other end. Direction of curve is left to right Direction of curve is right to left Point objects display as small squares. use the Dir command to flip the curve.0 Command Reference Points at 1-unit increments along a curve Note The DivideByLength command creates point objects on a curve starting from the natural start of the curve. DocumentProperties Opens the Document Properties dialog box. surface. When a polysurface is picked. To split the curve at the points created by DivideByLength. Point objects are not a part of any other object. Command DocumentProperties Domain Determine the domain of a curve or surface.Rhino 2. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point.

Toolbar: 1 2 Annotate At the Text to display prompt. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough. The draft angle describes the angle between the surface normal direction and the construction plane. +90 or –90 = parallel to the construction plane. Toolbar Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Draft Angle Analysis Select objects for analysis. At the Location of dot prompt. 231 . In the Draft Angle Options dialog box set the angle for the color display. Note The dot font and size cannot be changed. The normal direction of the surface points toward the pull direction of the mold. DraftAngleAnalysis Displays the draft angle relative to the active construction plane. all portions of the surface that exceed the angle will be red.0 Command Reference Dot Create annotation dot. enter the location of the dot.Rhino 2. Draft angle analysis Note If you set the Min and Max angle to the same value. type the text to show in the dot. You can check this with the Dir command. Set both angles the same The pull direction for DraftAngleAnalysis is the z-axis of the construction plane in the active viewport when the command starts. 0 = perpendicular to the construction plane.

At the Drag a window over area to drape prompt drag a rectangle in one of the viewports. A surface is created that drapes over the objects. DragMode Toggle drag mode. Toolbar: Menu: Surface 2 Surface > Drape All the viewports change to shade mode. Menu: Edit > View based drag mode Drape Drape a surface over existing objects.0 Command Reference Normal direction of surface Changing the construction plane before using DraftAngleAnalysis lets you define any direction as the pull direction. Objects to drape Resulting drape surface 232 .Rhino 2. Drag mode lets you drag object parallel to the view plane rather than parallel to the construction plane.

type f (face). It does not duplicate points. textblocks. at the Select objects to duplicate prompt. The Dup command only duplicates curves. For example. and solids. but it only makes points. dimensions. DupBorder Duplicate the border of a surface or polysurface. the surface will always sag more than the original.Rhino 2. or bnd (boundary). Drape samples points in the render depth buffer (z-buffer) and then uses the point locations directly for the surface control point locations. surfaces. Duplicate border curve 233 . select an object to duplicate. The border curves of the selected objects are created as separate curves. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Border Select surfaces or polysurfaces for duplicate border. At the Select objects to duplicate prompt. and polysurfaces. type c (curve). The object will be duplicated in place. Dup Duplicate an object. Menu: Curve > Point Object > Drape Points This is like Drape. DrapePt Drape points on Z-buffer. Note You can constrain the type of objects to select if you want to duplicate a sub-part of an existing object. To limit your selection to surfaces. meshes. and press Enter. to duplicate a curve that is the edge of a surface. edge. then select the edge to duplicate. surfaces. It uses the deepest point in the view for the base level of the drape surface. It only sees mesh or render mesh objects. or lights.0 Command Reference Note Drape works over meshes. Because of this.

select the third curve. 234 . At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. For many surface creation commands.0 Command Reference DupEdge Duplicate an edge of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface Surface > Edge Curves At the Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt. select the second curve. DynamicShading See ShadedViewport. press Enter to create a triangular surface. DynamicShadingPerspective See ShadedViewport. DupEdge is not needed because the commands are designed to be able to select surface edges as curves. Or. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Duplicate Edge At the Select edges to duplicate prompt. EdgeSrf Draw a surface by edge curves. The edges are duplicated as separate curves. select the fourth curve. Duplicate edge curve Note On trimmed surfaces DupEdge creates a curve that is the same as the trim curve on the surface.Rhino 2. This curve doesn't have the same control point structure as the original curve used to trim the surface. select the first curve. select the edges of a surface. At the next Choose 3 or 4 curves prompt.

0 Command Reference Surface from three curves Surface from four curves Note EdgeSrf creates an bilinearly blended Coons patch. You can type additional text before or after the angle brackets. EditDim Edit dimension text. You can use surface edges. or you can eliminate the angle brackets. For a surface from closed planar curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Dimension At the Select dimension to edit prompt. type new text. In the Edit Dimension dialog box. select a dimension.Rhino 2. Enter new text in the dialog box 235 . use Create a planar surface through planar curves. The curves you select must meet at their ends or cross. Note The angle brackets < > represent the dimension value.

so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Points On Select curves for edit point display and press Enter. Edit points on Note The edit points in Rhino are points on the curve evaluated at knot averages. Type the new text. They are not the same as knots. 236 . select a text block. In the Edit Text dialog box.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Edit Text At the Select text to edit prompt. EditText Edit two-dimensional annotation text blocks. Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. Font Sets the font for the annotation text.0 Command Reference The resulting dimension EditPtOn Show edit points. The edit points are turned on for the selected curves. set the options.

Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). Ellipse Options Deformable Creates uniform cubic splines. Vertical Draws the circle perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Center At the Center of ellipse ( Deformable Vertical AroundCurve FromFoci ) prompt. Ellipse with Vertical option 237 . enter the center point.25 inches. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0. Example If your units are inches. At the End of first axis prompt.0 Command Reference Scaled size The size you want the text to print. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size.Rhino 2. You can enter the number of control points. The two sizes update each other. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. enter the endpoint for the first axis. enter the endpoint for the second axis. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. At the End of second axis prompt. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. Ellipse Draw an ellipse from center and axes. When you place annotation text.

Partial Draws a partial ellipse. At the Point on ellipse ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. enter the end of the axis. enter a point on the ellipse curve. EllipseD Draw an ellipse through its major axes. Options Vertical Draw an ellipse vertical to the construction plane. At the Other ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt. Draw an ellipse from focus points. At the End of second axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse Curve > Ellipse > Diameter At the Start of first axis prompt. Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. 238 .0 Command Reference AroundCurve Draws the circle perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point Ellipse with AroundCurve option FromFoci Draws the ellipse from the focus points. enter a focus point. At the End of first axis prompt. enter the end of the second axis. enter the second focus point. enter start of an axis of the ellipse. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Ellipse and Main Curve > Ellipse > From Foci At the Ellipse focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No Repeat=No ) prompt.

Partial Draws a partial ellipsoid. Menu: 1 2 3 Solid > Ellipsoid > From Foci At the Ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. choose an endpoint. End of first axis prompt. choose an endpoint for the minor axis. enter a point on the ellipsoid surface. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. At the Point on ellipsoid ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. or type a height and press Enter.Rhino 2. choose a center point. End of third axis prompt. End of second axis prompt.0 Command Reference Ellipse End to End Ellipsoid Draw an ellipsoid from the center an axes. Cap Caps the partial ellipsoid to create a solid. At the Other ellipsoid focus ( MarkFoci=No Partial=No ) prompt. Solid ellipsoid Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Ellipsoid > From Center Center of ellipsoid ( From Foci ) prompt. choose an endpoint for the major axis. enter the second focus point. enter a focus point. 239 . Options MarkFoci Places point objects at the focus points. Draw an ellipsoid from focus points.

When you use the EMap command. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. In the Environment Map Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Environment Map Select objects for environment mapping. and other important properties. No color blend Color blend Note The EMap command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. if any selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. Use a neutral colored bitmap and blend with the object render color to simulate different materials. 240 . select a bitmap file to use for mapping. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. This lets you simulate different materials with the environment map. curvature. Options Blend with object render color Blends the bitmap with the render color of the object. These meshes can be large.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference EMap Use environment mapping for analysis. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box.

Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. in the Options dialog box. When Faster is selected. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. on the Shade tab. This environment map simulates tube lights shining on a metal surface Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the EMap command to be slower on some computers. Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. 241 . Shade tab to use a different driver for environment mapping. When More reliable is selected.0 Command Reference To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. but will always work. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. select More reliable. under Zebra and EMap. Environment mapping is a rendering style that makes it look like a scene is being reflected by a highly polished metal. There may be a few cases where environment mapping actually shows a surface defect that can't be seen using Zebra and rotating the scene. This is an example of what the sunset environment map should look like on a sphere: Correct environment mapping The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect environment mapping If your environment mapping displays this behavior.Rhino 2.

Press Enter to edit entire range pick a point that defines the start of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge prompts. Adjusting curve end bulge Options PreserveCurvature Type P and press Enter to toggle. Press Enter when your adjustments are complete. The magnitude of the first derivative changes how stiffly the curve maintains the end direction. At the Start of region to edit. constrained along a path that keeps the direction and curvature from changing. This is especially useful with curves that have been made to conform to other geometry. drag point indicators. Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Surface > Edit > Adjust End Bulge At the Select surface edge to edit prompt.0 Command Reference EndBulge Adjust the end bulge of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Adjust End Bulge Select a curve. Two-point-per-end mode maintains the curvature. One-point-per-end mode.Rhino 2. as with the Blend command. No means there is one drag point. Press Enter to edit remainder of range pick a point that defines the end of the part of the edge that will be changed. At the End of region to edit. Yes means two drag points appear on each end of the curve. 242 . In each case. EndBulgeSrf Edits the surface near the edge to help align with other surfaces. drag control points to edit the edge bulge. At the Drag points to adjust end bulge ( PreserveCurvature=Yes ) prompt. The magnitude of the second derivative can be adjusted to determine how fast the curvature changes as you move away from the end of the curve. select a surface edge. Note EndBulge lets you edit the shape of a curve without changing the tangent direction and the curvature of the curve. At the Point to edit prompt pick a point on the edge you want to influence. maintains the tangent direction. you are moving control points of the curve.

For example. Enter Simulate pressing Enter in a script.0 1<space><space><space>Line 1. Note Your surface must be at least degree 3 in both u. This command does not repeat the previous command like pressing Enter does. so you don't need to worry that the command you just ran will run again when the Enter command is encountered.2 does the same thing as Circle 0. The Enter command can be used in shortcuts.and v-directions and therefore have at least four control points each way. After editing.0 Command Reference Surface before editing. During EndBulgeSrf editing.1 2. 243 .Rhino 2. and command file scripts to simulate pressing the Enter key. aliases.2 Note Typing Enter at the command line does nothing.0 1 Enter Enter Enter Line 1. the script Circle 0.1 2.

Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface. Note When a polysurface is picked. click points on the surface. At the Points to evaluate uv coordinates of. the untrimmed surface is used. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > UV Coordinates of Point 2 3 At the Select surface to get UV values from ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt.y. If the surface is trimmed. Menu: File > Exit Note When you exit Rhino. EvaluatePt Evaluate the coordinates of a point. select the surface to evaluate. EvaluateUVPt Evaluate the UV coordinates of points on a surface. select the objects you want to erase. Or use the N option to report normalized UV coordinates (between 0 and 1). Rhino asks if you want to save the changes made to the model since the last save. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Point At the Point to measure prompt. Press Enter when done prompt. select a point.z format. You can get the accidentally erased objects back with Undo command. the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. 244 . Note Erase is the same as Delete. The Cartesian coordinates of the point. in both world and construction plane coordinates are displayed on the command line in x. Exit Exit Rhino. At the Select objects to erase prompt. A point object is created on the surface.V coordinates of that point are displayed on the command line. and the U.0 Command Reference Erase Erase objects. Or use the C option to suppress creating points.Rhino 2.

You can explode a mesh into individual mesh faces. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Note The base point option is only supported in Rhino 2. type a filename. ExplodeMesh Explode a mesh. type a filename. Rhino supports several file types. and STL Tools File > Export Selected Select objects to export. In the File name box. In the File name box. The simple meshes resulting from exploding the joined mesh may be small enough.Rhino 2. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. select objects to explode. the resulting mesh when exported can be larger than is supported in other programs. Exporting to other file types 1 2 3 4 Select objects to export. 245 . object render color. When Rhino creates a seamless mesh from a complex closed polysurface NURBS object. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Explode At the Select objects to explode prompt. This command is obsolete. object name. Export Export selected objects to a file. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Click Save. File. At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. and selected mass properties. Object properties can be exported to a comma-delimited text file that contains a tabulation of various object properties including layer name. Click Save. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Standard. in the Create mesh from NURBS object dialog box. Press Enter when finished selecting objects to explode. select Rhino 2 3D Models. select the file type you want to use.0 Command Reference Explode Explode objects. You can explode a curve into curve segments and polyline into line segments. Note You can explode a polysurface into separate surfaces.0 files. In the Files of type box. layer color. Use the Explode command. The text file is created in a way that makes it easy to import the information into spreadsheet programs like Microsoft Excel. If you are exporting to a polygon mesh file. set the way Rhino creates a polygon mesh from the NURBS geometry. In the Files of type box.

but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. select a boundary object to extend to. The objects in the resulting file have the same angular relationship to the world top construction plane as the original objects had to the construction plane of the active viewport during the export. ExportWithOrigin Export selected objects to a file with selected origin and construction plane. Extend Extend a curve. This command only exports to Rhino 2 3D Models. In the File name box. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select objects to extend and press Enter when done. 246 . At the next Select object to extend prompts. select objects to extend. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Menu: Tools > Commands > Export Command Aliases In the Export Command Aliases dialog box. Or.0 Command Reference ExportCommandAliases Export command aliases. pick a point in the model that will become the world origin in the new file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve Tools and Extend Curve > Extend > Extend Curve 2 3 4 At the Select boundary objects or enter extension length. Or. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Note The aliases are saved in the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can read the aliases back into Rhino with the ImportCommandAliases command.Rhino 2. The extension is joined to the original curve. enter a name for the text file. At the next Select boundary objects. In the Files of type box. 1 2 3 4 At the Insertion base point < World Origin > prompt. Press Enter for dynamic extend prompts. type t and press Enter to change the extension type. Press Enter when done prompts. type a filename. select boundary objects to extend to and press Enter when done. press Enter to extend without boundary edges. Click Save. At the Select object to extend ( Type=Line ) prompts.

enter the end of the extension. Or. Type=Smooth Makes a smooth curve extension. At the Radius of arc prompt. and solids as boundary edges. Or. Type=Line Makes a line extension. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes )prompt.0 Command Reference Options Type=Arc Makes an arc extension. type an angle for the arc. select a curve to extend. Click near the end of the curve where you want the arc to go. Options No options selected Curve extended with an arc by angle MatchRadius The radius of the arc is the same as the radius of curvature at the endpoint of the curve being extended. If you want to extend two curves to meet each other simultaneously.Rhino 2. enter a point to define the radius of the arc. 247 . ExtendByArc Extend a curve with an arc. surfaces. use the Fillet command with a zero radius. type a number for the radius and press Enter. Note You can use any combination of curves. At the End point or angle prompt.

Rhino 2. Curve extended with an arc to a point Options Join If Join=Yes. Toolbar: Menu: Extend Curve > Extend > By Line 248 . At the End of arc prompt. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. select a curve to extend. enter the endpoint of the extension. use Extend a curve. MatchRadius option selected Join If Join=Yes. Select near the end of the curve to extend. ExtendByArcToPt Extend a curve with an arc to a point. use Extend a curve.0 Command Reference Curve extended with an arc by angle. the extension will be joined to the original curve. Note To draw an arc extension and join it in one step. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > By Arc to Point At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. ExtendByLine Extend a curve with a line. the extension will be joined to the original curve.

Original curve on surface Curve extended to surface boundary ExtendSrf Extend a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extend Curve > Extend > Curve on Surface At the Select curve to extend prompt. near the end you want to extend. enter the endpoint for the line extension. Note The extension is joined to the original curve and. Or. the extension will be joined to the original curve. 249 . Options Join If Join=Yes. At the Select surface that the curve is on prompt. if possible.Rhino 2. type a distance to extend and press Enter. pick an edge of an untrimmed surface that is not a polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Extend At the Select edge of surface ( Type=Smooth ) to extend. select the curve to extend. select a curve to extend. At the End of line or length prompt. unnecessary control points are deleted when extending lines and polylines.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to extend ( Join=Yes ) prompt. ExtendCrvOnSrf Extend a curve on a surface. select the surface with the desired extension boundaries.

250 . depending on the shape of the object. thus the length will change if you use ReparameterizeSrf to change the parameterization.Rhino 2. or pick two points to specify the distance. there will be knots of full multiplicity at the end of the original surface. If you use Improve to make the parameterization roughly match the physical size of the surface. Polylines and/or meshes are created that have vertices at the original objects' control points. This fixes the original.0 Command Reference 2 At the Extension factor prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Control Polygon Select curves or surfaces to extract control polygon. the actual extension length can be close to the extension factor. Then the surface is extended on the end. or a polygon mesh through the control points of a surface. Surface with control points on Polygon mesh through control points of surface Note ExtractControlPolygon is useful if for some reason you want to extract the control point data of your NURBS surface as an object all by itself. Linear Extends the surface in a straight line from the edge. enter an amount to extend. Options Smooth Extends the surface smoothly curving from the edge. Sometimes this can be used to export that polygon data to a different program and use polygon mesh smoothing tools on it – examples are MeshSmooth in MAX. Note With the linear extension. The extension length is based on parameterization. Creates a polyline through the control points of a curve. ExtractControlPolygon Extract control polygon. and MetaNURBS in LightWave.

Direction=V Isoparms are extracted only in the v-direction of the surface. Using ExtractIsoparm does not change the surface in any way. use Section instead of ExtractIsoparm. Direction=Both Isoparms are extracted in both the u. ExtractIsoparm curves Options Direction=U Isoparms are extracted only in the u-direction of the surface. v or both directions. Extract several isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Isoparm 2 Select a surface. In contrast to InsertKnot. Note ExtractIsoparm creates the simplest possible curve running exactly on the surface in u. If you need curved cross sections. Surfaces trimmed along isoparms can be made into untrimmed surfaces with ShrinkTrimmedSrf. ExtractPt Place point objects at control point locations on existing curves. use ExtractIsoparm to add visual cues or snappable locations on the surface area to help position the object. surfaces. The Knot object snap can be used to create isoparametric curves at exact knot locations. choose a point. ExtractIsoparm creates separate curves that are not attached to the surface. The draft angle of the surface displays at the status bar. ExtractIsoparm is useful for creating trimming curves on surfaces. use Project or Intersect.0 Command Reference ExtractIsoparm Extract isoparms from a surface or polysurface. The marker is constrained to the surface. If you need angled cross sections along surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Curve From Object 251 . The isoparms that go through that point are created as separate curves. Isoparms can be used to recreate an existing surface with different parameterization. If you need to place an object on a surface. and Loft a surface through them.and v-directions of the surface. and isoparms display at the marker. At the Select isoparm to extract prompt. and polygon mesh objects.

The surfaces are separated from the polysurfaces. The extracted surface is also removed from any groups the original surface may belong to. The original surface is left intact. select surfaces and press Enter. Extrude Extrude a curve into a surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Planar Curve At the Select curves to extrude prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Surface and Extrude Surface > Extrude Extrude a closed curve into a solid. The remainder of each polysurface stays joined. Note Extracting a surface from the polysurface ExtractSrf can save you a lot of time (as opposed to Explode) because it lets you extract only the selected surfaces from the polysurface. and Geometry Fix Solid > Extract Surface At the Select surfaces to extract ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Extract Wireframe Select objects to extract wireframe curves from. surfaces. 252 . the surface is copied. The isoparms and edge curves are duplicated as separate curves. ExtractSrf Extract a surface from a polysurface.Rhino 2. select curves and press Enter. Note ExtractPt works on curves. If you select an object that does not have control points turned on. If you choose the Copy option. Rhino creates point objects for every control point in the object. or type a distance and press Enter. Select the points you want to duplicate with point objects. Solid Tools. You can extract edit points of curve by turning on the edit points first.0 Command Reference Menu: 1 2 Curve > From Objects > Extract Points Turn on control points on an object. ExtractWireframe Extract the wireframe of a surface or polysurface. and polygon mesh objects. At the Extrusion distance prompt. drag the desired distance and pick. Toolbar: Menu: Main. and then there isn't as much joining work to do afterwards.

Tapered extrude with round and chamfered corners 253 . Smooth. Tapered Taper the extrusion by an angle. the curves are extruded perpendicular to one of the construction planes. then the extrusion is in that direction. This option does not appear for open curves. Otherwise. Corner This option controls the shape of the tapered end corners. The choices are Sharp. BothSides Extend the extrusion in both directions from the original object.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve perpendicular to the construction plane Extruded closed planar curve Options Direction Change the extrusion direction from the default direction. Cap Extrusions from closed curves are capped at both ends to make closed polysurfaces. and Chamfer. If one or more planar curves are selected with the same planar normal.Rhino 2. Round.

Options Direction Specify a direction for the extrusion. The path curve does not have to intersect the shape curve. select surfaces and press Enter. Extrude a curve along a path Note If you want the shape curve to rotate during extrusion. select the curve to extrude.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ExtrudeAlongCrv Extrude a curve along a curve. At the Select path curve prompt. 254 . then use ExtrudeAlongCrv to draw the plane using one line as the shape curve and the other as the path. Use Rebuild to add control points to the lines. At the Extrusion distance prompt. At the Point to extrude to prompt. To draw a deformable plane. select the curve. choose the point. or enter a distance and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid Solid > Extrude Surface At the Select surfaces to extrude prompt. draw two lines at right angles. so that it remains perpendicular to the path curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Along Curve At the Select shape curve prompt. ExtrudeSrf Extrude a surface into a solid. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Extrude Surface > Extrude > To Point At the Select curve to extrude prompt. ExtrudeToPt Extrude a curve to a point. The default is vertical to the construction plane. use Create a 1-Rail sweep. or vertical to the plane of a planar surface. select the path curve. pick a point.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Fair At the Select curves to fair prompt. type R and press Enter. At the Select second curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference Extrude a curve to a point Fair Fair a curve. Join To change the Join option. Faro Start digitizing with a FaroArm. Options Radius To change the fillet radius. At the Tolerance prompt. type the fillet radius and press Enter. Sometimes several applications of the Fair command are necessary to remove nasty curvature problems. You can use the CurvatureGraphOn command to view the curvature hair while fairing. 255 . select curves and press Enter. Fair attempts to remove large curvature variations while limiting the geometry changes to be no more than the specified tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve Tools Curve > Fillet At the Select first curve to fillet ( Radius=1 Join=No ) prompt. or accept the default and press Enter. Or. You can use curve fillet with a radius set to 0 to trim and extend in one command. The fillet and the curves you selected are trimmed or extended to the fillet and joined. Note Fair works best on degree 3 (cubic) curves.Rhino 2. Note You can create a fillet between two adjacent segments of a joined curve. select the first curve near the end for the fillet. type J and press Enter. Fillet Fillet two curves. enter a number. select the second curve near the end for the fillet.

the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. Component surfaces will be selected and unjoined from their polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Surface Tools Surface > Fillet 2 At the Select first surface to fillet prompt. FilletSrf Fillet two surfaces. Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. choose the first surface to fillet.0 Command Reference FilletEdge Fillet the edge of a polysurface. At the Choose second surface to fillet prompt. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. choose the second surface to fillet. The FilletEdge command cannot always handle situations where several edges meet at a corner. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Tools Solid > Fillet Edge At the Select edges to fillet prompts. Option Radius Specify the fillet radius for all the fillets. Two surfaces Two surfaces filleted 256 . Click on the part of the surface where you want the fillet to go. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius. select edges of solid objects to fillet and press Enter.Rhino 2.

Type zero to use the current absolute tolerance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Refit to Tolerance At the Select curves to fit prompts. Trim Trim original surfaces back to fillet edges. Sometimes it helps to set the object properties increase the number of isoparms displayed. At the Fitting tolerance <0. The curves are refitted. enter a tolerance. Toolbar: STL Tools The current viewport is shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. you can use the PolylineThroughPt command to order the list make a polyline. FilletSrf is sensitive to where you pick the surfaces. When the input to FitCrv is a wiggly curve with lots of control points. FitCrv tries to compute a curve that has the same general shape but fewer control points. Type R and press Enter to change the fillet radius. Options DeleteInput Deletes the original curve. 257 . Each face has a constant monochrome color. Extend Extends the fillet surfaces to surface edges. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If you have a dense string of points. FitCrv Fit a curve to an existing curve. You can use FitCrv on any polyline. but it is intended to be used on polylines with lots of closely spaced points. Note Use FitCrv for fitting dense point lists and for replacing curves with too many control points. select curves and press Enter. pick the surfaces approximately where the edges of the fillet should end up. FitDegree Changes the degree of the new curve. the ball cannot "negotiate" the turn and can cause the fillet to fail. FitCrv treats the polyline as a list of points and tries to compute a curve that goes near the points but has a reasonable number of control points.0 Command Reference Options Radius The radius of the fillet. Note Fillets work on the analogy of rolling a ball of a defined radius along the edge of your surfaces. The original curves are unchanged. In general.Rhino 2. For scripting. you can use the DeleteInput=Yes/No option to bypass the dialog box. FlatShade Flat Shade the current viewport. If a corner is more narrow than the ball radius.01 ( DeleteInput=Yes FitDegree ) prompt. When the input to FitCrv is a polyline.

To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. If OpenGL shading is turned on.0 Command Reference Shaded viewport using FlatShade OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. 258 . Shaded viewport using FlatShade1 FlatShadeAll Flat shade all viewports. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. Toolbar: STL Tools The objects in the current viewport are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Toolbar: STL Tools All viewports are shaded with no smoothing across mesh faces. Each face has a constant monochrome color. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Each face has a constant monochrome color. axes. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. object highlighting. The grid. FlatShade1 Flat Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. click Options. this shading mode may be much faster. click Use OpenGL.Rhino 2. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. On the Shade tab.

The number of objects flipped is reported at the command line. the OpenGL shade options will be available. The size specified should be chosen so that the divisions are much closer together than the distance across between the curves. The objects looks exactly the same. 259 . The increment size is used as a guide in deciding the division size. This command uses an approximation that is often used in doing this task by hand. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. 1 2 3 At the Select first edge of surface to flatten select an edge of a surface.0 Command Reference OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. The inputs are really two opposite edges of the surface to be flattened. At the Increment size prompt. The surface is assumed to be a ruled surface between the two edges with the rulings based on arc length parameterization of the edges. Note The purpose of the command is to draw a 2.Rhino 2. Curves are then fit through the points and the ends are closed with lines. it is likely that the direction of one or both of the surfaces should have the surface normal direction flipped. Note Curve and surface direction affects the results of various surface creation commands and Boolean operations. Toolbar: Mesh and STL Tools At the Select objects to flip prompt. At the Select other edge of surface to flatten select an edge. The side lengths of those triangles are then plotted on a plane to determine the sequential point locations of the quadrangle corners in the flattened view. Flip Flip the direction of a curve or surface. and rulings are made between the edges according to the spacing of those divisions. The edges are divided into a number of small segments. It gives reasonable results when the surface being flattened is fairly uniform and not kinked. click Options. On the Shade tab. but their directions are reversed. that define the outline of the flattened surface. After the assumed surface is divided into skinny quadrangles by ruling between the divisions. select curves. click Use OpenGL. FlattenSrf Create flat curves from a developable surface. each quadrangle is divided diagonally into two triangles.D outline of a flattened view of a developable surface. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. but there are always the same number of equally spaced divisions on each edge. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. such as Union instead of Difference. enter a number and press Enter. The result of the command is a group of four curves with one corner at the world coordinate origin 0. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. If OpenGL shading is turned on. Not all developable surfaces can be flattened correctly by this command. If Booleans give unexpected results. this shading mode may be much faster.0 and drawn in the world x-y plane. surfaces or meshes and press Enter.

Rhino 2. Polysurfaces have a tendency to pull apart at the seams and no longer be a valid polysurfaces. Flow works on the control points of an object . At the Original backbone curve . straight shape and map it to some squiggly shape since it can be easier to draw things when they are all lined up straight instead of trying to draw a complex shape around a squiggly curve.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. type L and press Enter to draw the reference line. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Front Right-click viewport title > Set view > Front 260 . You can use ChangeDegreeSrf or RebuildSrf with plenty of points to get enough control points to use then use Flow. especially those with trimmed edges.select near end ( Line Copy ) prompt. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. The objects are twisted from the first backbone's shape into the second backbone's shape. Rhino uses the first curve as a "backbone" that goes through the first set of objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Flow along Curve 3 4 Select the objects. Flow along a curve Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. Flow does not work on polysurfaces.it remaps them from the original backbone curve to the new one. select the new backbone curve to flow to. Note You'd usually use this command to take a flat. This curve will be used as a new backbone. Front Set to world front view. You might want a line to be one of the backbones. select the "backbone" curve of objects to flow. For Flow to work reasonably well the curves or surfaces should be at least degree 3. Type C and press Enter to copy the original object.0 Command Reference Flow Flow objects along a curve. At the New backbone curve . Instead of drawing a line before the command.

ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n GCon Measure geometric continuity of two curves. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Analyze Analyze > Curve > Geometric Continuity At the First curve .Rhino 2. 261 . select the second curve near the coinciding end.0 Command Reference Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Grid Toggle the display of the grid.select near end prompt.select near end prompt. At the Second curve . Tangency and curvature continuity information is displayed on the command line. you must edit your Rhino. GridAxes Toggle the display of the grid axes. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. Grid axes on Grid axes off GridOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Grid tab displayed. select a curve near the end that coincides with the end of another curve.

0 Command Reference GridSections Set the distance between gridlines. GridSize Set the extents of the grid. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. Press Enter when you have finished editing the curve or surface. You can then apply commands to the entire group. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Group Ctrl+G Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. Group Place selected objects in a group. At the Click and drag to edit curve prompt. 262 . HBar Edit a curve or surface with handlebars. Grouping objects allows all members of the group to be selected as one. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. GridThick Set the number of thin gridlines between each thick gridline. A handlebar displays on the curve. select the curve or surface to edit. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Handlebar editor To handlebar edit curves: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit.Rhino 2. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups.

0 Command Reference Handlebar curve editor To handlebar edit surfaces: 1 2 3 4 At the Select curve or surface for handlebar editing prompt. Control points at samples Create surface control points at each of the sample points. The base of the surface will be parallel to the current construction plane. The shape of the pick rectangle matches the aspect ratio of the bitmap file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Surface 2 Surface > Heightfield from Bitmap In the Select bitmap dialog box. adjust options. or enter a length. press and hold Alt to be able to drag points on the surface in the surface normal direction. At the Click and drag to edit surface (Tangents=Y Shaded=N) prompt. pick a point. Height The scale of the height of the surface. Options Tangents This option controls if the tangent and normal grips are shown with the grip on the surface. In the Heightfield dialog box. select the surface to edit. Heightfield Create a surface by color values of a bitmap. Shaded With this option you see a shaded preview of the surface while you edit it. The marker is constrained to move along the object when the cursor is near the object to edit.Rhino 2. Note When you handlebar edit surfaces. pick a point. Interpolate through samples Surface constrained to pass through each sample point's height. At the First corner prompt. Press Enter when you have finished editing the surface. At the Second corner or length prompt. Click near the object to move the handlebar to the marker position. A handlebar will display on the surface. click and drag one of the handlebar grips to move it around. 263 . Options Number of sample points The bitmap's "height" is sampled at the entered numbers of points along the width and height of the bitmap. select a bitmap file.

At the End of axis prompt. enter the pitch (distance between turns) for the helix. enter the radius for the helix. Select Preview after changing options to see the helix. 264 . If you select Reverse twist. Helix with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the helix to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. select Turns or Pitch. enter the start of the helix axis. the helix will twist counterclockwise.0 Command Reference Helix Draw a helix. If you select Turns. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Helix At the Start of axis prompt. enter the end of the helix axis. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the number of turns for the helix. This is the line the helix will wind around.Rhino 2. At the Radius prompt. Options No options selected Helix Vertical The helix axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. If you select Pitch.

Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to hide. Visibility. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Hide At the Select objects to hide prompt. and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Hide Select the control points you want to hide. 265 . Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Hide Temporarily hides a background bitmap. select the objects you want to hide. Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. HidePt Hide control points and edit points. Organic. close the Osnap dialog box. The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. If you exit the model and reopen it. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. HideOsnap Hide the Osnap dialog box.0 Command Reference Helix around curve Hide Hide objects. HideBackgroundBitmap Hide a background bitmap. Status bar: Osnap Or. Note You can use the Hide command multiple times. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Standard. Use ShowBackgroundBitmap to show a hidden bitmap.Rhino 2.

The information displays in a separate window. Longitude The symmetry plane is either x=0 (when y is longitudinal) or y=0 (when x is longitudinal).Rhino 2. enter a number between 0. select a group of surfaces or polysurfaces. not a statement of a physical principle.0 The uneven distribution of the light in the spotlight cone is set. Wetted Surface Area Surface area under water. only half of the model needs to be given. and press Enter. The calculations are done on this half model and the results are doubled or adjusted as appropriate to represent a full model. The longitudinal direction. Use 1. Longitude=X. HideSwap Swap hidden and visible objects to work on objects previously hidden.axis or the y.axis.0 for even circle of light with a sharp edge. Hotspot Set the spotlight hotspot. and the more fuzzy and dim the light at edge of the spotlight cone. Toolbar: Repository The hidden objects display. If no spotlight is selected before the command starts. Value Volume Displacement Volume under the water. Symmetric If Symmetry = Yes. The smaller the number. The number entered for Hotspot is multiplied by 100. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces ( WaterLineElevaton=0 Symmetric=Yes. the more concentrated the hotspot. At the Spotlight hotspot prompt. The longitudinal bounding box extents of the water plane area. The visible objects hide. the command does nothing. Center of Buoyancy Centroid of the volume displacement.0 Command Reference Note Try using Lasso to select the points to hide. that is.0 and 1. ) prompt. 266 . 1 2 Select one or more spotlights. from bow to stern (front to back) must be either the direction of the x. Waterline Length Length at water line. (This is a limitation of the command. Options WaterLineElevation The water plane must always be horizontal in world coordinates. Hydrostatics Display hydrostatic values for surfaces. Note Hotspot has the same effect as setting Spotlight hardness in Properties for a spotlight.) Its location is defined by specifying the depth of the origin in world coordinates.

If the waterline falls on a singularity (place in the surface where points converge like at a pole of a sphere). Note The aliases must be in a text file of the format: [KeyCombination1] [CommandAlias1] [KeyCombination2] [CommandAlias2] … You can export command aliases from Rhino with the ExportCommandAliases command. Aliases for AutoCAD users are included with the Rhino installation.txt Improve Reparameterize an object. The objects are reparameterized. select curves. Rhino leaves the imported objects selected to make it possible to move them or to change the layer if necessary. The transverse bounding box extents of the water plane section. in which case there can be naked edges on the symmetry plane. surfaces or polysurfaces and press Enter. Import the file AutoCAD Aliases. select the file that contains the aliases you want to import. click Import/Merge In the Files of type box. Note To get displacement information there must be no naked edges below the waterline except in the case of Symmetry = Yes. If the imported file type does not support layers. Click Open. type a filename.0 Command Reference Maximum Waterline Beam Maximum beam at water line. The parameters values of the objects are recalculated so that the parameter space of the objects is roughly the same size as the 3-D geometry of the objects. select Rhino 3D Models. the objects are placed on the current layer. the command will fail. and STL Tools File menu. Save As Save the information to a comma-separated value file that can be used in spreadsheet programs. ImportCommandAliases Import command aliases. Move the singularity point a fraction away from the water line. Rhino imports objects to the model on their original layers and creates the layers if they do not exist. Menu: Tools > Commands > Import Command Aliases In the Import Command Aliases dialog box. Water Plane Area Area of the cross section at the water plane.Rhino 2. At the Select objects to reparameterize prompts. File. In the File name box. Import Import or merge objects from another file. 267 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Standard. Center of Floatation Centroid of the water plane section These are the values for the whole model even if only a half model is given. Note Rhino supports many file types.

Options Rotate Rotates the objects.3dm hi 2.3dm tricky 1a 2. Reference Places a reference line and allows you to enter a number of degrees to rotate from that line.3dm Choose a file (just like Save or SaveAs) a 1. Here's a table of input and output for IncrementalSave: Current Filename hi. Click Open. "Poorly parameterized" means the curve's domain or the surface's u or v spaces are tiny or huge compared to the size of the object.3dm Incremented Filename hi 1.0 Command Reference Note Poorly parameterized objects may not intersect and trim properly when combined with other objects. The rotation operation works just like the Rotate command.) If you run IncrementalSave and the incremented filename already exists. enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. Menu: File > Incremental Save Note Use this to save version histories of your Rhino 3dm files for testing.3dm bg 32986.Rhino 2. choose a start angle. In the File name box. At the Insertion point ( Rotate Scale ) prompt. choose an insertion point for the imported objects.00> ( Reference XYZ ) prompt. Scale Scales the objects. Insert Import objects from a file with the option to drag. If you say yes.3dm hi 1.000> ( Reference Scale ) prompt. it lets you choose a filename just like SaveAs. and rotate. scale.3dm tricky 1a 1.3dm Untitled a 2147483647. XYZ Scales the inserted object differently in the x. Press Enter to place the model at 0. type a filename. and z-directions. etc. 268 . AxisAlign Rotates objects by picking points on the X and Y axes. If you say no. The scale operation works just like the Scale command. y. it does. or a point to rotate from.0 with no changes in rotation or scale. At the Scale factor <1. Rhino asks if you want to overwrite it. select Rhino 3D Models.3dm tricky 1a. IncrementalSave Save sequentially numbered versions of your model. At the Rotation Angle <0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Files of type box.3dm bg 32985.3dm tricky 1a 1.0.3dm (People will probably run out of hard drive space before then.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Kink At the Select curve for kink insertion prompt. 2 At the Point on curve to add edit point prompt. After inserting kinks. select the curve to which you want to add a kink. 269 . click a point on the curve to insert an edit point. The edit points are displayed on the selected curve. choose points where you want to insert a kink. The marker is constrained to track along the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Edit Point At the Select curve for edit point insertion prompt.0 Command Reference InsertEditPoint Insert edit points in a curve. At the Point on curve to add a kink prompts. InsertKink Insert kinks in a curve.Rhino 2. select the curve to insert edit points to. press Enter to end the command.

