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# CHAPTER – 31

CAPACITOR
1. Given that Number of electron = 1 × 10 Net charge Q = 1 × 10
12 12

× 1.6 × 10

–1 9

= 1.6 × 10

–7

C

The net potential difference = 10 L. Capacitance – C = v 2. A = r
2

q = 10 .6 = 10 × 10 1 1.6 7

–8

F.
5 cm

= 25 cm

2

d = 0.1 cm = A 1 c= d0 8 .854 10
12

25

3.14

0. 1 c m

0.
2

= 6.95 × 10

–5

F.

3. Let the radius of the disc = R Area = R C=1 D = 1 mm = 10 C= d 1= 4. A = 25 cm
0 –3

m
1 mm

A
12 3 –3

8 .85 r 10 10
2=

r2 cm 2

2

=

10

3

10 12

8.85

10 9 = 784 27 .

= 5998.5 m = 6 Km

2.5 × 10

d = 1 mm = 0.01 m V = 6V Q = ? = A 01 C= d0 8 .854 10
12

2.5 10
3

3

0.
– 10

6 1.32810 8 .854 × 10= 1 2 2. 5 × 10 Q = CV = 01 0. W = Q × V = 1.32810 × 10 5. Plate area A = 25 cm Potential v = 12 v (a) We know C = d q 11.06 ×10 C= v q
1 2= –1 0

C

× 6 = 8 × 10
–3

–1 0

J.

2.5 × 10
–3

m

Separation d = 2 mm = 2 × 10 = A 0
– 12

m
3

11.06 2. 8. 85 = 10 1 2 ×10 5 10 2 10 q = 12
3

–12

F

= 1.32 × 10

–1 0

C.
–3

(b) Then d = decreased to 1 mm d = 1 mm = 1 × 10 = A v C= d0 q 6. C
2

m 2 .5
3

q=

8. 85 = 10 1 2 12 1 10
–1 2

10

3

2
–1 0

= 8.85 × 2.5 × 12 × 10

= 2.65 × 10

C.
–10

The extra charge given to plate = (2.65 – 1.32) × 10
1

= 1.33 × 10

–1 0

C.
C1 VC
2

= 2 F, C

2

=4 F,
C3
–6

C 3 = 6 F V = 12 V cq = C
1

+ C 2 + C 3 = 2 + 4 + 6 = 12 F = 12 × 10
2

F
3

q1 = 12 × 2 = 24 C, q

= 12 × 4 = 48 C, q 31.1

= 12 × 6 = 72 C

Capacitor 7.
20 F 30 F 40 F

V = 12 V

The equivalent capacity. C= C 1 C 2 C3 30 C2 C3 = C1 C3 C1 C2 2600 20 = 30 40 30 40 20 40 20 24000 = 9.23 F

(a) Let Equivalent charge at the capacitor = q q q = C × V = 9.23 × 12 = 110 C on each. C= V As this is a series combination, the charge on each capacitor is same as the equivalent charge which is 110 C. (b) Let the work done by the battery = W V= q 8. C
1

W W = Vq = 110 × 12 × 10 =4 F, C

–6

= 1.33 × 10
3

–3

J.
8 F

= 8 F, C ( C2 C1 C3 ) C 1 C2 C3

2

=4 F
A 12 V

Ceq =

4 F BC 4 F

8 =84 F = 16 Since B & C are parallel & are in series with A So, q 9. (a)
C1 AB C1 = 4 C2 = 6 C1
1

= 8 × 6 = 48 C q

2

= 4 × 6 = 24 C q3 = 4 × 6 = 24 C

C2

C2

C 1 C

1,

C 1 are series & C 1 1 C2 1 C

2,

C 2 are series as the V is same at p & q. So no current pass through p & q.

