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India, China, Arabian Heritage

Reference: Zaide pp. 44-49

Our influence from India, China and Arabia manifest that the Philippines has already close contacts with Asian

A. India
Religion: Hinduism , Language : Sanskrit People: Hindu
Early Relations: They came as early as 900AD
Evidences: Hindu antiques: 1. Gold image of Agusan, 2. Copper image of Ganesha 3. Gold Pendant of Garuda
Laguna Copperplate Inscription (LCI) – a small copperplate measuring 20x30cm which showed that there are
already business contracts to Filipinos before Westerners came.
- earliest written record of ancient Philippines

Other Influence:
1. Religion, Influenced to pray to gods, spirits and images. “Bathala” Indian origin.
2. Jobs: Influenced us in mining quicklime, making lotus design, guitars, sampaguita flower leis, fruit and vegetable
3. Language: Tagalog language has 375 Sanskrit words (Example ama, asawa, halaga, maharlika, nanay, mutya, paa,
raha, sandata)
4. Clothing: Sarong, Putong, tight-fitting trousers, shawls (Muslim)
6. Superstitious beliefs: A pregnant who eats twin bananas will give birth to twins.
7. Customs:
a. Hanging garland of fresh flowers
b. giving of dowry by the groom
c. showering people with rice
d. offering buyo to a visitor
e. pilgrimage of childless couples to holy shrines

B. China
Early Relations
982 AD – Mindoro people traded with Canton, South China
- Chinese traded in Lingayen Gulf, Maila Bay, Mindoro and Sulu
- Wang Ta-yuan praised Filipinos for their honesty in trading
- They came not to conquer or rule but to buy and sell only.
- Filipinos visited China too
1417 - 340 men and women visited Chinese emperor and they exchange gifts
Paduka Pahala (Mindanao king) got sick and died and buried there, his descendants lived there up to now
His story was put to film entitled, “Hari sa Hari, Lahi sa Lahi”

1. Jobs: making gunpowder, gold mining, metal works, porcelain, gong and metal use, kite making.
2. Costumes: jackets and loose trousers, slippers, bakya, umbrella, fan, use of white cloth for mourning.
3. Food: Pansit, chop suey, kikiam, mami, etc.
4. Customs: Respect for elders, arranged marriage, ancestral worship
Vices: firecracker use, tong (fee) for gambling, jueteng, cards, mahjong
5. Language: about 1500 words in Tagalog vocabulary
Example: ate, bakya, bantay, buwisit, gunting, kuya, pinto, susi
7. Blood: Evidenced by family names

C. Arabia
Country: Middle East , Saudi Arabia
People, Arabs, Muslim
Religion: Islam

Early Relations
1380 – Mukdum visited Sulu and spread Islam and built the first Mosque in Simunul
1450 – Abu Bakr went to Jolo, married the princess there and built the sultanate of Sulu.
1475 – Kabungsuan, Arab trader, landed in Cotabato, married local pricess, founded sultanate of Sulu
They spread over Visayas and Luzon – Manila, Tondo

Arabic influences
1. Religion: Islam, 1.6M, Mindanao area
2. Politics: Sultanate gov’t., sultan (king), rajah (heir), dayang (princess), kali (judge)
3. Social life: Customs – polygamy, divorce, pilgrimage to Mecca; Ramadan, moro-moro plays, Darangan epic poem,
singkil dance
4. Language: alak, apo, bukas, pilat, salamat, sulat
5. Blood: 2% Filipinos have Arab blood

D. Relationship to Other Asian Nations

Filipinos also traded with Borneo, Malaya, Malacca, Thailand (Siam), Kampuchea (Cambodia), Indonesia

1. We would have been a Muslim nation without Spaniards who spread Christianity
2. We accepted changes and influences but we were independent.

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