At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt.0 Command Reference Curve before adding kink Curve after adding kink Curve after adding kink and moving control point at kink InsertKnot Insert knots to a curve or surface. 270 . V. select a surface. To add a knot to a surface: Options Direction Specifies the direction you want to add the knots: U. At the Point on surface to add knots (Direction=Both Symmetrical=No) prompt. pick points on the curve for new knots.Rhino 2. pick points of the surface for new knots. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Insert Knot To add a knot to a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot insertion prompt. or Both. select a curve At the Point on curve to add knot prompts.

and 3-D Digitize Curve > Free. InsertLineIntoCrv Flatten a section of a curve. pick a point for the end of the straight segment. enter additional points. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompts. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve. press Enter. The curve closes automatically. select a curve The marker is constrained to the curve. and pick. and the parts are joined. At the Start of line prompt. pick a point for the start of the straight segment. Press Alt to suspend autoclose.form > Interpolate Points At the Start of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 ) prompt. enter the start of the curve. At the Next point of curve. Or move the cursor close to the start point of the curve. Note Inserting a knot in a surface also displays an isoparm at the knot location. A straight line replaces part of the curve. InterpCrv Draw a curve by interpolating points. enter an additional point. Interpolated curve Options Close Closes the curve smoothly (creates a periodic closed curve). 1 2 3 At the Select curve for line insertion prompt.Rhino 2. At the Next point of curve ( Tangent Knots=SqrtChord Degree=3 Undo ) prompt.0 Command Reference Symmetrical With this option knots are added symmetrically to the surface. To end the curve. Main. 271 .

it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. choose the first point of the curve. When the spacing between the picked points is equal for the whole curve. choose an additional point. 272 . all three parameterizations generate the same curve. 5.0 Command Reference Closed interpolated curve Tangent Turns on the Tangent object snap so you can draw the curve tangent to another curve. and 11. At the Start of curve prompt. When you draw an interpolated curve. 9. Sharp When you make a closed curve. Undo Undoes the last curve segment.Rhino 2. the points you pick are converted into knot values on the curve. select a surface. Chord means the spacing between the picked points is used for the knot spacing. Degree You can set the degree of the curve. At the Next point on curve. The marker is constrained to the surface. 3.form > Interpolate on Surface At the Select surface to draw curve on prompt. Note Many CAD programs use the term spline to describe an interpolated curve. SqrtChrd means the square root of the spacing between picked points is used for the knot spacing. Knots Determines how the interpolated curve is parameterized. At the Next point on curve ( Undo ) prompt. Valid degrees are 1. InterpCrvOnSrf Interpolate a curve on a surface. Press Enter when done ( Sharp Close Undo ) prompts. This makes curves that have widely varying point spacing behave better than uniform curves. This is possible only with uniform curves (unless you rebuild the curves). Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve and Main Curve > Free. choose additional points and press Enter to end the curve. Uniform parameterization can be used if the point spacing is roughly equal and it is desirable to draw several curves that have the same parameterization. The parameterization means how the intervals between knots are chosen: Uniform means the knot spacing is always 1 and not based on the physical spacing of the points. 7.

Rhino 2. Undo Undoes the last interpolate point. Midpoint. Cen. and Intersection work.form > Interpolate Polyline At the Select polylines to interpolate select polylines and press Enter. Object snaps End. Near.0 Command Reference Interpolated curve on surface Closed interpolated curve on surface Options Sharp When you make a closed curve. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. it will come to a point instead of making a smooth closure as it normally does. Close Creates a closed curve. Knot. InterpPolyline Interpolate a curve through a polyline. Note The curve will not cross seams in the surface. 273 .

Rhino 2. Intersect Intersect two objects. Non-polyline curves are rejected.0 Command Reference Interpolated polyline Note Single-segment lines are duplicated. select the objects. Curve from the intersection of two surfaces Note Intersecting curves with curves results in point objects. To create surface and solid intersections. A curve or point object at the intersection of the two objects is created. Toolbar: Menu: Select and Organic Edit > Select > Invert 274 . Intersecting curves with surfaces results in point objects. use the BooleanIntersection command. Intersecting surfaces or polysurfaces with surfaces or polysurfaces results in curves or points. Toolbar: Menu: Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Intersection At the Select objects to intersect prompt. Invert Invert the selection.

The result is always a polysurface that can be exploded into separate surfaces. InvertPts inverts point selection only. 275 . select objects. Points selected. When you are finished selecting objects to join. Contrast this with the Invert command. Note You can join curves that are arranged sequentially. Invert also selects the polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Join At the Select objects to join prompt.0 Command Reference InvertPt Invert the selection of points on objects with points on without affecting the selection status of other objects. which also selects other objects. Join Join objects.Rhino 2. press Enter. You can join surfaces and polysurfaces that touch by naked edges.

then the second one gets moved. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. For the group joiner. Booleans. If the edges overlap (run somewhat parallel) along at least part of their length (an interval). but the surfaces aren't changed at all. When you join two surfaces by whatever method. If the edges have roughly the same accuracy. in most cases the less accurate one will be changed.0 Command Reference Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Join 2 Naked Edges At the Select 2 unjoined edges prompts.D curve is made to stand in place of the edges involved and represents a single position in space for both edges. if one edge is considered to be more accurate than the other. depending on what you may do with the model. For the surface-bysurface joiner the join tolerance is two times the absolute tolerance. it is usually an indication that you need to make the surfaces a little more accurately or that you have your tolerance set too small. prepicking the surfaces and then joining fails. Try to think of it as a shortcut for changing your tolerance to a bigger value. Note JoinEdge is basically a tolerance override. When two edges are joined. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. no join occurs.015 units apart. BlendSrf.D edge curve is to the surface it is supposed to be on. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. and resetting the tolerance. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. BlendSrf. It will "join" edges no matter how far apart they are. The surfaces will extend to join along the intervals. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. the Edge Joining dialog box appears with "Joining these edges requires a join tolerance of <distance>. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Booleans. but running Join and picking the surfaces one by one does work. you can have some problems later on. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. An edge's tolerance is changed upon rebuilding and also upon joining. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want.D edge curve is to the curve it approximates. but are not coincident. or Patch. lets say the tolerance tells how close the 3. so the new curve will not lie exactly on either of them. or Patch.Rhino 2. Here's how Join decides which edge to move: Each edge has a tolerance (actually two) which indicates how close the 3. If the surface edges are pretty close to each other (within tolerance) everything works fine. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. 276 . Do you want to join these edges?". If you use JoinEdge. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. if you make two plane surfaces that are 0. doing a Join. NetworkSrf. You can preselect a group of curves or surfaces to join. NetworkSrf. If not. If you can't join surfaces using the Join command. Joining has to do with topology (what's listed as being connected) rather than geometry (where the parts are in relation to each other). a 3. the join tolerance is the same as the absolute tolerance. For simplicity. JoinEdge Join the edges of two surfaces that are out of tolerance. you should be aware of what it is and is not doing and use good judgment. and "Unable to find overlapping intervals" appears at the command line. Joining edges does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. use MergeSrf. Using the Millimeter template. select two naked edges of different surfaces or polysurfaces that are coincident or close together. If the edges are too far out of line. use MergeSrf.

Booleans. merged or deleted. It simply "glues" adjacent surfaces together so that meshing. use MatchSrf or fill the gap with a new surface created by FilletSrf. the Properties command does not distinguish between meshes before and after they are joined. This command does not work in all cases. Note To create a mesh that is not explodable. or Patch. Meshes do not have to be adjacent or touching to be joined. Use SelNakedMeshEdgePt and Weld. They are called naked edges and may indicate the join operation was not complete. If there are naked edges. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Join Select polygon meshes to join. BlendSrf. Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities. Note Press Esc to cancel the command. Joining does not change the surfaces' underlying surface geometry. JoinSrf is useful for joining back surfaces of an exploded polysurface. NetworkSrf. Pick the surfaces with matching corners first. and an edge that is to be joined is close in length to the joining tolerance. y. A text label using the current text settings is placed at the curve endpoint. Explode the objects and use Join selecting the surfaces one by one. LabelCurveEndpoints Places a text label with the x. The picking order can make the difference. Rhino tries to join the selected surfaces and polysurfaces together into as few polysurfaces as possible. use MergeSrf. JoinSrf Join selected surfaces. most joined meshes will need to have their edge points welded.rhp To label curve endpoint coordinates At the Select curves ( TextHeight=1.0 Command Reference JoinMesh Join polygon meshes. If you want to change two adjacent surfaces into a single surface. If you want to actually change a surface so it fills in a gap. and z coordinates of the endpoint of a curve. No mesh points are moved.Rhino 2. It only works if the edges of the surfaces touch exactly and all edge endpoints match. The action performed is reported on the command line. Use the ShowNakedEdges command to highlight edges that did not join. The text label is placed on the same layer as the curve. 277 .000 Precision=4 ) prompt. Pay special attention to the setting of the Smooth option to get the geometry you want. Meshes are joined so they select as one object. Toolbar: Main and Geometry Fix Select a group of surfaces. and intersections go across the seam without gaps. Most joining problems occur when attempting to join several surfaces. select curves.

Pick points to draw straight line segments in the selection boundary. Click and drag the left mouse button to draw a curved selection boundary. and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Lasso 4 Show control points for the objects you want to edit. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select. Select Points. You can use object snaps to snap to objects on locked layers. Click the Lock option. Rhino displays objects on locked layers. Click points or drag a "rope" around the points you want to edit. but you cannot select them. In the Edit Layers dialog box.0 Command Reference Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. select the layers you want to lock. See the PluginManager command. Start the Lasso command. press Enter to close the lasso. Lasso Select points with a lasso.Rhino 2. Selecting points with lasso LayerLock Lock a layer. 278 .

separate the layer names with commas: One. Click the Off option. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas).Rhino 2. In the Edit Layers dialog box. LayerOn Turn a layer on. from the list select layers you want to turn on. To turn on multiple layer names with spaces.Two. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One.Layer Three" 279 .Two. from the list. Note For layer names with spaces. type the name of the layer to lock. separate the layer names with commas: One. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 3 4 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane. Note For layer names with spaces. To turn off multiple layer names with spaces. unlike the Lock (object) command.Layer Two. select the layers you want to turn off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). The display appearance of objects with a locked layer does not change. type the name of the layer to turn off. surround the whole thing with quotes and separate layers with commas: "Layer One. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn off prompt.Layer Two. In the Edit Layers dialog box.Layer Two.Three (note there are no spaces after the commas). LayerOff Turn a layer off. From the command prompt: At the Layer to turn on prompt. Click the On option. From the dialog box: Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: 1 2 Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Right click the Layer pane.Layer Three". type the name of the layer to turn on.0 Command Reference From the command prompt: At the Layer to lock prompt. separate the layer names with commas: One.Layer Three". Note For layer names with spaces. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn on more than one layer. surround the name with quotes: "Layer 01" To turn off more than one layer.

Press Enter to stop the command. pick the start of the leader.Rhino 2. At the Next point of leader. Press Enter when done ( Undo ) prompt. pick additional points. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Left Right-click viewport title > Set view > Left Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel.0 Command Reference Leader Draw an arrow leader. The text height and arrow size are controlled by the dimension options. This is the arrow end.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n 280 . Left Set to world left view. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. At the Next point of leader. Press Enter when done prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Dimensions Dimension > Leader At the Head of leader prompt. Two-dimensional leader Note Leaders will only be visible in a plan view of the construction plane on which they are placed. They will not show in the perspective view. you must edit your Rhino. pick the next point on the leader line.

and meshes. Line Draw a line. Line. pick the start point for the line. Lines and polylines can be created from other objects. circles. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Length At the Select curve to measure prompt. arcs.Rhino 2. BothSides option selected 281 . The length of the curve or edge displays on the command line. including lines and polylines. and can be used to create other curves. pick the end point for the line.0 Command Reference Length Measure the length of a curve. Lines and polylines are special curves that have straight segments. and free-form curves (in fact everything you can create from the Curve menu) as NURBS curves. surfaces. 1 2 At the Start of line prompt. Whenever Rhino asks you to select a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Single Line Rhino represents all curves: lines. you can select any of these curve objects. The line extends on both sides of the start point. At the End of line prompt. Options No options selected Single line BothSides Type B and press Enter. select a curve or edge. polysurfaces. polylines. ellipses.

Line from 4 points LineAngle Draw a line at a specified angle from another line. 282 . The marker is constrained to track along a line defined by the two points. Line4Pt Draw a line from four points. At the End of line prompt. The new line will be created at an angle you specify from the base line. enter the end of the line. enter the start of the base line. use endpoints 1 and 2 to define the base line. and extends beyond curves 3 and 4. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > From 4 Points At the Start of base line prompt. At the End of base line prompt. At the Start of line prompt.0 Command Reference Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments. enter the start of the base line. enter the start of the line. enter the second point. and pick points beyond curves 3 and 4 for the endpoints. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Angled At the Start of base line prompt.Rhino 2. Example Existing geometry To draw a line that passes through endpoints 1 and 2.

Options No options selected Line perpendicular to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. Line at 15° from the base line LinearizeTrims Linearize trimming boundaries of surfaces. type an angle and press Enter. LinePerp Draw a line perpendicular from a curve. enter the end of the base line. 283 . At the Select object prompts. At the End of line prompt. pick the end of the line. At the Pivot angle prompt.Rhino 2. The marker tracks along a line perpendicular to the curve. choose the point on a curve for the start of the line. enter the end of the line. and parallel to the current construction plane. select trimmed surfaces and press Enter.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the End of base line prompt. LinearizeTrims changes all the trimming boundaries on trimmed NURBS surfaces to be represented with polyline trim curves. At the End of line prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular from Curve 2 The marker tracks along curves.

Line segments are drawn with start and end points coincident. Line perpendicular to two curves Lines Draw multiple lines.0 Command Reference Line perpendicular to a curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Perpendicular to 2 Curves At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. When you are finished drawing lines. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. enter pick endpoints for segments. select the first curve near the start of the desired line. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Line Segments At the Start of first line prompt.Rhino 2. press Enter. 284 . BothSides option selected LinePP Draw a line perpendicular to two curves. At the End of line prompts. select the second curve near the end of the perpendicular line. enter the start of the first line segment.

At the End of line prompt. The marker is constrained to a line tangent to the curve. enter the end of the line. Options No options selected Line tangent to a curve BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. Note Use this command if you want to create arc fillets between straight segments or want the segments to be separate objects. 285 . Use the Polyline command to create a single object made up of several straight segments.0 Command Reference Line segments Option: Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last segment drawn. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent from Curve The marker is constrained to curves.Rhino 2. select a point on a curve for the start of the line. At the Point on curve for start of line prompt. LineTan Draw a line tangent from a curve.

At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near the end of the tangent line.0 Command Reference Line tangent to a curve. LineTP Draw a line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to a second curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Tangent to 2 Curves At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. BothSides option selected Note You can enter a number to set the distance for the line.Rhino 2. 286 . LineTT Draw a line tangent to two curves. Line tangent to a curve and perpendicular to another Note The two curves must be coplanar. At the Select curve near perpendicular point prompt. 1 2 At the Select curve near tangent point prompt. select the second curve near where the perpendicular line will end. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line. select the first curve near the start of the tangent line.

Options No options selected Line vertical to construction plane BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the start point. LineV Draw a vertical line. At the End of line prompt.0 Command Reference Line tangent to two curves Note The two curves must be coplanar. enter the second endpoint. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Lines Curve > Line > Vertical to CPlane At the Start of line prompt. or enter a length and press Enter.Rhino 2. BothSides option selected 287 . Line vertical to construction plane. enter the first endpoint in a viewport with the desired construction plane.

Remove All Removes all items from list of script files. Options Select Script File A list of script files that you might want to load. If the script file just contains script expressions. Add Adds an item to the list of script files. on the Options dialog box. or press Enter to accept the default.com/plug-ins. You can also use the PluginManager command to load plug-in applications. You can download plug-ins. Load Loads a selected script file. Note Integer values of –1 and greater than 1 give large amounts of information that will be useful only to the most technical user. Edit Launches the default editor (specified through the Options dialog box. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view. RhinoScript tab in which case the scripts are only available for the currently loaded model. If the script file contains subroutines and/or functions. LoadPlugin Loads a plug-in application. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > List At the Select object to list prompt. LoadScript Loads a VBScript or JScript. enter an integer.0 Command Reference List List data structure of an object. At the Amount to print? (-1 prints everything) prompt. the code is interpreted for syntax errors and loaded into memory for use later. 288 . Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. Close Closes the dialog box. A report on the internal data structure of the object shows on the command line. RhinoScript tab) and loads the script file into it.rhino3d. the code interpreted and run immediately. See the PluginManager command. from www.rhp Scripts are loaded into memory and are available as long as Rhino is running unless you set Reinitialize when opening new models. Remove Removes an item from the list of script files. Save Saves the current list of script files so it is available between modeling sessions. select one object.Rhino 2.

g. If you select closed curves: At the Select seam point to adjust prompts.0 Beta\Scripts). pick on a seam point marker. Select open curves near the same ends. Note You cannot select locked objects. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects to lock..g.0 Command Reference If you use the LoadScript command from within a button and you don't specify the full path to the script.0 Beta).g. In the scripts folder (e. LockSwap Swap locked and unlocked objects to work on objects previously locked. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Loft At the Select curves to loft prompts. In the folder where Rhino. C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2... select the objects you want to lock. The unlocked objects lock. and move it along the closed curve. select the curves in the order that the surface should pass through them.0 Beta\System). Preview. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Lock At the Select objects to lock prompt. When you are done adjusting the connections. adjust options. Real-time feedback indicates when clicking will flip the direction. Toolbar: Repository The locked objects unlock. then the command looks for the file in these locations: 1 2 3 4 In the folder where the model was opened. press Enter. You can flip the directions by clicking the arrowhead. Continue to adjust the seam points so they line up and the closed curves all have the same direction. Loft Loft a surface through a series of curves. In the Loft Options dialog box. Lock Lock objects. At the Location of seam point prompt. You can snap to locked objects. pick a new location for the seam point on the closed curve. Use the Layer dialog box to lock all objects on a layer.exe is located (e. A full path is the filename and both drive and directory specifiers.Rhino 2. 289 . C:\Program Files\Rhinoceros 2. In the install folder (e. Use the FlipDirection option to change the direction of curves.

0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions misaligned Curves with seams aligned and directions misaligned 290 .Rhino 2.

Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. reversing the direction of the curve. 291 . Loose loft Tight The surface sticks closely to the original curves. Normal loft Loose The surface is allowed to move away from the original curves to make a smoother surface. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Style Normal Uses chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. The surface control points are created at the same locations as the control points of the loft input curves.0 Command Reference Curves with seams and directions aligned Options Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. Uses square root of chord-length parameterization in the loft direction. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead.Rhino 2.

Refit within units Refits the shape curves to a tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. This is also known as a ruled surface.Rhino 2. Simplify Do not simplify Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before lofting. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. A separate developable surface is created from each pair of curves Closed loft Creates a closed surface.0 Command Reference Tight loft Straight sections The sections between the curves are straight. Straight sections (ruled) loft Developable Creates a separate developable surface or polysurface from each pair of curves. Match start tangent If the start curve is a surface edge. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. 292 . Units tab before lofting. Available when you have selected three shape curves.

too. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. Two straight lines that aren't parallel are not developable. maintains tangency with the adjacent surface. The Developable option of the Loft command creates surfaces that are linear in one direction only. Developable surfaces are surfaces that can be formed by rolling a flat sheet of material such that the material doesn’t stretch. Ruling lines Because these surfaces are linear in one direction. Rhino will not be able to unroll the surface. These are called ruling lines. the Gaussian curvature is zero at every point on the surface. If the Gaussian curvature is not zero. Preview Click to preview the loft. Examples of this type of shape are cylinders. 293 .Rhino 2. A developable surface cannot be created through all curves. You could lay a ruler along the surface and it would touch the surface from one edge to the other. A sphere is an example of a surface that are not developable (try wrapping an apple with aluminum foil). You may get no surface or a partial surface. cones. and some steel ship hulls. the surface is not developable.0 Command Reference Match end tangent If the end curve is a surface edge. Developed surfaces used to make patterns for cutting steel Picture trying to make your surface out of aluminum foil. Developable Surface Rhino has commands to create and unroll developable surfaces with holes and marking curves. You must use at least three curves to activate this option. Note The Developable option is designed to create surfaces that can be developed (flattened) using the UnrollSrf command without stretching the surface. but they must still be linear in one direction for UnrollSrf to unroll them. So are most of the shapes on car bodies and most modern car windshields. or wrinkle. Surfaces can be created in other ways. If it crinkles or tears as you try to bend it into position. If the surface is not linear in one direction. If the curves have kinks. you may get unexpected results. Not all sets of curves create developable surfaces. tear.

These developable surface tools work best for designing airfoil and hydrofoil type surfaces. A developable surface is not necessarily a fair surface. Advice from an expert user: Using developable surfaces in Rhino and exporting planar Rhino geometry to DWG or DXF for NC cutting are the two areas where I have seen the most problems. Curves of similar shape without kinks work best. thereby smoothing the surface. Developable surface pitfalls: The Loft developable surface routine is very sensitive to the makeup of the curves being lofted.D surface. It is best if they are as simple as possible and have the same parameterization. Some programs have a way of spreading out the concentrated fans of rulings that often occur. You can sometimes combine the different results to get a better developable surface. results from the developable style loft can be unpredictable. Rhino doesn't have any method of making a surface a bit 'more or less' developable. You just have to be careful. It's easy to miss the warning Rhino gives.Rhino 2. You can get very different results depending on the complexity and similarity of the two edge curves. I have cut some bad plates because I didn't see the message go by. It is possible to make a dev surf that unrolls with a difference in area and ruling lengths from the 3. Picking different ends of the curves can give different results. They were not designed to be used for bending and unfolding sheet metal like duct work or for developing fabric patterns. You can unroll surfaces that are not developable. You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface are not developable. 294 .0 Command Reference Loft lines Normal loft Developable loft Since developable surfaces cannot be created from just any two curves.

4-View (USA) Creates four views with US (3rd angle) layout. They have not figured out how to get this "blow" into their 3.Rhino 2. But there is no way in Rhino to expand surfaces created this way (unless they happen to meet the requirements for UnrollSrf).y-plane. The silhouette curves are projected flat and then placed on the world x. select the layout and object visibility options.0 Command Reference Since metal has some elasticity (esp. Make2D creates curves from the selected NURBS objects as silhouettes relative to the active construction plane. 295 ." The expanded plates fit up to the changed sections just fine. expand the plates. Exporting geometry for NC planar cutting from Rhino: It is important to compare the geometry Rhino exports in DWG (or DXF) format to the original. I know some builders that use developable surfaces in their models. using world-coordinate orthographic projections (not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). It is easy to end up with arcs in Rhino translated into dense polylines. Original object Current CPlane The hidden lines are generated from the plan view of the active viewport and the results are placed on that viewport's construction plane.D models. One way to approach the problem is to use the CurvatureAnalysis command to analyze the Gaussian curvature as a guide to surface creation instead of the developable loft. you can deviate quite a bit from a mathematically correct developable surface and still plate it up. or curves in Rhino interpolated too loosely. aluminum). Toolbar: Menu: Dimensions Dimension > Make 2-D Drawing 1 Select objects. The settings in the DWG export dialog are critical. though. Two-dimensional drawing created from 3-D object Options Current View Creates the 2-D drawing from only the currently active view. Make2D Make a 2-D drawing. 2 In the Make 2D Options dialog box. and then add up to 1" chord depth of radius to the flat sides in the sections to make the plate "taut.

ProjectionAngle=Europe Show tangent edges Draw all surface edges. Create hidden lines Draw hidden lines in the 2. Use the Intersect command to generate this curve and include the resulting curve in the objects you want to make into a 2-D drawing. the two linear seams of a cylinder made out of two semi-cylinders will both be shown.0 Command Reference ProjectionAngle=US 4-View (Europe) Creates four views with European (1st angle) layout. 296 . Maintain source layers Rhino will create new layers based on the existing layers with the name extensions "Visible" and "Hidden" added. If silhouettes are nearly overlapping another curve in the view. using world-coordinate orthographic projections(not view or construction plane directions of current viewports). Visible line layer Select a layer name for visible lines or type a new layer name.Rhino 2. Hidden line layer Select a layer name for hidden lines or type a new layer name.D view. If two surfaces pass through each other. Note This command does not create 2. There is no way to avoid this. Make2D will not create the intersection line where the surfaces pass though. they may not appear on the correct layer. While a single surface cylinder seam will not be shown.D drawings from mesh objects.

At the Select curve to match .0 Command Reference MakeCrvPeriodic Make a curve periodic. If the curve was open. You can use the Properties command's Info tab to see if a curve is closed and periodic. select the edge of the surface to make periodic. At the Choose an object prompt. To get a feel for what the command does. 297 . select a curve to make periodic. The result dynamically previews as you change the dialog box options. To create a periodic surface use the MakeSrfPeriodic command. it is closed. MakeSrfNonPeriodic Make a surface non-periodic. MakeSrfPeriodic Make a surface periodic. Surfaces created from periodic curve in previous releases of Rhino had seams that would develop kinks when deformed. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select edge to make periodic prompt. Match Match two curves. select the surface you want to make non-periodic. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Make Periodic At the Select curve to make periodic prompt. select the first curve at the end that will move.pick near end prompt. Other closed curves.Rhino 2. Rhino creates periodic surfaces. like ones made with the Curve command cannot develop kinks. This command tries to fix those surfaces.pick near end ( SurfaceEdge ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Match 3 At the Select curve to change . select the second curve at the end where the end of the first curve should move. Then use control point editing on both curves. Close the dialog box. Note Some closed curves like circles can develop kinks when their control points are edited. The MakeCrvPeriodic command makes a closed curves into periodic curve. the geometry of the curve must be slightly changed to when the curve is forced to be periodic. Toolbar: Surface Tools Changes a periodic surface into a non-periodic surface. If a joined curve is made periodic. Sometimes. it becomes a single-span curve and can no longer be exploded. make two circles and apply MakeCrvPeriodic to the second circle. Then closed curves that remain smooth during control point editing are called periodic curves. Non-periodic surfaces can develop kinks when deformed.

298 . Edge matched as a curve Edge with Surface edge option Continuity Continuity specifies how the smoothly the two curves meet each other. Position The endpoint of the curve to change is moved to the endpoint of the curve to match.0 Command Reference Options SurfaceEdge Matches the curve perpendicular to the curve and uses the surface to determine continuity. Position match Tangency The curve to change changes so it is tangent at the point where they touch.Rhino 2. This guarantees that the curves have positional (G0) continuity. This guarantees that the curves have tangent (G1) continuity.

0 Command Reference Tangency match Curvature The curve to change changes so they smoothly blend this guarantees that the curves have curvature (G2) continuity. This creates a single curve instead of a composite curve.Rhino 2. Join The curves are joined into one curve after the match. Preserve other end If you are working with curves lower than degree 5. The curves are merged together after the match. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Layer Edit > Layers > Match Object Layer Select objects for layer change and press Enter Pick object that defines the layer for the selected objects. You cannot explode the curve into the segments that were originally matched. the curvature at the other end of the curve to match may be adjusted. Selecting the Preserve other end option guarantees that the curvature at the other end is not modified. If you edit this curve with control points. MatchLayer Match the layer of one object to another. Curvature match Average curves Both curves are adjusted to match each other. the point where the two original curves matched will deform smoothly. Merge Only available with the Curvature option. 299 .

Before Surface Match After Surface Match Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. the surfaces can be matched by averaging between the two. select the edge of the surface to match. Curvature Match surface so it is curvature-continuous with target edge (G2 continuity). 300 . This surface can be either a trimmed or untrimmed surface.select near edge prompt. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. select the edge of the target surface. Tangency Match surface so it is tangent to target edge (G1 continuity). Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Average surfaces Both surfaces to be modified to an intermediate shape.0 Command Reference MatchSrf Match two surfaces.select near edge prompt. reversing the direction of the curve. If the target surface is also untrimmed. At the Select target surface . Position Match surface so it touches the target edge (G0 continuity). Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Match 2 3 At the Select surface to change . choose the type of match. This surface must be an untrimmed surface. In the Match Surface dialog box.Rhino 2.

or each point on the edge can be pulled to the closest point on the other edge. the opposite edge may be changed so that its not tangent to something it used to be tangent to.Rhino 2. If necessary.0 Command Reference Refine match Determines if the match results should be tested for accuracy and refined so that the faces match to a specified tolerance. If the span is simple (few knots) and this isn't checked. knot lines are added to the modified surface or surfaces until the surfaces are within tolerance. Original surfaces Closest point match Closest point match off Preserve opposite end This adds enough knots to the span so that the edge opposite the one being adjusted isn't changed. 301 . It's useful to keep from disturbing the smoothness you just fixed on the other edge. Match edges by closest points There are two ways the surface being changed is aligned to the edge its being matched to: It can be stretched or compressed to match the entire edge end to end. Generally. this is useful to match a short edge to a longer one without stretching the short one.

in units. Make perpendicular to target edge if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. Isoparm direction adjustment Specifies the way the parameterization of the matched surfaces is determined. Additional Options Click Options to see additional options Refinement Tolerances Distance Maximum gap width between matched surfaces. Curvature Maximum difference in curvature between surfaces. Automatic Match target isoparm direction if the surface being matched is not trimmed.Rhino 2. in degrees. Tangency Maximum angle between adjacent surface normals.0 Command Reference Surface 2 does not have enough control points to preserve the continuity at the right end Without preserving opposite end Preserving opposite end Shaded preview The preview is shaded Preview Previews the match changes in the viewports. 302 . percent.

2. This is done by doing the simplest rotation of the edge normals that will achieve the desired match. Matching can be done only between single complete edge curves. but instead of parallel to the other surface isoparms. In these cases. An open surface can be matched to a closed surface. but if the conditions are wrong. A closed edge can't be matched to an open edge. especially when matching to trimmed surfaces to avoid excessive twisting of the surface near the area being adjusted Match target isoparm direction Make the isoparms of the surface being adjusted parallel to those of the surface it matches to. and sometimes doesn't work as advertised. it can twist the surface near the edge. Make perpendicular to target edge Similar to Match target isoparm direction. This is the hardest condition to meet. or to loosen the refinement tolerances to make refinement faster. You may also need to Import edges (use MergeEdge ) to get a longer match target. Press Esc during the refinement stage to stop after the current iteration of refinement. keep the existing isoparm directions the same as they were in the surface before matching. If it isn't. (It tries to maintain the ratio of the inter. If the surface being changed is trimmed. tangency = 10 and curvature = 50 will probably give a good idea of how the finished match will look. Surfaces that are linear along the edge being modified and are being matched to curvy edges are raised to degree 3 along the modified edge. Note The edge of a surface being modified must be a full untrimmed edge. an inaccurately matched surface will probably result.0 Command Reference Preserve isoparm direction As closely as possible. Preserve bulginess Tries to preserve the "fullness" or subjective bulge of the surface. it will stay roundish. If it is roundish. if the surface starts with a flattish shape near the edge it will have a flattish character after matching.Rhino 2. Something like position = 0. If the conditions are right (the surfaces are nearly in the right place already and you are just trying to get a smooth seam) this often makes the prettiest transition. and the movement needed to get an accurate match are small. but it will still be a valid trim. the shape of the trim will probably be changed if it is anywhere near the part of the surface being modified. especially if tight tolerances are specified. If refinement is specified. It is possible to have multiple edge curves in an edge that looks like it should have only one curve. Two edges of the same surface can't be matched to each other. but you will get something. Surfaces with less than five rows of control points parallel to the edge being modified will get at least one more knot in that direction. it may be useful to preview without refinement. especially if the surface is being changed a lot.) In usable terms. This is sometimes useful. knots are added to the modified surface and another match is done. This is the default if the surface being matched is not trimmed and usually works best then. the match is tested several more places to see if it is accurate. MatchSrf is the most predictable when the surfaces being matched are nearly matched already. you have to trim the surface or split the edge (using SplitEdge).knot spacing to curvature vector. The points you use to pick the edges determine how the surface will be matched up. Refinement may be time consuming on complex surfaces that need to be changed a lot to match correctly. Knot lines perpendicular to the modified edge are added by refinement as necessary to get the edge to match accurately. the changed isoparms are made perpendicular to the edge being matched. MatchSrf can be useful for matches that are more like geometry creation than fine tuning. That may be several seconds. 303 . Surfaces that are linear perpendicular to the modified edge are raised to degree 3 in that direction. This is the default if the edge being matched is a trimming edge. This process repeats several times if necessary to get a good fit. The surface(s) being modified are adjusted at specific points to match the other surface. It is possible to move edges a long way and change their shape drastically. but it might take some experimenting to get what you want. If refinement is interrupted. If you need to match to part of an edge.

must belong to the same surface. Use ShowNakedEdges to display edges and their ends.0 Command Reference You can sometimes change the results of MatchSrf quite a bit by adding or removing knots manually before you do the match using InsertKnot and RemoveKnot. MergeEdge Merge two adjacent edges of a surface. then click Restore. Both surfaces must be untrimmed and share an edge. and the prompt repeats. Note The edges must be naked. and must meet smoothly at the shared endpoint. Or. then click Maximize. At the Select adjacent untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=0.Rhino 2. must share an endpoint. select the second surface. At the Select edge to merge to prompt. select the first surface to merge. An adjacent edge of the same simple surface is merged with it into one edge. Right click the viewport title bar.1 ) prompt. double click the viewport title bar. Menu Toggle the display of the menu bar. MaxViewport Maximize a viewport. Menu: Toolbar: Right-click viewport title > Maximize Viewport Layout To maximize the current viewport: Right click the viewport title bar. double click the viewport title bar. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Merge Edge 2 At the Select naked edge to merge prompt. select an adjacent edge. Otherwise "Edge is already joined" appears at the command line. Maximize Maximize Rhino. select a naked edge on a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Merge At the Select untrimmed surface near edge to merge ( Tolerance Smooth=Yes Roundness=1 ) prompt. and there are "split" edges that are interfering with Join. 304 . Use MergeEdge when complex polysurfaces have been unjoined. Or. if possible. MergeSrf Merge two untrimmed surfaces.

This makes the surface behave better for control point editing.Rhino 2. Smooth The surface will be smooth. The Tolerance setting defaults to the absolute tolerance if the you set the tolerance to less or equal to zero.0 Command Reference Options Tolerance Surface edges must be within this tolerance for the two surfaces to merge.notice kink at joint End view of merged surface 305 . End view of original surfaces .notice kink at joint Rendered perspective view of original surfaces . but may alter the shape of both surfaces.

The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. Once you have trimmed surfaces. For closed surfaces. the trimming curves on the surface define "unnatural" edges of the shape that is different from the natural edge of the underlying surface. Mesh Create a mesh from NURBS objects. You can use MergeSrf to make them into a single surface. use the MakeSrfPeriodic command after merging to make an even smoother. Surfaces can be merged only if the shared edge on both surfaces run exactly along u or v parameter direction and the surfaces share both edge endpoints. and that's what MergeSrf needs to join surfaces to make one large surface out of smaller surfaces. you have to approach things differently. The resulting surface can be edited. they let you define irregular holes or outer boundaries that can be difficult to achieve with untrimmed surfaces. It is the underlying surface that controls the geometry. The MergeSrf command will not smooth non-fully multiple interior knots. Polygon Mesh Options Fewer polygons – More polygons The slider roughly controls the density and number of mesh polygons. and then merging the surfaces together to eliminate the kink. editable surface. This is useful for modeling half of an object. The default is 1 (full smoothing).0 Command Reference Rendered perspective view of merged surface . A trimmed surface has an untrimmed surface that is underneath that defines the geometry of the shape. Set the slider and click Preview to see the density of the mesh. Despite the problems and limitations caused by trimmed surfaces. Note Untrimmed surfaces that share an edge can be merged into a single surface. and the dialog box stays on screen for more adjustments. Preview The mesh is drawn as a preview in the viewports. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From NURBS Object Select surfaces or polysurfaces to mesh. A mesh can be preview and then created. you can only use MergeSrf when you create untrimmed surfaces by lofting or sweeping and the surfaces share adjacent edges. The seam where the two surfaces meet is smoothed out. with finer or coarser mesh. 306 . mirroring it. Generally. Trimming curves on the shape tell Rhino that some parts of the surface are supposed to be holes or are cut out. In some ways. Acceptable values are between zero (sharp) and one (smooth).notice no kink Roundness Defines the roundness/smoothness/dullness/bluntness/non-sharpness of the merge.Rhino 2.

more accurate meshes. When the Refine is checked. Weld Welds coincident mesh vertices that came from seams between tangent surfaces of a polysurface. Changing settings in this dialog box doesn't affect the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. more accurate meshes and higher polygon count with more evenly distributed polygons. and lower polygon count. Zero means no limit. Setting Min edge length to zero turns off the option. No refinement results in faster meshing. 307 . edge to Srf options. lower polygon count and cracks between joined surfaces in the rendered image. polygons are refined until all polygon edges are shorter than this value. Scale independent. Forces simple geometry to be meshed with more polygons. Polygon Mesh Detailed Options The mesh is created in three steps based on the detailed criteria: initial quads (estimated to roughly meet the criteria). In practice. edge to srf to zero turns off the option. less accurate meshes. Min initial grid quads Bigger values result in slower meshing. This is also approximately the maximum distance from polygon edge midpoints to the NURBS surface in the initial mesh grid. The default value is 6 and the suggested range is from 1 to 100. The Max angle is the maximum allowable change between the surface normal at any point and the mesh vertex. This option means all planar surfaces are meshed by meshing the surface edges and then filling the area bounded by the edges with triangles. This options means that all surfaces are meshed independently and the meshes of joined surface edges are not stitched together. Max dist. When this Refine is checked. Jagged seams is not selected. edge to srf Smaller values result in slower meshing. Max angle Smaller values result in slower meshing. and adjustment for trim boundaries. refinement (subdivision to meet the criteria). This option is scale dependent and can be used as a general polygon mesh tolerance setting. after initial meshing. Meshing can be slower especially for complex trimmed surfaces. When the Refine is checked. Setting Max angle to zero turns off the option. This option is scale dependent and can be used for making sure the polygons are approximately the same size. Scale-dependent. Simple planes Causes slower meshing and minimum polygon count on planar surfaces. Scale independent. By default. This option is scale independent and can be used for making sure that surfaces with very subtle details are meshed with high enough polygon count. Setting Min initial grid quads to zero turns off the option. Jagged seams Causes dramatically faster meshing. Simple planes is not selected. more accurate meshes. The default is zero. Setting Max aspect ratio to zero turns off the option. polygons are refined until the distance from a polygon edge midpoint to the NURBS surface is smaller than this value. and higher polygon count. The default value is zero and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Clearing this check box also means untrimmed individual surfaces and surface areas away from trim edges and joined edges are meshed with evenly sized quadrangles.Rhino 2. Scale independent. Refine The mesh is refined until the angle between surface normals along a polygon edge is smaller than this value.0 Command Reference Detailed Controls The Polygon Mesh Detailed Options dialog box appears. Rhino will use at least this many polygons for each surface. which is the default. Min edge length Bigger values result in faster meshing. Setting Max edge length to zero turns off the option. This is approximately the maximum aspect ratio of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Min edge length and Max edge length and Max dist. Limits the size of the polygon edges. Setting Max dist.01 and the usable range depends on the size of the model. Zero means no minimum. By default. Rhino uses a recursive process to refine the mesh until it meets the criteria defined by Max Angle. which is the default. This is the number of quads per surface in the initial mesh grid. The default is 20 degrees and the suggested range is from 5 to 90 degrees. and higher polygon count. These detailed controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. This is also approximately the maximum edge length of the quads in the initial mesh grid. Default is 0. Max aspect ratio Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equilateral polygons. less accurate meshes and lower polygon count. Max edge length Smaller values result in slower meshing and higher polygon count with more equally sized polygons.