1 1 C1 C2

C1

C 4=2 F Cp = 2 1 = 2 C 6=3 F And C q = 2 2 = 2 C=C
p

+ Cq = 2 + 3 = 5 F
2

C1

p

C1

(b) C 1 = 4 F, C In case of p & q, q = 0 C
p

= 6 F,
C2 A C1 q B R C1 C2

C 4=2 F = 21 = 2 6=3 F = 2

C Cq = 2 2

&C =2+3=5 F C&C =5 F The equation of capacitor C = C + C = 5 + 5 = 10 F 31.2
C2 S C2

2 × 10 = 22 F The total charge given to the inner cylinder = 22 + 22 = 44 F 12. q C= V q = CV = 2. The capacitance of the outer sphere = 2.2 F Potential. V = 10 v Ceq = C 1 A A5 5 F B 6 F +C 2 [ They are parallel] 10 V = 5 + 6 = 11 F q = CV = 11 × 10 110 C 11.Capacitor 10. x × 50 = 200 10 Now. V = 10 v Let the charge given to individual cylinder = q. So. Then the capacitance is parallel to each other. C C are connected in parallel The equation of capacitance 3 C =C=2 F As the volt capacitance on each row are same and the individual is 60 = 20 V No of So. C q . Now V = R Kq q= K / 2 1 2 B6 1 = R1 =4 0 R1 =4 Hence Ceq = 4 C AB CCC 0 +4 0 =4 0 + R2 In this system the capacitance are arranged in series. 4 tan So.2 F C = 2. let there are ‘y’ such rows. the combinations of four rows each of 4 capacitors. . C = V So.

In the figure the three capacitors are arranged in parallel. So if we connect another capacitor at the point C & D the charge on the capacitor is zero. Potential at 6 F = 6 50 V 50 V 100 100 = 100 3 3 The potential at C & D is 3 (b) S P =R 2 q 1 = 2 1 = It is balanced.4 B CD . So from it is cleared that the wheat star bridge balanced. 16. All have same surface area = a = 3 First capacitance C 2n d capacitance C 3rd capacitance C Ceq = C 1 A 1 = d0 3 A 2 = ) 3(b A 0 d A d E 3 = ) 0 3(2b + C 2 +C 3 31. So the potential at the point C & D are same. Ceq between a & b = C C 1 2 C1 C2 /C1 +C 2 C1 C2 C C C 3 1 2 C2 aC C1 3 C2 b C1 C1 C2 /C1 +C 2 A a b a b a d aC 3 C1 C2 b 2C C 1 2 = C ( The three are parallel) 3 C1 C 2 17.Capacitor 15. So no current flow through the point C & D. 4 F A B 3 F 6 F D 3 F D 50 50 6 F 3 F 6 F D C 8 F 4 F A C 8 F B 4 F C 8 F (a) Capacitor = 8 2 6=3 F and 3 6 4= 8 3 4 8 (i) The charge on the capacitance 3 Q= 3 8 × 50 = 3 400 400 3= 3 8 F The potential at 4 F = 4 at 8 F = 8 400 3= 6 100 100 The Potential difference = 6 100 = 100 3 3 50 V (ii) Hence the effective charge at 2 F = 50 × 2 = 100 F Potential at 3 F = 3 Difference = 6 100 .

17 × 10 (b) Same as R 19. the initial charge will remain stored in the stored in the short capacitor Hence net charge flowing = 5 × 10 –4 – 1.66 × 10 –4 = 3. 2 C 50 = C ef f = q 3 Then C Q = 10 2 C= 3 –5 –4 5 2 = 1. ef f –5 = 2C = 10 × 50 = 5 × 10 Now. (a) C = ) 10 2 10 1 In(R2 / R 1 –1 3 = 80. potential is same in the two capacitor V1 = = q1 C1 q C 10 12 1 1 q =q C 2 = 24 = 10 q1 100 = q1 10 12 24 10 –10 = 24 × 10 – q1 q1 5 = 6q 1 = 120 × 10 120 ×10 = q1 = 6 V 20.14 8. q 1 = 1 1 – 10 –1 0 = 20 × 10 –10 20 = 10 V 20 10 = 12 C 100 10 S / A Initially when ‘s’ is not connected. – 12 18.3 × 10 –4 C.Capacitor + ) A = d0 3 = 0 + A ) 0 = A 0 0 A 1 d d)d b 1 d 2b 1 d 3(b d 3( 2b d) d(b (2b d d)d d) 3 (b A (b d)( 2b 3 0 d)(2b = A 3 d2 3 d(b 6bd d )(2b 2= L 2 0 2b 2 d) e [In2 = 0. Given that 8 PF 2 /R1 C = 100 PF = 100 × 10 q2 = ? F C cq = 20 PF = 20 × 10 – 12 –12 F –1 0 V = 24 V q = 24 × 100 × 10 Let q 1 = The new charge 100 PF V Let the new potential is V q2= C2 1 1 = 24 × 10 1 = The Voltage. After the flow of charge.664 × 10 10 –4 C After the switch is made on. 31.5 .6932] 3. 85 In will be same.

q = d1 d2 31. qE = Mg V Electric force = qE = d q where V – Potential.02 8. a 0 =? b = 0 d1 a2 d2 Here q = chare on capacitor. x2= a.Capacitor 21.04 F P V 0. y= 1qE 2m me B d2 2 x a A d1 where y – Vertical distance covered or x – Horizontal distance covered – Initial velocity From the given data.01 0 . 0. = A q VC C= q 0 d =AC 0 0 A qE = mg QVC = A = mg 0 = 0.6 .00043 = 43 MV 10 980 8. 85 10 12 V 100 = 0. ‘q’ For a charged particle to be projected in side to plates of a parallel plate capacitor with electric field E.04 F Given that mass of particle m = 10 mg Charge 1 = – 0.1 = 0. d – separation of both the plates.02 F The Equation capacitance C = 2 The particle may be in equilibrium.04 = 0. Let mass of electron = Charge electron = e We know.01 C A = 100 cm 2 Let potential = V 0 . q = C × V where C = Equivalent capacitance of the total arrangement = × V2 a 0 0 d1 So. so that the wt.85 10 V = 0002 0. must be balanced by the electric force acting up ward. E= R For capacitor A – V1 = q= C1 qd 1 as a 2 C 0 1 V= qd 1 = a2 0 d1 a2 q . 22.1 × 980 0 . of the particle acting down ward. d y= 21 .

it reduces to similar in the case of (b) & (c) as ‘b’ can also be written as. The acceleration of electron a The acceleration of proton = Mp qeme = Me – ep – x qp E – – – – qe e–x E E qpe = ap 1 apt The distance travelled by proton X = 2 The distance travelled by electron …(2) From (1) and (2) 2 – X = 2 qp E x 2= x ap ac M p …(1) 1a c t2 1a x = 2 c t2 qc F Mc 9. and substitution in equation 31. we get.898 × 10 – 5. 2 Vea 2 = ) d1 m(d1 u = 2 d Vea d1 m( d1 e 2 1/2 d1 = 1 2 (d 1 e V d )m 2 a2 u2 u 2 d2 ) + + + + + + 2 2 cm 23. (a) AB 1 F 3 F 1 5 F AB 3 2 F 6 F 2 6 1 F 3 F As the bridge in balanced there is no current through the 5 F capacitor So.25 F 5 F 2 F 6 F 25.001089226 10 .1 1.449 –4 x = 10. Ceq = 6 8 1= 3 1 3 2 2 Q1 4 6 3 = 12 8 48 6 =12 2. 24.Capacitor Hence E = q = a2 0 = a2 ) 0 (d 1 V 0 V (d 1 d ) 2 a2 d 2 Substituting the data in the known equation.1= 10 1.7 .898 = 10 4 x = 0005449 1.449 × 10 x 0.67 –4 = 10 4 × 10 5. (a) By loop method application in the closed circuit ABCabDA –12 + F 2Q Q1 0 2 2 =F …(1)F B2 F 2 F Q Q 4 F (Q – Q 1 ) AD 1 C a In the close circuit ABCDA Q Q Q1 –12 + F 0 2 =F …(2) 4 From (1) and (2) 2Q + 3Q And 3Q – q 1 4 F b = 48 …(3) 1 = 48 and subtracting Q = 4Q . 67 10 –4 31 27 = x 2= x Mc Mp 9.