At the Other corner or length prompt. Simple Controls The Polygon Mesh Options dialog box appears. or type in a height and press Enter. choose a corner of the box. choose a center point for the base. 308 . Or type D to choose a diameter instead. except to destroy them with the RefreshShade command. At the End of cone prompt. Note The meshes created by the Mesh command are visible and editable. Or type in a length and press Enter. These simple controls are an alternate way to control the way the mesh is made. A box-shaped mesh of six joined planar meshes is created. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cone At the Base of cone ( Vertical ) prompt.0 Command Reference Preview Previews the mesh that results from the current options. The meshes created by Render and Shade on NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces are invisible. At the Height prompt. choose a diagonal corner. which are on the Document Properties dialog box Render tab. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. and cannot be separated from the NURBS object. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. choose the cone's point. at the Width prompt. not editable. Mesh box Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. or type in a width and press Enter. choose a radius. Or type V to constrain the cone's tip to be directly above the center of the base. choose a height. and separate from the NURBS objects they were created from. If a length was entered. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. MeshCone Draw a polygon mesh cone. MeshBox Draw a polygon mesh box. Render meshes are controlled by a different set of meshing settings. Changing settings on this dialog box doesn't affect the settings on the Polygon Mesh Detailed Controls dialog box.Rhino 2. choose a width by picking. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Box At the First corner of box prompt.

joined from a base circular mesh. and a open cylindrical-shaped mesh. Mesh cone Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. At the Radius (Diameter) prompt. choose a center point for the base. choose a height. Or type V to constrain the cylinder's top to be directly above the base. Or type D to choose a diameter instead.0 Command Reference A closed cone-shaped mesh is created. A closed cylinder-shaped mesh is created. Mesh cylinder Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. MeshDensity Change density for polygon mesh primitives. and a open cone-shaped mesh. MeshCylinder Draw a polygon mesh cylinder. At the Height prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Density 309 . choose a radius. joined from a base and top circular meshes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Cylinder At the Base of cylinder (Vertical ) prompt.Rhino 2.

choose a corner of the plane. Mesh plane Note Use elevator mode or object snaps to place the first corner of the planar mesh off the construction plane. Or type in a length and press Enter. Y The number of mesh points in the y direction. MeshPolyline Create a mesh from a closed polyline. Elevator mode and object snaps are ineffective for the second corner. 310 . A polygon mesh of triangles whose boundary matches the input polyline is created. The z-value applies only to mesh boxes. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Plane At the First corner prompt. Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives. If a length was entered. At the Other corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. MeshPlane Draw a polygon mesh plane. A planar rectangular mesh of quads parallel to the construction plane is created. Layers The number of mesh points in the height. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > From Closed Polyline At the Select closed polyline prompt. Circle Points Type the number of mesh points around the circumference. at the Width prompt. select a closed polyline to mesh with triangles. choose a width by picking. Z The number of mesh points in the z direction. to specify the width in the y-direction of the construction plane. to specify the length in the x-direction of the construction plane. choose a the diagonal corner.0 Command Reference Options X The number of mesh points in the x direction. or type in a width and press Enter.

Mesh sphere Note Use MeshDensity to control the number of vertices and polygons for the mesh primitives.Rhino 2. choose a center point. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Primitives > Sphere At the Center point prompt. At the Radius prompt. choose a radius. 311 . MeshSphere Draw a polygon mesh sphere.0 Command Reference Before mesh After mesh Note MeshPolyline is designed to work on planar polylines.

choose a point to move the objects from.0 Command Reference MeshToNurb Convert each polygon in a polygon mesh into a NURBS surface. choose a point on the mirror plane. Select the objects. As you move the cursor. At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. 312 . Mirror Mirror objects. Rhino previews the location for the mirrored objects.Rhino 2. choose a second point to define the mirror plane. The original is left selected. Note Mirror makes a copy. Use object snaps to accurately place the mirror plane. At the End of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. Move Move objects. Press delete to delete the original. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 Main and Transform Transform > Move M Select the objects. Mirror Options NoCopy Flips the object without making a mirrored copy. At the Start of mirror plane ( NoCopy ) prompt. especially if you want to Join a surface and its mirrored copy. Note Complex meshes will create NURBS surfaces that use large amounts of memory. The two points specify a mirror plane perpendicular to the construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Transform Transform > Mirror Select the objects. Minimize Minimize Rhino.

You can set the distance that the objects move in the Options dialog box. V Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the v-direction. Scale Sets the scale of the sliders in Rhino units. Modeling Aids tab.Rhino 2. N Moves control points in the surface normal direction. pick a base point. to move the objects vertically. 3 Move Other ways of moving objects You can also simply select and drag objects including control points. UV Move mode Along tangent The u. MoveBackgroundBitmap Move a background bitmap. or corner4 to snap to a corner of the bitmap for more accurate placement. At the Point to move to prompt.0 Command Reference Or. Slider scale affects this mode.and v-sliders move the points in a plane roughly tangent to the surface. Options U Moves a control point towards the average of the neighboring points in the u-direction. At the Choose offset point prompt. Along control polygon The u. 313 . During the command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Move At the Point to move from prompt. select the objects and move them with use the Nudge keys. you can type corner1.sliders to move the selected control points. Hold the Alt key and press one of the Arrow or Page keys to move objects in the world x-. MoveUVN Use u-. corner2. To move objects small amounts. pick a new location for the base point. or z-direction. corner3. Note MoveBackgroundBitmap has four hidden options. type V and press Enter. choose a location for objects.and v-sliders move the points along control polygon chords. v-. y-. and n. This mode is relative not affected by the slider scale.

Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Edit In the Edit Named Views dialog box. 314 . V Symmetry Makes it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time.0 Command Reference U Symmetry Make it possible to edit two sides of a symmetrical surface at the same time. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > From Curve Network NetworkSrf creates a surface from a network of smooth curves. Note Use the SaveView command to save a named view. NamedView Edit named views. Note Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Smoothing tends to even out the control point grid. You can select a group of curves and Rhino sorts them out automatically. All points to edit have to be selected. and the other controls can be used for making tweaks the shape.Rhino 2. rename or delete unwanted named views. Rhino also handles curves that don't touch exactly. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. All points to edit have to be selected. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view. Smoothing Smoothing is done before UVN move to make it possible to combine the actions. Mscribe Start digitizing with a MicroScribe arm. NamedCPlane Edit named construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Edit In the Edit CPlanes dialog box. NetworkSrf Create a surface from a curve network. rename or delete unwanted construction planes.

0 Command Reference Select the curves. If the curves themselves are farther apart from each other than the tolerance values. The interior of the surface will be within this value from the interior curves. Position The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the surface edge within tolerance. You can create: Surfaces from open or closed curve networks. You can choose the type of edge matching you want for each curve or surface edge. Interior Curves Sets the tolerance for the interior curves. If you want to select the curves individually. you will be prompted to select the curves manually. The default is the system tolerance x 10. The Choose multiple objects dialog box differentiates between the two. If the automatic curve sorter cannot figure out which curves go in which direction. you can turn the automatic sorter off. You must select surface edges as part of your curve network to match edges. Curvature The surface edge is matched curvature continuous (G2) to the surface edge. the best guess is made at the surface. The edges of the surface will be within this value from the edge curves. Loose The surface edge is does not attempt to match the edge to the curve within tolerance. Command line option NoAutoSort Turns off automatic sorting so you can select the curves manually. Tangency The surface edge is matched tangent (G1) to the surface edge. Curve Position The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input curve. 315 . The default is the system tolerance. The surface will be created. Surface Edge Loose The surface edge is matched within tolerance of the input surface edge. Edge matching determines how those edges match the input geometry. be sure to select the surface edge.Rhino 2. the surface will have four edges. Angle If you are matching tangency or curvature. Edge Matching After the command is done. Dialog box options Edge Curves Sets the tolerance for the edge curves. If a curve and surface edge overlap. this is the accuracy that is used for matching surface normals.

Rhino 2. Position. Tangent. or Curvature continuity at each adjacent surface edge. Define continuity with neighboring surfaces 316 . Toroid shapes Surfaces with curvature and tangent continuity to neighboring surfaces. Select from Loose. Surface with singularities Toroid shapes.0 Command Reference Closed curve network Surfaces with one or two singularities.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Note All curves in one direction have to cross all curves in the other direction and cannot cross each other. This is a legitimate network: These are not: 317 .

0 Command Reference Curves that have stacked control points will cause NetworkSrf to fail. New Create a new model.Rhino 2. Click No Template to start Rhino without a template file using the internal defaults. Note Check Use when Rhino starts to make Rhino use the selected template as a default next time you create a new model. NextOrthoViewport Make the next viewport with orthogonal (parallel) projection active. change the units to inches and use Save As Template to overwrite the changes to the template. Menu: View > Viewport Layout > New Viewport At the Drag a window for new viewport prompt. select a template to base your model file on. Or enter options to create a viewport specification. units. For example. if you want Rhino to use inches as default units. Use New to open the template you want to change. 318 . Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and File File > New Ctrl+N In the Template File dialog box. Templates include all the information that is stored in a Rhino 3DM file: geometry. and tolerances. Use this if you accidentally overwrite or delete the default templates. layers. drag a window for a new viewport. grid settings. NewViewport Create a new viewport. viewport layout. Scripting Options Name Specifies new viewport's name Width Specifies new viewport's width in pixels Height Specifies new viewport's height in pixels CopyActive The new viewport's projection matches the one in the active viewport.

Rhino 2. Start the NextV command. Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the u-direction selected NextV Select the next control point in the v-direction. NextU Select the next control point in the u-direction. Start the NextU command. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next v Show control points on a surface. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Next u Show control points on a surface.0 Command Reference NextPerspectiveViewport Make the next viewport with perspective projection active. The next control point in the u-direction is selected. The next control point in the v-direction is selected. 319 . Select a point on the surface.

320 . choose a point on the surface. select a surface. pick a point for the end of the line. Shortcut: Ctrl + Tab NextViewportToTop Makes the next viewport current. or enter a length and press Enter. Normal Draw a line normal to a surface. The marker is constrained to the surface. The marker is constrained to a line perpendicular to the surface.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines Curve > Line > Normal to Surface At the Select surface prompt. At the Point on surface prompt. At the Length of line prompt.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected NextViewport Make the next viewport active.

Toolbar: Menu: File File > Notes In the Notes dialog box. Note Notes are saved with Rhino 3DM and IGES files.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Line normal to a surface BothSides Type B and press Enter to draw a line that extends on both sides of the surface. Offset Offset a curve. and paste to and from the Notes dialog box. To close the Notes dialog box: Click in the upper right corner of the Notes dialog box.Rhino 2. If the Notes dialog box is open when you save a model. it will be open next time the model is opened. copy. BothSides option selected Notes Add notes to your model. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Offset 321 . Use Windows shortcut keys or right click context sensitive menu to cut. type information you want to save with the model. Line normal to a surface. This is useful if you want to make sure the person that opens the 3DM file sees the notes.

select the surfaces to offset and press Enter. Positive values offset in the direction of the surface normal. Note For best results. torus. or cone is offset. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. use proportionately small offset distances and smooth curves. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Offset distance <1> ( FlipAll Tolerance Loose ) prompt. Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Offset At the Select surfaces to offset prompt. Negative values offset the other way. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. OffsetTolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. A surface and its offset 322 . If the surface is offset to the wrong side. Freeform surfaces are offset to within the global tolerances. the resulting surface is exact. enter an offset distance and press Enter. Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. When a plane. you may get kinks and doubled-back curves. undo and use the negative of the distance you just used. click on one side the curve. OffsetSrf Offset a surface. sphere.0 Command Reference 1 2 At the Select curve to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. select a curve or edge. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint OffsetTolerance ) prompt. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints. Otherwise. Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. cylinder.Rhino 2.

and STL Tools File > Open Ctrl+O In the Files of type box.Rhino 2. Solid Makes a closed solid from the input and offset surfaces by lofting a ruled surface between all of the matching edges. select the layer to turn on. When you turn the layers back on. File. type a filename. Clicking or pressing F+Enter flips the arrow (offset) direction. the polygon mesh objects in the original file remain polygon meshes in Rhino. they are also unlocked. An arrow indicates the offset direction. Toolbar: Menu: Layer Edit > Layers > One Layer On In the Layer to Leave On dialog box. they are not converted to NURBS objects. select Rhino 3D Models. Loose The resulting surface point structure is identical to the original surface. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard. select an object on the layer you want to turn off. The tolerance only affects offsetting the surface. so the fact that they are locked is lost. When Rhino reads polygon mesh formats like 3DS and LWO. OneLayerOff Turn a layer off by selecting an object. Note Rhino supports several file types. The trim edges are still applied using the absolute tolerance. All other layers will be turned off. Click Open. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve. Open Open an existing model. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. not the trim edges.0 Command Reference Options FlipAll Flips normals on all selected surfaces. clicking on an object flips the offset direction for that object only. Note This command also turns off layers that were locked. 323 . In the File name box. OneLayerOn Turn one layer on and the rest off. If there are multiple selected objects under the cursor. Menu: Edit > Layers > One Layer Off At the Layer to turn off prompt.

type c and press Enter. from the File menu. scaled and rotated so that the reference points get transformed to the target points. but objects remain the same size. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout In the Toolbars dialog box. The objects are moved. Toolbar: Menu: Command Standard and Tools Tools > Options Options Orient Orient objects. the screen position of each toolbar. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 2 Points 3 4 5 Select the objects. The toolbars and buttons of the layout that are stored in the workspace appear on your screen. At the Reference point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the first target point. pick a target point for the second reference point. and whether it is hidden or showing. The prompt will change to Scale=No. whether it is floating or docked. or some of them may be hidden.Rhino 2. select a workspace file. Scale If Scale=No. 324 . click Open. Or to have the objects reoriented but not change size. At the Target point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. to orient copies of the objects. The workspace file holds all aspects of the layout: the toolbars. and the number of columns when floating. Use the Toolbar command to adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. the second target point defines the direction of the transformation. In the Open Workspace dialog box. At the Reference point 2 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt pick a point that will be reoriented to the second target point. type s and press Enter. At the Target point 1 ( Scale=Yes Copy ) prompt. pick a target point for the first reference point. the buttons in them.0 Command Reference OpenWorkspace Open a workspace. Options Opens the Options dialog box.

different transforms result when the points are picked in a different order. Options Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. with the other two reference points. with the first reference point exactly going to the first target point. At the Reference point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. type c and press Enter. If the curve does not start on the edge. At the Target point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. that direction will be transformed to the direction between the first and second target points. and the second reference point going to the line through the first and second target points. to orient copies of the objects. pick a point that. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Orient > On Surface At the Select objects to orient prompts. it is copied with a minimum amount of twisting to a new place on the edge. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 1. OrientCrvToEdge Copy and align curves to surface edges. Menu: Transform > Orient > Curve to Edge Note If the curve already starts on the edge. select objects and press Enter. it is rotated so that the start direction of the curve it tangent to the surface and perpendicular to the edge. At the Target point 1 ( Copy ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > 3 Points 3 4 5 6 7 Select the objects. The selected objects are transformed so that the reference plane transforms into the target plane. At the Target point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. At the Reference point 2 ( Copy ) prompt. OrientOnSrf Orient objects on a surface. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 3. pick a point that will be transformed to the first target point. At the Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. pick a point that corresponds to reference point 2. select the surface. defines a plane that will be transformed to the corresponding target plane. Or. 325 . At the Reference point 3 ( Copy ) prompt. pick a point on the surface to define the target point.0 Command Reference Orient3Pt Orient objects by three points. Orient objects by three points does not scale the objects. At the Select surface to orient on prompt. At the Point to orient from ( OnSurface ) pick a point to orient the surface from. The two triplet of points define two planes. pick a point that defines a base direction from the first reference point. and the curve is twisted so that the construction plane z-direction of the starting curve is aligned to the surface normal. The three points are not interchangeable.Rhino 2. This can be a point on the object you want to move or any point in space.

This option is most obvious when orienting 3-D objects that are not symmetrical. The geometry and the arrows flip around as the options are used. Options OnSurface Lets you pick a surface on which an object is already sitting. There are four possible orientations on the surface.Rhino 2. pick a point on the surface to define another target point.0 Command Reference 5 At the next Point on surface to orient to ( Align=U Mirror SwapUV FlipNormal NoCopy ) prompt. This sets the orientation relative to the normal of the base surface. Mirror Flips the object around on the surface. Orient an object already on a surface Align U/V toggles the alignment direction. you see a dynamic preview image of the transformed objects being reoriented by the varying normal direction of the surface. Arrow length Type a number to define the arrow length in screen pixels. NoCopy Moves the original object instead of making copies. SwapUV Swaps the surface u. This option is most obvious if the object you are orienting is not symmetrical. and an arrow indicates the normal direction. Three cones oriented (copied) on the surface A red/green arrow indicates the alignment direction (U/V).and v-directions. The Mirror option toggles between them. It makes it possible to rotate the object to orient 90 degrees on the surface. As you move the cursor over the surface. FlipNormal Flips the surface normal direction. 326 .

select a base point on the object. you will get different end results. The object will be perpendicular to the curve. If you pick this point in different views. Ortho Toggle ortho mode. Status bar: Shortcuts: Ortho F8. Copies of the circle are aligned to the curve This is a general purpose positioning tool. It makes it easier to move or copy an object on the construction plane so that it can be oriented along a curve. Shift Note The Ortho command. The cursor tracks along the curve. At the Base point prompt.0 Command Reference OrientPerpToCrv Aligns an object to a curve. 327 . Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. clicking Ortho in the status bar. Note The base point controls the spot that will be mapped to touch the curve in the final step.Rhino 2. 3 4 The circle will be aligned with the curve from its center point At the Select orientation curve prompt. and the F8 key. At the New base point on curve ( Copy ) prompt. are all toggles. Or type C to copy instances of the object on the curve. click a point on the curve to move the object. select the curve you want to align the object to. Radial Prompts for an axis and makes the world y-coordinate of the curve being oriented point away from this axis. The command also looks at the construction plane in the viewport that you pick the point in and uses that as the base orientation. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > On Curve Select an object. Holding Shift changes the mode while you hold the key down.

328 . The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. You can also set the ortho angle from the Options dialog box. When Ortho is on. At the Ortho Angle prompt.0 Command Reference The SetOrtho command prompts for a setting with the options On. Packed textures. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. Note When Ortho is on. When polysurfaces are meshed. type the new angle and press Enter. The UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. The default angle is 90 degrees. OrthoAngle Set the ortho angle. Polysurface made of four surfaces. These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers. the packed texture coordinates are created. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. marker movement is restricted to points at multiples of a specified angle from the last point created. Off. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command.Rhino 2. PackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. and Toggle. If more than one object is selected. The default angle is 90 degrees. Modeling Aids tab.

Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Front.Rhino 2. use the Pan command. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. 329 . To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Plan parallel views like the default Top. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Pan Click and drag in a viewport to pan the view. PanRight Pan the view right. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. use the Pan command. use the Pan command. and Right view pan by dragging with the right mouse button. PanLeft Pan the view left. PanDown Pan the view down. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. Pan Pan the view. Note This command is most useful in command scripts.0 Command Reference Unpacked textures. Shortcuts You can pan by holding Shift and dragging with the right mouse button. Hold Shift or Ctrl and press the arrow keys.

enter a point for an end of the parabola. Menu: Command: Solid > Paraboloid > Focus. and then click Focus. At the Paraboloid direction ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 Curve > Parabola > Vertex. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. click Parabola. This is the "open" direction. Note This command is most useful in command scripts. The focus to vertex distance and length of the parabola displays at the command prompt. show a direction for the parabola. use the Pan command. enter a point for the focus point of the paraboloid. enter a point for the direction of the paraboloid. At the Parabola focus ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Draw a parabola from the vertex point and focus points. Paraboloid Draw a paraboloid from the focus point and direction. enter a point for the vertex of the parabola. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the parabola. enter a point for the focus of the parabola. direction and end points: 1 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. enter a point for an end of the parabola. At the Parabola direction ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. click Parabola. 4 Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the parabola.0 Command Reference PanUp Pan the view up. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. At the Parabola Vertex ( Focus MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Direction. At the Parabola end ( MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. and then click Vertex. To pan with the mouse or keyboard. From the Curve menu. 330 . Direction Paraboloid To draw a paraboloid from the focus. Focus From the Curve menu. Focus. This is the "open" direction. At the Parabola focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Half=No ) prompt. Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve > Parabola > Focus.Rhino 2. Parabola Draw a parabola from the focus point and direction. Direction The prompts vary depending on which menu option you choose. Focus Sets a point for the focus of the parabola. Half Draws only half the parabola from the vertex to one end point.

type V to enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. End. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.Rhino 2. enter a point on the parabola's edge. At the Paraboloid focus ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 4 Vertex and focus. enter a point on the parabola's edge. enter a point for the focus of the paraboloid. At the Paraboloid end ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. Uncapped paraboloid. 4 Focus and direction. enter a point for the vertex of the paraboloid. The focus to vertex distance and length of the paraboloid displays at the command prompt. At the Paraboloid vertex ( MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt.0 Command Reference This is the "open" direction. To draw a paraboloid from the vertex and focus points: 1 2 3 At the Paraboloid focus ( Vertex MarkFocus=No Cap=No ) prompt. 331 .

Rhino 2. When you Paste objects into Rhino. it is created when the object is pasted. 332 . If the layer does not exist. Mark Focus Places a point object at the focus of the paraboloid. Paste Paste objects from the Clipboard. they are placed on the same layer they came from in the original model. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard Edit > Paste Ctrl+V Note If there are Rhino objects on the Windows Clipboard.0 Command Reference End. they are pasted into your model. Cap Caps the paraboloid to make a solid. Right click the Paste toolbar button to paste objects on the current layer. Uncapped paraboloid. Object properties and location are restored with the object. Options Vertex Sets a point for the vertex of the paraboloid.

but it also can produce some unexpected results. These don't have to be connected. Surface V spans The v-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Adjust tangency Match to the tangent direction of surfaces if the input curves are edges of existing surfaces. For a trimmed patch. Options Sample point spacing The nominal 3-D distance between points sampled from input curves. Note This command can be very useful. Use Sweep2 instead if possible. and select them in order so each additional curve touches one already selected. You can select additional curves that will influence the shape of the patch (such as dips or peaks in the middle of the patch). The tendency is weighted relatively low so it doesn't change the surface if there's some other input that applies to an area. Even for a relatively flat patch.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface and Surface 2 Surface > Patch At the Select curves and point objects to fit surface through prompts. select the point objects. Preserve edges Does not move the outside row of control points in the starting surface Shaded preview Use shaded preview rather than wireframe. Sometimes you need to increase the value as high as 1 in really big geometry without enough shapes to keep it stable. To make a highly curved surface. select curves that form a closed shape. It is best if you create a starting surface that is close to the surface you are looking for. Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. Delete input The starting surface is deleted after the new surface is made. but with proper configuration. but keeps the spans that fall between input shapes from undulating randomly.0 Command Reference Patch Fit a surface through curves and point objects. use a starting surface with a similar shape. The patch is a fit surface and may not pass exactly through all of the input curves. Use caution if you increase the number of spans. Points are sampled from the input curves and the surface is fit to the points. and edges to base the patch on. Input curves that are surface edges are also sampled for normals to use in orienting the surface. Stiffness Adds a low-influence tendency for each span of the resulting patch surface to be like the adjacent spans. you may need a starting surface. it will be very close to reasonable input. Automatic trim Tries to find an outside curve and trims the surface to it. 333 . Also used if the starting surface is a 1x1 span plane. In the Patch Options dialog box. adjust options. Surface U spans The u-direction span count for the automatically generated surface. Minimum of 8 points per curve. curves.

PerspectiveMatch Sets the perspective view to match an image. 1 Use the Wallpaper command to place an image in a perspective viewport.Rhino 2. 2 The wallpaper image. aliases. like this: ! Circle Pause 50 This script asks for a point and then draws a R50 circle there. The Pause command can be used in shortcuts. 334 . and command file scripts to stop the script for user input. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Perspective Right-click viewport title > Set view > Perspective Note This command sets the viewport projection to perspective. If you do not want this command to change the projection to perspective. Toolbar: Viewport Layout Set the field of view of a perspective view by defining half of the angle of view of the smaller view dimension. you must edit your Rhino. and type PerspectiveMatch.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n PerspectiveAngle Set the perspective angle. Perspective Set to perspective view. Pause is a built in command option. Click in the viewport with the wallpaper image (to make it the active viewport). It can be used to stop macro execution for user input. Note Typing Pause at the command line does nothing. it is not a command and cannot be used alone from the command prompt.0 Command Reference Pause Stop for user input in a script.

4 All points picked on the model. The first point on the model. All points picked on the image. Press Enter when you have picked at least 6 points. 335 .Rhino 2. then carefully pick the corresponding 3-D point on the model. Keep picking pairs of image/3-D points until you have at least 6 pairs. The first point on the image.0 Command Reference 3 Carefully pick a point on the wallpaper image.

0 Command Reference The view matched to the wallpaper image. Pick points that are spread out in all dimensions.Rhino 2. choose a corner for the bitmap backdrop plane. If possible. At the Length of picture frame prompt. At the First corner of picture frame prompt. In particular. Toolbar: Menu: Solid Solid > Pipe 336 . Make the image view large. Photos taken with lenses that are designed to remove perspective distortion will not work. The bitmap image appears on the plane in the image from Render. pick point pairs where an end or point snap can be used to select the 3-D point. select a bitmap file to use. It draws the plane vertical to the construction plane current when the first corner was picked. if you need to add more elements to the model to reconstruct a crash/construction scene. Sloppy picking gives you garbage. This aids in accurate image point picking. PictureFrame Create a picture frame. You might want to do this to validate that your model really is accurate. Pipe Draw a pipe. an image or photo that has had non-symmetric cropping will not work because the center of the resulting image is not the same as the center of the original image. This aids in accurate 3-D point picking. Pick carefully. If you have a perspective picture of a part and an accurate 3-D model. and want the same rendering projection used to create a previous image. changed the viewport settings. choose an adjacent corner for the bitmap. you can set the projection in a perspective viewport so that the model lies on top of the picture. Accurate picking is rewarded with accurate results. 1 2 3 The brick background is a pictureframe object In the Open Bitmap File dialog box. etc. Note The image must be a true perspective image. The center of the image must be on the camera's viewing axis. The plane retains the same aspect (length to width) ratio as the image. you have modified your model.

337 . At the Second corner or length prompt. At the Starting radius prompt. at the End radius prompt. enter the radius for the other wall at the beginning of the pipe. click to place the first corner of the bitmap. At the Starting radius prompt. enter the radius for the pipe.0 Command Reference To create solid pipe 1 2 At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. Thick The pipe has two walls. At the Second end radius prompt. enter the radius for the end of the pipe. Rhino has to match the cap and the pipe side meshes together and that can result a very high polygon count when meshed for export or rendering. click to place the diagonal corner of the bitmap or type in the width of the bitmap in Rhino units. enter a radius for one wall at the beginning of the pipe. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe.Rhino 2. type T and press Enter. Options Cap The pipe ends are closed with circular surfaces. Note Pipe bundles the Circle command with the OnCurve option with one-rail sweep and caps the ends to create solid pipes. if the curve is closed. PlaceBackgroundBitmap Place a background bitmap. select a curve. and the closed pipe is created. Click Open. At the Starting radius prompt. select a bitmap file. at the Radius for closed pipe prompt. select a curve. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the pipe's parts by diameter. If the pipe objects are capped. The Thick option lets you specify two radii at each end of the curve to create pipes with holes bored through the middle. The size of capped pipe models can be reduced quite dramatically. At the First corner prompt. At the First end radius prompt. enter a radius for one wall at the end of the pipe. Or. 3 To create a hollow pipe with a thick wall 1 2 3 4 5 6 Thick wall pipe At the Select curve to create a pipe around prompt. At the Second start radius prompt. For an open curve. if you make pipe objects with Cap=No option. enter the radius for the beginning of the pipe. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Background Bitmap and Viewport Layout View > Background Bitmap > Place In the Open Bitmap File dialog box.

and Right views are suitable for placing background bitmaps. 3-D Digitizing. You may want to do it yourself beforehand in a paint program for optimal results. enter the camera point. enter the target point. You can place only one image in a viewport at a time. You can set the camera and target points with the ViewportProperties command. In PARALLEL viewports.Z> prompt. If the viewport is rotated away from a "plan" view (looking straight down at a parallel projection). and temporarily hide it. Note The camera and target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. To place a backdrop behind your model. Background bitmaps are always aligned with the x-axis of the construction plane.Z> prompt. You can move the background bitmap. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Camera and Target At the New camera location <X. TGA. Redraws will slow down when a background bitmap is being displayed Rhino automatically converts the image into grayscale. remove it. PCX. Rhino supports several bitmap formats that can be used as background bitmaps—PNG. see Place a bitmap backdrop. not a part of the scene that will be rendered.Rhino 2. scale it.Y. The bitmap is placed behind the grid and geometry and can be used as a guide for tracing shapes. Note Bitmaps are visible only in a view where you are looking directly at the construction plane and the construction plane axes are aligned to the view. If you copy 3DM files that contain background bitmaps to another computer. Rhino stores the absolute path to the background bitmap in the 3DM file. By default the Top. align it (move and scale in one operation). At the New target location <X. BMP. Front.0 Command Reference Background bitmap is an image placed on the construction plane. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. or you can create a rotated construction plane and place the bitmap on it. 338 .Y. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. The image is displayed as a rectangle with an x in it when the view is not a plan view of the construction plane. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Toolbar: Menu 1 2 Set View. the background bitmap appears as plane with an 'x' through the center. you must open it in a bitmap editing program and rotate it there. In other cases you see a rectangle with crossing lines. PlaceCameraTarget Place the camera and target location. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. If you want your bitmap rotated with respect to the construction plan. and JPG. Background bitmaps are a construction aid. the path to the background bitmap file in the other computer should be the same as in the computer it was copied from. Placing a second deletes the first.

then those objects are not visible on the screen. the rotate camera commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior.Rhino 2. That elevation for the Front viewport was defined by the very first point you placed in the Top viewport.Z> prompt. You'll see that all the points you pick define a planar curve at the same elevation in the Front viewport. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. enter the target point. then those objects are not visible on the screen. Note The target will be set in the viewport that is active when the command starts. You can set the target with the ViewportProperties command. Toolbar: Menu Set View. Planar Toggle planar mode. Status bar: Planar Example 1 2 3 4 From the status bar. Move the cursor to the Front viewport and continue drawing. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Plan Right-click viewport title > Set View > Plan Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. if the camera/target pair is accidentally placed so some objects are behind the camera. Plan Set to plan view of construction plane. Note Each point picked in a viewport will have the same elevation from that viewport's construction plane as the previous point. click Free-form. This adjustment does not change the projection of the objects in the PARALLEL viewport. (Watch the Top and Right viewports). regardless of where the previous point was picked. then Rhino automatically adjusts the PARALLEL viewport camera location so that all objects are in front of the camera. 3-D Digitizing. and Microscribe View > Set Camera > Place Target At the New target location <X. Pick the first point in the lower part of the Top viewport. click the Planar pane to turn on Planar. Planar mode can be overridden with elevator mode or object snaps. In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. If any objects are behind the camera in a PERSPECTIVE viewport. then click Control Points. 339 .Y. Successive points have the same construction plane elevation. it simply ensures that all the objects appear on the screen in PARALLEL viewports. Planar mode aids in creating planar objects with commands that allow free picking.0 Command Reference In PERSPECTIVE viewports the camera/target pair can be freely placed. the subsequent points would be at elevation 0 in the Front viewport. PlaceTarget Place the target location. In PERSPECTIVE views. In PERSPECTIVE views. the CameraRotate commands can be use to pan the camera around a model's interior. Without Planar on. In PARALLEL viewports. From the Curve menu.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PlanarSrf
Create a planar surface through planar curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Surface Surface > From Planar Curves

At the Select planar curves to build surface prompts, select planar curves that are all in the same plane and press Enter.

Note
If the curves partially overlap, each curve produces a separate surface. If a curve is wholly within another curve then it will be treated as a hole boundary.

Plane
Draw a plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface and Plane Surface > Rectangle > Corner to Corner

At the First corner of plane ( Deformable ) prompt, pick a point for the corner. You can set the degree in the u- and v-directions and the point count in the u- and v-directions. At the Other corner or length prompt, pick the other corner, enter x,y coordinates, or type a length and press Enter. If a length was entered, at the Width prompt, type a width and press Enter.

Normal and deformable planes

Options
Deformable Enter a number to create a plane with more control points.

Plane3Pt
Draw a plane through three points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > 3 Points

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Width prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Rectangular plane from three points

PlaneThroughPt
Fit a plane through point objects.
Menu: Surface > Rectangle > Through Points At the Select point objects to fit plane through prompts, select three or more point objects and press Enter.

PlaneV
Draw a vertical plane.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Plane Surface > Rectangle > Vertical

At the Start of edge prompt, choose the first corner of the surface. Use the construction plane the surface will be perpendicular to. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner. At the Height of rectangle prompt, choose a location for the opposite edge. Use a different construction plane.

Rectangular plane vertical to the construction plane

PluginManager
Displays a list of loaded and registered plug-in applications.
You can load plug-ins from this list. You can download plug-ins, from www.rhino3d.com/plug-ins. You can also use the LoadPlugin command to load plug-in applications.

341

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Point
Draw a point object.

Toolbar: Menu:

Main and Point Curve > Point Object > Single Point

At the Location of point object prompt, pick a location.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

Point filters
Point filters extract individual x-, y-, and z-coordinate values from different points to create a new, composite point. You can use point filters to pick one coordinate value at a time while temporarily ignoring other coordinate values. If you use point filters with object snaps, they extract coordinate values from an existing object so you can locate another point. After you specify the first value, you are prompted for the remaining values. Point filters only work when 3-D input is allowed, and you cannot start with one point filter and then apply another one. Example To place a point at the x-coordinate of the right end of a line and the y-coordinate of the left end of a line.

1 2 3

From the Curve menu, click Point object, and then click Single Point. At the Location of point object prompt, type .x. At the of prompt, with the End object snap activated, pick the right endpoint of the line. This sets the x-coordinate of the point to the right end of the curve.

4

Set the x-coordinate At the next Location of point object prompt, pick the left endpoint of the line. This sets the y-coordinate of the point to the left end of the curve.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Set the y-coordinate

Point placed If you specified an x-value, the coordinate of the new point matches the x-value of the first point and the y,z-value of the second point. The following filters are possible: .x .y .z .xy (.yx) .xz (.zx) .yz (.zy) .wx .wy .wz .wxy (.wyx) .wxz (.wzx) .wyz (.wzy)

PointCloudSection
Create a curve from a cloud of points.

Menu: 1 2 3

Curve > From Objects > Point Cloud Section

4

At the Select points prompt, select some points and press Enter. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the point objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

343

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

PointCloudSection.

Options
Create spline Creates a spline curve. Create polyline Creates a polyline. Maximum point distance to plane The thickness of the "slab" around the plane from which points are sampled. Those points are projected to the section plane and a polyline is found that connects them. This distance is very dependent on the size of the point cloud and the spacing of the points. Minimum inter-point distance A threshold for the minimum spacing between adjacent sampled points. If there are points closer than that, some are thrown out. Spline fitting tolerance The tolerance used to fit the spline through the polyline made by ordering the points.

PointDeviation
Measure the deviation of points from curves and surfaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point Set Deviation

Select point objects. At the Select curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces to test prompt, select the objects for measuring deviation from and press Enter. The Point / Surface Deviation dialog box appears, and the selected points may be re-colored from their normal layer colors and marked with indicator hair lines.

Option
Proximity angle Points qualify for display if the hair line would be this close to the normal direction on the curve or surface. Default is 3 degrees. No points are disqualified at 180. Hair scale The hair is exaggerated by this factor from the actual distance to the curve or surface. Default is 10. Display hair Display the hair line for each qualifying point. Make hair permanent Create a line object when the command terminates. Line objects are created on layers with names "Point Test <color>". Good point Points closer than this distance are colored blue. Bad point Points beyond this distance are colored red or ignored.

344

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Ignore Points beyond this distance are ignored View After changing settings in the dialog box, click View to have the display recalculated.

Note
control points, edit points, edges, and meshes cannot be selected with this command. Trimmed surfaces are treated as if they weren't trimmed, the surface is treated as it would be after the Untrim command is used.

PointGrid
Create a grid of point objects.
1 2 3 4 At the Number of points in the X direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the x-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the Number of points in the Y direction prompt, type the number of points to be created in the y-direction of the construction plane in the active viewport and press Enter. At the First corner prompt, choose a corner for the rectangular grid of points. At the Other corner or width prompt, choose the other corner for the rectangular grid of points. Entering a width lets you drag the height separately. Point objects are created in a rectangular array.

PointLight
Inserts a point light.

Menu:

Render > Create Point light

At the Point light location prompt, pick a point at which to place the point light.

Point light icon

Note
The point light icon does not render or shade. Light emits from the point light object in all directions. Point lights do not cast shadows when using the Rhino renderer.

Point light properties
Use the Properties command to set the light's color and on or off state. Darker colors, like gray, light the scene less.

345

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Points
Draw multiple point objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Main, Point, and 3-D Digitize Curve > Point Object > Multiple Points

At the Location of point object prompts, pick a location. Press Enter when you are done creating points objects.

Note
Point objects display as small squares. Point objects are not a part of any other object.

PointsAtNakedEdges
Create point objects at endpoints of naked edges.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Edge Tools, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Create Points at Naked Edges.

Select surfaces or polysurfaces for points at naked edges. Point entities are created at the endpoints of naked edges. The number of naked edges is reported at the command line.

Note
This is useful when the edges highlighted by the ShowNakedEdges command are too small to see.

PointsFromUV
Create points by entering UV coordinates.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Point from UV Coordinates

4

At the Select surface to evaluate ( CreatePoint=Y Normalized=N ) prompt, select a surface to create a point on. At the Enter U value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. At the Enter V value between <domain> prompt, type a number within the domain displayed and press Enter. A point object is created on the surface with those UV coordinates. Press Enter when you are finished creating points on the surface.

Note
When a polysurface is picked, the result is calculated for the component surface at the pick point. If the surface is trimmed, the untrimmed surface is used.

346

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Polygon
Draw a polygon.

Toolbar: Menu: 1

Main and Polygon Curve > Polygon > Center, Radius

2

At the Center of inscribed polygon ( NumSides=4 Circumscribed Vertical AroundCurve) prompt, enter the center point for the polygon. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the Corner of polygon (for inscribed polygons) or Midpoint of polygon edge (for circumscribed polygons) prompt, enter the radius for the polygon.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Circumscribed Create a circumscribed polygon. The default is inscribed, which means the whole polygon will be within the radius.

Circumscribed polygon

Inscribed polygon Vertical Draws the polygon perpendicular to the construction plane. AroundCurve Draws the polygon perpendicular to a curve at the chosen point

347

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

On curve

PolygonEdge
Draw a polygon by its edge.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Polygon Curve > Polygon > By Edge

At the Start of edge prompt, choose a corner point. Or, type the number of sides for the polygon and press Enter. At the End of edge prompt, choose an adjacent corner.

Options
NumSides Specify the number of sides for the polygon. Vertical Create polygon that is perpendicular to the construction plane Flip Flip the polygon about the edge you are drawing.

Polygon from edge

Polygon from edge, flipped

348

press Enter. At the Start of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompt. At the Next point of polyline on mesh ( Undo ) prompts. start the polyline. press Enter. 349 . enter additional vertices for the polyline. Unseen Options NoClose Stops the autoclose behavior when you move your mouse to a point near the start point of the curve. Press Alt to suspend autoclose. At the Next point of polyline prompts. enter additional vertices for the polyline. To end the polyline.0 Command Reference Polyline Draw a polyline. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Lines and Main Curve > Line > Polyline At the Start of polyline prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Lines Curve > Line > PolylineOnMesh At the Select one mesh and press ENTER prompt. select a mesh object. Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. Note Use the Lines command to create multiple head-to-tail line segments as separate objects.Rhino 2. enter the start point of the polyline. Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. To end the polyline. making a closed polyline. PolylineOnMesh Draw a polyline directly on a mesh object.