(d) 6V 12 V a 24 V 4 F 2 F 1 F Q = C0 = 0 Vab = 0 b The net potential = ce Va – Vb = – 10. so the current go towards BE from BAFEB same as the current from EDCBE. The net charge Q = 0 V = C The potential at K is zero. q 1 48 = 11 Q Vab = F 1 4= 4 (b) a 2 F 48 11 = 11 12 V a 2 F 4 F b 12 V 4 F b 24 V 24 V The potential = 24 – 12 = 12 Potential difference V = 4 The Va – Vb = – 8 V (c) A Left 2V B a Right 2V C 6 ( 2 = 0 12 2 4) 48 = 8 V 2 F F b E 2 F D From the figure it is cleared that the left and right branch are symmetry and reversed. (a) Net = 7arg e ch Net capaci tan 24 = 24 7 24 72 10.8 .Capacitor 2Q + 3Q 1 = 48 8 Q 1 + 3Q 1 = 48 11Q 12 V 1 = 48.3 V 26.3 V 3/8 1 F 3 F 4 F 12/8 4/8 3 F 1 F 4/8 3/8 3/8 12/8 1/2 3/2 By star Delta conversion 3 = 24 8 3 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 F 1 F 1 1 C ef f = 3 = 35 24 8 9 =35 6 11 F 3 F 1 F 3 31.

Capacitor (b) 1 F 3 F 2 F 4 F 2 F 4 F 3 F 1 F by star Delta convensor 3 /8 f 3/2 f 3/8 f 1 2/ 8 f 1/ 2 f 4/ 8 f 2 f 2 f 4/8 1 2/ 8 f f 2 f 2 f 3/2 3/8 f f 3 /8 f 1/ 2 f 3/8 f 4 f 4 f 3 16 = 8 = 4 8 8 3/ 8 f 3 11 f (c) 2 F 4 F 4/3 F 5 F 4 F 8 F 8/3 F 4 F 4 F 4 8 Cef = 4 = 8 F 3 3 (d) 2 f 4 f 6 f 4 f 4 f 6 f 2 f 8/6 f 4 f 2 f 4 f 6 f 8 f 8 f 4 f 4 f 8 f 8 f 2 f 4 f 32 / 1 2 32 / 1 2 f f 8/6 f 3 32 Cef = 6 = 6 8 12 31.9 32 12 8 16 =32 f 8 .

Capacitor 27. there will be negligible change if the arrangement is done an in Fig – 2+C C= C 1 C eq = C 2 (2 + C) × C = 3C + 2 C 2 2C 2 2 C –C–2=0 (C –2) (C + 1) = 0 C = –1 (Impossible) So. 2 f 1 5 6 7 8 B 2 f 2 3 4 2 f 2 f A = C 5 and C 2=2 1 C eq = 2 2 1 are in series This is parallel to C Which is series to C Which is parallel to C Which is series to C Which is parallel to C This is series to C 28. C 1 4 = C 4 1 C Then C and 2 f are parallel 4C = 8 2C C 4 2 C=C1 +2 f 2 4 CC 4 C 4C + 8 + 2C = 4C + C 2 = 24 C= 2 2 =64 f C= 2 The value of C is 4 f 4 1 8 = C 2 – 2C – 8 = 0 2 6 2 = 2 36 31. A 4 6 =1+1=2 2 1 2=2 = 2 2 7 =1+1=2 3 1 2=2 = 2 2 8 =1+1=2 1 2=2 2 2 A Fig 1 F B 2 f C Fig – = B Let the equivalent capacitance be C. C = 2 F 29. So. Since it is an infinite series. A 4 f 4 f 4 f A C B cC 4 f B 2 f 2 f 2 f 2 f = C and 4 f are in series So.10 .