Polyline fit through group of points Note Your order of selection does not determine the path of the polyline The viewport you select them in does influence the order in which they are traversed by the polyline. Toolbar: Menu: Lines Curve > Line > Polyline Through Points Select point objects for the polyline to go through. PolylineThroughPt Create a polyline through a group of point objects.0 Command Reference Polyline Options Undo Type U and press Enter to remove the last vertex. 350 . Close Type C and press Enter to use the first vertex as the end of the current segment. making a closed polyline. Use the Polyline command with Snap to a point to control the order. PopupMenu Pops a menu at the cursor location with your favorites and the most recently used commands.Rhino 2. PopupToolbar Pops a named toolbar at the cursor location.

Start the PrevU command. Select a point on the surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous v Show control points on a surface.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference PrevU Select the previous control point in the u-direction. The previous control point in the u-direction is selected. The previous control point in the v-direction is selected. Start the PrevV command. Surface with four control points selected Previous control points in the u-direction selected PrevV Select the previous control point in the v-direction. Select a point on the surface. 351 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Previous u Show control points on a surface.

print to a file. The part that does not fit is not printed. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: File File > Print Ctrl+P In the Print dialog box you can change the Rhino-specific print options: print active or all viewports. Options Print all viewports The page is divided in proportion to the sizes of the viewports. the objects outside the viewport are printed. it figures out the best way to fit all the geometry on the page. No viewport edge is printed. That point will go to the center of the piece of paper when you print. Shortcut: Ctrl + Shift + Tab Print Prints a wireframe view of the current viewport.Rhino 2. The center of the viewport will land at the center of the page. using the orientation (landscape or portrait) you have set in the printer options. the contents are printed on top of each other. the central part of the view is printed. print scale. Always. color. If viewports overlap. If you fit the image to the page. 352 . When Rhino prints one viewport here's what it does: 1 2 It figures out what is at the center of the viewport.0 Command Reference Surface with four control points selected Next control points in the v-direction selected PrevViewport Make the previous viewport active. If the scaled viewport is smaller than the page. and number of copies. Print to scale If the viewport is too large to fit on the page. and each viewport is printed in its area.

provided the rectangle and printer settings are synchronized. Move this rectangle so it contains the objects you want to print. If the objects don't fit. If you're trying to print 1:1: 1 2 3 4 Note Printing to scale only affects printing from parallel viewports.0 Command Reference 3 If you print to scale. PrintSetup Set up your printer.Rhino 2. It will crop objects that are visible. It will print objects that are not visible in the viewports. the center of the viewport will be at the center of the page. you can't plot to that scale on your piece of paper. (Actually. Set your printer with the PrintSetup command. Rhino will put whatever happens to fit (based on the print scale and model units) on the page. You should end up with something close to what's inside the rectangle. you'll need to scale your rectangle up or down accordingly. At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces to project onto prompt. Print. Printing 1:1 to 8-1/2 x 11 landscape requires an 8-1/2 wide by 11 high rectangle. it requires a smaller rectangle that represents the printable area of the paper and depends on the printer. too. select surfaces and polysurfaces and press Enter. Then. hide them. not printing from perspective viewports. Draw a rectangle on the screen (in the viewport you want to print) that is the same size. Curve projected to a surface 353 . as the paper you're printing on. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Project Select curves and points to project. If you want to print at some other scale. Annotation dots and arrows print as point objects. The curves are projected onto the surfaces. Select the rectangle and do a ZoomSelected. If objects are inside the rectangle that you don't want to print. if they don't fit on the page. and same orientation. Toolbar: Menu: File File > Print Setup Project Project a curve to a surface. Light objects do not print.

and free-form curves work well.Rhino 2. Project is the same as extruding the projection curve straight through the target surface and then creating an intersection curve. Smooth projection curves create smooth trim curves. Project will never work correctly for this. Projection Set the viewport projection to parallel or perspective. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > Object Properties 354 . This command works on points. Pull will suck the curve back toward the surface by closest points. Project can be faster than Extrude followed by Trim or Split. You'll need to be careful with Rebuild and use enough points to keep the curve trimmable. Toolbar: Viewport Layout At the Projection is now parallel. Note The projected object has the same control point structure as the original object. and polysurfaces. curves. however. surfaces. The objects are projected to the construction plane in the viewport that is current when the command ends. The curves are projected vertical to the construction plane active when the curve selection is completed. Pull is useful when you want to suck a curve onto a cylinder when the curve goes most of the way around the cylinder. lines. set the projection type for the viewport.0 Command Reference Note You can select all the projection objects and surfaces before starting the command. Project creates complex curves that can be simplified with Rebuild. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Project to CPlane Select the objects. New value ( Parallel Perspective Toggle ) prompt. Basic shapes like ellipses. except that all the control points are projected to the construction plane. circles. Make sure the correct construction plane is active when you select the curves. You cannot trim or split polysurfaces with curves. You must therefore extrude the curve before splitting. Properties Edit object properties. A curve is not created if the projection misses the selected surfaces and polysurfaces. In the ProjectToCplane dialog box. choose to keep or delete the input objects. ProjectToCPlane Project objects to construction plane.

Pull Pull a curve back to a surface. The control points or polygon mesh vertices are turned on for the selected objects.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Points Off All control points and edit points are turned off. Point Editing.0 Command Reference PtOff Turn off control and edit points. Point Editing. Toolbar: Menu: Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Points Off Selected PtOn Show control points. and Geometry Fix Edit > Point Editing > Control Points On Select curves. or polygon meshes for control point display and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: Main. Organic. surfaces. PtOffSelected Turn off control and edit points for selected objects. Toolbar: Menu: Main. you cannot turn on polysurface control points. To control point edit a polysurface. STL Tools. Explode the object into separate surfaces first or Extract the surfaces you want to edit. When you control point edit curves that are smooth and consist of several curve segments joined together. Organic. the curve will get fused into a single curve that cannot be exploded. If necessary you can use Split with point option and Knot object snap to break the curve into segments. Control points on Note To make sure the seams of polysurfaces do not accidentally crack open. STL Tools. Toolbar: Menu: Main and Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Pullback 355 .

RailRevolve Revolve a curve along a rail. This command together with the BringViewportToTop command will let you create buttons that manage floating views. You can also use InterpCrvOnSrf to create a curve on a surface. Then. Use curve commands to draw the curve. Radius Measure the radius of a curve. Toolbar: Menu: Analyze Analyze > Radius At the Select point on curve for radius measurement prompt. When drawing the curves. Press Enter to end the command without picking a point. At the Name of viewport to push to back prompt. At the Select surface that pulls prompt. Note This is useful when you have rearranged your viewports so that they overlap each other. Curve pulled to surface Note Use Pull to create complex trim curves.Rhino 2. drag the control point or edit points to move the curve near the surface. use the fewest control point possible.0 Command Reference 1 2 Select curves to pull back. select a curve to measure. The radius displays on the command line in the format Radius at pick point is 1.0000. Project should be used if you know what the trim curve looks like from one view. An example is a curve that goes most of the way around a cylinder. PushViewportToBack Puts a viewport behind any viewport that is underneath it. type the name of the viewport to push to the back and press Enter. Both commands ask for the viewport name. These commands let you have "floating" render viewports that are exactly the same size as the renderings and can be easily managed by some button scripts. This guarantees the smoothest possible trim curve. use Pull to suck the curve onto the surface. Pull should be used if you know where on the surface (in 3D) the trim path should be. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Surface > Rail Revolve 356 . select the surface to pull the curves back to.

In this case. and the distances from the revolve axis origin to path curve control points along the revolve axis are the secondary reference heights. The distance from the revolve axis origin to the path curve start point along the revolve axis is the primary reference height. Rail revolved surface without ScaleHeight 357 . select one end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about. select a rail curve. is stretched along the revolve axis using the revolve axis origin as the scale base point. the result looks exactly the same both ways.0 Command Reference 1 2 3 4 At the Select profile curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. At the Revolve axis direction prompt. rail curve. You do not need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is planar and perpendicular to the revolve axis. in addition to being revolved. and revolve axis Rail revolved surface Options ScaleHeight The profile curve. The order these ends are picked does not affect the surface. At the Select path curve ( ScaleHeight ) prompt. Profile curve.Rhino 2. At the Revolve axis origin prompt. select a profile curve. This is the way RailRevolve is normally used. select the other end of the axis that the profile curve will revolve about.

1.1 Enter Interpcrv 26.2.9 Enter etc….1. and the lines of the command file are interpreted as if they were typed into the command line.5. the seam should be where the profile touches the rail.1 26.4. If you read in a particular file often.0 23. The file contents are copied into the command line.0 23.5.0 Command Reference Rail revolved surface with ScaleHeight You will need ScaleHeight option if the rail curve is not on a plane perpendicular to the revolve axis.txt Click the button to read the file. which is equivalent to pressing enter to execute commands.4. ReadCommandFile Read commands from a text file. 358 .2. The one-dimensional scaling happens parallel to the revolve axis. you can assign ReadCommandFile to a toolbar button along with a filename.0 27. select the file to read.7. This is the case if you want to build rail revolved surfaces with nice smooth round ends even if the rail curve is not planar. and you want a part of the profile curve to only revolve around the revolve axis. Example Make a text file like the following example that has commands for creating all your curves in it. and then create the curves all at once with ReadCommandFile.Rhino 2. Note When building command files.5. If the rail curve is closed. The revolve axis origin is also the scale origin. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Commands > Read from File In the Read Command File dialog box. a file dialog box appears.8. not move along the revolve axis as it is revolved.9. readcommandfile myfile.0.1. use the Enter command.9.1. If you leave off the filename.8.4. ! Interpcrv 23. You can then select a file from the list.

The number in parentheses is the highest degree of all of the selected curves. Rebuild Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. but a more accurate fit.0 Command Reference ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile Read named construction planes from a 3DM file. the highest number of control points is shown. You can create curves of degree 1 through 9.Rhino 2. ReadViewportsFromFile Read viewport layout from a 3DM file. If more than one curve is selected. Options Point Count Sets the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected curves. The viewport layout and views are changed to match the selected 3DM file. In the Rebuild Curve dialog box. Current Layer Creates the rebuilt curves on the current layer. The number of control points in the original curve is in parentheses. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Rebuild At the Select curves to rebuild prompts. To rebuild a curve with uneven knot spacing. Rebuilds a group of curves with curves of specified degree and number of control points. 359 . In the File for Named CPlanes dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Read from File. Delete Input Deletes the original curves. use the FitCrv command. Clear this checkbox to place the rebuilt curves on the layer of the original curves. leaving only the rebuilt curves. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Viewport Layout > Read from File In the File for Viewports dialog box. The knots of the resulting curve will be more or less evenly spaced. ReadNamedViewsFromFile Import named views from a 3DM file. select the curves to rebuild and press Enter. click Preview to see what the rebuilt curves will look like. Menu: View > Named Views > Read from File In the File for Named Views dialog box. select the 3DM file to read viewports from. click OK. Degree Sets the degree for the new curves. When you are satisfied with the results. select the 3DM file to read named construction planes from.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Tools Surface > Edit Tools > Rebuild 3 4 5 6 At the Choose surfaces to rebuild prompts. Check Delete Input to delete the original surfaces. The values in parentheses are the largest number of points for each of the surface directions. draw two planes several units apart. Toolbar: Menu: Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Rebuild Edges At the Select surface or polysurface for rebuild edges prompt. The value in parentheses is the largest degree for any of the selected surfaces. set the degree of the U and V directions of the new surfaces. RebuildEdges Rebuild the edges of a surfaces or polysurface. To see what it does. in the Degree box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Preview Shows what the rebuilt curves will look like. The degree can be set to 1 through 9. in the Point Count boxes. select an object. RebuildSrf Rebuild a surface. Explode the object and then use RebuildEdges to restore the edges. select the surfaces to rebuild and press Enter. Force Rhino to join the surfaces with the JoinEdge command. Original surface with uneven parameterization 360 . Edges are pulled away from the surface. set the number of control points that will be used to rebuild the selected surfaces in the U and V directions. Check Current Layer to create the rebuilt surfaces on the current layer. This command is useful for restoring original 3-D edges of surfaces after exploding a polysurface into separate surfaces. Click Preview to see what the rebuilt surfaces will look like. leaving only the rebuilt surfaces. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. In the Rebuild Surface dialog box. Joined and exploded polysurface.

361 . at the Radius or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Arc ) prompt. Degree Sets the degree of the surface. choose a diagonal corner for the rectangle. enter a rho or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. Current Layer Places the rebuilt surface on the current layer. choose a corner for the rectangle. Retrim Retrims the surface with the original trimming curves. If you are creating a rounded rectangle.Rhino 2. You will be prompted for the width. Rectangle Draw a rectangle. Deviation Samples the original surface at knots and halfway between the knots and then pulls the sample points to the rebuilt surface and calculates the deviation. Delete Input Deletes the original surface.an v-directions. Or. enter the length of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Corner to Corner At the First corner of rectangle prompt. Or at the Rho or point for rounded corner to pass through ( Corner=Conic ) prompt. enter a radius or choose a point in the corner to set its curvature. At the Other corner or length prompt.0 Command Reference Surface rebuilt with 10 control points in each direction Surface rebuilt with 14 by 7 control points Options Point Count Sets the number of points in the u.

At the End of edge prompt. At the Width prompt. select a corner point. Corner At the Center of rectangle prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > 3 Points At the Start of edge prompt. You will be prompted for the width. select the center point of the rectangle. Or. enter the start of one edge of the rectangle. At the Corner or length prompt.Rhino 2. 362 . enter the end of the same edge. Rectangle3Pt Draw a rectangle through three points. RectangleCen Draw a rectangle by center. enter the width of the rectangle. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. Rounded rectangle from diagonal corners Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Center.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle from diagonal corners Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. See the Conic command for information on drawing conic sections. enter the length of the rectangle.

drag out the height of the rectangle or type a number and press Enter. 363 . pick a point that is one end of the base of the rectangle.Rhino 2. At the End of edge prompt. RectangleV Draw a vertical rectangle. At the Height of rectangle prompt. Rounded rectangle by center and corner Corner=Arc Rounded corners are circular arcs. pick a point that is the other end of the base of the rectangle. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Rectangle Curve > Rectangle > Vertical 3 At the Start of edge prompt.0 Command Reference Options No options selected Rectangle by center and corner Rounded Creates a rectangle with rounded corners. Corner=Conic Rounded corners are conic sections. The rectangle will start at this line and will be perpendicular to the construction plane active where you pick this point.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh Tools > Polygon Mesh > Reduce In the Reduce Mesh Options dialog box. To see the results of the reduction. RedoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can redo. An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps ReduceMesh Reduce mesh density.0 Command Reference Rectangle vertical Redo Redo the last undo. This makes this command scriptable. set the polygon count. 364 .Rhino 2. General tab. Menu: Edit > Redo Multiple The RedoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Redo Ctrl+Y Note Redo is available immediately after you use Undo The number of commands you can redo depends on the undo options on the Options dialog box. click Preview.

type c and press Enter. This command replaces the ClearMesh command.Rhino 2. render meshes are created automatically when you have shaded working mode on in any viewport or if you render or shade the model.0 Command Reference Meshes reduced Note If the mesh has quads in it. For one thing. It is possible to end up with meshes that have edges shared by more than two faces (non-manifold). Render and analysis meshes are cleared from the selected objects. to remap copies of the objects. To reduce the size of the model file. After RefreshShade. Or. RefreshShade Clear render mesh from selected objects. Only triangles will be made in the new mesh. this makes it hard to tell where the inside is. which may be undesirable in some cases. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Transform Transform > Orient > Remap to CPlane Select the objects. At the Click on CPlane to map to ( Copy ) prompt. so it is possible to reduce the mesh and have more faces than you started with. Render meshes are cleared and recreated automatically if you change your Render Mesh Properties and render or shade the model. 365 . the count of starting triangles is the number of triangles after all of the quads are split. This mode is turned off in all viewports with the ClearAllMeshes command. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Refresh Select objects for clear mesh. The objects are moved and rotated so they have the same relationship to the new construction plane as they had to the original construction plane. use the SaveAs command and check Save small. click in a viewport that contains the construction plane you want to map the objects to. Note To avoid having to recreate the render meshes in your next session. RemapCPlane Remap objects to a new construction plane. avoid clearing meshes.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Top view of original objects Front view of original objects Top view after remapping objects to CPlane Front view after remapping objects to CPlane Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. 366 .

RemoveMultiKnotSrf Removes multiple but not fully-multiple knots from surfaces. Use the Ungroup command to remove grouping. At the Select objects to extract from group prompt. select a curve. RemoveFromGroup Remove the group status from selected objects. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group. select objects. pick the knots to remove and press Enter. Press Enter when done (Direction=U) prompt. Multiple knots means more than one at a point. Note Remove knot can be used to remove the connecting joint between two joined curves. The resulting curve will not Explode into separate parts.0 Command Reference RemoveBackgroundBitmap Remove a background bitmap. To remove knots from a surface: Options Direction You can remove knots in either U or V direction. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Remove Permanently removes a background bitmap from the active viewport. select a surface. In particular. Toolbar: Menu: Organic and Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Remove Knot To remove knots from a curve: 1 2 1 2 At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. At the Select curve or surface for knot removal prompt. the RemoveMultiKnotSrf command will remove the double knots made by the Sweep1. pick the knotlines to remove and press Enter. Sweep2. RemoveKnot Remove knots from a curve or surface. 367 .Rhino 2. At the Click knot to remove prompt. Fully-multiple knots means as many as possible at a point. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. There may be a kink at that point that is desired. At the Select knotline to remove. Use the Group command to group objects together. which is equal to the degree. and Blend commands.

368 . Copy to Clipboard The image is copied to the Windows clipboard. and printed in color if the printer is color-capable. It has a single menu: File. Texture loading messages and an elapsed-time message show at the command line. Note The render display window is the same size as the viewport it rendered. a folder named "Textures" (if it exists) under the Rhino install folder. Full render File Options Save As Saves the image to one of five or more popular image file formats. unless set to a Custom resolution in the Document Properties dialog box.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference RemoveWallpaper Remove wallpaper Render Render the current viewport. Print The rendered image is printed to the Windows default printer. the current working folder. There is no corresponding setting in the Document Properties dialog box. Render tab. and the resolution of the render image is the size of the image on the screen in screen pixels. The Texture Folder When rendering a scene Rhino loads the textures and bump maps specified each object. RenderAGEdges Toggle rendering of render meshes. it looks for the texture in the following places: the folder where the model is saved. expanded to fill the page. the polygons of the render mesh for NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. If Rhino can't find the texture in the folder specified. increase the size of the viewport. and render again. Render tab. When on. To quickly increase the resolution (number of pixels) for the render image. for possible pasting into an image processing program or a document. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Render A new Display Window appears with the rendering of the viewport.

see Troubleshooting OpenGL. you can use render preview to aim spotlights. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Render Preview You can pan. Does not show shadows.0 Command Reference RenderCrv Toggle rendering of curves.Rhino 2. and rotate the viewport to see the model from different views. RenderEdges Toggle rendering of edges. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render wireframe option. The RenderPreview command mimics but does not exactly duplicate what you will get in a Render. RenderPreview Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading. or bump mapping. Does a quick approximation of spotlight behavior. This is the command line version of the Document Properties dialog box Render tab Render polygon mesh edges option. OpenGL drivers are often outdated. the isoparms and edges of NURBS surfaces and polysurfaces appear in Render images. It is common for transparent objects to contain noticeable shading defects. RenderPreviewAll Preview your rendering using OpenGL shading in all viewports. NOT suitable for fine tuning spotlight settings. Render preview Note Uses the settings on the Document Properties dialog box Render Mesh tab. When on. RenderOptions Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Render tab displayed. Toolbar: Render 369 . zoom. Basically.

ReparameterizeSrf Reparameterize a surface. if you simply merge the surfaces and apply the texture.length of the side on lefty is about 20 units. RenderPreviewSelectedAll Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading in all viewports. it is distorted. the x.) Make the u-domain of lefty run from 0 to 20 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. The y. Example You have two surfaces side by side. You generally don't need to care much about surface parameterization.length for both is about 22 units. 370 . the texture is not distorted. let's call them lefty and righty. However. Once you're done fine tuning the geometry you are going to apply a texture.Rhino 2.directions on the surface so they match using the Dir command. (In this example. First you must set the u. Now when you use MergeSrf and apply a texture.0 Command Reference RenderPreviewSelected Preview selected objects using OpenGL shading. including the domain unless you apply textures. Make the u-domain of righty to run from 0 to 11 and the y-domain run from 0 to 22. Then use ReparameterizeSrf to set the u-domain of lefty from 0 to about 20 and the v-domain from about 0 to about 22. In this example.length of righty is about 11.and vdomains for the surface. You are going to merge them into a single surface using MergeSrf. set the new limits of the u.and v. The x. Then you may need to change the domain in order to make the texture apply correctly over the surface. and similar prompts. At the New U begin domain prompt. you want about 2/3 of the texture to appear on the part of the surface that came from lefty and about 1/3 to appear on the part that came from righty.

Use the NamedView command to edit named views. In the Select CPlane to Restore dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Restore. Toolbar: Menu: Set View View > Named Views > Restore In the Select View to Restore dialog box. Or. RestoreCPlane Restore a named construction plane. choose a point on the revolution axis. 371 . Use the SaveCPlane command to save a named construction plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Surface > Revolve At the Select curves to revolve prompt. Use the SaveView command to save a named view. select the construction plane to restore. select the named view to restore. RestoreView Restore a named view.Rhino 2. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named CPlanes. Note You can choose to restore the view and the construction plane saved with the view. Revolve Revolve a curve. then click Set View.0 Command Reference Restore Restore Rhino from being minimized. select one or more curves. At the Start of revolve axis prompt. Right click the title of a viewport. or to restore only the view. then click the name of the view to restore.

select a surface that is not a polysurface. At the Select surface to reverse u direction prompt.0 Command Reference 3 4 5 6 At the End point of revolve axis prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface. In the Revolve Options dialog box. Enter the Start angle and End angle. If you choose Deformable. Corner Type C and press Enter to change how corners are offset. RevV Reverse the v-direction of a surface. defining the revolution axis. Ribbon Extrude by offsetting a curve. You can see the difference between these options by offsetting a rectangle to the outside. At the Select surface to reverse v direction prompt. Ribbon offsets a curve to create a surface Options Distance Type D and press Enter to change the offset distance. click Exact or Deformable. 372 . choose a second point. enter the number of control points. Revolved surface RevU Reverse the u-direction of a surface. If you want a complete 360 degree rotation. drag the cursor to one side of the curve and pick. select a curve. enter 0 for the start angle and 360 for the end angle. At the Side to offset ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt.Rhino 2. The marker tracks on the curve. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Extrude Surface > Extrude > Ribbon 2 At the Select curve to ribbon ( Distance=1 Corner=Sharp ThroughPoint Tolerance ) prompt.

Round Curves are offset and filleted with an arc of radius equal to the offset distance. Tolerance Sets the tolerance for the offset curve.0 Command Reference Sharp Curves are offset and extended with a straight line until they intersect. Right Set to world right view. If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. choose a start angle. type C and press Enter. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. you must edit your Rhino. to rotate copies of the objects.ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Rotate Rotate objects.Rhino 2. ThroughPoint Type T and press Enter to offset through a point instead of specifying an offset distance. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Type 0 to use the default tolerance. choose an end angle. choose a point to rotate the objects around. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard and Set View View > Set View > Right Right-click viewport title > Set view > Right Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Smooth Curves are offset and connected with a smooth (G1) curve. At the Center of rotation ( Copy ) prompt. 373 . or a point to rotate to. Or. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate Select the objects. or a point to rotate from. Chamfer Curves are offset and connected with a straight line between their endpoints.

Or. the following prompt appears. or choose a point to rotate from. If you entered a point to rotate from. At the End of rotate axis prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Transform Transform > Rotate 3-D 5 Select the objects. RotateCamera Rotates the view camera. choose a second point on the rotation axis. type c and press Enter. 374 .0 Command Reference Rotate Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. etc. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Rotate 3D Options Copy Creates a copy of the rotated object. type in an angle.Rhino 2. At the Start of rotate axis prompt. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. choose a point on the rotation axis. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. to rotate copies of the objects. Rotate3D Rotate objects about an axis.

0 Command Reference RotateCameraDown Rotates the view camera down. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the start of the rotation axis. At the End of rotation axis prompt.Rhino 2. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. 375 . At the Second reference point prompt. Or. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. Y Rotates around the construction plane y-axis. enter the angle to rotate the construction plane. At the Angle or first reference point prompt. RotateCameraLeft Rotates the view camera left. etc. RotateCameraUp Rotates the view camera up. RotateCPlane Rotate a construction plane. This command uses the settings from the Rotate section of the Options dialog box View tab to control what axis is rotated about and which way things move when you press and arrow key. enter the end of the rotation axis. etc. etc. etc. Z Rotates around the construction plane z-axis. pick a point. At the Start of rotation axis ( X Y Z ) prompt. place the construction plane. Note The construction plane displayed in the active viewport when the command starts is changed. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 5 Set CPlane View > Set CPlane > Rotate Click in the viewport (or on the viewport titlebar) of the viewport that displays the construction plane you want to change. Options X Rotates around the construction plane x-axis. RotateCameraRight Rotates the view camera right. This point will be used to drag the construction plane around the rotation axis.

To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Run Run another application from Rhino. To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. type the name and path of the file to run. RotateView Rotate the view. RotateLeft Rotate the view left. Shortcut: Left Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Rotate Click and drag in a viewport to rotate the view. RotateUp Rotate the view up. Shortcut: Down Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Press the arrow keys.Rhino 2. RotateRight Rotate the view right. use the RotateView command. Shortcut: Right Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. At the Name of program to run prompt.0 Command Reference RotateDown Rotate the view down. Shortcuts Press and hold Ctrl and Shift and drag with the right mouse button. use the RotateView command. 376 . To rotate with the mouse or keyboard. Shortcut: Up Arrow Note This command is most useful in command scripts. use the RotateView command. Views that are not looking perpendicular to the construction plane rotate with the right mouse button. use the RotateView command.

This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Click Save. Note This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. type a filename. or loaded subroutine names that you want to run. Run Runs the code specified in the edit window. Otherwise. File. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. In the File name box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. the dialog box will close when Run is selected. Note Rhino supports several file types. Options Script Code Enter either expressions that you want to execute. Save.rhp If you need to run routines that are not assigned to buttons. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. select Rhino 2 3D Models. Plug-in name: RhinoScript File: Rhinoscript. 377 . Language Specifies the language of the code.Rhino 2. See the PluginManager command. and STL Tools File > Save Ctrl+S In the Files of type box. Options Save Small Removes the render meshes from the file. Push Pin When the button is depressed.0 Command Reference RunScript Runs a VBScript or a JScript. the dialog box will remain open when the Run button is selected. Merge Merges code from an external file into the edit window Save Saves the contents of the edit window to a file. or SaveAs dialog boxes. Save Save your model. Cancel Closes the dialog box. you can use RunScript command. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: 1 2 3 Standard.

type a filename.Rhino 2. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. SaveCPlane Save a named construction plane. type a filename. You can change the default location of template files on the Options dialog box. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 File File > Save As In the Files of type box. or SaveAs dialog boxes. viewport layout. Click Save. Save. A preview image of the active viewport is saved with the model. layers. type the name for the construction plane and press Enter. Clearing the render meshes makes the file smaller. Note Templates are normal 3DM files. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. but it will shade and render slower the next time you open the file. SaveAsTemplate Save a template. units. You can also save default geometry with the template. Use the RestoreCPlane command to restore a named construction plane. and tolerances and save them in a template. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 File File > Save As Template In the File name box. Options Save Small Removes the render and analysis meshes from the file. Toolbar: Menu: Set CPlane View > Named CPlanes > Save In the Name of CPlane dialog box. This image displays when you select the file in the Open. Note Use the NamedCPlane command to edit named construction planes. Files tab. You can set up grid settings. Click Save. 378 .0 Command Reference SaveAs Save your model to a different name or file type. In the File name box. Note Rhino supports several file types. select Rhino 2 3D Models.

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SaveDisplayWindowAs
Save the image in the render window.
In the Save Bitmap dialog box, choose the name, location, and file type for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. In a script, you can follow the command with the name of the file to save to: SaveDisplayWindowAs "C:\My Images\Rendering Two.bmp".

SaveSmall
Save your model without render meshes to decrease file size.
Menu: File > Save Small

Note
Use this command when you want to save disk space, send the file to someone via e-mail or other electronic media. Your render meshes will regenerate when you Shade, Render, or use ShadedViewport. If your model takes a long time to shade the first time, saving render meshes saves time when opening the file or shading the first time.

SaveView
Save a named view.

Toolbar: Menu:

Set View View > Named Views > Save

In the Name of View dialog box, enter the name to save the view.

Note
Use the NamedView command to edit named views. Use the RestoreView command to restore a named view.

SaveWorkspace
Save workspaces.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save All. The current workspaces are saved.

SaveWorkspaceAs
Save a workspace under a different name.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout

In the Toolbars dialog box, from the File menu, click Save As. In the Save Workspace As dialog box, enter a name for the workspace file. The toolbar layout is saved in a new workspace file, or replaces an existing workspace file after requesting confirmation. Workspace files have the extension .WS.

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Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale
Scale objects.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 3- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point that shows the current scale. If you do not use a scale factor, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point that shows the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted in all dimensions by the scale factor.

Scale

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used. To scale an arbitrarily sized object to a specific size, use the origin point and the first reference point to establish the original size of the object. At the Second reference point prompt, type the new size. The distance constraint will be used to scale the object to the required size.

Scale1D
Scale objects in one dimension.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 1- D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Scaling direction ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale and the direction of scaling relative to the base point. Or enter a new distance. The objects are expanded or contracted in the single direction specified, without expanding the objects in the other directions.

380

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Scale in one direction

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

Scale2D
Scale objects in two dimensions.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Main, Transform, and Scale Transform > Scale > Scale 2-D

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. At the Scale factor or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt, enter a scale factor or choose a reference point for the current scale. If you use a reference point, at the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a reference point for the new scale. The objects are expanded or contracted uniformly in the two directions of the axes of the construction plane of the active viewport where you specify the scale factor.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
When scaling by dragging, the scale factor becomes the default next time that scale command is used.

ScaleBackgroundBitmap
Scale a background bitmap.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Scale

At the Origin point prompt, pick the scale origin. At the First reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the first reference line from the scale origin to the reference point. At the Second reference point prompt, pick a point that defines the second reference line from the scale origin to the second reference point.

381

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScaleNU
Scale objects non-uniformly.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2

Scale Transform > Scale > Non-Uniform Scale

3

4

5

Select objects to scale. At the Origin point ( Copy ) prompt, choose a scaling origin. Or, to scale copies of the objects, type c and press Enter. Whichever viewport is active when the origin point is picked determines the construction plane for the x, y and z scaling factors. At the X axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Y axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless a point is picked. At the Z axis scale (enter for none) prompts either: enter a scale factor, pick two points to specify a scale factor, or press Enter for a scale of 1.0. The second identical prompt will not appear unless you pick a point. The objects are expanded or contracted in the three directions with the factors specified.

Options
Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object.

Note
The x, y, and z directions are those directions of the construction plane of the viewport that was active when the origin point was specified.

ScreenCaptureToClipboard
Capture a viewport to the Clipboard.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

The active viewport is captured to the Clipboard as a bitmap. You can paste this image into a paint program for further editing, or into Word as part of a document. If you want to save the bitmap to a file, use the ScreenCaptureToFile and ScreenCaptureToFile256 commands.

ScreenCaptureToFile
Capture a viewport and save it as a bitmap file.

Toolbar:

Surface Analysis

In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is the same as the color depth your display is set to. For 256 color bitmaps, use the ScreenCaptureToFile256 command.

382

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

ScreenCaptureToFile256
Capture a viewport and save it as a 256 color bitmap file.
In the Save Screen Capture dialog box, choose the location, file type, and name for the bitmap file. You can save the bitmap in BMP, TGA, JPG, PCX, or PNG formats. The color depth of the bitmap file is 256 colors. For bitmaps with the same color depth as your display, use the ScreenCaptureToFile command.

Section
Create sections through a surface or polysurface.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Section

4

Select surfaces, polysurfaces, and meshes. At the Start of section prompts, enter the start point to specify a section plane. At the End of section prompts, enter the end of the section. Section curves are created by intersecting the selected objects with the section plane, which is perpendicular to the construction plane. Press Enter when you finish creating sections.

Section curve

Note
Sections curves can be created in different directions by picking the section in different construction planes.

SelAll
Select all objects.

Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut:

Standard and Select Edit > Select > All Objects Ctrl+A

Note
To select all objects in the file, turn on all layers before using Select All. This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

383

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelBadObjects
Select bad objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Analyze, Diagnostics, and Geometry Fix Analyze > Diagnostics > Select Bad Objects

Objects that don't pass Check select.

Note
Delete or rebuild the object.

SelColor
Selects all objects that have a specified color property set.
Plug-in name: Utilities File: Utilities.rhp Specify the color in the Select Color dialog box.

Note
This command will not work unless the plug-in is loaded. See the PluginManager command.

SelConnected
Select adjacent control points.

Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3

Select Points Edit > Select Control Points > Connected

Show control points for the object you want to edit. Select a point. Start the SelConnected command. The adjacent points are selected.

Example:

A surface with control points selected

384

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

Connected control points selected

SelCrossing
Select with a crossing window.

Drag the mouse to select everything inside or partially inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove.

Note
Type c to start a crossing selection. The selection rectangle for Crossing selection is dashed.

SelCrv
Select all curves.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Curves

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

385

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelDim
Select all dimensions

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Dimensions

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelDup
Select all duplicate objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > Duplicates

All duplicate objects are selected. Objects that were selected prior to running SelDup remain selected.

Note
The SelDup command selects duplicate curves, surfaces, and polysurfaces if they are geometrically identical (within tolerance) and visible, regardless of other object properties.

SelGroup
Selects a group by name.

SelID
Select objects by object ID number.

This command can be run from a script in the forms: SelID {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B SelID id={165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} SelID id=165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B It can also be run from the command line with a prompt that lets you type in the object ID in the form: 165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B or {165F4620-43F3-4a3d-A215-CC5D3785DB7B} The hyphens are optional and can appear anywhere in the ID number. You can get an object's ID from the Properties command Information display or CSV export.

SelLast
Selects the object created last.

Note
SelLast clears the current selection set.

386

Rhino 2.0 Command Reference

SelLayer
Select all objects on a layer.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select > On Layer

In the Layer to Select dialog box, select the name of the layers that contain objects you want to select. You can select more than one layer.

SelLayerNumber
Select objects by layer number.
SelLayerNumber asks for a layer order number and then selects all objects on that layer. The number of the first layer is zero.

SelLight
Select all spotlights.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Lights

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelMesh
Select all mesh objects.

Toolbar: Menu:

Select Edit > Select> Meshes

Note
This command is "transparent." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script.

SelNakedMeshEdgePt
Select naked edge points of polygon meshes.

Toolbar:

STL Tools

At the Select polygon meshes for naked edge point search prompt, select polygon meshes and press Enter. Points at edges of polygon meshes are selected.

Note
This command shows where polygon mesh vertices are not completely surrounded by faces. Joined meshes, such as are made by Mesh Box, have naked mesh edge points where the sub-meshes are joined. To eliminate naked mesh edge points, move them to make them match in pairs, then weld them to make a single mesh that cannot be exploded. Edges that formerly rendered sharp will shade rounded, unless you use FlatShade.

387

Rhino 2. SelNone Deselect all objects." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. This command is "transparent. ?.0 Command Reference SelName Select objects by object name. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polylines Note The SelPolyline command selects single-segment "lines" and any curve or compound curve where the components are linear. enter an object name. etc. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Select Edit > Select > None You can also press Esc. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Polysurfaces Note This command is "transparent. SelPolysrf Select all polysurfaces. If the object is on a hidden or locked layer it cannot be selected. If you press Enter at the Object name to select prompt. 388 . SelPolyline Select all polylines. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select > By Object Name At the Object name to select prompt. all objects with no name are selected. Note You can use wild cards (*.) to select multiple objects.

Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select. SelU Select all control points in the u-direction.0 Command Reference SelPrev Re-selects the previous selection set.direction based on previously selected control points. SelSrf Select all single surfaces." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Points Note This command is "transparent. SelPt Select all point objects. 389 . Toolbar: Menu: Select Edit > Select> Surfaces Note This command is "transparent. Start the SelU command. This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points. SelU selects whole rows of control points in the surface u." It can be used to select objects inside another command or script. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select U Show control points for the object you want to edit. Note SelLast clears the current selection set.

select the surface. Press Enter to finish selecting rows.and v. At the Select row of points prompt.direction. A surface with control points selected 390 . move the cursor near the row or column of control points to select.0 Command Reference Example: A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the u-direction selected SelUV Select all control points in the u. Hold the Shift key to select multiple rows on the surface. The control points on the surface display.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select uv 3 At the Choose an object prompt.

This command also selects all control points on curves that have selected control points.direction based on previously selected control points. Hideothers With this option only the selected control points are shown and the others are automatically hidden. A surface with control points selected A row of control points in the v-direction selected 391 . SelV Select all control points in the v-direction. Start the SelV command. or both directions.and v-directions selected Options Direction With this option you can select rows of control points in the u-direction. SelV selects whole rows of control points in the surface v. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Select Points and Organic Edit > Select Control Points > Select V Show control points on a surface. v-direction.Rhino 2. Select a point on the surface that is in the row you want to select.0 Command Reference A row of control points in the u.

This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. To remove objects from a selection set: Press and hold Ctrl and drag a selection rectangle around the objects to remove. This is the same as using the Use OpenGL setting on the Options dialog box. This command is a quick way to change which type of shading is used by the Shade. Shade tab. and FlatShadeAll.0 Command Reference SelWindow Select with a window. This command is most useful assigned to a toolbar button or an alias. The selection rectangle for Window selection is solid. SetGLShade Toggle shaded mode between OpenGL and monochrome. SetActiveViewport Set the active viewport by name. At the Name of viewport to switch to prompt. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated.Rhino 2.com/plug-ins. ShadeAll.rhino3d. Use the LoadPlugin or PluginManager commands to load plug-in applications. Sets the current render plug-in by passing the name that appears in the menu (in quotes if there are spaces in the name) or the plug-in ID. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist. FlatShade. This is not the same as restoring a named view. SetCurrentRenderPlugIn Sets the current rendering plug-in application. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. 392 . It would be tedious to type this long command then type a viewport name. type the name of the viewport to make active and press Enter. Drag the mouse to select everything inside the selection rectangle To add objects to a selection set: Press and hold Shift and drag a selection rectangle around objects. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. You can download plug-ins. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Note Type w to start a window selection. from www.