m.2 10 8 C = 1. (b) Given C = 50 F = 50 × 10 Now charge = 0. q 1 = +2.5 C 0.5 c Capacitance = 0.Capacitor 30. Given that F = 1. V = 5 V 33. (a) Charge of each plate = 0.16 × 10 = 0.5 C 0.2 × 10 net q = 2 q= V= c 31.5 C 0.5 3 = 10 8 V 2 9 Capacitance = 10 F Charge = 20 c The effective charge = 2 C= V 32. 0 10 12 d = 4 mm = 4 × 10 96 = A C= d0 0 –3 m 12 Capacitance of a capacitor 10 0 - - + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + + + + 4 10 3 = 24 × 10 –9 F. q 1 +20 c + + + + x 10 + + 10 + + + –0 + + + + x 10 .5 c charge on the upper surface of Plate ‘A’. 0. As three capacitor are arranged is series So. C = 50 f = 0. we also get 0.0 × 10 F –8 c 2 q1 = q2 12.05 f Charge Q = 1 F which is given to upper plate = 0.5 C A B – 0.16 c.5 C 0.0 10 1 1 .2 × 10 2 –9 = –1.0 × 10 –3 –8 cq 3.x - 20 = 0 F 10 q V= C q = 10 = 1 V 10 –6 –6 = 1 C = 1 × 10 q =q 2 1 C C = 0. Capacitance of each capacitor. Ceq = q C = 3 24 = 8 × 9 10 10 –9 The total charge to a capacitor = 8 × 10 The charge of a single Plate = 2 × 8 × 10 –9 × 10 = 8 × 10 –8 –8 c –6 = 16 × 10 –8 = 0.0 C 34.11 5 = 10 10 5 10 7 V 8 –6 –9 F = 5 × 10 –8 F C C F .510 10 2) × 6 q= – 7 1 = 105 V 5 10 7 C Potential ‘V’ = c But potential can never be (–)ve.5 C 1.5 c of charge also see on the middle.5 C + + ++ + ++ + + + ++ + + ++ + + C 1 C 0.5 c charge appear on outer and inner side of upper plate and 0.5 × 10 q= V= C 35. Here given.5 f 31. So. (a) When charge of 1 c is introduced to the B plate. Here three capacitors are formed And each of A= 96 f.1 F = 1 × 10 C –6 –7 F q2 = 2 C = 2 × 10 net q = 2 2 (1= – 0.5 C 0.

5 PJ = 4 F.284) × (1.4 × 20 –6 = 480 J 20 V The energy supplies by the battery to capacitor = 2 × 480 = 960 J 38. C 1 1 2 V12 = (1/2) × 2 × 10 V2 = (1/2) × 5 × 10 2 2 –1 1 –1 1 × (4.0 2 c2 = (1/2) × 10 –5 × (20) 2 = 2 × 10 1 –3 J = 2 mJ 39.4 6 2 Eq. – 12 The potential in 10 V 36. (b) The charge on lower plate also = 0. capacitor C = C1 C2 C =C 6 1 eq 4 4 f 6 f The Eq Capacitance C E = (1/2) CV 2 = 2.428 5 2 – 11 10 11 5 10 Charge ‘q’ = 1.568 = 10 1 1 1.284 V 10 1 1 2 10 11 q= C 2 8. Stored energy of capacitor C = = 4.= 10 V 5 0.5 F 2 The energy supplied by the battery to each plate = (1/2) × 2.5 10 v = 0. C 1 = 20 PF = 20 × 10 C1 C2 C =C 1 F.568 = 4.568 × 10 C 8.35 × 10 –1 1 – 11 ˜ 184 PJ = 7. C eq = 6 F.71) 2 2 = 18. V = 20 V 4 = 2.5 F C= V q V= C q = 050 .428 × 10 V1 = V2 = q= C 1 × 6 = 8.12 . the charge shared 1 q2 q 2 c 1 2 1 q 2 c 2 2 2 1 = q2 So that the energy should divided.71 V 5 10 11 Energy stored in each capacitor E1 = (1/2) C E2 = (1/2) C 37.5 c Capacitance = 0. 31. The total energy stored in the two capacitors each is 2 J.35 × 10 ˜ 73.0 J When then connected. C 2 – 11 2 = 50 PF = 50 × 10 11 11 –1 1 –12 F F Effective C = 2 = 10 1 1 × 10 10 1. C = 10 F = 10 × 10 For a & d q = 4 × 10 c = 10 –5 –4 F ac c 4 2 10 –3 C b c cd c F J = 8 mJ 1 q2 1 4 = 10 8× E= c = 2 2 10 5 For b & c q = 4 × 10 –4 c –5 100 V C eq = 2c = 2 × 10 V= 20 4 4 = 10 V 2 10 5 2 F E = (1/2) cv 1=2 J q 4.Capacitor C= V q V = C q = 05 0 .

q i – q f. Initial charge stored = C × V = 12 × 2 × 10 Let the charges on 2 & 4 capacitors be q There. = 1 × 10 –4 c/m 2 –2 a = 1 cm = 1 × 10 ma 1 =2 2 0 3 = 10 –6 m 4 )2 12 The energy stored in the plane = 1 (1= 10 7 2 8 .85 × 10 = (1/2) × 8. Charge = Q 1 = 16 × 10 –6 c =8 2J 16 2 =8 J 8 2 4 × V 12 = (1/2) × 2 × × V 22 = (1/2) × 4 × 2 Radius of sphere = R Capacitance of the sphere = C = 4 Energy = C 42.7 × 10 –10 –1 0 J × 144 = 6. Hence no heat is produced in transformer.2 × 10 –1 2 ie.13 . q = 12 × 8. 31.85 × 10 = q × v = 1.06 × 10 (c) Before the process Ei = (1/2) × Ci × v After the force Ei = (1/2) × Cf × v 1 q2 = A 2 = 1 × 10 0 2 2 –1 0 C = 1.97 The necessary electro static energy stored in a cubical volume of edge 1 cm infront of the plane = 1 =2265 × 10 a3 2 0 2 –6 = 5.85 × 10 1 2 –12 – 12 × 144 = 12. area = a = 20 cm =2 2 0 = 2 × 10 m2 m C = 0 d = separation = 1 mm = 10 Ci = 10 3 3 0 = 0 2 2 10 10 3 3 0 0. (a) So.65 × 10 –2 –3 –4 J 44.7 × 10 –1 0 = (1/2) × 2 × 8. or q 1 + q 2 = 24 × 10 q 1 = 8 × 10 c –6 q2 = 2q 1 = 2 × 8 × 10 E1 = (1/2) × C E2 = (1/2) × C 41. V = q= 1 1 –6 = 24 × 10 –6 c & q2 respectively q 2 2 q1 C C1 –6 C2 –6 q = 42 q 2 = 2q 1 . 10 = 564. Q = CV = 4 1 q2 E= C 2 2 R2 1 16 =22 0 E= R 2 4 0 2 0 R Q R 1 Q2 2 0 1 Q2 = R 2 4= R 0 Q2 8 0 R×V [ ‘C’ in a spherical shell = 4 V2 0 0 R] R] RV2 [‘C’ of bigger shell = 4 0 43. 10 0 qi = 24 q = 12 – 12 So. q flown out 12 = 106.35 × 10 12 0 J (d) Workdone = Force × Distance 3 = 12 0 0 10 3 3 2 10 (e) From (c) and (d) we have calculated.Capacitor 40.06 × 10 J –10 C (b) Energy absorbed by battery during the process C × 12 = 12. the energy loss by the separation of plates is equal to the work done by the man on plate.85 10 4 17 .

V = 12 V q = CV = 1200 v (c) We know V = q W W = vq = 12 × 1200 = 14400 J = 14. (a) Before reconnection C = 100 f V = 24 V q = CV = 2400 c (Before reconnection) After connection When C = 100 f V = 12 V q = CV = 1200 c (After connection) (b) C = 100.4 mJ The work done on the battery.44 mJ nd Energy stored on 2 E2 = 1= 6 q 2 2 C 2 2 capacitor 1 2 (72 )2 = 432 J = 4. 46.32 mJ 31. 47. (a) Since the switch was open for a long time. C 1 =5 fV 1 2 1 = 24 V =R q1 = C and C V1 = 5 × 24 = 120 c =6 fV 2 q2 = C 2 V2 = 6 × 12 = 72 Energy stored on first capacitor Ei = 1 =12 q2 2 C 1 1 2 (120 )2 = 1440 J = 1.14 . (d) Initial electrostatic field energy Ui = (1/2) CV Final Electrostatic field energy U = (1/2) CV Decrease in Electrostatic Field energy = (1/2) CV = (1/2) C(V 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 – (1/2) CV 2 2 – V 22 ) = (1/2) × 100(576 –144) = 21600J Energy = 21600 j = 21. hence the charge flown must be due to the both. Cef = C/2 So q = 2 E C EC = 2 2 E2 C E2 C = 2 E C C (b) Workdone = q × v = E (c) E C = 4 = 2 2 1 E2 2 E2 C i Ef = (1/2) × C × E E2 C Ei – E f = 4 (d) The net charge in the energy is wasted as heat.6 mJ (e)After reconnection C = 100 c. V = 12 v The energy appeared = (1/2) CV 2 = (1/2) × 100 × 144 = 7200 J = 7.2 mJ This amount of energy is developed as heat when the charge flow through the capacitor. when the switch is closed.Capacitor 45.