You can set the following properties: Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0.0 to 1. put quotes around the layer name: SetLayer Layer="layer 01" SetLayerMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes for a layer. check the layer you want to make current by clicking the white space on the left side of the layer name. 393 .Rhino 2. Lets you name or rename a group. select the layer to set current. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard and Layer Edit > Layers > Edit Layers Click the Layer pane and select the layer from the list. Sets the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID. Menu: Edit > Layers > Set Layer to Object At the Select object on layer to set current prompt.0) Texture Bump SetLayerToObject Set the current layer by selecting an object.0 Command Reference SetGroupName Names a group. From the command prompt: In the Set Current Layer dialog box. The syntax for the script command is: SetLayer Layer=layername If the layer name has spaces. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials to layers via scripts. You can combine groups by setting the group name to an existing group name. select an object on the layer you want to be current. SetMaximizedViewport Set the maximized viewport by name. The Undo command will work.0 to 255) Transparency (0. In the Edit Layers dialog box. SetLayer Set the current layer. You can script the SetLayer command for use on a toolbar button or in a script.

and OBJ material/shader export. 394 . Rhino uses a generic name. 3DS export uses the first ten characters of the name. Note You can set the name of an object also with the Properties command. type the name of the viewport you want maximized and press Enter. It lets you set the material source and attributes including render plug-in ID.0) Texture Bump SetObjectName Set the name of an object for export into programs that accept named objects. This command does not prevent separate objects from having the same name. If the object name has already been used. This is not the same as restoring a named view. which actually changes the view and name of the current viewport. the name is truncated to six characters and a three-digit index is added. The SetObjectMaterialProperties command is a command line version of the object properties material tab. POV-Ray. To set names for a group of objects. If no object name is defined. This provides the ability to create/modify and assign Rhino or Flamingo materials via scripts. use the SetObjectNameMultiple command. Moray UDO. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. Note The object material can be used by RIB. Or. You can set the following properties: Assign material by Layer/Object Material plug-in Material Library Diffuse color (red channel) Diffuse color (green channel) Diffuse color (blue channel) Specular color (red channel) Specular color (green channel) Specular color (blue channel) Reflective finish (0. It would be ridiculous to type this long command then type a viewport name. double-click the viewport title bar. Note A viewport with the name you type must exist.0 Command Reference At the Name of viewport to maximize prompt. This command works best when applied to a toolbar button or alias. POV. SetObjectMaterialProperties Set the material source and attributes. SetObjectMaterial Assign a rendering material to an object.0 to 1. Or.Rhino 2. 3DS. Object names are exported to IGES. and RenderMan RIB.0 to 255) Transparency (0. right-click the viewport title bar and click Maximize.

This command is often used to accurately adjust control points. enter one of the options. At the Planar is On. Starting number Sets the starting number. the objects will be named "myobjects 3" through "myobjects 12". Options Prefix Sets the name prefix. but they are stored in the Rhino 3DM file and exported to IGES. You can set the name of an individual object also with the Properties command. use the SetObjectName command. The selected points or objects will line up with the set point in the direction or directions you chose. Insert leading zeros Inserts zeros at the beginning of the increment number.Rhino 2. enter one of the options. This can be useful when identifying objects for RIB or POV export. In the Set Points dialog box. Select the objects. Overwrite existing names Lets you overwrite existing object names. and RenderMan RIB. For example. Note You can specify a prefix and a starting number. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. POV-Ray. check the coordinates you want to set. pick a set point to define the coordinate value or values to match. Object names are not used in Rhino. SetPlanar Turn planar mode on or off. At the Location for points ( Copy ) prompt. SetOrtho Turn ortho mode on or off.0 Command Reference SetObjectNameMultiple Set the names of multiple objects for export into programs that accept named objects. if you selected ten unnamed objects. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Transform Transform > Set Points. To set names for individual objects. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt. SetPt Set control point location. This command doesn't prevent separate objects from having the same name. This is useful for inclusion in a script file for the ReadCommandFile command. 395 . At the Ortho is Off. specified a prefix of "myobjects" and a starting number of 3. New value ( On Off Toggle ) prompt.

You still see interactive drawing of curves. The SetSnap command provides explicit on and off options. At the Grid snap is Off. 1 2 At the Viewport width prompt. At the Viewport height prompt. CPlane or camera changes during scripts. SetRedrawOn Turns screen redraw back on after SetRedrawOff. SetSnap Turn snap mode on or off. 396 .0 Command Reference Original curves with points to set highlighted Curve with y coordinate of selected points aligned Option Copy Makes copies of the object with the control points moved to the designated location. SetRedrawOff Prevents screen redraw. SetViewportWindowSize Sets the size of the viewport in pixels. enter the viewport width in pixels. New value (On Off Toggle ) prompt.Rhino 2. This is useful for inclusion in a script for the ReadCommandFile command. etc. type the first letters of one of the options to set it. enter the viewport height in pixels.

Subsequent renderings may be faster. with no shadows. SetWorkingDirectory Set working directory. this shading mode may be faster. Note Be patient on the first shade.0 Command Reference Note You can dynamically set up render views with a viewport that is exactly the same size as the rendered image. Toolbar: Menu: Standard and Render Render > Shade 1 2 The current viewport is shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. It may not be very quick the first time. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. you get 256 colors for background and surface color. Shade Shade a viewport. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. select the working directory.Rhino 2. and a special background color appears. click Options. On the Shade tab set the options. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. If you use the normal Rhino Shade command. monochrome. The grid and axes are not shown. Pan. and no antialiasing. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. Shaded viewport using OpenGL shading 397 . If OpenGL is turned on. In the Browse for Folder dialog box. Shaded viewport using the default shade mode To configure the appearance of the shading: 1 2 From the Tools menu. zoom. Shade renders the objects in the active viewport with a white light in front. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading.

Rhino 2. On the Shade tab.opengl. If you have a fancy video card that accelerates OpenGL. you can use whatever color depth your video card supports. Rhino has to create a mesh from the objects in memory. If OpenGL is turned on. see www. ShadeAll Shade all viewports. The grid. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Otherwise Rhino will use a version of OpenGL that runs on any video card. click Options. It may not be very quick the first time. click Options. OpenGL Shading You can also set Rhino to use OpenGL shading. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. There are some issues with early versions of Windows 95. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. Note This command does not use the OpenGL settings on Options dialog box Shade tab. axes. see Troubleshooting OpenGL. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. For more information. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. If OpenGL does not work for you even if you have a new OpenGL card. Be patient on the first Shade. Note ShadeAll renders the objects in all the viewports with a white light in front. If you have an OpenGL accelerator card. On the Shade tab. see Troubleshooting OpenGL.com/software/optimizer/. See Troubleshooting OpenGL for more information. 398 . click Use OpenGL. click Use OpenGL. monochrome.org/ and www. Toolbar: Menu: Render and Standard Render > Shade All Viewports 1 2 All viewports are shaded in monochrome with a white light coming from the viewpoint. and no antialiasing. and a special background color appears. Note OpenGL drivers are often outdated. then Rhino will use it. OpenGL comes with Windows 98 and Windows NT. Shade1 Shade the current viewport and leave the grid. zoom. To turn on OpenGL shading 1 2 From the Tools menu. Subsequent renderings will be faster. this shading mode may be much faster. It was introduced in 1992 and has become a widely used graphics application programming interface (API). The grid and axes are not shown.sgi. the OpenGL shade options will be available. Pan. You do not need a special video card to use OpenGL with Rhino. If you use OpenGL Shade. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading.0 Command Reference OpenGL is a graphics software library. object highlighting. Press Esc or click in a viewport to return to wireframe display mode. and rotate the viewport to see the shaded model from different views. The objects in current viewport are shaded. with no shadows.

If there are several objects behind each other in the view. Toolbar: Menu: Render Render > Shade Selected The selected objects in current viewport are shaded. Changing the render settings causes the viewports to reshade.Rhino 2. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. or annotation or the object will be selected. isoparms. points. select the objects to shear. you can click on a shaded object to select it. Shear Shear objects. 399 . You do not have to select an isoparm. Toolbar: Render The selected objects in all viewports are shaded.0 Command Reference ShadedViewport Set the viewport to display in shaded mode. Command ShadeOptions ShadeSelected Shade selected objects. ShadeOptions Opens the Options dialog box with the Shade tab displayed. ShadeSelectedAll Shade selected objects in all viewports. the object closest to your viewpoint will be selected. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Shaded Shaded display mode Note If you are using a shaded viewport. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Shear At the Select objects to shear prompt. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. The click cannot be near curves.

ShowBrokenEdges Display broken edges. ShowBackgroundBitmap Show a background bitmap. Toolbar: Menu: Diagnostics Analyze > Diagnostics > Show Broken Edges At the Select surfaces or polysurfaces for broken edge display prompt. and Geometry Fix Edit > Visibility > Show Note The Show command shows ALL hidden objects. Broken edges show in the selected objects color. Show Show hidden objects. If you exit the model and reopen it. and point blips are drawn at the edge's endpoints so you can see the edges even if the edge itself is microscopic.0 Command Reference 2 3 4 At the Origin point prompt. It does not mean the edges need to be merged or joined. The edge is highlighted. pick the second point that defines the shear angle. pick the first point that defines the shear angle. one solution is to use DetachTrim and re-trim your surface. Visibility. 400 . select objects and press Enter. Option Copy Creates a copy of the scaled object. pick the base point for the shear. At the Reference point prompt. Toolbar: Menu: Standard. Note Broken edges are edges that do not pass some internal checking functions. If your object has broken edges. Toolbar: Menu: Background Bitmap View > Background Bitmap > Show Shows a background bitmap previously hidden with HideBackgroundBitmap Note The hidden status of background bitmaps only applies to the current session. At the Shear angle ( Copy ) prompt.Rhino 2. hidden background bitmaps are displayed. or "Found 0 edges with problems" appears at the command line. The base point does not move with the shear.

ShowEdges Display edges of a surface or polysurface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Analyze. press Enter to terminate the command. Sometimes. The edges highlight. A camera icon showing a representation of the perspective viewport's view displays in the other viewports. Note Use this command to find areas in complex polysurfaces that are not quite closed. If you cannot see the naked edges. Status bar: Osnap 401 . the naked edges can be joined together with the JoinEdge command. The ShowCamera command toggles the camera icon on or off.0 Command Reference ShowCamera Interactively sets the camera view. The number of naked edges is reported on the command line. and Geometry Fix Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Naked Edges 2 Select surfaces or polysurfaces for naked edge display. with indicator boxes in the selected objects color at their ends. terminate the command. Naked edges of the selected object highlight. Camera icon. Edge Tools. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Show Edges Select a polysurface for edge display. and the ends of edges are marked with squares in the selected objects color. You can use the camera icon's the control points to move the camera and target points and change the lens length of the perspective viewport. ShowOsnap Show the Osnap dialog box. At the Press Enter when done prompt. At the Press Enter when done prompt. use the PointsAtNakedEdges command.Rhino 2. ShowNakedEdges Display naked edges of a surface or polysurface.

and STL Tools Edit > Control Point Visibility > Show ShowSelected Show selected hidden objects. with underlying surface control points shown 402 . To fix this. You will see no visible change in the surface. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Shrink Trimmed Surface At the Select trimmed surfaces to shrink prompt.0 Command Reference ShowPt Show hidden control points and edit points. When textures are applied to surfaces. ShrinkTrimmedSrf Shrink the underlying untrimmed surface near to trimming boundaries. select the objects you want to show. the ShrinkTrimmedSrf command shrinks the underlying untrimmed surface to be as small as possible.Rhino 2. the textures are mapped to the underlying untrimmed surface. Original trimmed surface. Organic. resulting in only a small portion of the texture showing up in the rendering. Note This does not affect control or edit points hidden with the HidePt command. select the desired trimmed surfaces and press Enter. Trimmed surfaces are represented by an untrimmed surface with trimming boundaries. resulting in the maximum amount of the texture map displaying in the rendering. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Show Selected All hidden objects temporarily display and normally visible objects are hidden. Sometimes the underlying untrimmed surface is much larger than the trimmed surface. At the Select objects to show prompt. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility. Only the underlying untrimmed surface is altered.

Rhino 2. 403 .D drawings) or cut the model in two along the silhouette (for things like mold halves or fancy relief). SimplifyCrv Simplify curves. Silhouette curve When you are looking at a model. Sometimes you would like to have curves that lie along the silhouette (for things like 2. This visual edge is sometimes called the silhouette or horizon of the model. the silhouette is two circles. only backwards. the "visual edge" of the model is where the model stops and the background begins. Knots of full multiplicity are added where you want the surface to be cut off. If you look at a doughnut from the side. Press Enter when you finish selecting objects.0 Command Reference Surface control points after ShrinkTrimmedSrf Note Shrinking a surface is like extending smoothly. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve From Object Curve > From Objects > Silhouette Select a surface or polysurface to create silhouette curves from. if you look at a doughnut from the top. the silhouette looks like an oval. Note The silhouette direction based on the current view. For example. Then the remaining control points are thrown away. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Tools Curve > Edit Tools > Simplify Lines and Arcs Select curves. Silhouette Create silhouette curves of a surface or polysurface.

Or. This option can be selected before you start dragging points with the mouse.0 Command Reference Note SimplifyCrv attempts to detect portions of the curve that have the geometry of line or arc segments and replace the segments with true NURBS line and arc segments. The curve will close when you stop dragging points. a polyline appears along your path. drag the mouse.form > Sketch At the Click and drag to sketch. Options Closed Creates a closed curve.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt. 404 . Points dragged into a different viewport are treated as if that viewport didn't exist and the original viewport filled the screen. The curve closes immediately and the command ends. Release the mouse button. You can also click and release the mouse button to start the curve and click again to end. Sketch curve Closed sketch curve Note You cannot use object snaps during this command. type C to close the curve in the middle of dragging points. Sketch Sketch a curve.

form > Sketch on Surface At the Select surface to sketch on prompt. At the Click and drag to sketch. and then drag a series of points to create a closed curve.0 Command Reference SketchOnMesh Sketch a curve on a polygon mesh. type C. At the Click and drag to sketch prompt. drag a curve. Sketch on mesh SketchOnSrf Sketch a curve on a surface. Press Enter when done ( Closed=No ) prompt.form > Sketch on Polygon Mesh All viewports shade. Toolbar: Menu: Curve Curve > Free. select the surface to sketch on. This closes the curve immediately and ends the command. Type C to close the curve mid-drag. The marker is constrained to the surface. Or. press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Curve Curve > Free. Sketch on surface 405 .Rhino 2. drag a curve.

click Point Editing. meshes. Smooth an entire curve or surface At the Select objects to smooth prompt.0 Command Reference Closed sketch on surface Note You cannot use object snaps or cross surface seams while sketching a curve on a surface. Note The Smooth factor can be a number between 0. Smooth Smooth objects.Rhino 2. 406 . Smooth part of a curve or surface 1 2 3 4 5 Select a curve or surface to smooth. From the Transform menu. This command is useful for removing unwanted detail. and for removing loops in curves and surfaces. Below are examples of using smooth on curves and surfaces. Smooth works on mesh objects. too.01 and 1. The default is 0. adjust the Smooth factor. click Smooth. In the Smooth dialog box. or surfaces to smooth and press Enter. smoothing the curve or surface. select the curves. Use the Weld command on mesh objects before smoothing to prevent the mesh from pulling apart. From the Edit menu.00. Toolbar: Menu: Transform and Geometry Fix Transform > Smooth This command smoothes curves and surfaces by slowly averaging control points in the region to be smoothed. check the coordinate directions you want for smoothing. Select the control points in the region of the curve or surface to smooth. The yellow box bounds the control points that were selected for smoothing. the more smoothing is done by Smooth. then click Control Points On. The larger the number. The Smooth command evens out the spacing of selected control points in small increments. The selected entities will appear to melt. The selected control points will move slightly.2. losing detail by averaging the positions of the control points.

Shortcut: Status bar: F9 Snap 407 .0 Command Reference Smoothing a wiggley curve Removing a loop with the smooth command Removing a loop in a surface with the smooth command Smoothing out a wiggley surface Snap Toggle snap mode.Rhino 2.

SnapSize sets the grid snap increment.0 Command Reference When Snap is on. Radius At the Center of sphere prompt. There is no necessary relationship between the grid size and the snap size. When Snap is off. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Solid and Sphere Solid > Sphere > Center. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Grid tab. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. and partially overridden by angle and distance constraint. Note When Snap is on. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. 408 . At the Radius prompt. Toggle snap mode also by clicking the Snap pane of the status bar. choose a point for the radius. It can also be set from the Document Properties dialog box. the word "Snap" in the Snap pane of the status bar is dark.Rhino 2. Modeling Aids tab. Sphere Draw a sphere. choose a center point. Sphere from a center point and radius Option Diameter Specify the size of the circle by diameter. Note This is different from the grid size. A sphere is single closed surface. the marker "snaps" between grid snap points. or enter a distance and press Enter. Often it is convenient to have the grid size and snap size the same. whose distance apart is set by the SetSnap command or by the Options dialog box. it is grayed out. so the marker snaps to grid crossing points. SnapSize Set snap size. Grid snap is overridden by object snaps and coordinate input. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. 409 . At the Third point on sphere prompt. choose an endpoint for the diameter. choose the second circumference point. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Sphere from three points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. At the Second point on sphere prompt.0 Command Reference Sphere3Pt Draw a sphere through three points. SphereD Draw a sphere by its diameter. choose the first circumference point. At the End of diameter prompt. A sphere is a single closed surface. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Sphere Solid > Sphere > 3 Points At the First point on sphere prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Sphere Solid > Sphere > Diameter At the Start of diameter prompt.Rhino 2. choose the other end of the diameter of the sphere. A sphere is a single closed surface. choose the third circumference point. Sphere from two diameter points Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.

enter the number of turns for the spiral. This is the line the spiral will wind around.Rhino 2. select Turns or Pitch. Select Preview after changing options to see the spiral. Spiral with Flat option Vertical The spiral axis will be perpendicular to the construction plane in the active viewport. If you select Turns. Note You can reverse the twist direction of the spiral by checking the Reverse twist box.0 Command Reference Spiral Draw a spiral. Options No options selected Spiral Flat Lets you draw a planar spiral. 410 . At the Radius prompt. At the End of axis prompt. If you select Reverse twist. enter the end of the spiral axis. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Curve Curve > Spiral At the Start of axis prompt. In the Helix / Spiral dialog box. enter the pitch (distance between turns along the axis) for the spiral. If you select Pitch. enter the radius for the spiral. enter the start of the spiral axis. the spiral will twist counterclockwise.

When you are finished selecting cutting objects. If you select polysurfaces with other objects. At the Select cutting objects prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Split 2 3 At the Select objects to split prompt. Spiral around curve Split Split curves and surfaces with cutting curves. select the objects to split. type p and press Enter.Rhino 2. and points. surfaces. You can select multiple curves and surfaces to split with multiple objects. 411 . select the curve to split.0 Command Reference Spiral with Vertical option AroundCurve Select a curve for the spiral to wind around to create "phone cord" shapes. At the Select cutting objects ( Point ) prompt. You can also select multiple polysurfaces to split with a single cutter. press Enter. Splitting a surface Split a curve at a point: 1 2 At the Select object to split prompt. the polysurfaces are ignored. select the cutting objects. The marker moves along the curve.

Rhino 2. Polysurfaces can only be split with surfaces and polysurfaces. When you split a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. At the Split point prompts. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. Note There is no visual indication of the split edge. Type u. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Edge Tools Analyze > Edge Tools > Split Edge At the Select edge to split prompt. or b. At the Point to split edge prompt. Front. Select a surface. SplitSrf Splits a surface into multiple pieces by its own isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Main and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Split by Isoparm. the marker is constrained to the edge. surfaces and polysurfaces. The edge is split into two edges. Split a curve at a point Note You can split curves and surfaces with curves. SplitEdge Split the edge of a surface. pick the points to split the curve at and press enter.0 Command Reference 3 At the Point to split curve . select points at which to split the surface. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. 412 . the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. and Right view. to access option directly.press Enter when done prompt. select a point. select an edge on a surface or polysurface. Options control the direction of the split. Use ShowEdges to display the edge endpoints. When you split a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. When you split a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. v.

and v-directions of the surface. then Split. SplitViewportHorizontal Split a viewport horizontally. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Horizontal SplitViewportVertical Split a viewport vertically.0 Command Reference SplitSrf on a sphere Separated parts Options Direction=U Surface is split by isoparms only in the u-direction of the surface.Rhino 2. 413 . and then ShrinkTrimmedSrf. It is the same as using ExtractIsoparm. Direction=V Surface is split by isoparms only in the v-direction of the surface. Direction=Both Surface is split by isoparms in both the u. and then deleting the extra isoparms. Toolbar: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Layout > Split Vertical Splits the active viewport with a vertical line into two viewports. This is a convenient way to split surfaces into smaller pieces. Note The SplitSrf command is a general purpose surface modeling tool for anyone that needs to cut a surface into smaller pieces.

like gray. The cone for the spotlight represents the direction of the light. assign a render color to the spotlight object with the. That bright full illumination continues for half of the width of the cone. Or. length. The brightness of the light from the spotlight doesn't decrease the farther that you get away from the tip of the cone . Spotlight hardness controls the fully illuminated region. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Render and Standard Render > Create Spotlight At the Base of cone (Vertical) prompt. enter a u-direction degree for the surface. light the scene less. The length and width of the spotlight together do control the shape of the infinite cone in space that is illuminated by the spotlight. beam angle. Spotlights with narrower cones produce more detail than spotlights with wider cones. Its light appears only in full renderings of the targeted objects. and position. At the End of cone prompt.0 Command Reference Spotlight Insert a spotlight. The cone that you see on the screen is a visual representation of a cone that keeps on extending forever. enter D to set the spotlight width by diameter. The spot light icon does not render or shade. enter a v-direction degree for the surface. The spotlight object appears as a cone shape.it stays the same. The shape of the cone affects the lighting.Rhino 2. Darker colors. Objects near the center axis line of the cone are illuminated the most brightly. pick a location for the spotlight. and then slowly drops off to nothing at the very outside of the cone. Spotlight icon Spotlight properties Use the Properties command to set the color and intensity of light the spotlight will cast. not the range of the light. At the Number of control points in U prompt enter a control point count for the u-direction 414 . set the radius of the spotlight. and then play with the spotlight hardness parameter to see what it does. At the Radius (Diameter)prompt. At the Degree in V prompt. SrfControlPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of control points. pick a target point for the spotlight. The easiest way to see what this does it to create a plane and a single spotlight shining on it. hotspot angle. You can either shrink it or to expand it so that there is no drop-off at all. Toolbar: 1 2 3 Surface 2 At the Degree in U prompt. Note Turn on the spotlight's control points and move or drag the control points to edit the spotlight's direction.

At the Fourth corner of surface prompt. At the Number of points in a column prompt. choose the first corner. 415 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Surface Surface > Corner Points At the First corner of surface prompt. At the Second corner of surface prompt. The created surface will be closed in the direction whose point count is being requested. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. choose the third corner. choose the fourth corner. SrfPt Draw a surface by corner points.0 Command Reference 4 5 At the Number of control points in V prompt enter a control point count for the v-direction At the Choose a point prompts. enter points until all the points have been entered. enter an integer number above 2 and press Enter. enter points until all the control points have been entered. Surface from three points Surface from four points Note Use different construction planes or elevator mode to draw a non-planar surface. Or. press Enter to create a triangular surface.Rhino 2. At the Point prompts. Options Closed The surface can be closed in one or both directions. choose the second corner. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface 2 Surface > From Point Grid At the Number of points in a row prompt. SrfPtGrid Create a surface by picking a grid of points. At the Third corner of surface prompt.

5.33.-5.5. click in the other viewport to swap.5.and v-directions of a surface.33. ! SrfPtGrid KeepPoints 3 Closed 6 0.10 -4.10 StatusBar Toggle the display of the status bar.5 -4.-2.-2.33. 416 .0 4.5 0.5. this option will create point objects at the coordinates that are entered in the command. the surface is created but not point objects.-5. This command is most useful when you have an ordered grid of points in a text file and use it in conjunction with the ReadCommandFile command. copy it.0 -4.5.5. At the Click in viewport to swap prompt.33. At the Select surface to swap u and v directions prompt.5.5.0 0.0 4. At the Start of curve prompt. Example command file to create an approximate cylinder To see this example perform.33.33.-5. At the End of curve prompt. select a surface that is not a polysurface.5.10 4.33.-2.2.33.33.5. Note The points in the grid must be entered one at a time and in order. and run the CommandPaste command. SwapView Swap views of two viewports.2.-2.5. select the following text.-2.0 -4.5 4.-2.10 -4.33.33.2.Rhino 2.33.2.0 Command Reference Degree The degree of the surface in the direction whose point count is being requested.5. SwapUV Swap a the u.5.5. KeepPoints When on.10 4.5.2. pick a point for the new start point.10 0.5 0.0 0.5 4.5 -4. SubCrv Trim a curve by two points. select a curve. The marker is constrained to the curve. When off.2. 1 2 3 At the Select curve to shorten prompt. pick a point for the new end point.

Roadlike right The shape curve maintains its angle with the Right construction plane throughout the sweep. the shape will twist with the surface edge. the new surface should also be tangent. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 1 Rail At the Select rail curve prompt. Follow edge If the rail is a surface edge. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. select the single rail curve for sweeping.0 Command Reference Sweep1 Create a one-rail sweep. One-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point.Rhino 2. 417 . Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports. Style Freeform twisting The shape curve rotates to maintain its angle to the rail throughout the sweep. In the Sweep 1 Rail Options dialog box. Roadlike front The shape curve maintains its angle with the Front construction plane throughout the sweep. reversing the direction of the curve. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. If the shapes are tangent to the surface. use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. adjust options. Closed sweep Creates a closed surface. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Roadlike top The shape curve maintains its angle with the Top construction plane throughout the sweep. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point.

reversing the direction of the curve. Two-rail sweep Options FlipDirection (closed curves only) Reverses the arrow on the selected seam point. If you use the Smooth option. the first cross section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed surface. the cross section curves are refit with compatible cubic splines. the cross section curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. Natural (closed curves only) Returns the seam points to the way they were at the beginning of the command. With closed rail curves. 418 .) You can specify fitting tolerances for both the rails and the cross section curves. At the Select cross-section curves prompts. select two curves as the rails for the sweep.Rhino 2. select curves in the order that the surface will pass through them and press Enter. Use this option only at the start or end of the curve series. adjust options. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in the Document Properties dialog box Units. the cross section curves need to be compatible. You can also flip the direction by clicking the arrowhead. Sweep2 Create a 2-rail sweep. The swept surface is created. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. If you don't use Smooth. In the Sweep 2 Rail Options dialog box. Preview Click to preview the surface.0 Command Reference Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Surface Surface > Sweep 2 Rails At the Select 2 rail curves prompts. Automatic (closed curves only) Attempts to align the seam points and directions without intervention. Note To create a single surface. Point Creates a surface that begins or ends at a point. (The original curves are not modified.

Two-rail sweep without Maintain height option Two-rail sweep with Maintain height option Closed sweep Creates a closed surface continuing the surface past the last curve around to the first curve. Simplify Do not simplify Does nothing to the shape curves before creating the sweep. Only available after you enter three cross-section curves. To decouple the height scaling from the width scaling.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference Maintain height Shape curves are normally scaled in both the height and width dimensions by default. 419 . Refit within units Refits the shape curves before creating the sweep. use the Maintain height option. The default distance is the global tolerance value set in Document Properties dialog box Units. Rebuild with control points Rebuilds the shape curves before creating the sweep. Rail continuity Position Matches the adjacent surface edge position. Shaded preview Click Preview to shade all viewports.

Preserve last shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. and continues to the ends of the rails. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. (The original curves are not modified. If you use the Rebuild option. Preview Click to preview the surface. the cross-section curves need to be compatible. If you want the same shape curve to be used in the whole sweep. the sweep starts and ends where the "end" shape curves touch the rails.Rhino 2.) With closed rail curves. This option forces the surface shape to match the last profile curve. but want to control where the sweep ends. If you don't use Rebuild.0 Command Reference Tangency Matches the adjacent surface edge tangency. If you get the wrong surface. repeat the command and select the crosssection curves in the opposite order. the crosssection curves are made compatible by degree elevation and knot addition. This option forces the surface shape to match the first profile curve. Preserve first shape When you are matching edge tangency or curvature. the sweep starts on the rails where the shape curve touches them. To create a single surface. use the Orient commands to create a scaled copy of the shape curve and place its ends at the places on the rail curves where you want the sweep to stop. Curvature Matches the adjacent edge curvature. your surface may pull away from your profile curves. the first cross-section curve selected gets added to the end of the list if you choose to create a closed sweep. Menu View > Zoom > Synchronize Views 420 . the cross-section curves are refit with compatible curves. so that the edge of the far end of the sweep is the analogue of the initial shape curve. SynchronizeViews Set the scale and center of all viewports to match the active viewport. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and a single shape curve. and it touches the rail curves at their ends. one of two possible surfaces appears. Note If you create an open surface from closed rails and exactly two cross-section curves. If the input to Sweep2 is two rails and two or more shape curves.

Normal taper Taper with Flat option Copy Creates a copy of the tapered object. Options Flat Creates a uni-directional 1-D taper.0 Command Reference The SynchronizeViews command works best if when the "active" viewport is a plan orthographic viewport that displays what you want to look at. enter half the ending new width for the objects to fit into. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. pick the second point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. If you only have one viewport or a viewport is maximized. or pick a point relative to the taper axis start point. 421 . Taper Taper objects. the SynchronizeViews command does nothing. Type C if you want to make a copy of your original objects instead of tapering them. pick the first point of the axis line you want to taper the objects around. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Transform Transform > Taper 5 Select the objects.Rhino 2. Note The SynchronizeViews command has no effect on perspective views. enter half the beginning new width for the objects to fit into. At the Start distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. or pick a point relative to the taper axis end point. At the Start of taper axis prompt. At the End distance ( Flat=No Copy ) prompt. At the End of taper axis prompt.

Rhino 2. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. and meshes. choose a center point for the base. second Radius prompt. choose a radius for the top surface of the cone. TCone Draw a truncated cone. you will only taper that part of the object. End of cone prompt. Radius prompt. choose a point for the center of the top surface of the cone.only control points. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the cone's base or top surface by diameter. curves. Taper moves the control points of objects. 422 . Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 At At At At the the the the Solid Solid > Truncated Cone Base of truncated cone ( Vertical ) prompt. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will taper properly.0 Command Reference Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. You can't taper a polysurface . choose a radius for the base of the cone. The second point is constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. surfaces. Solid truncated cone Solid truncated cone with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the cone vertical to the current construction plane. The taper only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object.

set the options. surfaces. and XP. Note The text will only be visible in a parallel plan view of the construction plane on which it is placed. Type the text. This is with the understanding you will print with Print to scale value equal to the inverse of the Annotation Scale Factor. Font Sets the font for the annotation text. set Annotation Scale factor to 4. Scaled size The size you want the text to print. The text will be four times larger in Rhino (Model size) than it will be on paper (Scaled size). In the Edit Text dialog box. and in the Print dialog box set the Rhino unit to 1 and set the scale to 0.Rhino 2. Example If your units are inches. so the settings affect the printed size of your annotation text. enter the start position for the text. Model size The Scaled size times the Annotation scale factor. you can choose the text size based on how big you want it to print or how big it should be relative to the other objects in your model. or solids based on TrueType fonts. 423 .25 inches. 2000. in the form of curves.0 Command Reference Text Create two-dimensional annotation text. Toolbar: Menu: Main Solid > Text Creates two or three-dimensional text from True Type fonts. The two sizes update each other. TextObject Create text-shaped objects from curves. When you place annotation text. two-dimensional text Options Annotation text is primarily used for printing. and you intend to print at 1/4 true size. surfaces. Annotation scale factor This is set by the Scale Factor setting in the Document Properties dialog box on the Dimension tab. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Main and Dimensions Dimension > Text Block At the Text location prompt. It will not show in a perspective view. or solids. Text supports Unicode (double-byte font) for Windows NT.

select a style. In the Text box. In the Thickness box enter an extrusion depth for the text solids. In the Font Style box. select a font. select Surfaces. Text solids are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin. specify the height of the text characters. The text solids are selected for moving into position or resizing. in the Font box. In the Text height box. select a style. Text as 3D solids Solid text rendered with Shade 424 . specify the height of the text characters. type text characters to make into surfaces. select a font. In the Text height box. The text appears in the Sample window. Under Create. In the Font Style box. Text surfaces are created on the construction plane of the active viewport near the origin.Rhino 2. Text as planar surfaces Create text using 3-D solids 1 2 3 4 5 6 In the Add Text dialog box. The text appears in the Sample window. type text characters to make into solids. select Solid. The text surfaces are selected for moving into position or resizing. in the Font box. Under Create. In the Text box.0 Command Reference Create text using planar surfaces 1 2 3 4 5 In the Add Text dialog box.

Toolbar Edit toolbar layout. and to delete toolbars from the workspace. adjust the show and hide status of toolbars. import toolbars from a different workspace file. the buttons in them.0 Command Reference TiltLeft Tilt the view left. Toolbar: Menu: Tools Tools > Toolbar Layout The Toolbars dialog box shows the contents of the workspace. The workspace holds the toolbars. and whether it is hidden or showing. create new toolbars. 425 . add new buttons to toolbars. Toolbar: Menu: Status bar: Standard Tools > Object Snap > Persistent Osnap Dialog Osnap The Osnap dialog box shows or hides. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Set View View > Set View > Top Right-click viewport title > Set View > Top Note This command sets the viewport projection to parallel. Top Set to world top view. adjust the size of buttons. the screen position of each toolbar.Rhino 2. TiltRight Tilt the view right. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Up Note This command is most useful in command scripts. Use the Toolbars dialog box to rename toolbars. Shortcut: Ctrl+Shift+Page Down Note This command is most useful in command scripts. ToggleOsnap Toggle the Osnap dialog box. Title Toggle the display of the title bar.

ini file and change the setting DefinedViewsSetProjection=y to DefinedViewsSetProjection=n Torus Draw a torus. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. you must edit your Rhino. click the parts of objects to trim away.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Torus At the Center of torus prompt. Press Enter to clear selection and start over ( Options ) prompt. At the Second radius prompt. choose a center point. Diameter The torus sizes are entered by diameter. Solid torus Option: Vertical The torus is drawn vertical to the construction plane AroundCurve The torus is centered and perpendicular to a point on a curve. press Enter. When you are finished trimming. select objects you want to trim other objects with. choose a radius for the centerline of the torus tube. When you are finished selecting objects. 426 . At the Select object to trim ( Options ) prompt. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 4 Main and Geometry Fix Edit > Trim At the Select cutting objects. press Enter. Trim Trim objects with cutting objects. At the Radius prompt. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space.0 Command Reference If you do not want this command to change the projection to parallel. choose a radius for the cross section of the tube.

They only need to appear to intersect in the active viewport.0 Command Reference Trim input Trim result Options Extend Lines When line objects are used as cutting objects. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in a direction perpendicular to the curve plane. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 3 Solid Solid > Tube At the Choose base point ( Vertical ) prompt. When you trim a surface with a curve in a plan parallel view like the default Top. or use Split. 427 . imaginary extensions of the line are used. choose a radius for the tube wall size. When you trim a surface with a 3-D curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view. Use Untrim or DetachTrim to remove a trimming boundary from a surface. If you are having a hard time selecting the parts you want to trim off. Tube Draw a tube. Note You can trim curves and surfaces with curves.Rhino 2. use trim several times. Use Apparent Intersections When this option is selected the objects are trimmed in relation to the view. To trim a surface with more than one curve. choose a radius for the second tube wall size. and Right view. They do not need to intersect in 3-D space. choose a center point for the tube's base. At the first Radius prompt. Front. surfaces and polysurfaces. When you trim a surface with a planar curve in an angled parallel or a perspective view like the default Perspective view. At the second Radius prompt. the cutting curve is projected on the surface in the view direction. use Split and then delete the unwanted parts. the cutting curve is pulled on the surface by closest points. This makes it unnecessary to manually extend lines that do not intersect the objects to trim. Polysurfaces can only be trimmed with surfaces and polysurfaces.

Press Esc to stop the turntable.Rhino 2. The tube is a polysurface of four joined surfaces. Diameter Type D and press Enter to draw the tube's inner or outer walls by diameter. Shade. choose a point for the center of the other end of the tube. You can use the Turntable command inside surface analysis commands. You can pan and zoom while Turntable is running. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Transform Transform > Twist Select the objects. Solid tube Solid tube with Vertical option Options Vertical Type V and press Enter to draw the tube vertical to the current construction plane. Use the PlaceTarget command to set the center of rotation. Twist Twist objects. Note The view rotates about the target point. Note The first point can be anywhere in 3-D space. 428 .0 Command Reference 4 At the End of tube prompt. Turntable Continuously rotate your view. and Render Preview. The next points are constrained to a plane that goes through the first point and is parallel to the construction plane. Let go of the mouse button and it keeps going. Click and drag with the right mouse button to stop the turntable.

only control points. You can change the undo options on the Options dialog box. or construction planes. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Geometry Fix Edit > Undo Ctrl+Z Note You can undo most recent or several create. General tab. and meshes. Use Undo view change to undo changes made to the view. edit. The opposite to undo is Redo. the following prompt appears.0 Command Reference 2 At the Start of twist axis prompt. 429 . You can't twist a polysurface . The number of commands you can undo depends on the minimum number of undo levels and the memory size reserved for undo. curves.Rhino 2. You have to construct your object with a lot of control points so that it will twist properly. The part of the object closest to this point will be fully twisted. surfaces. choose the second point to define the rotation angle. type in an angle. All 3-D edges will be rebuilt to the current absolute tolerance. choose a second point on the axis. viewports. choose a point on the twist axis. Twist only applies to the points of objects that are inside of that axis. You cannot undo File operations or changes made to the layers. Twist moves the control points of objects. and the part farthest from it will keep its original orientation. but also makes sure at least 10 undo steps are always stored. 3 4 5 Twist Options Copy Creates a copy of the object. type c and press Enter. Undo Undo the last command. By default Rhino reserves 512kB for undo. At the Second reference point ( Copy ) prompt. Note The length of the axis that you pick is important. to twist copies of the objects. or choose a point to rotate from. If you entered a point to rotate from. Or. At the End of twist axis prompt. If you make an axis that is smaller than an object. At the Angle or first reference point ( Copy ) prompt. or transform commands. you will only twist that part of the object.

You can then apply commands to the individual objects. if the selected object and other things were moved in the same operation. Toolbar: Menu: Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Unify Normals Select a single unjoined mesh. Use the RemoveFromGroup command to remove objects from a group. Use UnifyMeshNormals to make them all match. This makes this command scriptable.Rhino 2. Menu: Shortcut: Edit > Ungroup Ctrl+U Use the Group command to group objects together. If some of the faces that should render disappear. all the other objects that were moved in the same operation will also be "unmoved. Note The UndoSelected command undoes the whole operation for the selected object. To test if the mesh needs to be unified Menu: 1 2 File > Properties On the Render tab. Use the SetGroupName command to name groups. Menu: Edit > Undo Multiple The UndoMultiple command accepts steps=number command line option. Render your mesh. Ungrouping objects destroys the group allowing individual objects to be selected. if you use UndoSelected to undo the Move. UnifyMeshNormals Unify polygon mesh normals.0 Command Reference UndoMultiple Provides a list of commands you can undo. This command is useful for tidying up your mesh objects for export into 3D Studio. For example. The normals of all the faces of the mesh now point to one side of the mesh. Use the AddToGroup command to add objects to a group." Ungroup Remove the group status from a selected group. The UnifyMeshNormals command changes the direction of the surface normals of a mesh object so they all face the same direction. 430 . An example script: ! UndoMultiple steps=10 undoes last 10 steps ! RedoMultiple steps=10 redoes last 10 undone steps UndoSelected Undoes the last action on a selected object. clear the Render Backfaces checkbox. their normals are flipped.

If you see inside the mesh. the order of the vertices in a polygon determines the face normal direction. If more than one object is selected. At the Select objects to unlock prompt. explode it. In general. Press Enter when you are finished selecting objects. re-join the meshes. select the objects you want to unlock. normals point the wrong way. The normal direction is determined from the vertices using right hand rule. Use Flip to change the mesh normal direction if necessary. All polygons have a face normal direction. A packed texture is a partition of the unit square into disjoint sub-rectangles so that one bitmap can be use to apply independent textures to each face of the polysurface. For example. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock Selected The locked objects display.0 Command Reference Note If UnifyMeshNormals doesn't seem to affect your mesh. Once the normals are correct. Use 3DFace to fill the holes in the mesh. A potential workflow is: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Import STL file with holes in it. Export in desired format. the packing "spreads" the texture over all the objects. UnifyMeshNormals is primarily for making sure the order of the vertices in all polygons in welded polygon meshes is the same. the packed texture coordinates are created. 3DFace object.Rhino 2. The PackTextures command will pack the mesh textures of every mesh and render mesh in the selection set. Turn on one sided rendering and shade the model to see if the mesh face normals point in or out. When polysurfaces are meshed. The order of the vertices should be either clockwise or counterclockwise. Weld the mesh setting the welding angle to 180 to make sure all vertices get welded. Units Opens the Document Properties dialog box with the Units tab displayed. all mesh primitives and all polygon meshes imported in formats other than 3DM and 3DS do not have vertex normals at all. A polygon can have two types of normals: vertex normals and a face normal. Toolbar: Menu: Visibility Edit > Visibility > Unlock UnLockSelected Unlock selected locked objects. Join the 3DFaces to the mesh with JoinMesh. The 431 . UnLock Unlock locked objects. UnpackTextures Packs the mesh textures of meshes in the selection set. but many polygon meshes do not have vertex normals. Use UnifyMeshNormals.

Rhino 2. select a surface or curves. UnrollSrf Unroll (flatten to a plane) a surface. Unpacked textures. Toolbar: Menu: Surface Tools Surface > Unroll Developable Srf At the Select surface to unroll or Select curves to unroll prompt. Packed textures. If the surface is developable. Polysurface made of four surfaces.0 Command Reference UnpackTextures command returns every mesh and render mesh in the selection set to the unpacked state. a new surface on the current layer is created that is flattened on the construction plane at the origin point. 432 . These commands are generally for paint program plug-in programmers.

In some situations where the surface cannot be developed. and some stretching or compressing had to be done to get it flat. an information message is printed at the command line. but not meet that requirement. If the surface grows or shrinks in area. If the area of the developed surface is different from the 3-D surface by a significant amount (2 x tolerance x sqrt(area)). and surfaces curved in two directions cannot be developed. If the flattened rail is a different length from the 3-D rail it came from by more than the current tolerance setting. In Rhino. This command may take some time. Surfaces such as spheres. The UnrollSrf algorithm has been programmed so that the rails will be quite accurate in length compared to the originals. If you make a surface with Loft using the Straight sections option. Toolbar: Menu: Main. tori.0 Command Reference A developed cylinder A developed cone Note You can use Gaussian curvature analysis to determine which areas of a surface have double curvature and are not developable. develop the surface and curves and then trim the developed surface. Usually this is because there is compound curvature and the folds can't be straight lines Untrim Untrim a surface. UnrollSrf will reject any surface that is not 1 span of degree 1 in at least one direction. Surface Tools.Rhino 2. and Geometry Fix Surface > Edit Tools > Untrim At the Select boundary to detach prompt. you can remove the trim curves. This is useful if you are trying to develop a trimmed polysurface. A difference in the area means that the surface wasn't really developable. The process is to make a sort of micro-fan of alternating triangles in the quadrilateral between consecutive rulings and then plotting those triangles on a flat plane. it may be geometrically developable. Think of it as if the surface was made of fan-folded paper with very skinny triangles that get expanded out to a plane. an information message is printed at the command line. Curves on a surface can also be developed. This is not like folding out a box. removing any attached geometry. or some other way except with Loft using the Developable option. a developable surface has to be single span linear. it means that the fan-fold analogy doesn't work very well and the surface can't be flattened this way. 433 . pick on an edge boundary of a trimmed surface.

Trimmed surface. 434 . Note Compare with Detach the trimming boundary from a surface. Untrim removes the trimming curve. Untrim removes the hole and the attached geometry.0 Command Reference Any geometry attached to the edges of the boundary is deleted. Untrim joined polysurfaces.Rhino 2.

Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Left ViewCPlaneRight Set to construction plane right view.0 Command Reference ViewCPlaneBack Set to construction plane back view.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Right ViewCPlaneTop Set to construction plane top view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Top 435 . Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Back ViewCPlaneBottom Set to construction plane bottom view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Bottom ViewCPlaneFront Set to construction plane front view. Toolbar: Menu CPlane View View > Set Camera > CPlane Front ViewCPlaneLeft Set to construction plane left view.

Camera and target location Camera The camera location in world coordinates.3921 (+/. Target The camera target location in world coordinates. Projection Select between parallel and perspective projection. Volume Calculate the volume of surfaces or polysurfaces. A "normal" lens length for a 35mm camera is 43-50mm. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces and press Enter. ViewportTitle Toggle viewport titles. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume At the Select solids for volume calculation prompt. you can change the lens length of the camera. Viewport info Shows the active viewport size in pixels and the name of the possible background bitmap. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the camera. Lens length on 35mm camera When the projection is set to perspective. Note You can set other display options on the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Viewport Layout View > Viewport Properties Right-click viewport title > Properties Options Viewport title Type a title for the viewport that shows in the top left corner of a viewport. Appearance tab. The volume displays on the command line in the format Volume = 623. Right-click the viewport title to open the viewport title menu. The default lens length in Rhino is 100mm. Type in or click Pick to select a new location for the target Pick both Asks you to pick a location for both the camera and target.0 Command Reference ViewportProperties Edit viewport properties.0.0001). 436 .Rhino 2.

enter or drag a radius. volume moments of inertia about world coordinate axes.-4e016.0 Command Reference VolumeCentroid Calculate the volume centroid of surfaces or polysurfaces.9553974.3. If an edge point was picked. At the Start radius prompt.4649522 (+/. Toolbar: Menu: 1 Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Moments 2 At the Select solids for volume moment calculation prompt.7e-007. volume radii of gyration about world coordinate axes. VRBSrf Create a variable radius blend between two surfaces.6. select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces.6. or press Enter to complete specifying intermediate blend radii. product moments. enter or drag a radius for the start of the blend. select a surface or part of a polysurface. VolumeMoments Calculate the volume moments of surfaces or polysurfaces.Rhino 2. Use CommandHistory or press F2 to view the data. At the Point on edge prompts. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At the Select first surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the Select second surface for variable radius blend prompt. At the End radius <x> prompt. The volume centroid displays on the command line in the format Volume Centroid = -2. First moments. choose a point on the edge.7e-007). select closed surfaces or closed polysurfaces. Toolbar: Menu: Mass Properties Analyze > Mass Properties > Volume Centroid At the Select solids for volume centroid calculation prompt. or press Enter to use the same radius as the start. select a surface or part of a polysurface. 437 . enter a radius for this point.2e-007. second moments.1. volume moments of inertia about centroid coordinate axes. and volume radii of gyration about centroid coordinate axes are printed at the command prompt. at the Blend radius at this point <x> prompt.

like adjacent surfaces in a cube. The boxes on either end of the slider bar set the range of weights for the slider. It does not change when you zoom.0 Command Reference Variable radius blend after trimming original surfaces Note Variable Radius Blend works best if the surfaces share the edge to fillet and the edge ends meet the edge to fillet at right angles. or rotate your view. use Sweep1 to build a surface from the curve and the circles. In other cases. pan.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Point Editing Edit > Point Editing > Edit Weight Select control points for weight adjustment. Wallpaper Display wallpaper. use Circle with AroundCurve option to place desired radius circles along the curve. 438 . Split or Trim the surfaces with the swept surface and build a blend surface between the trimmed edges. The initial focus in the dialog box is in the Weight box to make it easy to type a new weight or paste it from the Clipboard. Weight Edit control point weight. Note You can type an exact weight in the Weight box. Wallpaper is a bitmap that displays behind the grid in a viewport. Note The wallpaper does not appear when you render the viewport. In the Set Control Point Weight dialog box. one possibility is to create a curve that follows the edge to fillet and extends beyond the edge at both ends. use the slider to adjust the weight of the selected control points.

This causes the points in the blue mesh to look sharp. Every triangle point in the red mesh is welded to its neighbors. If the two points were from different "sub-meshes" of a joined mesh. and file export for stereolithography. Smoother Rendering In wireframe these two meshes look the same. To perform a similar operation with control points. texture mapping on mesh objects. the angle between a wall and its neighboring wall is about 60 degrees and the angle between a wall and the roof is around 55 degrees. This causes the shader to make that point look smooth. the red mesh looks smooth and the blue mesh looks chunky. No points in the blue mesh are welded. Welding polygon meshes affect rendering. Suppose you want the blue mesh to look smoother. enter an maximum angle between mesh polygon normals where welding of points should occur. they are replaced by a single mesh point. 439 . If two naked mesh edge points of a selected mesh are coincident and their neighboring faces are within the angle tolerance of each other. see the SetPt command. At the Angle tolerance prompt. Conceptually this is the angle where you want shaded creases to look sharp. B Select the blue mesh and do a Weld with angle=40. In our case. The angle between neighboring roof triangles is around 35 degrees. When shaded.0 Command Reference Weld Weld polygon meshes. A Do a Render where the roof and walls show nicely and leave the image visible. then we'd like the 55 and 60 degree edges to look sharp and the 35 degree edges to look smooth.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Mesh and STL Tools Tools > Polygon Mesh >Weld Select the group of polygon mesh objects. First you have to figure out the angle tolerance. To get this to happen. C Do a Render and compare with the result from A. we can use weld with an angle of 40. If we want a smooth roof. the meshes become one mesh that cannot be exploded. For example say you want the five triangle "roof" and "floor" to look smooth but you want the square walls to stay chunky.

Then use SelNakedMeshEdgePt to find the open (naked) edges. Possible other mapping coordinates are tossed away and this will show as texture wrap-arounds in the rendered image. Welding meshes with texture mapping coordinates is irreversible. So if you plan to use uv-texture mapping in MAX and want to use the uv-texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino. The mapping coordinates cannot be recovered from the remaining mesh information.1). the bottom right is (1. they always get welded. Welding in Rhino physically fuses overlapping vertices into one. The only way to make unwelded meshes is to use detailed controls. you will most likely want to export the mesh unwelded and do the welding in MAX. When you Mesh objects using the simple mesh controls. There can only be one pair of texture mapping coordinates attached to a single vertex. In Rhino the mapping coordinates cannot be edited directly. then Weld (angle=180).0 Command Reference Texture Mapping Texture mapping coordinates control how a texture gets wrapped around the object. 3D Studio MAX). They are twodimensional coordinates attached to a polygon vertex that tell which point on the texture bitmap gets mapped to this vertex.0). Thus. This artifact is caused by Rhino throwing away half the mapping coordinates along the start/end seam. See Importing and exporting STL files. they must be joined before welding is effective. Difference from Rendering Programs If you are using uv texture mapping coordinates generated by Rhino in your target application (for example. It does not physically fuse the vertices. 440 . The bottom left corner of the bitmap is the origin. but simply makes the vertex look smooth in the rendered image. The mesh on the right has been welded and the one on the left not. Weld does not report the results on the command line. The texture mapping coordinates are always between these values.Rhino 2. UnifyMeshNormals to turn a group of meshes into a single watertight mesh object. You might want to do this to make sure the meshes really do fit together before exporting them for use in an expensive STL job. top left is (0. Note Weld will not merge vertices of two different meshes. To remove welding (and to also lose the texture mapping coordinates) the geometry must be exported in 3DFace DXF (preserves quads) or RAW (all triangles) formats and then imported back. Use JoinMesh. Welding in MAX is different. STL Mesh Export Diagnostics For some rapid prototyping machines. That's why welding vertices and thus removing the overlapping duplicates throws away all but one pair of texture mapping coordinates. The result is some of the texture is missing and the missing part is filled with a mirror image of the rest of the texture. There is no way to "un-weld" meshes. The points between the vertices are interpolated from the vertex values. STL files must contain completely closed (watertight) polygon mesh objects. The vertices themselves stay separate and thus the texture mapping coordinates are preserved.1) and top right (1. the resulting vertex can only have one texture mapping coordinate attached to it. A mesh that has been welded in Rhino cannot be unwelded later.

At the Select object prompt.0 Command Reference What Display object information. Objects can be selected and highlighted without losing the shading. and view background are unchanged from the normal wireframe display. The wireframe of the objects.Rhino 2. Press Esc to return to wireframe display mode. surface. object highlighting. The same information appears on the Info tab of the dialog box from the Properties command. Menu: Right-click viewport title > Wireframe Wireframe display mode WireShade1 Shade the current viewport with wireframe. the grid. WorldAxes Toggle the display of world axes. Information about the nature of the object and its layer appears at the command line. or polysurface. Toolbar: Render and Organic The surfaces and polysurfaces are shaded in the current viewport. World axes icon on 441 . select a curve. axes. WireframeViewport Set the viewport to display in wireframe mode.

the distance of each pixel from your viewpoint is tracked. The ZBuffer command displays this information in bitmap form.ini file set the color for the icon. The first stage is to set the detail level for the analysis mesh. This information can be used to create random-dot stereograms. and color. There is only z-buffer information attached to a viewport after a shade without OpenGL has been done. Displays the z-buffer information of a viewport in a bitmap form. WorldYAxisIcon=. and black is the farthest away. where white is the closest to your eye. and if the depth is closer than the current value for that pixel in the z-buffer. Zbuffer Show Z-buffer.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: 1 2 Surface Analysis Analyze > Surface > Zebra Select objects for zebra stripe analysis. That's how Rhino can tell if an object is visible or not when rendering . In the Zebra Options dialog box. 442 . It can either be the layer color or a specific color you set in the Options dialog box.it compares the depth for the pixel it wants to draw. then the new pixel is closer and should replace it. The base color of the object is based on the shade settings.0 Command Reference World axes icon off Note The WorldXAxisIcon=. When objects are rendered in Rhino. set the stripe direction. Zebra Analyze surfaces using zebra stripes. on the Shade tab. All of those distance values together are called the "z-buffer" for that viewport. Set the stripe color to contrast with the base color of the object to see the zebra stripes. size. and WorldZAxisIcon= settings in the Rhino. You can adjust the density of the mesh if the level of detail is not fine enough.

and curvature between the surfaces match. The surface analysis meshes are saved in the Rhino files. These meshes can be large. This indicates G0 (position only) continuity between the surfaces. curvature. this means the position and tangency between the surfaces matches. Surfaces that are connected with Fillet display this behavior. To properly analyze a freeform NURBS surface. but have a kink or crease at the point where the zebra stripes jag.0 Command Reference Note The Zebra command is one of a series of visual surface analysis commands. Surfaces connected with BlendSrf. if the selected objects that do not have surface analysis meshes. The RefreshShade command and the Clear render meshes option of the Save and SaveAs commands remove any existing surface analysis meshes. These commands use NURBS surface evaluation and rendering techniques to help you visually analyze surface smoothness. or NetworkSrf display this behavior. Position only (G0) If the stripes line up as they cross the connection but turn sharply at the connection. the analysis commands generally require a detailed mesh. The NetworkSrf options allow any of these connections when you use surface edges as part of the curve network. tangency. This indicates G1 (position + tangency) continuity between the surfaces. this means the position.Rhino 2. and tangency match (G2) When you use the Zebra command. If the stripes have kinks or jump sideways as they cross the connection from one surface to the next. 443 . the surfaces touch. curvature. Tangent matches. MatchSrf. and other important properties. curvature does not match (G1) If the stripes match and continue smoothly over the connection. This indicates G2 (position + tangency + curvature) continuity between the surfaces. an invisible mesh will be created based on the settings in the Polygon Mesh Options dialog box. Position.

Rhino uses it's own mapping functions. This is an example of what the zebra map should look like on a sphere: Correct zebra The Windows 2000 OpenGL driver bug causes mapping like this: Incorrect zebra If your zebra mapping displays this behavior. select More reliable. When More reliable is selected.0 Command Reference Windows 2000 OpenGL If you are using Windows 2000 and your environment map display does not look right. in the Options dialog box. 444 . When Faster is selected. The new default setting with new installs is More reliable which causes the Zebra command to be slower on some computers. Press Page Up to zoom in and Page Down to zoom out. but will always work. If you have a wheel mouse. you can rotate the wheel to zoom in and out. Rhino uses the OpenGL driver to calculate environment maps and zebra stripes. you will need to change a setting in the Options dialog box. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Dynamic Click and drag in a viewport to zoom. under Zebra and EMap. on the Shade tab. Shade tab to use a different driver for zebra mapping. Shortcuts for Zoom: Press and hold Ctrl and drag up and down with the right mouse button to zoom in and out. ZoomDynamic Zooms in and out as you drag with the left mouse button down.Rhino 2.

Shortcut: PageDown Zooms out by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. ZoomPrev Undo the last view change. ZoomNext Redo the last view change.Rhino 2. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Undo View Change Home 445 . Shortcut: PageUp Zooms in by a factor defined on the Options dialog box View tab. Toolbar: Menu: Shortcut: Standard and Viewport Layout View > Redo View Change End ZoomOut Zoom out. Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents All ZoomIn Zoom in. ZoomExtentsAll Zoom to the extents of visible objects in all viewports.0 Command Reference ZoomExtents Zoom to the extents of visible objects Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Extents Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Extents Zooms to the extents of visible objects in the active viewport.

ZoomWindow does not always work exactly the way you would expect. At the Zoom factor prompt. type a zoom factor and press Enter. especially if there are parts of several objects inside the zoom rectangle. try using ZoomSelected instead or try to have parts of only a single object inside the rectangle. When you rotate a view after ZoomTarget. ZoomSelectedAll Toolbar: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected All. drag a window to zoom. Sometimes Rhino is not able to determine how close you want to zoom to. If you have problems with ZoomWindow. Toolbar: Menu: Standard Edit > View > Zoom > Target At the Select new camera target prompt. ZoomWindow Zoom window. ZoomTarget Sets the target point for a window zoom. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Shortcut: Standard View > Zoom > Window Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Window Z At the Drag a window to zoom prompts. The window forms with the target point as the center of the view. pick a point for the center of the view. Toolbar: Menu: Menu: Standard View > Zoom > Selected Right-click viewport title > Zoom > Selected Zooms to the extents of selected objects or points in the active viewport. ZoomX Change the zoom factor. This is particularly useful in perspective views.Rhino 2.0 Command Reference ZoomSelected Zoom to the extents of selected objects. 446 . the scene will rotate about the target point you pick. Note In a perspective view. Zoom to the extents of selected objects in all viewports. A value between 0 and 1 zooms out and a value bigger than 1 zooms in.

231. 266 animate view. 28. 127. 308 align:. 125 array: along a curve. 144. 140 Along object snap. 139 AlignOnSrf command. 143. 150. 307. set ortho. 426 Analyze toolbar. end and direction. 151 ArrayCrv command. 361. 368. 150. 407. 3. 136 AddNextV command. 203. 133. 195. 29. 5. 330 3-D digitizing: about. 206. measure between two lines. 152 arrowhead on curve. 231. 151 ArraySurface command. 322. toolbar button function. 255. 34. 5. from start. 170 2-D drawings from model. 139. 221. 210. 2. around a pole. create planar sections. 123 Arrowhead command. 83 AlongParallel object snap. 367 AllCPlanesThroughPoint command. 144 arc:. 144 Area command. 5. disconnect. 140. 135 3Arc command. 205.5. 5. 309 AlignProfiles command. from the last point. 230. 144. 143. 28. 152 Arrow command. Release 12 export. 148. 305. 204. 205. 139 Align3D command. 55 Ascii STL tag. 180. 135 3DM file exchange. 145 AreaCentroid command. 2. DXF file exchange. export. 62 447 . 53. 123 2Circle command. 150. 168. 426 angle: constraint. 385 analyze:. 207. on a surface. 140 angle:. 163 3Circle command. 14. 144 ArcSER command. 393 34View command. 5. DWG file exchange. 305. 393 3View command. 215 AnnotateArrow command. 5. 230. 141 ApplyMesh command. MAX 3. 162. arrow. 324 3Rectangle command. VIZ. 265. 144. 5. 412 Annotate toolbar. 215. 30 add object to selection. 206. 205. 5. 229. DOS. 5. 255. 29. 206. initialize. 5. 180. 32 AGLib file exchange. 152 AnnotateArrowhead command. 232 Arc3Pt command.0 Command Reference Index !. 203. 346 3Sphere command. 151. 135 4View command. 82 Alt key. 31 AG file exchange. 251. arrowhead on curve. 27. 144 Arc command. 5. 149. 215. 407 Applied Geometry file exchange. 3DS file format. 88. 298. 10. 206. 309 AlignBackgroundBitmap command. 139 All command. 139 AlignTrace command. 138 AddToGroup command. 137 AddPrevV command. 151 array:. 33. to copy while dragging. shortcuts. 204. 205. dot. 143 Arc3Pts command. profile curves. 312 AngleLine command. 146 arguments at the command line. 212. 43 Ashlar Vellum IGES file exchange. 148. 207. 140 Align command. 35. 149 ArrayPolar command. 362 3Plane command. 143 3Box command. 152. 27. 298 3D Studio file exchange. 198. suspend autoclose. 136 AddPrevU command. 142 Arc toolbar. 53 aliases. 148 Array toolbar. 152. 88 align: background bitmap. MAX 3. 14. 239. 251. set up function key for click. 206. 204. 151 arrow annotation object. 152. 205. 135 ACIS file export. from three points. export options. 5. 29 3DFace command. 169 3CPlane command. 220. pause input. 26. MAX 2. 232. 192. 141 ApplyCrv command. 149 Array command. 226 Adobe Illustrator file exchange. 29. tangent to two curves. 141 ApplyCurves command. 187. 5. 145 AreaMoments command. 330.0. 215 annotation. 149. 33.0 IGES. 127. 181 3-D Digitize toolbar. 142. 5. 149. 251. 323 3-D digitizing:. 27. 5. 149 ArrayCrvOnSrf command. 54 AssignBlankTexture command. 5. end and radius.2. 32 apply planar curves to a surface. 151. 5. add notes to the model. with FaroArm. 32 Alias IGES file exchange. 239 3-D Digitizing toolbar. 149 ArrayCurve command. to suspend object snaps. 152 AutoCAD. 10. 33. 340. 53. MAX 2. calibrate. 5. 5. 28. 143. 251. 152. 245. set scale. circular. 152 AnnotateDot command. built into Rhino. with a MicroScribe. 34. 152 Attach command. 207. set spacing between points. 141 arc: extend by.0 OBJ. 279 2Sphere command. 24 AddNextU command. command aliases. 5. 83 AlongPerp object snap. 205. 207. 152 ASAP file exchange. 140 AllCPlanesThroughPt command. 144 ArcTTR command. 5. 82 AlongTan object snap. 28. 333. 203. 312 Angle command. options.Rhino 2. 150. 138 adjust end bulge. sketch curve with. 76 analyze: surface with zebra striping. scale factor. 5. dimension. 152 arrow keys scroll icon image. 123. 281 AttachEnd command. 5. 281 Audit command. rectangular. polar. 140. 221. 255. 34 Autodesk IGES Translator R14. import. 140. 5. 5. MAX 1. 197. 5. 150. 143 ArcDir command. 5. 251. 333. 76. 5. extend to a point. 150 ArraySrf command.

55 BringViewportToTop command. 164. 185 CAD 3D SUM 4. clear button image. 5. 312. 56 center: buoyancy. floatation. 170. intersection. 365. 198. 168 choose one object. 163 Box3Pts command. 5. 124 C command. 245. 39 BMRT support. 139. 153 BaseballEllipsoid command. 245. 250. 367 BMRT Lights toolbar. 124. two surfaces. 5. troubleshooting. 171. 90. 170 CircleTTR command. 232 Clipboard. as bitmap. 160 BooleanUnion command. 118. difference. 160. 338 buoyancy. 168 CheckInLicense command. 169. with toolbar button. 163. convert NURBS curve to. 425 Back command. 250 centroid. 158. 180. toolbar button image. 101. 123. 163 box:. toggle world icon. 366. 5 bumpmap for rendering. 162 bottom view. 161. 163 B-spline. the layer of an object. 161 buffer. 351. 113. 139. 160 bi-rail sweep. 160 BooleanIntersection command. 425. 168 Circle toolbar. ortho angle. 322. edit button image. 322. 351. 362 ClearMesh command. layer. 171. 369 C2View command. 322. 297. 249. 79 center:. background. 124. 161 Bottom command. 139. 169 Circle3Pts command. 297. 292 Box command. 157. 384. area. 321. 133. 155 bitmap. 316. union. 384. 351. 161. 116. 123 Cap command. 351. 172 CLine command. 125. 90 ChangeDegree command. copy toolbar button. 162. 184. 384 background bitmap:. 166. with Esc key. delete toolbar button. 5. 123. 323.0 file exchange. 184. 322. 366 CArc command. 172. 365. 123. 123. to current layer. 421 BlendSrf command. tangent to three curves. 199. hide background. 170. 421 Blend command. 312.0 Command Reference AUTOFORM IGES file exchange. variable radius between surfaces. hide. 133 BU command. 168 CheckOutLicense command. 133. 5. height. 39 BMRT Materials toolbar. 85. place. 409. 164 cap open planar ends. show. 123. 316 448 . 165 change. 368. 250. 166 ChangeLayer command. 250 Center object snap. to the Clipboard. move. 130. 168 check objects for errors. toolbar button tooltip. 384 bad objects. 157 Blue Moon Rendering Tools support. 351. 154 Between object snap. 168 Check command. 156. 84 Bezier curve. 152 autosave:. show hidden background. display grid. 39 BMP file format. 168. 172 ClearAllMeshes command. 365. 162. undo buffer. 168. 90. 338. object properties. move background. 39 Boolean. set construction plane z. toolbar layout. 154 baseball-style seams. time control. 231 CArcPt command. lock. 157. 384. 153 back view. 229. use. 322 Background Bitmap toolbar. 164 capture image for toolbar button. render meshes when saving file. 297. 164 chamfer:. 172 built-in aliases. capture button image. 152. scale. 365. 163 Breault Research's ASAP file exchange. backdrop for rendering. 167 ChangeToCurrentLayer command. 243. 160. surface. 180. 124. 249. 184. 166. set construction plane x. 170. 160. 122. settings. 232 CATIA file exchange. from three points. from three points. edit toolbar. 124. save button image to file. sphere. 320. 162 Box toolbar. as 256-color bitmap. 5. 367. 169 CircleD command. 159. 124. 171 clear. 154. 170 CircleTTT command. 124. edit button icons. 145 chamfer: two curves. 365. 153 BD command. 171. 139. 162. 101. width. 156 blend:. 5. 167. 145. render meshes. select. center of. 367. 124. 5. 243. 198. 139. 71 CADCEUS (IGES) file exchange. scale background.Rhino 2. 171. 172. 162 BoundingBox command. cut. 157. from center. 122. 165 ChangeDegreeSrf command. 54 autosave: file location. selection. clear undo. radius. 204 camera. surface degree. 320. 2. 122. use for tracing. toolbar. 322 blend: curve. 153. 168. 133. import button image. 321. 163. 12. remove. place. 168. paste from. 168. polygon mesh. 160 Bend command. 249. 363. 322 CamSoft file exchange. copy to. 5. 156. 171 circle:. 392. 55 calibrate a 3-D digitizer. 24 circle: by diameter. 179. 153 background bitmap: align. 56 cancel command. 322. 402 Bisector command. tangent to two curves. 170 Circle command. 152 AutoShip file exchange. 90. 179 BI command. 349 ClearUndo command. 154. 55 axis. 170. 102. 123. 165 ChamferSrf command. align backgound. 5. 125. 171 Circle3Pt command. 366. 5. place background. 115. 133. 165 Chamfer command. 172. remove background. snap size. move toolbar button. 90 Autosave command. 250 button. 297. 167. 292 Box3Pt command. 123. undo levels. 321. 297. 123. ellipsoid. 13. 321. 363. 169. 124 capture viewport. 122. 368 Baseball command. 161 BooleanDifference command. 392. 249. 249. 321. command. 164. 162 box: from length. 114.

184. 173 COn command. copy settings of one to the all. 5. render. 131 command history. import from 3DM file. set the number of thin gridlines. 5 command:. 166. 413 CommandHistory command. history. 75. 12. 173. 406 Cone command. 246. old. 154. script. 398. 179. 245. 336. 179 ConvertToCurves command. 10. 173. options. 125. move in u-. 57 CPDash command. 406 ConfigScript command. taper. set top. G2. save. render window. 11. 327 Cob command. world coordinates. 184. 172 ClosePoint command. 181 Cosmos/M file exchange. 12. 172. options. 386. draw curve using. 123. 245. 182 CPlaneO. 327. 21. 173. 10. 84. 362. move through a point. 5. 180 copy:. 114. highlight. toggle display. rotate. 90. 173. turn on. rendering to Clipboard. 180. 182. 88. view to all viewports. 180. 359. 115. project objects to. 338. 5. 245. 335. 173. 182. 75. plan view. 173 Commands command.Rhino 2. 379. 292. 413 command aliases. view front of. 137. 138. 75 continuity. 176. 181 CPlaneElevation command. 173. 195 color. 298. show hidden. 181 CopyViewToAll command. 386. G1. 5 CPlaneObject command. 174 conic:. select next in v-direction. 88. View top of. delete from a curve. add to surface. 122. perpendicular to curve. entering coordinates. 183 CPlaneOrigin command. 104. 178 control vertex. 228. objects to Clipboard. set to 3 points. 183. 11 coordinates. 174. set origin of all construction planes. select row in vdirection. 182 449 . 155. 297. 419. 177. 182. 180. wheel. 181 CPlaneFront command. view right of. 245. 249. set right. view back of. 246. 178 control point definition. viewport. undo. 75. 359. set to object. 136. turn off. 297. 12. 137. 133. 304. 419. 183. 184. 176. 419. 122. 422. 5. 246. AutoCAD. 11. bend. 5. 180. 173 cone:. select row on surface. 292. 245. 251 command area. 343. 249. v-. 419. previous. 184. turn grid on or off. place point objects on. 173 CommandPrompt command. 125. add next in v-direction to selection. view left of. 173 commands:. toggle world coordinate entry. 180 CopyCPlaneSettingsToAll command. 85. 173. 5.0 Command Reference close. 119. 176 ConicPerp command. 303. 89. 246. 90. extract. set to z-axis. 405. 173 commands: list of all. 104. 298. shortcut. 184. 375. angle. 342. 182. 179. 181 CopyDisplayWindowToClipboard command. next. display for a point. 178. objects. 419. 173 command names. 245. arguments. 178 ControlPolygonHighlight command. 422. dialog box. 11 copy: command shortcut. 5. 362. 179 ConvertToPolylines command. 174. 339. 5. 131. toolbar button. 181 CPlane3Pts command. 180. 183. add previous in v-direction to selection. 303. 115. 202. create curve from. 164. 74. 181. 172. 119. toggle construction plane entry. toolbar. set normal to curve. named construction plane. 181. curve and surface. 138. 234. macro. 11. 180 CopyCPlaneToAll command. 10. 172 CloseDisplayWindow command. paste from clipboard. 177. 131. add next in u-direction to selection. settings of one construction plane to all. 181 CopyClip command. select next in u-direction. 88. 114. 179 CPlane View toolbar. 345. 197. display. 11. 202. 182. along line. 11. 2. 172. 182 CPlaneOriginAll command. 335. 406. 235. 133. 180. 338. 14. 5. 181. set weight. assign to mouse buttons. 379. relative polar coordinates. 140. set origin. 89. 181. 125. polygon mesh. 136. select previous in v-direction. Esc to cancel. 136. 379 control polygon. 177 contour curves. 419 context menu. 126. move along Z. 177 continuous shading. 342. 2. 323. 183. 323. view bottom of. 182. 375. 398. construction plane coordinates. display recently used. 172 ClosestPt command. 131 control points. 419. 344. 195 cone: cone. 2. 250. 176 Conic command. 11. 374. 175. set to x-axis. 178. select previous in u-direction. list all. 13. set distance between grid lines. 140. 18. 5. 155. 11. 15. 335. 339. false. project object snap to. 84. 172 CommandPaste command. hide. 179 ConvertToBeziers command. 419 CPlane3Pt command. make all have same orientation. 236 ConvertToPolyline command. 126. polar coordinates. 217 COff command. relative coordinates. layer. set to next. move to coordinate location. 179 Coons patch. move all through a point. holes in surfaces. 183. display in clipboard or history. 181. 235. 126. 176 constraint. 178 ControlPolygonDensity command. 303. set display density. 123. read from file. 218 Contour command. 89. 172 Closest point to an object. 228. 373. 181 Copy command. 126 conic: curve. 125. 35 command: alias. and ndirections. add previous in u-direction to selection. 406. 181. 75. 174. 172 cloud of points. 181. curve. set to view. 183. distance. 88. 183. 2 command line. set to vertical. set extents of. 197. 373. 178 CPHighlight command. truncated. 338. 15 construction plane. weld. G0. 75. 343. 164. coordinates. 88. 75 comma-delimited file export. set front. display axes. 380. toggle display of. set to previous. 4. 339. 219 coordinate entry. 131 ControlPolygon command. 14. 181 CPlaneNext command. 172. list. 166. 234. for spotlight editing. coincident. render window to Clipboard. 172 CloseViewport command.

195. 187 CrvStart command. 3 crossing:. Gaussian. 183 CPlaneThroughPoint command. measure between two curves. crosshairs. 239. 395. 258. 189 CSec command. 281. line perpendicular to two curves. extend by arc. 391. 186. 190 CullCP command. 24. 304 Ctrl+A. 239. 192 CurvatureGraphOff command. raise degree. 90. 330. offset. 144. 302 Ctrl+O. helix. arc from start. 198 CutPlane command. 217. 164. 343. 306. 4. 239. 14. 305. 2. 141. 389. contour. make periodic. 217. 195 Curve From Object toolbar. direction. 270. 258. 195. 184 CPlaneX command. 195. 265. 232. silhouette. 183 CPlaneToView command. 187 CrvSeam command. divide by number of segments. 165. 162. 348 Ctrl+Z. 271. refit. 170. 156. 197. revolve. 155. 367. 235. 175. line. 267. sketch on polygon mesh. 200 450 . measure radius. 164. 248. 197 curve. 15. 369. duplicate edge of surface. 162 CurveEnd command. 334. convert to polyline. 165. adjust end bulge. 389 CurveStart command. 190 cursor. 195. 235. 183 CPlaneToObject command. 226. cross sections through profiles. 183 CPlaneTop command. 164. 257. constrain to ortho. 191 curvature:. 179. extrude straight. 337. 340. 187 CrvEnd command. 165. 202. 265. arc from three points. 343. 2. 311. 236. 311. constrain parallel to view plane. radius. mean. 2. 170. 268. 236. bisector line. 238. 326. circle tangent to two curves. 339. fillet. 197. 185 CreateUniformSurface command. 156. 222. 248. 231. 4. blend. flatten section of. 184 CPlaneV command. 2 Ctrl+Shift+PageUp. 226. 333. 169. 343. arc. 187 CurveSeam command. section. 238. 13. 236. 232. 367. from control points. 179. 194. 184 CPTog command. 269 Curve command. 2.Rhino 2. 198 Ctrl+Y. 162 CrvDeviation command. 197 curve degree. 2. 323. single line. 269. 355. 245 CurvatureAnalysis command. constrain to plane. 188 cut objects to Clipboard. 249. 2. circle by diameter. 226. 316 Ctrl+X. 304. duplicate border of surface. 218. 131. 232. simplify. 254. arc tangent to two curves. delete control points. match ends. 174. select all. 398 CreateUVCrv command. 168. 258. 197. 188. 268. 157. 337. 184 CPlaneView command. 183 CPlaneRight command. 305. surface from network. 189. 256. 241. 143. 239. 189 CSV export. menu for selecting from multiple objects. 178 CreateControlPolygon command. 156. line segments. 195. polyline. 333. 236. 185. 187. place point at end. extend. 355. 202. 144. 388. extrude along path. 165. sketch on surface. 3 Ctrl+C. graph on. 339. 183 CPlaneThroughPt command. 187. 334. 24 curvature: analyze curve. adjust seam point. 413 CullControlPolygon command. 304. curvature graph off. 174. 314. smooth. marker. 142. 189. line vertical to construction plane. constrain along line. 195. extrude to point. periodic. 4. 180 Ctrl+N. conic. analyze surface. 131. apply to surface. 194. 394. 337. 394 CurveBlend command. 15 crossing: select with mouse. 254. 388. 170. 253. 195. 169. 177. 307 Ctrl+P. 356. 387 Curve toolbar. 394 Curve Tools toolbar. 255. 387. 281. 185. 298. 218. circle from center. 235. remove knots. 213. 187 CurveOverlap command. add knots. 231. 139. 217. extend by line. from point cloud. 298. selection. 179. chamfer. 323. 188 CrvThroughSrfControlPt command. project onto surface. 271. 4. 177. 196. 241. line normal to a surface. 35 Ctrl + Shift + Tab. 133. polyline through point objects. 336 Ctrl+PageDown. 390. 369 Crv2View command. 2 Ctrl+Tab. curvature graph. 142. fair. 25. 197. 90. 233. 191. 221. 367. 327. 15. from interpolated points. 174. 221. 194. 141. 144. bounding box. 189. 195. points. pull to surface. 24. 369 crossing selection. graph off. 195 CurvatureSrf command. toggle. interpolate through polyline. 255. 24. extract isoparms from surface. 162. 270. 230. 257. 255. 248. 390. 279. circle from three points. 387 curve:. 139. 187. 213. 195 CurvatureGraphOn command. tracking line. 216. 351. rebuild. 330. 388. 156. 346 cross sections through profiles. 267. 387. ellipse. 2. 218. 387. 268. 178. 185. 389.0 Command Reference CPlanePerpToCrv command. 4. 187 CurveSketch command. 305. 188. parabola. interpolate on surface. 182 CPlanePrev command. 245 Curvature command. 4. 256. 351. 327. point. end. 191. 185 CRectangle command. 216. 230. 281. 388 CurveSketchSrf command. 336 Ctrl + Tab. 177. 197. 339. 340. 192. extend to surface boundary. tangent line. 197. 185 CrvBox command. line tangent to two curves. 314. from 2 views. 255. 189 crosshairs. 230. align in two views. 238. 184 CPlaneZ command. 256. 389. 369. 156 CurveBox command. 239. extend by arc to a point. convert to Beziers. 253. 361 Ctrl+Shift+Alt +right mouse drag. 133. display graph. 234 CreatePCurves command. extract wireframe from surface. 326. 2 Ctrl+S. 389. insert edit point. 257. 143. 169. intersect two objects. 4. 168. 233. 4 Ctrl+V. 268. 187. 241. spiral. 15. 155. place point at start. 141. 281. sketch. 305. 3.