2 W = Q × E = 2QE = 2CE process. A charge 2Q.36 = 21.4 cm = 4 × 10 C= t k (5 m 10 3 2 d = 0.44 + 0.433 = 1.42 × 10 Charge Induced = q(1 – 1/k) = 8.2 c 1 U2 = (1/2) C 2 V2 2 (C 1 + C 2 ) = (1/2) (4.5 cm t = 0. Dielectric const.52 × 10 Net charge appearing on one coated surface = 4 51.7687 = 1.15 . 2CE 2 = 2 ×5 × 10 d = 1 m = 1 × 10 k=4t=d C= d = = A 0 t t k 1 10 = A d 0 d d 2 –3 –6 × 144 = 144 × 10 –2 –5 J = 1. = 4 F = 1.13 nc = c = 6.52 2.36 = 26.5 cm = 5 × 10 = A t 0 d t = A 0 d m –3 A = 100 cm 2 Thickness of metal t = . 85 = 10 1 2 × 10 10 141.4 cm 8.873 The loss in KE = 1.4 nc = 10 –2 m 2 –3 Separation d = .Capacitor (b) C 1 V1 Let the effective potential = V V= C V =C V 6 1 1 2 2 C2 V2 5 f 24 v 6 f 12 v + –+ – 120 = 4. Here Plate area = 100 cm 2 –9 × 6 = 8. a charge –Q appears on the first plate and +Q on the second. a charge Q = CE appears on one plate and –Q on the other.25) = 6. V = 6 V Charge supplied = q = CV = 1.585 = 88 pF 10 12 4 ) 10 Here the capacitance is independent of the position of metal. At any position the net separation is d – t.42 nf 20 cm 50. When the polarity is reversed. The energy stored in the capacitor is the same in the two cases.44 mJ [have C = 5 f V = E = 12V] 49.36) 2 (5 + 6) = 104.8 c and C 2 V = 6 × 4. The battery does a work. As d is the separation and t is the thickness.52 × 10 –9 –9 C –9 × (1 – 0. Thus the workdone In this by battery appears as heat in the connecting wires. 31.873 – 0. The heat produced is therefore.1045 mJ But U i = 1.1045 = 1.42 nf. (i) + – + – (ii) + – When the capacitor is connected to the battery.5 × 10 –6 J = 0.39 × 10 8 . A = 20 cm × 20 cm = 4 × 10 m m d k 4 0 Ak 20 cm 8. therefore passes through the battery from the negative to the positive terminal.77 mJ 48.6 4 3 1 mm –9 F = 1.36 72 5 1V C1 C2 The new charge C (c) U 1 = (1/2) C Uf = (1/2) V V2 = 5 × 4.

6V m m 5 × 10 A 0 3 2 = 10 10 3×3 V/M (c) d = 2 × 10 t = 1 × 10 k = 5 or C = d –6 = = 10 8. When the dielectric placed on it = A 0 d (d) C = 5 × 10 t –6 8.85 A A 85 2 10 3 12 10 9 10 4 8.3 × 10 –6 f = 30 f f –6 × 6 ˜ 50 F C1 C2 C 1 charge flown = Q – Q = 20 F 54. C = 5 f V = 6 V d = 2 mm = 2 × 10 (a) the charge on the +ve plate q = CV = 5 f × 6 V = 30 c (b) E = d V= m –3 –3 –3 m.Capacitor 52.85 = 10 12 = 10 4 10 3 5 5 6 6 = 10 5 0. –2 = 4 × 10 –3 m2 d = 1 cm = 1× 10 t = 0. Initial charge stored = 50 c Let the dielectric constant of the material induced be ‘k’.3 × 10 V=6V Q = C V = 8. when the extra charge flown through battery is 100. A = 400 cm V = 160 V 2 –1 1 C = 44. net charge stored in capacitor = 150 c or A d Now C 1 = d 0 or.25 pc.16 .5 = 5 × 10 k=5 –4 m m 31. f. So. 85 6 4 10 10 3 12 10 4 6 2 24 10 3 C2 1 d1 d2 = 4.00000833 = 8.Ak C2 = d 0 q 1 50 c V q2 V A 0 …(1) …(2) Ak 0 d q1 q 2 Deviding (1) and (2) we get k k 50 150 k1 3 = 1 53.33 F. Now. V = 6 V –5 Q = CV = 3 × 10 C = 8.85 t k 10 10 3 12 10 4 3 C1 = 10 5 8.425 × 10 55. Let the capacitances be C Now C 1 = 0 1 & C2 net capacitance ‘C’ = = Ak 2 0 d 2 C 2 1 cm 2 C Ak 0 1 d 1 0 + 6 mm 2 C1 k=4 4 mm – Ak1 d 1 Ak 2 d Ak 2 d2 2 0 A k d 1 k1 k 2 d d 1 2 2 C= Ak 1 0 d1 = 0 0 A k d 2 = 8.