207. 144 direction. 165. 108 Dup command. polygon mesh. tolerances. 33 DWG/DXF file exchange. display curve or surface. 216 Drape command. 213 dock a toolbar. 211 DirectX file export. 396 Edge Tools toolbar. 135. 217. pause input. 19. Rhino. curve. lines. 207. 123. naked edges. 298 DigPause command. 201 cylinder:. 260. 250. edit text. 410 cylinder: NURBS. 203 develop a surface. 33 DynamicShading command. 10. border of surface. 217 draw. objects. 122 Delete command. 370. in Trim command. Boolean. 209. 205 digitize. 206. 165 Delcam file exchange. points at naked edges. 206 DigSection command. 127. 201. 213. 106. 344. 384. 338 DisplayBitmap command. 208 difference. horizontal. 203 DigCalibrate command. render mesh settings. display broken. 206 DigSketch command. 205. 207 DimAngle command. 23 Document Properties dialog box. disconnect. 217. 293 Cylinder command. 2. 131 Ebroken command. with MicroScribe. 207 DimAligned command. create 2-D curves. 19 document properties:. 384 edge: create curve from. 209 DimVertical command. 15 Distance command. 131 DraftAngleAnalysis command. 202 DeleteAll command. 370 DWG file exchange. shortcuts. 243 DirectionalLight command. 91. aligned. 85. 22. 239. 210 Dir command. select all. curve by number of segments. 208. 218. 202. 216. 204 DigClick command. 260. 372 DeselectAll command. 15. 45 dirty looking rendering. 3-D digitizing. 245. 245. 208 dimension. 209. 12. 216 drape points on Z-buffer. recenter text. 208. with FaroArm. rotated. 210 DirArc command. 12. 251. 160. 218. 2. dimension text. 218 duplicate. reverse object direction. units. 205 DigScale command. 196. 368. intialize. 17. set up function key for click. 197. 104. toggle. 207.0 Command Reference cutting objects. 212 distance: constraint. in Split command. 209 DimRecenterText command. 133. 215 drafting. 260. 210. toolbar. 410. 385. 370. set scale. Render Mesh tab. 344. 215 Dot command. 217. 202 delete:. edit points. 105. radius. 17. 288. 22. persistent object snaps. 372 Deselect command. 168. 250 display: bitmap window. 15 divide: curve by length. 213 DivideByLength command. annotation text. 209. 217 DupEdge command. 372 DetachTrim command. from last point. 212 DisableOsnap command. 218 DynamicShadingPerspective command. 132. merge. edge of surface. 425. show. 385. 272.ini. 167. 166. options. options. 206. 202. 384 diameter dimension. summary. 207. 34 DXF file exchange. 385. 209 DimRotated command. 218. 195. 338. 330. 330. button image. 330. 395. 119. 58 delete: all objects. 212 display:. 19 DocumentProperties command. raise curve degree. 206. 208 DimRadius command. 99 disable. 219. 210. control polygon. 220. 213 Divide command. 208 DimOptions command. 23. 121. 121. 22 degree. calibrate. naked. 220. control points. 217 DrapePt command. 217 drape surface. object discription. select all objects. 160 Dig command. 344. 420 Edit Bitmap dialog box. object. isoparm density. 127. 279 Dragmode. 3-D polygon mesh face. 204. grid. set spacing between points. 396 edge:. 201. 218. 178. command button. 211. 288. surfaces. 132. 22. 122. 384 Diagnostics toolbar. 213 divide:. 251 Domain command. grid axes. 243. 265. 17. 384. 215 draft angle. 123. 205 DigDisconnect command. 196. 217 DupBorder command. 168. 214 domain: match. toolbar button bitmap icons. 123 451 . 396 EdgeSrf command. diameter. 210 DimHorizontal command. 104. change degree of surface. hydrostatic calculation. Notes tab. 124. viewport properties. 212. angle between lines. 384. 218 e_tol. 422 Display command. 206 DigSpacing command. 120 document properties: notes. toolbar button. 218 edit: 2-dimensional text. 411. 208. 208. 212. split. sketch curve. wallpaper. layer. 205. 265. 205. 207 DimDiameter command. polylines. 88. 210. 251 dot: annotation. 214 domain:. 210 Dimensions toolbar. 293 data structure for object. 207. 203. 277 diagnostics. 288. 197. 10. 219. 205 displacement. 215 dot:. 209. 370. 19. 209. 212 disconnect digitizer. 18. 127. planar section. change. 19. 219. 385. vertical. 212 distance display. broken edges. 272 date. 202 Deselect All. join two out of tolerance edges. 202. 416 developable surface definition. 135. 220. 107.Rhino 2. 23 distance:. rebuild. 279. 166. 395.

230. PostScript. 56. 59. 222 ellipse:. 232. 230 extend. 1 Faro command. options. 221 EllipseD command. 3D Studio MAX 3. CAD 3D SUM 4. Tebis IGES. 30. 57. 238 ExtrudeCrvToPt command. 72. 131 FAQ. 228 error messages. DirectX. 26. turn off. 232 ExtendCrvOnSrf command. 123 edit:. Lightwave (LWO). 229 ExplodeMesh command. control polygon. 71. curve to surface boundary. Softimage (IGES. 231 ExtendByArcToPt command. 30. 236. 231. 33. 4 F2. 35. 55. 33. LUSAS (IGES). 64. 29. 43. 32. 92. Ashlar Vellum (IGES). 228 expand a surface. 3D Studio (3DS). 266 ellipse: from ends and direction. 232. 230. 228 EvaluatePt command. 229 export. 228 EvaluateUV command. 230 ExportCommandAliases command. 343 ElmoSrf command. 4 Fair command. 238. 224 EMerge command. 235 ExtractSrf command. 2. 260 elevator mode. SLA. 53. show. 44. 44. 65. 58 FastSURF file exchange. surface from polysurface. 63. 396 EvaluatePoint command. curve along path. 230 Extend toolbar. 236. Mechanical Desktop (IGES). 68. 233. Plug-in). 54. 154 Ellipsoid command. 11. 238. 51. 40. 73. 133 enter coordinates. 13. Integrity Ware (IGES). 236 ExtractControlPolygon command. 53.0 (OBJ). 226 endpoint object snap. 128. 68. Alias (OBJ). 30. 71. triangles. 229. Unigraphics (IGES). 236. 42. 70. 40. 330 EvaluateUVPt command. SAT file format. surface. 123. curve. Mastercam (IGES). 4 F8. 67. 58. 229 Exit command. 3. Alias (IGES). 69. OptiCAD (IGES). SolidWorks (IGES). FastSURF (IGES). 72. by line. 236. 238 ExtrudeSrf command. 223 elliptical conic curve. 45. 4 F9. 233 extract. 37. 54. SDRC's I-DEAS (IGES). object properties to file. 233 ExtendByArc command. arc to a point. 56. 234. raw triangles (RAW). 3DS MAX (via Rhino 3DM). 46. 2. 62. Cosmos/M (IGES). 2. ACIS. 229 export:. export to. 42. 92. 47. curve by offset. 71. Yamaha ESPRi. 231. 233. 37. FastShip (IGES). Adobe Illustrator (AI). 119. 429 End object snap. 53. 227. 65. SURFCAM (IGES). 228 Excel. 220 EJoin command. 45. command aliases. 35. 63. TekSoft IGES. 231. 174 Elmo command. 230 ExportWithOrigin command. 238.Rhino 2. 57. STL. 40 errors in model. 223 ellipsoid:. 236. 45. Moray (UDO). curve on surface. 62. 219 EditPtOn command. 67. Multisurf (IGES). 48. 69. 74. 233 ExtendSrf command. Solid Edge (IGES). Moldex DXF. 220 EditText command. 10. 239 false color display. 42. 35. 253. CamSoft (IGES). Applied Geometry (AG). AutoCAD (DWG). 78 EndBulge command. 12. 234 Extend command. 41. 53. 420 EditDim command. 60. 232. AutoShip (IGES). 356 extrude:. 13. 62. 63. 46. 64. 237. 56. 46. 73. wireframe curves from surface. ME30 (IGES). 41. 133 EShow command. 52. 234 ExtractIsoparm command. 60. 52. 35. Metastream. 222 Ellipse command. AUTOFORM (IGES). 59.0 Command Reference edit points.0 (IGES). 45. IGES. 55. Delcam (IGES). 51. 58. 124. 229 explode:. POVRay (POV). 26. 41. 253. 229 Explode command. 58 452 . 202. 32. 232. NuGraf (IGES). 220 Edit Toolbar Button dialog box. 36. 26. 228 exit Rhino. 221 Ellipse toolbar. 344 EMap command. surface into a solid. 35. turn on. 239 FastShip file exchange. 31. IronCAD (IGES). 236 Extrude toolbar. GHS. 70. 226 EndBulgeSrf command. 330 End key. 3 Enter: command for scripts. Catia (IGES). 93. 356 ExtrudeAlongCrv command. mesh to IGES file. 356. unable to run program renrib. Solid Designer (IGES). 74 Export command. 3D Studio MAX 3. Maya (IGES). 131. 234. isoparms from surface. VRML. 235. 235. CSV file. 385 ESplit command. 36. 33. 29. by arc. curve to point. 61. 133. 31. 236 ExtractWireframe command. 416 explode: NURBS objects. 227 environment map. 55. 64. 36. Breault Research's ASAP (IGES). 236 extrude: curve. 61. 12 ELine command. 46. 55. 224 erase objects. 127 Esc key. 61. 236. 222 EllipseEnds command. Pro/E (IGES). 45. 54. 219. 58. Windows Metafiles (WMF). Commadelimited file. 221. 69. 235 ExtractPt command. 73. 58. Microstation (IGES). 45. 220. space and rightmouse click. 133 Escape key. 231. 231. Viewpoint Technologies. 238 F1. 220. 385 EnakedPt command. 238 ExtrudeToPt command. 63. 233. 12 Enter:. 230. 230. from focus points. 73.0 (IGES). NASA GridTool. 31. 59. insert on curve. AutoCAD (DXF). surface. 288 Enaked command. 239 fair curve. 229. 221. CADCEUS (IGES). 37. 222 ellipsoid: baseball. 233 extend:. polygon mesh. 232 ExtendByLine command. 45. 238 Extrude command. Wavefront (OBJ). 60.

241 FitPlane command. AutoShip. set the number of lines. 54. 386. 302. 122. 73. normal. 55. 407. 58. marker. 239. 1 help:. 246 HBarSrf command. 46. 246. 133. 250 Hyperbolic curve. 249 highlight in rendering. 245 GridOptions command. developable surface. 75 hue. 262. snap to. 425 IGES: file exchange. 56. 72. 123. unlock locked objects. 245 Geometry Fix toolbar. 2 hidden layer name. 46. 131. 68. 248 help: display Help file. 54. 55. 415 Freeze command. objects. 362 File toolbar. 18. 249. 52. 246 Group objects for selection. import. 135. 131. types. 74. 245. unlock locked objects. 339. two surfaces. 396. 134. show hidden control points. 307. 131. 386 HideAll command. 249 HideSwap command. 53. 338 history. reduce size of model. 302. 65. 417 ghost: a layer. 240 Fillet command. 251. texture mapping coordinates. 336. show selected. text. 103 hidden objects. 176 G1 continuity. 53. 246 Heightfield command. 241 FlatShade1 command. 246 Gridsnap command. 249. naked edge. 131. Enter key. 168. 63. 49. 135 grid: axes . 361. 122. 277. 229. 242 FlatShadeAll command. 259. 325 FixCurveEnd command. bumpmap. periodic surface. 245 GridSections command. 251. 250. 120. 386. 260. 245 grid:. 330. 387 HSV color. units. initial mesh grid. 12. 133. 251. 171. 2. polysurface. 1. 380 GridAxes command. 5. 228. 385. 384. 377 Group command. 131. 229. 244 front view. 262. definition. 120. 279. 49 IGES Export Type Details dialog box. 277. spacing. 410. Osnap dialog box. edit using. 235 FltE command. 130. 273 freeze:. 273. 250. run application from inside Rhino. 348. 302. 131. 249 HidePt command. edit toolbar button. world axes. 133. isoparm. name. 132. shortcut. toolbar. 246. command line. 380. 273. 229. 203. tracking line. 123. 130 Flow along a curve. 50. 131. 360. 249. 221 fonts. 246. 281 FlatShade command. 214 fillet. 246. 243 floatation. turn on or off. save as. 176 G2 continuity. save. 46. CADCEUS. 194. 416. 273 ghost:. edit points. Esc key. 255. keep last used on top. 124. 379 IGES file types. 61. 171. 1 From object snap. 220. 239 fillet:. 415 FreezeOsnap command. 251. 132. Unicode. false color. 245 Grid command. 240 Flyout a toolbar. 368. 69. 415 Ghost command. 246. 416. 415 GHS file export. 81 Front command. 249. 239. 2. 132. 246 group. toolbar. 339 HideOsnap command. 174 icon. 250. 378. 133. 50. 47 IGES export: detailed controls. 123. 104 fit a plane through points. 243 Flip command. 425. 361. center of. 380 GridThick command. 262. section of curve. control points. Alias|Wavefront. set snap size. 247 Helix command. new. 119 Hide command. 46. 134. 305. object names. 395. 325 FitCrv command. 49 IGES Export Types dialog box. 380. 407. 251 floating license. 261. 47. 236. 122 font. 131. AUTOFORM. 240 FilletEdge command. 249 HidePoints command. 12 Home key. 337. wireframe. 133. set distance between lines. 413. 360. troubleshooting import problems. surface. 133. 386. 176 Gaussian curvature. 71. tolerance. 390. 119. text. 70. 132.0 Command Reference file: export selected objects. objects. 53. 429 Horizon command. 133. 75 Hydrostatics command. IGES export type details. 245. 249. 246 handlebars. 192. 453 . 1 Help command. 46. 249. 262. polygon mesh export. 273. 426. technical support. Ashlar Vellum. 379. 3D Studio MAX 3. 62. periodic curve. cursor. objects. 307. 134. 244 Flow command. 67. axis lock. 119 HideTrace command. 386. 60. flyout toolbar. 194 GCon command. 362 file:. 133. 130. 46. 119 HideToolbox command. 246 HBar command. swap hidden status. 417 FlattenSrf command. NURBS. 244 Flowline command. 249 HideCV command. 361. command area. 244 G0 continuity. edge of polysurface. 55. 131. curve. control point. 249 hide:. 134. 229. 49 IGES export:. 48. 55. 240 filter the layer display. 250 hide: background bitmap.0. 36 glossary terms. 57. 220. 278. 377. open. status bar panes. 59. 250 HideToolbar command. 273. 250. panes. 246 GridSize command. 133.turn on or off. 212 frequently asked questions. seamless mesh. 240. 362 FileProperties command. 240 FilletSrf command. template. 249 HidePts command. 407 freeze: a layer. Breault Research's ASAP. 378. 255. set the extents of. 172 hold. 64. 121 foat icon to top of cascading toolbar. simple controls.Rhino 2. 307. 54. 1. 242 flatten. 172. 307 HideBackgroundBitmap command.

130 license:. 168 454 . 60. 70. 257. FastShip IGES. Boolean. 167. 257 InterpPolyline command. knot. SolidWorks IGES. 253. 60. IronCAD. 312. Solid Designer IGES. purge empty. Yamaha ESPRi. 263 LayerOn command.0 Command Reference CamSoft. Mastercam IGES. 61. 61. 73. Delcam. 90. 133 Layer toolbar. NASA GridTool. 66. set material. snap to. 73. 62. turn all layers on. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans. 254. 343. 104. triangles. 53. definition. 160. 53. Unigraphics. Cosmos/M IGES. 263. wireframe view. 101. 74. turn on. 55. 167. SUM 4. 260 JoinFaces command. 42 join: edges out of tolerance. 41. 254 Insert command. 57. 69. 152 Leader command. Multisurf IGES. 31. 103. 58. 41. 99 JCAD STL export. surface or polysurface. objects. 52 import. 160. 54. 62. AUTOFORM IGES. 59. Maya. 61. 53. 58. 255 InterpCrvOnSrf command. 58. CAD 3D SUM 4. Mechanical Desktop. 132. Pro/E IGES. remove from curve or surface. 81. 152. 132. 343 ImportCommandAliases command. 252 information. 69. 132. 59. 71. AutoCAD DXF. NASA GridTool IGES. 322 JScript. curve on surface. 366. 256 interpolate. 307. CATIA IGES. FastSURF. object snap. 56. 70. 67. select from list.0. 101. 167. 256. 59. Microstation IGES. 56. 160. dialog box. display density. 168. 258 intersection.0 IGES. 101. split surface at. 265 Length command. change for an object. 103. 33. 61. 3D Studio 3DS. 37. 60. 307. change to current. SDRC I-DEAS IGES. 32. 57. 71. NuGraf IGES. 29. 307. CATIA.0 OBJ. 104. 263 leader: arrow. 312. 283. 63. 104. check out from workgroup license manager. 67. LUSAS IGES. 254. 255. FastShip. definition. 263. 251 import:. 262. 259 join:. 377. Yamaha ESPRi IGES. 253 InsertKinks command. 91. 251. 73. 72. Ashlar Vellum IGES. 251. 135 jagged shadows. 62. 59. 254 InsertKnotSrf command. 76. 70. 103. 256 InterpolatePolyline command. 85. 253 InsertKink command. 119 initial mesh grid. rename. 68. 15 lathe. Integrity Ware. 42. 32. distance from. 14. 62. 160 Invert command. angle from. 103. Integrity Ware IGES. 77. 377 layer:. 264 leader:. 59. 37. 265 length:. 121. Mastercam. 259.0 IGES. 256 InterpCrvSrf command. 253 knot. 10. Applied Geometry AG. 259 IronCAD file exchange. Lightwave LWO. 59 isoparametric curve. 255 Int object snap. construction planes from 3DM file. 10. 104. 64. 252 insert:. 258 intersect:. Solid Designer. 55. 71. display for object. 126 kink. 254. 63. 253. surfaces. 15. 140. insert on curve or surface. 253. 69. Cosmos/M. 104. 56. 57. 60. 59. 67. 264 Left command. 48. 259. two objects. 10. Unigraphics IGES. filter display. 103. 377. 71. 261 JoinSrf command. 60. 265 license: check in from workgroup license manager. 33. 58. 258 InvertPt command. 102. 104. 65. OptiCAD IGES. 101. 64. 58. 42. ME30. 54. 251 IncrementalSave command. Pro/E. 74 Import command. Raw triangles RAW. Delcam IGES. 46. 254. CADCEUS IGES. 78. 64. management. 371. 62. 132 isoparm. SURFCAM. 63. 65. 256. arrowhead on curve. 54. 425 ini file. 261 Join command. 264 length: measure curve. 152. 71. 42. 367 JPG file format. 104. 73. Softimage. 46. 64. 73. 56. OptiCAD. 251 Improve command. 31. aliases. Solid Edge. 168 license manager. 283. 69. 81. 102. 101 Layer pane. 253. 61. 103. toolbar from another layout. 140. Microstation. 307. set current. 69. 396. 14. TekSoft IGES. 72. Breault Research ASAP IGES. 33. 283. 135. 260. 63. 261 Lasso command. 46. 253 InsertKnot command. 68. Tebis IGES. LUSAS. 257 intersect: Boolean. 260. 263. 55. 343.Rhino 2. 55. named views from a 3DM file. one layer on. curve. 338. 80 Integrity Ware file exchange. ME30 IGES. 261 JoinMesh command. insert in curve. 131 insert: edit point. 41. translate IGES/Rhino. Multisurf. 78. 70. turn off by selecting an object. 71. 261 JoinEdge command. 121. AutoShip IGES. 355 layer: change color. 63. 363. 64. 396. 29. 26. 351. match attributes. 261 JPG. delete. 140. 63. Softimage IGES. 262 LayerOff command. 26. 255. 74 IGES to Rhino layer translation. 264 left view. 254 InsertEditPoint command. TekSoft. 377 LayerLock command. 425. 73. select objects by. 255. stereolithography STL. 132. 67. CamSoft IGES. 160. Mechanical Desktop IGES. 254 InsertKnots command. Maya IGES. 168. FastSURF IGES. turn off. 254 InsertLineIntoCrv command. set material properties. insert in surface. 56. match. 68. 46. 46. 3D Studio MAX 3. 63. IGES. 371. 258 Intersect command. 58. 168. SURFCAM IGES. 72. 65. 262 lasso selection. 59 InterpCrv command. 3D Studio MAX 3. Alias IGES. Adobe Illustrator AI. SDRC's I-DEAS. SolidWorks. 262 last point. 351 LabelCurveEndpoints command. kink in curve. 46 IGES:. 69. Solid Edge IGES. Tebis. AutoCAD DWG. new. 2. 263 Layer command. IronCAD IGES. 258 IntersectCrv command.

24 menu bar. 284 material: for rendering. 283. 179. 281 manage: license. single line. 228 Logout command. 281 MakeCurvePeriodic command. Rhino. 155. 212. 210. density for primitives. 142. 225. 363. vertical to construction plane. 269 LineTP command. 265. geometric continuity. 267. 273 lock: a layer. 162. 415. 131 mass properties. 272 list data structure of an object. 285. 340. uvcoordinates of a point on a surface. 268. 211. 281. 88. 74. 141. 39. 273 lock:. area moments. 281 MakeSrfPeriodic command. 338 mapping coordinates. 145. 125. 140. 180. perpendicular to two curves. 3DFace. from NURBS object. seamless. 371. set viewport. clear render mesh. deviation between two curves. swap status with unlocked objects. 90 Main toolbar. 410. 328. 268. 261. 62 menu: context. paste script from Clipboard. 212. 420. tangent to a curve. 357. 283 MatchSrf command. select all. 156. 296 macro. 145. 259. plane. 92. 261. 33. 328. 135. radius. 284 MatchLayer command. 52. 145. 326. 338. 173. 266. 145. 294. 270 LineV command. 86 lights. 125. reduce density. snap to. 236. 348. 288 maximize:. tangent to two curves. select all. normal to a surface. 296. 333. 84. 304. 334 LineTan command. layer. 396. pop up at cursor. 292. 288 Menu command. 290. 37 line: at angle from line. 377 Maximize command. 398. 281 match:. objects. 194 MaxViewport command. 288 MergeEdge command. 130 map. 145. 256. 39. options. 155. 281 MakeSurfaceNonPeriodic command. 338. 371. 288. 417 Make2D command. 371. 293. 292. 212. 232. export to IGES file. 265. 273 Logoff command. 105. 101 manage:. 23. 337. 371. layer attributes. 333. 267. 266 Line4pts command. 265. 228 LooseLoft command. length. 12. 339. join. 270. apply to surface. 61 mean curvature. 102. 269. 271. 288. 270 LineTT command. select naked edges. clear at save time. 290. 265. detailed options. 266 LineAngle command. 273. 86 material:. 104. 181 MakeAllViewsTheSame command. distance. 148. 271 Line command. 268 Lines command. 41. 338. 291. 421 Mastercam file exchange. 123. 281. 266. 84. 251 merge:.Rhino 2. 345. 377. 329. point. 161. convert each face to NURBS surface. toggle display. 134. 224. 421 Measure command. 191. 331. 269. polyline. 255. 194. 123. 288. 304. 340. 420. volume centroid. axis. 377 maximum curvature. 268. bump. 229. 272 LoadScript command. 181 MakeCrvPeriodic command. 338. 270. 146. 349. 155. 334. set properties for layer. 228. 279 Make2d4View command. 378 maximize: current viewport. 288 menu:. 126. 273. 294. 288. 265. 342. create. from four points. extend by. 281 MakeSrfNonPeriodic command. 296. from closed polyline. set for export. 224. 269. 240. 283. 40. 273 LockOsnap command. 192. 333. 421 Mass Properties toolbar. 267 LinePP command. run from external file. 191. 287 Match command. viewport. 270. 271. 273 loft surface. segments. explode. 271 List command. 270. 420. 288 mesh: 3D face. 194 measure: angle. 284. perpendicular to curve. two adjacent edges of a surface. 365. 334 Line4Pt command. 330. 290. 273 Lock command. 268 Lines toolbar. insert straight segment into curve. 91. 232. volume moments. 239. 268. 88. 255. 268. 266 LinearizeTrims command. 225. 421. 134 marker definition. 288 MergeSrf command. box. 145. 281 MakeSurfacePeriodic command. 292. 290. cone. 229. run with middle mouse. 293. 130 manage layers. curve curvature. 289. 61 MDT IGES options. 92. decrease number of faces. unlocked objects. 74. 213. bisector. persistent object snaps. 266. run from toobar button. 262. deviation of points and curves from a surface. BMRT. 62 ME30 file exchange. 245. 171. 421 MeasurePoint command. 38 match: curve ends. polyline through point objects. 23. 395.0 Command Reference Light tab. 221. 267 LinePerp command. 333. 329. directional. 273 LUSAS file exchange. 266. area. 334. 415 locked layer name. 255. volume. 12. 290. 212 LockSwap command. 103 locked objects. 420. 288 Maya file exchange. clear render mesh for all objects. 334 merge: surface. 37 M command. 273. 279 MakeAllCPlaneSettingsTheSame command. 399. definition. 273 Loft command. 342. area centroid. 377 Material properties. 228. 75. 398 Lightwave LWO file exchange. 304. 228 Mechanical Desktop file exchange. 288 Merge command. 455 . 212. 220. 212. 60 Mastercam Mill X_T file export. 288. 141. surface. 211. run from an alias. 135. 213 measure:. spotlight. texture. 272 LoadPlugin command. 286. 60 LWO file exchange. 358. 348. environment. run from shortcut key. unlock locked objects. cylinder. 267. breaking apart. 187. 173. 262. set for layer. 245. 378. 187. 180 MakeAllCPlanesTheSame command. 140. 265 line:.

toolbar button. 123. edit. lock. 132. 385. 349 MoveBackgroundBitmap command. 425. 84. 79. 302. 261. 103. 378. 355. 293 MeshDensity command. show. 304 NextOrthoViewport command. 363. group. objects to new construction plane. save. 297 NuGraf file exchange. wheel function. 92. 387. 90. 120. set properties. 206. 290. center. perpendicular to a curve. 229. 415. 4. 78. 78. 348. 117. 385. 311 OBJ export properties. definition. viewport. 75 named construction planes. 304 normal:. 305. 415 object names. 298 NamedCPlanes command. 302 NewViewport command. remove flipped. 82. 323 Microsoft Excel. 424 Mesh command. 30. 113. 79. 171. 261. 296 Metastream file export. 298 new: file. 133. 303 NextViewport command. 296. 215. 296 mirror objects. 423 MeshBox command. options. 2. 205. 2. ortho viewport active. to move objects. 83. 33. 141 mouse. 378 object properties. 304. 234. 363. 296 minimize:. 92. 297. export to OBJ. unlock. 297. 297. export to. 421 Moray UDO file export. 306 OffsetSrf command. reparameterize. view. reverse direction. 46 moments. 304 node. construction planes through a point. surface display. 113. 35 object snap: along. point. toolbar. 298 NASA GridTool file exchange. tangent to a curve. 147. 385. 293. 132. toggle persistent. 183. 297. 294 MeshPolyline command. snap to a curve. 414 NoSnap command. surface control points in u-. 81. 377. 131 NoElev option. scale and rotate on surface. 90 move: background bitmap. 41. 132. 12. 295. 297. 148. 82. intersection. 84. 348. 3. 79. 212 object snap:. 79. 306 Okino NuGraf/Polytrans file exchange. tangent from curve. surface. 4. 305 N-sided patch. 3. 303 NextV command. perspective viewport active. 80. 79. options. 79 minimize: Rhino. 385 name. 306. 146. scale and rotate. 311. 338. 37 morph target. 378. v-. 133. 322. 35. move control points. 296. 251. 298 Multisurf file exchange. an object. 298 NamedViews command. 82. 120. 309. viewport active. 122 Move command. export to file. 118 Normal command. 366 normal: definition. 296 move:. 92. 362. 251. 303. draw line. 2. knot. 249. 308. 293. 216 Moldex command. 302 next. 379. 343. 80. multiple objects. 305. 384. 379 Named Colors list. 134. from. 296. 304 NextViewportToTop command. 378. 355. weld. 80. 92. 79. 12. 297 MoveTrace command. 145. 297 Mscribe command. 243. export to RIB. 64 OldFlattenSrf command. 414. 305 notes in Rhino file. read from file. 304. 80. 343. 294. 295. 338. 296 modeling aids. 294. export to IGES. 85. 292. 132. 51 OBJ file export for Lightwave. and n-directions. 311. project to construction plane. 229. 243. 62 middle mouse button function. 349. 296. 84. off construction plane. 78 Object Snap toolbar. 295. 293 MeshPlane command. 2. 338 OBJ file exchange. 91. 363 name:. 121. turn off. 298. 371. 249. 423 mesh:. 414. 302 new:. read from file. 82. 298. 302 NextPerspectiveViewport command. 140. 80. 80. 295 MeshToNurb command. 141. 355. 343. 308. 290 Mesh toolbar. 135. 372 non-uniform scale. set persistent. 81. set for single object. 251. objects. 387. 63 Near object snap. 302 New command. 229 Microstation file exchange. 414. 304. midpoint. 298 NamedView command. layer. 84. 306. 296 minimum curvature. 384. 302. 212. 121. 83. 312 mold. 379. display.Rhino 2. 298. 292 MeshCylinder command. object to align with curve. 212. 84. restore. 81. restore. 338. surface. 305 offset:. perpendicular from a curve. 379. 409 object:. a view. improve. on surface. 425 offset: curve. 52. definition.0 Command Reference sphere. 78 Notes command. 297 MoveUVN command. parameterization. 307 Offset command. 423. 203. 303. 338. 103. 79 NetworkSrf command. set for multiple objects. 349. 81. 292 MeshCone command. 362. 81. 114. 194 Mirror command. 298. 243. 304. 141. 290. 140. 317 nudge. 84. 385. 93. 30. 123. 45 MicroScribe digitizing. 251. 78. disable. 135. save named construction plane. 82. 298. end. 296 Minimize command. between two points. 362. 204. parting line. viewport. 355 NamedCPlane command. 414. 46 Moldex DXF file export. 79. 243 456 . 309. pull direction. quadrant. 297. toolbar. 132 O command. 298 Microscribe toolbar. 292. 343. 37 object: description. 78. 183. 122. 302. 338. 212. 409. near. unify normals. 90 Midpoint object snap. show toolbar. 64 NURBS. 377. 115. 63 naked edge. 83. viewport to top. 12 None command. 362 named view. construction point through point. 215. 229. show hidden. set mesh the same. 132. 303 NextU command. hide toolbar. 309. 294 MeshSphere command. toolbar button.

88. 82 PerpLine command.Rhino 2. 387 paste. 307. 27. 92. 308 OptiCAD file exchange. 133 PanLeft command. 317 pause digitizer input. fit through points. 78 Osnap:. 313. 326 Point Editing toolbar. 213. General tab. 95. place at end of curve. Modeling Aids tab. detailed polygon mesh. 64 options: aliases. 272. 92. 94. 379. 3DS MAX 2. 2. 313. 79 point objects. 366. 339 point: control. 92. 381 OpenGL bug in Windows 2000. 316. 326. 88. options. create curve from. 68 PictureFrame command. 93. 96. 218. set. 374. snap increment. 96. 2. 318. 267 Persistence of Vision Raytracer. on a surface. press shift to toggle. 98. 94. 90. 318 Perspective command. 2 PackTextures command. 27. 68. 40 perspective angle . 322. Files tab. 327 Point command. 94. 313 Panes. target location. 318. 5. 322 PlaceTarget command. 90. 320 Pipe command. 324 Plane toolbar. by three points. 323 Plan command. camera and target location. 133. lock to axis. 272. Aliases tab. Shade tab. 324 Plane3Pts command. 324 plane: cut through objects. 92. 96. 329. curve. 253. left. 94. 206 PlanarSrf command. 92. 2. 339. 3DS MAX 2. 220. 313. 373. about. 267 PerpFrom object snap. Keyboard tab. 325 Plane3Pt command. 88. 205 pause for user input in script. Ortho. 4. 308 orient objects. 351. 96. up. 330. make surface non-periodic. grid of. 308. 366. 322. 325 plane:. 325 plug-ins. select method. 326 Point object snap. 29. 90. 367 pe_tol. 330 457 . 84 OneLayerOff command. 314 parabolic curve. 321 PlaceCameraTarget command. Snap.0 Command Reference OnCrvOsnap command. 422 Point filters. 246. 338. control polygon appearance. 130. 98 Options command. 309. 311 Orient3Pt command. 130. 309. to curve. 367 POff command. 375. 88. 200. 321. 330. 379 Ortho pane. 200. Osnap. 314 Pan command. 322. 92. 96. options. right. 134 Parasolid X_T file export. 307 OneLayerOn command. 90. 262. trim options. 325. 312. 281. 320 place. 2. 187. 281. select all. turn on or off. ortho angle. 386. 321. 133. 311 Ortho command. 318 Phoenix Tools Softimage translation. 338 PerspectiveAngle command. 92. 323 planar mode. on surface from UV coordinates. 206. View tab. 333 PluginManager command. click ortho pane to toggle. 314 parabola. 318 PConic command. 323 Planar command. 5. 90. 133 Osnap command. view. surface. 281. 131 pedge. 254. 92. 379.set. 312 Osnap: pane. 323. 313 Pan:. 308 OpenGL: toggle. 38 parting line. 90. Softimage. shade. 308 OpenWS command. 88. 379. 96. 92. 281. 12. 309 OrientCrvToEdge command. saved toolbar layout. 323 planar section. 28. 316. undo number. 97. shortcut keys. place multiple. 92. 318 PerspectiveMatch command. 96 options:. Layer. 323. 176 PCX file format. 133. pan distance. 29. 290 Organic toolbar. toggle. file locations. make curve periodic. 88. 90. 174 parameterization. 309 OrientOnSrf command. 130. 96. 188 point cloud. objects from the clipboard. no-repeat commands. 2. 351. 327. 172. 373 Point toolbar. 381 OpenWorkspace command. background bitmap. 133. place at start of curve. 323 Pa. 312. 325 PlaneV command. 90. 119. 68 PNG file format. nudge increment. 4. shortcuts. 363. 330. 90. 324. 376. 190. 84 open: file. startup commands. 373. troublshooting. 258. 88. 311. 92. set angle. redraw speed. 80 Perpendicular line. 313 PanUp command. 200. 325. 3DS MAX 1. 133. 133. 309. 90. 314 PanDown command. 425 Orient. 133 OrthoAngle command. autosave. 325 Pline command. Appearance tab. 133 Perp object snap. 312 PageDown key.2. 308 Orient command. options. 2 Patch command. load. 363. 94. 249. 2 Pan: down. Planar. 101. 90. 309 OrientPerpToCrv command. middle mouse button function. 329. 314 Parabola command. manager. developers. 96. 133. 376. 119 Open command. 313 PanRight command. 324 PlaneThroughPt command. 92. toggle. 253. from three points. 307 OnSrf object snap. digitize. 92. 325 Plane command. 133 P command. 326. toolbar. 96. 339. set. 94. shortcuts. polygon mesh. 101. 426 OpenGL:. 323 PlaceBackgroundBitmap command. make surface periodic.5. 308 Options dialog box. 307 open:. 311. 90. 311 ortho mode. 313. 318 perspective view. toggle. 307. 131. 28. 98. 290.0. 311. 224. 133. 325. 328. 324. change interface appearance. 131 periodic. 290. 326. 133. isoparm density. 92. place one. 339 POffSelected command. use for shade. object snap radius. 2. trackball motion. 2. 133.

328 polar array. 336. 425 PtOff command. select next in v-direction. options. 81 QueryDomain command. 12. 85. 293. 353 previous viewport. 68. 228 radius: dimension. select all. 65 program toolbar functions. 330 points:. 331. 220. interpolate curve through. 339 pull curve to surface. 40 POV Materials toolbar. 372. 361. 344 RebuildEdges command. 366 PrintSetup command. density for primitives. 392 polygon: circumscribed. 420. grid. 343 rebuild:. hide edit and control. 2 PrevU command. 337. 86. 343 ReadNamedViewsFromFile command. 197. 372. 338 project: curve to surface. 343. measure. 333. 235. 420 Properties command. render using OpenGL shade. 344. 343. 332 PolygonEdge command. 379 preview. 262. 336 print screen: to 256-color file. 138. 353. 171. 295. 367. 40. 121. 19. 340 rail revolve. 337 project:. 338. viewport. 342 ReadEveryIGESEntity command. invert selection. 85 Properties Material tab. clear render mesh. 333 PolylineThroughPt command. 333. 340 radius:. box. 294. 214 QueryUVPoint command. 290. 136. 425. convert each face to NURBS surface. add next in v-direction to selection. knot. 260. 412 PointsAtNakedEdges command. select all. 329 points: add next in u-direction to selection. 202. 340 Raw Triangle (RAW) file exchange. 368. 293. image of model. 343. 187. edges of surfaces and polysurfaces. select naked edges. 19. 202. delete control on curve. cylinder. 423 Polygon toolbar. 262. 36. 414. plane. 331. 64. 296. 295. absolute. twist. 259. 337. 49 ReadNamedCPlanesFromFile command. 291. 259. 137. 335. 249.0 Command Reference point:. 349. 41 POV-Ray file export. 86. 19. 104 PushViewportToBack command.Rhino 2. 292. 136. named views from a 3DM file. 424. 123 Proj command. select connected. 344 recent commands list display. 303. join. control points. 17. 190. 327 PointDeviation command. 223 PolarSphere command. 261. 335. 294. 335. 303. 338 Project command. draw. 333. 339 purge empty layers. 135. 366. 292. 64. 35. cone. 344 RebuildSrf command. 371. explode. object. create from control points. 254. 235. toolbar. select previous in u-direction. 87. weld. 293. 190. from closed polyline. 329 PointLight command. 382 Quad object snap. 339 Pull command. 372 PolylineOnMesh command. 339. select with lasso. 84 ProjectToCPlane command. 332 polyline: convert curve to polyline. 292. 197. 335 PrevV command. 257. 339 PointTest command. 290. 378. clear render mesh for all objects. 137. render mesh. 171. 340 Radius command. 336 print. show edit and control. 19. 12. Polytrans Softimage translation. 368. 331. 412. inscribed. 150 polar coordinates. viewport layout from file. 372 Polytrans. 229. 10. 332. 135. 261. 188 PointCloudSection command. coordinate points. 68 POn command. set normals the same. 330 PointsFromUV command. through point objects. select object to turn off. 340 RailRevolve command. 3D face. 338. 259. document. 339 PointsOffSelected command. 334 Polyline command. export to file. 10. 328 PointGrid command. to Clipboard. 344. 386. 382 QRenderAll command. join. explode. from NURBS object. Okino NuGraf/Polytrans IGES file exchange. 330 PointsOff command. 138. select previous in v-direction. 338 Projection command. 18. 334. 136. 87 properties:. 343. 333 polyline:. 343 rebuild: curve. 296. 371. 339 PopupMenu command. named construction planes from file. 50 Quit command. draw on mesh. 209. 141. 209. 339. sphere. display information about an object. render. 337 Pro/E file exchange. 386. hide back. from edge. 229. 86 Properties Text tab. 413 Points command. 339 PtOn command. 21. 337 Print command. 340 QRender command. 423. 334 polysurface. 141. show control. 254. to file. 337 ProjCP command. 331 polygon mesh. 335 PrevViewport command. 228 quinitics. 41 read. 334 PostScript file export. 131. 349. 338 ProjectOsnap command. 339. 12 PolarEllipsoid command. 249. 331 Polygon command. 332 polygon:. 334 PopupToolbar command. select next in u-direction. 294. 290. add previous in u-direction to selection. 90 458 . edit points. 338 Properties Dimensions tab. 343 ReadCommandFile command. 339 PtOffSelected command. 259. 338. 361. 220. 35. notes. 345 Rebuild command. 303. 229. 343 ReadViewportsFromFile command. 179. 121. 257. surface. 179. 46 POV Lights toolbar. 339 PointsOn command. material. 338 properties. objects to construction plane. 229. 343. 381 QRender1 command. add previous in v-direction to selection. 414. apply to surface. relative. 340 RailRev command. 12.

355 RestoreView command. 360. 359 RotateCameraRight command. 351. view change. 360 Run command. 353 RenderEdges command. 360 rotate:. 356 Right command. 103. 325. 4. file to a different file name or file type. from three points. 3. 352 rename. curves. 363. 359 RotateDown command. 308. 346. 353. 347 Rectangle3Pt command. 309.0 Command Reference Rect command. object from selection. named view. 355 revolve: surface from curve. 30. preview using OpenGL shade. Top construction plane. 183 Restore command. 355 RevU command. 24. 353. 363. 96. 360. 363. 354 repeat command exclude list. layer. 325 RectCen command. 99 Render toolbar. 352. vertical. 3. 276 run application/program inside Rhino. wallpaper. 351 RemoveKnotSrf command. 338. 347 Rectangle command. 133 right view. 349 RemapCPlane command. 351 RemoveWallpaper command. Rhino 1. objects in 3D space. a surface. edges. 398 RenderAGEdges command. 3. 359. close render window. 346. 429 RedoMultiple command. 320. image in the render window. 172. 181. 459 . 360. 324. 346. 352 RemoveBackgroundBitmap command. 360 RotateUp command. clearing render meshes. view continuously. 338. 348. 359 RotateCameraUp command. 3. command aliases. 360 RotateLeft command. 1 Rhino. named construction plane. 358. 351 RemoveKnots command. trim curve from surface. up. 25 Rhino web page. 352. 340 Revolve command. 2. options. 348 ReduceMesh command. 30. 90 reshape a toolbar. 349 relative coordinates. 2. 355. materials. 94 RIB file export. 359 RotateCPlane command. 39. 352. 351. 398. 1 RhinoScript options. create background image.0. flipped normals from NURBS surfaces. 361. 349 remove. 381. 358. 2. 20 render problems. 308. 347 redo: last undone command. 40. surface using rail curve. 351 RemoveMultiKnotSrf command. 429 Redo command. 3. 320. 309. 338. place lights. 348. 288. 356 RevV command. Rhino from being minimized. 355 revolved surface. 360 RotateRight command. 203. 353 RenderPreview command. named view. 1. 361 S command. an object. 379 RenderOptions command. 230. 345 Rect3Pt command. 382. 353 RenderPreviewAll command. 19. 203. 30 save: as small file. 352. 148 rectangular surface. length and width. through three points. 119 Rhinoceros. vertical to construction plane. 363. 340. 357. 355 Rev command. 354 RenderPreviewSelectedAll command. 352 RenderCrv command. 346 RectangleCen command. 338. 75 Rhino 1. 359 RotateCameraLeft command. toolbar.Rhino 2. 398. 251 ReparameterizeSrf command. 354. 362. 353. 126. 357 right mouse button. 412 Rotate3D command. 120. 356 RGB color. 4. 96. 357 rotate view. background bitmap. 172. button image to file. sequentially numbered versions of model. 338 Ribbon command. 181. 357 right-click menu. named construction plane. 346.0 file exchange. 362. 2. 171. 360 RotateView command. ii roll out a surface. 355. 171. 5. 103. 359. 357. 348 Redo command shortcut. 346 RectangleV command. right. mesh settings. 354. 358 RotateCamera command. edges of polygon meshes. 4. 252. 360 Rule command. corner. bumpmaps. 345. autosave.ini. 338. 39. 181. 355. left. 347 rectangular array. shine. down. 4. 2 redo:. 74 Robert McNeel & Associates. 353. 4. 416 rotate: construction plane. 181. 360. 39. 351 RemoveFlippedNormals command. copy to Clipboard. 351 RemoveTrace command. 324. 11 remap objects to a new construction plane. 353. 309. 355. 360 RunScript command. 391 SAT file export. 348 refit a curve. 352 render plug-in application: options. 358 RotateCameraDown command. move and scale. 338. scale and move on surface. 171. 120. 324. transparency. 351. 355 RestoreCPlane command. 363. 347 rectangle:. 4. highlight. 351 RemoveKnot command. 3. 355 restore:. objects. 354 reparameterize. 346 rectangle: center. 30 RemoveFromGroup command. 25. 353 RenderCurves command. 412 Rotate command. 346 RectV command. 241 RefreshShade command. file. 273 ruled surface. 2. 121 render: BMRT. 288. 2. 125. 425 render:. 355 revolve:. 338. save image in render window. curve knots. 24. 353 RenderPreviewSelected command. 378. 353 Renderman RIB file export. 120 restore: current viewport size. why the name. 152. 338 Render command. 39. 251. 5. clear render mesh for all objects. 345 Rectangle toolbar. textures. 19. 346 Rectangle3Pts command. 10. 363. Front construction plane. 2. 183. 354 ReparameterizeSurface command.

376. 363 SaveWSAs command. 367. 371 SelLayerNumber command. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile256 command. 376. lasso. 371 SelName command. 123 SDRC I-DEAS file exchange. 182. objects to shade. 372 SelPolylines command. VBScript. 183. 258. 365. 183. 373. 372. objects uniformly. construction plane to object. 262. 367. 129 scripting tools. 383. front construction plane. 373 SelU command. add next control point in v-direction. subparts of objects. 308. 262. 368. 362 SaveDisplayWindowAs command. 415 SelectBadObjects command. 376. 367. 372. 364. digitizing scale. 374. 372. 24. 367 SelAll command. objects by layer number. 366 ScaleTrace command. objects for render preview. rotate and move on surface. 373 SelSrfs command. 367 scripting: Rhino installers. 368. construction plane to next used. 369 SelCurves command. 354. 369. 335. 371 SelMesh command. 137. 335.Rhino 2. 366 scale:. 372 SelSolids command. 370 select: add next control point in u-direction. 367 Section command. 136. 373 SelPt command. 136. 103. add previous control point in u-direction. JScript. 309 Scale command. construction plane to zaxis. 181. 363 SaveWS command. 365 ScaleBackgroundBitmap command. previous control point in vdirection. 309. 129 scroll icon image with arrow keys. 370 SelDup command. 367 screen:. 361 save template. surfaces. 460 . to Clipboard. construction plane origins to a point. dimensions. 366. 206. next control point in u-direction. objects by name. 335. 371 SelMeshes command. spotlights. 138. 90 Select Color dialog box. 138. toolbar layout. 258. 230. 103. maximized viewport by name. number of thin gridlines between each thick grid line. 363 SaveAs command. 369 SelDim command. 181. 246. row of control points in udirection. 364 Scale2D command. 368. 370. 363. 369 SelCrv command. rows and columns of control points on surface. polysurfaces. 375 SelWindow command. 374. 373. 50. to file. extents of grid. 369 SelCrvs command. 367. 181. 362 SaveCPlane command. 152. 24 SelectLayer command. 339. 373 SelPolyline command. 138. 371. 372 SelPolysrfs command. meshes. 23 ScreenCaptureToClipboard command. 373 SelPts command. 374. distance between grid lines. 137. 362. 182. 372 SelGroup command. 383. 25. 370. 373. 363 Save command. by object ID. 2. 184. 371. 335. 137. 365. connected points. IGES. 372. 365 ScaleNU command. 377. 246. all objects. 126. construction plane to previously used. previous control point in udirection. 370. toolbar layout as different name. 25. 372 SelPrev command. 364. 184. 383. deselect all objects. 184. 303. objects instead of control points. 373 SelSurface command. move and rotate. objects to unlock. 370 SelID command. 363 SaveWorkspaceAs command. 184. 51. 373 SelSurfaces command. 371. 369. 374 SelV command. 368 SelCrossing command. 371 SelNakedMeshEdgePt command. 366. invert. 370 SelDups command. 354. template. coordinates of points. 363. polylines. 259. 288. 303. control polygon display density. next control point in v-direction. 369. 371 SelLights command. 25. 308. 178. 362 save:. 136. construction plane origin. 363 SaveSmall command. objects. 372 SelSrf command. 362 SaveAsTemplate command. 373. 50. 182. 370 SelLayer command. 136. 372 SelNone command. 368 SelConnected command. by layer. with crossing window. 339. 262. 24. 303. 366. 379. curves. 262. 126. 364 Scale toolbar. 366. 75 Select Points toolbar. layers from list. add previous control point in v-direction. with a window. objects in one direction. 370 selection menu. 372 SelPoint command. 368 SelColor command. 371 SelectName command. 126 scripting:. to file in 256 colors. 369. 258. construction plane vertical. 372. 371. 364. 365. 363 SaveWorkspace command. 366 ScreenCaptureToFile command. objects non-uniformly. 259. 246. 370 SelLast command. bad objects. 90. 366 Scale1D command. 172. 309. 362. 372. points objects. 363 scale: background bitmap. construction plane to x axis. 364. 369 SelCurve command.0 Command Reference shortcut. 361. current layer. objects in two dimensions. row of control points on surface in v-direction. 373. 370. 125. 373 SelUV command. 367 section curves. 375 Select toolbar. 373 SelSolid command. 365 screen capture. 366. 375. 125. 370. 368. 376 set: active viewport by name. 368 SelectID command. in shaded viewport. 373 select:. duplicate objects. 377. construction plane to view. 368 SelectConnected command. 367 SelBadObjects command. 252. 365. 363 SaveView command. construction plane with 3 points. invert point selection. 303. 67 Sect command. 415. with mouse method. 371. 371. 375. 371 SelLight command. 372 SelPolysrf command.

84. 212. 140 ShowBackgroundBitmap command. 84. 220. 378 SetObjectNameMultiple command. 378 SetObjectName command. working directory. 383. 79. along a line tangent to a curve. 81. selected objects. 78. 3. to an object. 5 shine in rendering. 388. 184. z-buffer. 377 SetLayerMaterialProperties command. 381. to surface isoparm. Top. 323. 386 ShowStatusBar command. bitmap in a separate window. 384 ShowViewportTitle command. 173 ShowCV command. 74. flat in one viewport. 378 SetObjectMaterialProperties command. 81. 79. 376 SetCurrentRenderPlugIn command. 250. 322. 4 Shift+PageDown. 181. 377 SetHotspot command. 120. 78. 182. 385 ShowGrev command. to a knot. 78. tangent to a curve. naked edges.Rhino 2. 79. toolbar. 383 shear objects. 242. hidden objects. 77. 94. 384 ShowCamera command. grid. 380. 42 Smooth command. 78 461 . 385 ShowCommandPrompt command. 3 Points. 385 ShowPoints command. flat with grid. 379 SetOrtho command. edit points. 379 SetPt command. 381 set construction plane. 244. 400 ShowTitle command. 183. 2. 387 SimplifyCurve command. 242. project object snaps to construction plane. 383 ShadeOptions command. 250 SetLayer command. 384 ShowBrokenEdges command. viewports. 386. 385. 389 skinning. 245 ShowMenu command. change size. with no smoothing on mesh. 181. 389 SketchOnSrf command. display context menu. 337. 380 SetGroupName command. 207 SetSnap command. 384. 383. 383 ShadedViewport command. 381 SetActiveViewport command. 387 silhouette curves. 357. 264. object. 2. onto a curve. 380 SetWorkingDirectory command. 5 Shift+PageUp. 386. 388. 298. to previously used. 246. 376. top construction plane. 390 smooth curve or surface. 119. shortcuts. 133. 382. 382 shaded display. continuous in perspective view. 94. 379 SetPerspectiveAngle command. 425 ShrinkTrimmedSrf command. scripting tools. options. 385 ShowOsnap command. continuous shaded mode. 390 snap: along a line. 246. 308 SetViewportWindowSize command. 382 ShadeAll command. 339. 94. 178. to a surface. 82. to the center of a circle. 125 show: background bitmap. 245 ShowGridAxes command. 206. 23. from a point. 220. 318. 125. 384. 318. 339. 83. 76. Right. 382. 355. spotlight hotspot. 376 SetGridSnap command. 182. 21 Shear command. 84. 392. toggle OpenGL mode. perspective angle. 381. 383. 425 Shade1 command. 379 SetRedrawOff command. 212. 362 Set View toolbar. 206. 380 SetSketchSkip command. 363. near a curve. 241. 384. 379.0 Command Reference persistent object snap. 241. 343. 242. 119 ShowTrace command. 383 ShadeSelectedAll command. 42 SLC file exchange. 338 shortcuts. 380 SetRedrawOn command. keys. in all viewports. by key. 119 ShowToolbox command. 389. 388 sketch:. 377. turn off object snaps. 181. 355. 379 SetPts command. 387 SimplifyCrv command. 385. to construction plane. 92. 2. 409 ShowToolbar command. right construction plane. 80. 389 SketchOnMesh command. 384. to the view. 386 ShowPt command. 183. control points. 80. along a line perpendicular to a curve. z-axis. 246. 218. 386 ShowPts command. 98. 261. selected hidden objects. pane. 84. 337. 183. 94. 182. by function. 183. to the end of a curve. broken edges. 386 Silhouette command. 385. 140. 183. handlebars. 359. 426 ShowAll command. 381 shade:. 386 ShowSelected command. 273 SLA export. 5. built-in aliases. 384 show:. with grid. 98. 96. curve on polygon mesh. Osnap toolbar. 183. edges of surface or polysurface. midway between two points. 250. 420 ShowWorldAxes command. 2. 376. 381 shade: continuous. flat in all viewports. OpenGL. to the midpoint of a curve. 241. 382. 339 ShowEdges command. 377 SetObjectMaterial command. 261. 426 Show command. 383 ShadeSelected command. 383 Shift key. 183. 383 shadow. 409. 318 SetPlanar command. 389 Sketch command. 78. 218. 409 set:. 318. 162. 82. curve with digitizer. printer. 425 Shade command. 382. 153. 76. 387 sketch: curve. with wireframe. 5. selected objects in all viewports. to the intersection of two curves. to a point object. options. 183. on surface. 386. x-axis. 184 Set CPlane toolbar. 377 SetMaximizedViewport command. perpendicular to a curve. 119. 376. 181. 242. 92. 92. 80. 95. 385. 184. 184. 184. 391. 2. 380 Settings command. 74 Shift+Ctrl+Tab. 298. 206. 81. hidden control points. 220 ShowGrid command. to a quadrant of a circle or ellipse. toggle object snaps. 23. 183. 377 SetLayerToObject command. to next used. 184. 182. 2. 79. vertical. 288 ShowNakedEdges command. 376 SetGLShade command. 184. 218.

reverse direction. select all. 162. 361. merge. 189 SrfMatch command. 284 SrfMerge command. 81. cylinder. 423 STL:. 307. 400 subtract surfaces or polysurfaces. 317. 2. 281. 426 STL: ascii tag. X_T file export. 407. from 3 or 4 curves. 203. 69 Solid Edge. 241. 385. 320. 372. 367. 281. 298. 276. loft. split. 70. 229. 161. 157. plane. 101. 229. from three points. IGES file exchange. 35. 189. 133. 361. 16. 105 surface normal. 218. 277. 413. 317. 288. 324. 320. 320. 416. 118. 360. 5. 201. 430 startup commands. 251. file exchange. untrim. 22 support. make nonperiodic. 233. 402. 395. 382. offset. 391. 160. shortcuts. 3. 426 surface analysis:. 392. Booleans. 249. 165. 386. torus. 180. 417. 233. rebuild. 288 SrfPointGrid command. export object properties to. 317. 189. 411. 243. 421. 273. 306. 83. periodic. 373. 163. 372. 391 snap mode. 399 SrfPts command. 153. 281. 398 spreadsheet. 298. 247. 92. box from three points. extrude curve along path. 133. 173. 392. 247. 399 SrfPtGrid command. 236.0 Command Reference Snap command. IGES file exchange. 242. 157 SrfControlPtGrid command. 395. viewport horizontally. 162. blend. 236. 171. 163. 410. 354. revolved. 411 Solid Tools toolbar. 68 solid: Boolean difference. unroll. center. 401. from heightfield bitmap. 4. 393 Sphere3Pt command. 317. 228. create variable radius fillet between. 92. 321. extrude. 344. 238. 2. 399 SrfPt command. 133. 277. 288. 247. 399 SrfSum command. 153. 165. 417. 392 SnapToLocked command. 340. 163. 223. 223. 68 Softimage plug-in. select all. 356. 84. 334 spacebar. 400 STEP file exchange. 173. 192. 281. rule. 307. 238. 238. 166. 426. 325. 104. 396 SplitViewHorizontal command. 400. 166. 392. toggle. 410. 240. 380. turn on or off. 182. 88. 380. 380 snap to locked objects. 279. 417. drape. 339. 352. developable. 344. mean curvature. 1. 243 Surface toolbar. 10. 429. 82. 399. 19. 399. 273. 38. cap planar ends. 164. 133. 251. 373. 409 SnapSize command. 160 summary information. 114. from curve network. turn on or off. minimum radius of curvature. tube. surface at isoparms. 386. develop. 2. skin. 42. 395 split:. 238. 392. reparameterize. 398. 406. 275. from grid of control points. 364 SubCrv command. 79. 396. 354. 133. 165. extrude into solid. 192 Surface menu. display. cutting plane. hotspot. 384. 396. 38. Boolean intersection. 313. plane vertical to construction plane. 401. 250. 218. 202. 284. from 3 or 4 points. baseball sphere. 416. pipe. comma-delimited file export. 10. match. 328. 159. 428. extrude curve to point. 158. 377. 84 Softimage file exchange. 399 surface analysis: Gaussian curvature. 236. 229 SrfAlign command. 393 sphere:. 400 SubCurve command. 288. 395. 298. 36. 240. 15. 166. 402 Surface Tools toolbar. extract from polysurface. 417 surface:. 216. 96. 234. 295 Sphere command. 277. 69. polygon mesh. ellipsoid. toolbar.Rhino 2. 198. 192. 90. 398. 410. 285. 160. 397 SplitViewportHorizontal command. 393. maximum radius of curvature. 306. 164. 406. 396. 238. 316. 90 status bar. 76. 238. 397 SplitViewVertical command. X_T file export. 391. 398. 273. 69. 223. 325. 190. 273. 157. 224. by diameter. chamfer. 418 Surface 2 toolbar. 400 StatusBar command. 1 surface: analyze with zebra stripes. 287. 396. 371 Spotlight command. 409. 263. 309 SrfBlend command. 70. 38 Solid toolbar. 421. 243. 348. 161. 43 STL Tools toolbar. 396 SplitSrf command. 391. 306. create. patch. 154. 237. 355. 340. 302. 398. sweep two rails. 236. 338. 78. 288. truncated cone. make periodic. 200. 201. 240 solid:. 192 Surface Analysis toolbar. 278. 162. 414. 38 SortPoints command. 80. 173. 35. 190. 397 SplitViewportVertical command. 426 462 . 401. from grid of points. panes. 201. 406. trim. 371. 398. 249. sweep along path. 366. 114. 295. box. 160. 397 spotlight: control point editing. 42. change degree. from planar curves. select all. 397 SplitEdge command. 113. 324. 392. 238 Standard toolbar. 324. 157. 411 SolidWorks. 385. 240. 398 SrfCV command. 216. 217. 330. 290. 392 Sphere toolbar. tolerance. 42 StopScript command. 229. 233. 416. 393 Sphere2Pts. cone. 398 spotlight:. 381. 273. 153. 374 SrfCvCrv command. 289. 132. 15. 398. 393 Spiral command. 42 Stereograms. 372. 324. 412 Solid Designer file exchange. 355. 236. 262. for rendering. plane from three points. 192. 103. 324. 395. 160. 399 SrfPoints command. 286. 284. 393 SphereD command. create fillet between. 393 Sphere3Pts command. 218. 393 Sphere2Pt. 397. 344. draw curve through control points. 402. extend. Boolean union. 132. one object with another. 192. 394 spline. 133 sphere. 84 snap:. 126 Stretch command. 284. 200. 399. 307. 399. 161. 94. 115. 164. 397 Split command. 393. 216. 392. 255 split: edge of a surface. 135. hide backfacing control points. viewport vertically. 250. 261.

201. capture icon. 409. 170. 3-D Digitizing. status bar on or off. delete toolbar. 374. 120. surface u and v. 179. 217. 290. 425. 135 ToggleMaxViewport command. 409 toolbar layout. show toolbar. 90. 120. crosshairs on and off. 405. 123. 51. 238. 305. create cascading toolbar. change name. 269. 120. rendering of edges of polygon meshes. 332. Curve From Object. 83. 407 Texture command. 119. 78. ortho mode. 212. 330. 190. 362. 235. 233. 223. 120. 135. viewport title. 165. 409. 364. 185. move button. 318. 351. 144. 330. 208. 134 TGA file format. 348. 392. 371. 139. 164. 120. display of status bar. 216. 197. 273. 420. 395. 140. surfaces. 81. 153. 279. new toolbar. 180. 168. 205. 169. 385. 198. 409. planar mode. 122. 420. 82. 260. Ellipse. 245. 220. 124. 154. 101. 365. 181. 121. rename toolbar. 90. 174. 322. 22. Dimensions. 288. clear button image. copy button. 203. 389. hide flyout. 268. 163. 343. 385. 413. 330. 325. 119. 339. 172. 302. 288. 141. grid on and off. 281. 166. 323 TCone command. 409 TiltRight command. 367. 207. 359. 366. 353. 192. 162. 39. 71 Swap. 230. Background Bitmap. model size. 384. 209. 338. 322. 142. 171. save. 420. Circle. save button image to file. 405 target. 90. 271. 152. 123. 409. 209. 215. 177. 362. 323. 242. 39. 152. 210. 119. 404. 339. 230. 103. 400. 125. move. 355. 264. 403. 330. 122. 281. 309. 121. 356. 119. change button size. 400. 419. 124. Curve. 150. 157. 409. edit button image. 363. 279. 171. 379. 210. 401 Sweep2 command. 121. 388. 215. 161. 205. 206. 216. 151. 221. 194. 165. 463 . 423. dragging based on view plane. 257. 337. 409 TiltLeft command. 241. 256. 363. 239. 269 TanLine command. 198. 187. 15. relative. 232. Arc. 307. 409 title bar. 408. 379. 208. Annotate. 150. 124. 235. 368. scripting. 259. 335. 313. 400 SwapView command. 255. 258. 379. 215. tear off flyout. 338. 246. 236. 406. 245. 151. title bar on or off. 136. edit. 262. 409 toggle. 220. 177. 124. 82 tangent line. 200. angle. 1 TekSoft IGES file exchange. persistent object snaps. 19. 90. 288. 410. 221. 421. 352. 51. 267. 139. 344. 243. 120. 360. scaled size. 138. 357. 308. 288. 337. 173. 121. 338. 248. Extend. 228. 179. 412. 226. import button image. 392. 84. 167. 123. along path. planar curves. solids. Analyze. 390. 409. 3-viewport and 4-viewport layout. viewports. Diagnostics. rendering of edges. display viewport. 255. 72 technical support. 231. 168. left. display of menu bar. 304. import from another layout. 248. 324. 265. 351. Curve Tools. IGES export. 352. 261. 245. 142. display of title bar. 122. 123. 187. 230. dock. 401. 414. 398. 135. 173. 415 tilt view. 402 Sxtrd command. 269 Taper command. 322. 308. 173. 387. 120 ToggleToolbox command. 408 Text command. 236 SynchronizeViews command. 123 Toolbars. 352. 189. 80. 1. 220. 122. 407. 39. 407. 342. 400. 396. 406 tear off a cascaded toolbar. 144. 195. 328. control polygon display. capture button image. 336. 40. 13. 384. 217. 361. 284. 369. 373. 420. 428. control polygon highlight. 244. toolbar on and off. 340. 283. delete button. 143. 192. 338 texture mapping coordinates. 400. 317. 197. 120. 156. Edge Tools. 121. 90. BMRT Lights toolbar. 400 sweep. move toolbar. 383. 345. 420 Title command. 296. 221. 241. 179. 123. 272. 160. 338 texture for rendering. 372. 149. 400. 407. 363. 96. 22 toolbar buttons. 263. BMRT Materials. 245. 368. 399. 260. CPlane View. 288. programming. 367 Thaw command. 245. 417. 124. 120. 379. rendering of curves. 88. 384. 311. 363. 308. 120. 323. Array. 323. display program. 135. 306. 183. 294. 187. 316. properties. 15. 420. 253. 155. edit annotation. 222. 321. 381. float toolbar. 182. 210. file location. 137. 216. display of command prompt. 346. 397. open toolbar. 419. 124. snap mode. 206. display of viewport title. 222. 249. 223. edit bitmap icon. clear the bitmap image. 122. 402. 122 Tebis IGES file exchange. 311. 239. 409. 124. 203. 353. 145. 231. 50. 124. 353. 302. 258. 5. 411. 168. 213. 409. 407 TextObject command. 251. 409 TogglePerspective command. 323. 416. 292. 353. 212. new button. 121. 121. 168. 338 ToggleToolbar command. 390. 164. 407. 224. 367. 236. 365. 123. 415. hide toolbar. 288 ToggleOsnap command. 232. 104. 404 TAB key. 430. Box. 387. 370. 396. 134. 407 text:. set viewport. 305. 207. 347. 79. 409. 94. 321. 358. 218. 340. 254. 178. 169. 401. grid axes on or off. reshape toolbar. 343. 163. 220. 388. 178. 122. change. 218. 389. 409. 143. 73 template. open. float icon to top of cascade. cascade. 409. 174. 422. 204. 125 Toolbar command. 363. pop up with middle mouse. 368. world axes on or off. 331. 195. 265. menu bar. 320. two rails. 140. 426. 344.0 Command Reference SURFCAM file exchange. 92. 240. 272. save. 141. copy. 121. 226. 394. 14 Tan object snap. 121. 333. perspective view on and off. ortho. 122. 295. 334. 391. 120. 185. 298. 395. 255. close. 80 TanFrom object snap. toggle toolbar on and off. 375. 122. 221. 425. 22. 249. 349. 407. new file. 247. 125. 184. 256. 120. 387. right. 257. 148. 134. 385. 407. 429. 311. 149. 156. 362 text: annotation dot. 162. 302. 303. 297. 270. 204. 122. 170. 189. 215. 391. 185. 401. 234. save. 386. 293. 297. 125. 323. 266. unlink flyout. 162. 402. 400 SwapUV command. edit 2-dimensional. 3-D Digitize. 393. 382. 366. 148. save layout as different name. 125. 23. 119. 120 tolerance. definition. 326. 229.Rhino 2. 377. 404 Sweep1 command. 425 Toggle34View command.

397. 105. 154. 135. 162. Render. 260. 365. 157. 309. 261. 375. 181. 208. 409. 254. 339. 173. 229. shortcut. Geometry Fix. 243. 90. Bend command. 238. 249. grid. 383. 247. 180. 300. 153. 245. 308. Scale command. 153. 82 tracking line. Shear command. 203. 148. 366. 244. 153. 414 Ungroup objects. 295. 259. reverse. SetPt command. 263. 161. 413. title bar. 161. 338. 338 TriangulatePolyline command. 400. 409. OrientOnSrf command. 182. 323. 148. 406 Tube command. world axes. 309. 357. 259. 103. 307. 184. 383. 174. 267. 414 Unigraphics file exchange. 218. 83. 311. 409. 392. 429. 330. 140. 430. 364. 398. 141. 326. 258. grid axes. 323. 216. 296. Booleans. 270. 399. 348. 398. 204. 142. 423. 236. 391. 396. 381. grid axes. 383. 268. 343. Lines. 240. 180. 377. 349. 355. Extrude. 414 UnifyMeshNormals command. 162. 311. 339. 277. 363. set. 244. 361. 416. 356 u-direction:. 145. 370. 288. 305. 386. 203. Scale. 338. Twist command. 154. ScaleNU command. 268. STL Tools. 180. 400. Mass Properties. 242. 219. 180. 348. 50. 352. 2. 365. 386 troubleshooting. 173. 363. 324. ProjectToCPlane command. 202. Solid. 366. 246. 244. 341. Solid Tools. 243. 384. 410. 48. 50. 347. 84. 218. 94. 346. 366. 357. 92. 358. 348. 311. 348. 205. Select. Viewport Layout. 386 Unicode fonts. 151. 41. 331. 373. 336. 276. 203. 203 trimmed surfaces. 407 unify polygon mesh normals. 92 Trim command. Point. 135. shortcuts. 348. 390. 364. 103. 409. 148. 335. 410. ArraySrf command. 386. 262. 264. 104. 414. Microscribe. 180. 161 unit systems. 414. 236. 365. 210. 413. 251. 203. Plane. 309. 409 Tools toolbar. 321. 296. 400. 420. Scale2D command. 414 UnhidePoints command. 379. 73 union. 113. 422. 331. 251. Point Editing. redo. 258. 131 transform: Array command. 239. 273. 318. 149. 160. 321 track. 412 U command. 83. 249. 229. control points. 395. 213. POV Lights. 253. 355. ArrayCrv command. 238. Visibility. along a line tangent to a curve. 384. 173. 425. 152. 304. 108. 82. 343. 140. view change. 296. 208. 99. command line. 403. along a line. 296. 307. world axes. 82. 382. 296. 19. 390. 345. 360. 307. 390. 290. 88. 339. 298. 414 UndoSelected command. IGES export file types. 379. 140. 363. 307. 339. 358. 153. 398. Surface Tools. 229. 339. 288. 299. 412 transparency in rendering. 402. 245. 81. 334. 371. 409. 94. 357. 290. 339. Rectangle. 293. control points. 390. 377. 317. 185 u-direction definition. 368. 409 Top command. 94. 345. 288. Main. Mesh. 425 turn on. 307. 372. 101. 414 unfold a surface. 413 undo:. 102. 244. 384. 90. 101. 224. 425. 428. 15 Units command. 342. 334. all layers. Object Snap. menu bar. 364. 423. 364. 90. 411 turn off. shrink to trim boundary. 427. 263. 420. 162. 404. 198. 245. 179. 330. 180. 51. 429. 253. 166. 386. 79. 183. 415. 381. 206. 306. 417. 386. 223. 164. 409. 316. 265. 90. command. Orient command. 154. 365. title bar. autosave. 409 top view. 352. 214. 358. 173. 406. 2. 241. 349. OpenGL. 266. 245. 412. 249. 229. 167. 142. 302. Smooth command. 324. 256. 413. 426 Turntable command. 351. 421. 351. 134. 361. Standard. 356. 16. 190. 425. 413. 48. Fillets and chamfers. 151. 425. 154. 249. definition. 338. Transform. 392. 342. 234. 338. 80. 203. 311. 249. 263. Sphere. 134. 357. 374. 339. 101. Copy command. 297 u-direction curves. 322. 261. 148. 240. 168. 298. 396. menu bar. 328. 251. 261. 138. control points on selected objects. status bar. 41. Scale1D command. 339. 333. 330. 349. 152. 171. 366. 262. 361. 429 UndoMultiple command. Flow command. Select Points. 356. 367. 173. autosave. 401. 2. 373. 294. 2 Torus command. ArrayPolar command. 78. 309. 322. 288. 339. Taper command. 92. 1. 355. layer. 220.0 Command Reference 233. Surface Analysis. 275. rendering. Tools. Polygon. 244. 154. 386. 150. 393. 228. 135. 228. 386. 338. 172. 413 u-direction: move control points. 405. 375. pop up at cursor. 412 transform:. 229. 318. 82. 338. 410 trim:. 365. 379. 348. 407. 262. 349. 140. 161. 325. 19. 263. 308. layers. 233. 425. 417. 83. 92. 415 units systems. 412 Twist command. Boolean. Rotate command. 339. 236. 313. 383. 309. 172. grid. 307. 379. 133. 165. 192. 172. 88. 281. 415 unlink a flyout toolbar. Set CPlane. IGES export type details. 171. 357. command line. 369. 136. 96. OrientPerpToCrv command. 405. 255. 349. 173. Rotate3D command. 220. trimmed surfaces. 262. POV Materials. 19. 333. Surface 2. Mirror command. status bar. 410. 412. options. 410 TraceBitmap command. 221. 288. 303. 399. 415 Ungroup command. 326. 294 trim: detach trimming curve. 298. 137. layer. 194. 123 464 . 416 UnGhost command. 338. 344. 284. 409. 269. 271. 263. 317. 342. 288. 359. 400. Layer. 357. 302. 92. 104. along a line perpendicular to a curve. 15 truncated cone. Surface. 149.Rhino 2. Set View. 200. 245. 412 Transform toolbar. 297 undo: change the number of undo levels. 405. 182. 372. 96. 100. 96. 321. 399. RemapCPlane command. 148. 337. 362. 155. IGES. 236. 424. 337. 173. 332. 409. Move command. 308. 358. 365. 382. 245. 395. 296. 49. 263. 229. 374. 88. 172. 385. 16. 236. 203. 367. File. 2. 373. Organic. in text. 353. 261. 330. 304. 201. 415 Toolbox command. 262. 190. 212. 90. 358. 368. 240. 108. 405. 409. Orient3Pt command. 362. 150. 308. 408. 292. 429 Undo command. 283. 417. 273. 2.

construction plane back. menu. 430 view:. 338. read from file. 419 ViewCPlaneTop command. 273. right view. 45 workgroup: check in license. read named from file. 314. 271 Volume command. set perspective view. 303. 273. 249. create new. next active. 250. 132. 397. 379. zoom window. 271. 360. construction plane right. zoom in and out by a percentage. zoom extents selected. 400 viewport properties. 313. 126 Vline command. line. selected objects. 318. 303. target. 420. 181. 343. 224. 420 viewport title menu. 323. 360. 168 465 . 357. 172. set maximized by name. tilt right. 383. 409. 409. set right view. 302. 168. 23. 428 Windows Clipboard. 264. 400. set active by name. 420. set viewport. 422 weight:. 302. set bottom view. 288. restore named. 1 window: select. 379 Weld command. save named. swap viewports. 419. set to shaded display. 416 UnrollSrf command. wireframe viewport. 347 view: back view. 132. 415 unroll a surface. make previous active. 425 WireShade1 command. 404. 419 ViewCPlaneLeft command. 212. 338 wireframe display. 384. pan right. 404. 419 ViewCPlaneFront command. 397. 90. 322. display. 264. 429. 131. 250 What command. 135 Viewport Layout toolbar. 313. 302. 360. edit named. 421 VRBSrf command. 184 VDA file exchange. 429. 429. 355. zoom. 423. bottom view. 250 water plane area. 251 Wavefront OBJ file exchange. 376. 429. 1 weld: coincident points on a mesh. properties. 430. 383. set left view. 422 water level. three viewports. 420. 323. 297 Vellum IGES file exchange. 298. 430. create from surface. 415 UnLock command. 412. 419. shade. 420 views. 162. 302. 134 VBscript. 11 user input in script. set top view. 244. 2. zoom in. pan up. synchronize. 397. 323. 54 vertex. 244. 343. 96. 420 VolumeCentroid command. 126 VCPlane command. 313. maximize. next ortho active. 135. 304. 45 viewport: bring to top. construction plane left. 376. 376. 421 VolumeMoments command. rotate left. check out license. split horizontal. rotate right. hide back. 166 UseCPlaneCoordinates command. 45 wireframe: extract as curves. rotate. 429. 417 Untrim command. 386. 90 window selection. redraw speed. object snaps. 135. 423 weld:. 355. 153. 430. 165 UpDegSrf command. 190. rotate down. 236. zoom extents of selected objects in one viewport. 23. 422 Weight command. 288. 409. 198. 336. 298. 429. 415 UnPackTextures command. 264. 134. continuously rotate. 323.Rhino 2. 244. 163. 288. 51 weight: edit control point. 343. 425 WMF file export. 421 VRectangle command. 397. zoom window. isoparm. 288. 376 Wallpaper command. 400. rectangle. 11 uv mapping coordinates. 419 Viewpoint Technologies file export. 313. 172. construction plane bottom. 419. 325. print. 190. 288. pan left. 425. show control points. zoom extents in one viewport. 363. tilt left. 420 ViewportTitle command. 429 viewport layout:. 273. next perspective active. 264. 318. 163. object. 430. 24. 415 Visual Basic script. 415 UnLockSelected command. 135 WireframeViewport command. 377. 360. 416 untrim a surface. 162. set all to match. zoom extents of selected objects in all viewports. 181. 304. 135. place camera and target. 421 VPlane command. 24. 419. lock objects. 425 Why Rhinoceros?. 419 ViewCPlaneRight command. 430. control points. 153. 420. 363. set to wireframe display. 429. 316 Windows Metafile file exchange. 321. 302. 325 Vrbf command. 409. 360. 322. 24. 25. 386. 131 vertical. set front view. 384. 415 visibility:. 162. unlock objects. control point. 415. 3 window:. 318. zoom extents. 417 unwrap a surface. 153. 409. 419. 386. 404 visibility: control points. top view. 318 UseWCSCoordinates command. 423 wetted surface area. 343. 360. 336. 356 v-direction:. 405. 249. new. 430. plane. 430 viewport:. 185. maximize viewport. 425. 425 wireframe:. rotate up. place target. reverse. 343. 428. front view. set density. 271. zoom extents in all viewports. zoom out. 416 UpDeg command. layout. with mouse. 419 ViewCPlaneBottom command. 420. 400.0 Command Reference unlock: all objects. 415 unlock:. 185 v-direction definition. 322. toggle between 3 and 4 viewports. 336. set back view. 297 v-direction curves. 314. 428. 347. 313. 318. 409. swap. copy to all. 135. 376 Windows 2000 OpenGL bug. 415 Visibility toolbar. 347 VRML file export. zoom all to the same scale. 153. construction plane front. 357. 383. 244. move next to top. 304. 357. 377. split vertical. 419. 190. 304. 249. 322. 249. 325. 384. plan view. 23. 96. 430 ViewCPlaneBack command. pan. left view. 318. 135. close. 162. camera. 422 Welcome to Rhinoceros. perspective view. 357. 43 v-direction: move control points. 425 ViewportProperties command. zoom window and set a target point. 44 W command. pan down. 412. 425 viewport layout: four viewports.

429 ZoomExtentsAll command. 233 Xtra command. 130 zoom: dynamic. 426 ZM command. 430 ZoomDynamic command. 425. 217 ZBufferPt command. 429. 430 ZoomSelectedAll command. 429 ZoomSelected command. 216 ZE command. 429. extents in all viewports.Rhino 2. 97. 3. 428. extents of selected objects in one viewport. 4. 430. 233 XtndF command. extents in one viewport. 2. 430 ZSA command. 363. 428. 430. 96. window and set a new target point. 44 X_T file export. in and out by a percentage. 428. 217 ZBufferPts command. 3 zoom:. 429. 425 WRL file export. window. 430 466 . 430. 5. 2. previous view. 430 ZoomTarget command. 429. 429 ZoomIn command. 308. 429 ZoomPrev command. 429 ZoomP command. 11 WorldAxes command. 425. 168 workgroup:. 430 ZBuffer command. 429 ZS command. 430 Zoom command. 429 ZoomOut command. 168 working directory. 430 ZoomX command. open. 363. 2. check out license. 429.0 Command Reference Workgroup license manager. 428 ZoomNext command. save. 4. 428. 429 ZEA command. 38 XtndB command. 130. 425 world coordinates. 428 Zoo. in. check in license. extents of selected objects in all viewports. save as different name. 430. 2. 3. 217 ZBufferSketch command. 308. 430 ZP command. toggle display. 430 ZoomWindow command. 96. 389 ZBufferSrf command. 429 ZoomMouse command. 429 Zebra command. 426 ZBufferPoints command. 430 zoom window. 363 world axes. 168. out. 236 Yamaha ESPRi file exchange. 381 workspace. set colors. 428 ZoomExtents command. 74 Z command. 168. options.

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