It is constituted of two capacitor elements of dielectric constants k 1 and k 2 with plate separation xtan and d –xtan respectively in series 1 dcR dcR = ) 1 dc 1 1 dc 2 0 x tan k (bdx ) 2 d x tan 0 1 k (bdx x tan k 2 0 bdx ( d x tan ) k 1 or C R = 0 bk 1 k2 dx k2 d tan 1 (k e k 2 )x [logk k b 0 1 2 = ) tan (k1 k 2 [logk k b 0 1 2 = ) tan (k1 k 2 tan = a k2 d+ (k 1 –k2 ) x tan ]a k2 d+ (k 1 –k2 ) a tan – log k2 d] e e d and A = a × a 31.17 . (a) Area = A Separation = d C Ak 1 C1 = 2 0 d/ 2 C= C1 C2 C =C 1 2 2 Ak 2 = 20 d/ 0 K1 Ak1 0 0 2 Ak 2 = 2 (2 (2 0 A)2 k1 k 2 d2 k d 1 K2 2 d Ak d 1 d 2 Ak 0 d 1 3 0 Ak1 d 0 A) 2k k A = ) 1 2 0 k d d(k k 2 1 2 d2 (b) similarly 1 C = 1 C1 d= 3 0 1 C2 1 1 1 C3 1 k 2 1 3 0 Ak2 d k2 k3 A 1 3 0 Ak3 d k1 k 3 k1 k2 3 = 1 k 3 d 3 0 A k k k k 1 2 C= ) (c) C = C 0 1 3 d( k k + C2 k1 A 1 2 0 Ak1 k2 k 3 k k 2 3 k k 1 3 A 0 = d 57. A 2 d 2 k2 A = ) 0 (k1 2d k2 dx k1 d d dc B X dc d – x tan k2 x tan 1 Consider an elemental capacitor of with dx our at a distance ‘x’ from one end. 4 5 10 10 56.85 = 10 5 t k 10 3 12 4 4 10 5 5 2 4 35 . 4 10 3 10 0.Capacitor C= d = A 0 t 8 .

i. Initially when switch ‘s’ is closed Total Initial Energy = (1/2) CV 2 + (1/2) CV 2 = CV 2 …(1) II. the charge remains Same i.e. cv Cef f = 3C 1 q2 E= c = c 2 In case of ‘A’ Cef f = 3c E= 1 = 2 2 C v eff 2 1 × 3c × v cv 2 6 2 c2 v 2 = 6 2 3 1 cv 2 3 cv 2 = 2 10 cv 2 Total final energy = 2 Initial = Energy Now. in case of ‘B’. Before inserting Q= C A C = C0 d After inserting C= = A d 0 d k Q Ak 0 3cv 2 = 6 cv 2 10 cv 2 6 AV d Ak d =3 0 + + + K – – – 1 = V0 The charge flown through the power supply Q=Q 1 –Q 0 = ) kV A = d0 d AV 0 AV d (k 1 Workdone = Charge in emf 2 1 q2 1 = C = 2 2 0 A2 V2 d2 0 (k 1) 1)2 = )0 AV 2 2d A (k 1 d (k 31. /s VC C I. When switch is open the capacitance in each of capacitors varies.e.Capacitor CR = 0 ak 1 k2 1 d a (k k ) 2 loge k1 k k 2 a2 k k 1 2 CR = ) 0 d( k1 k 2 In a2 k k 1 2 CR = ) 0 d( k k 1 2 log k1 k 2 e 1 k2 58. hence the energy also varies. Energy Final 59.18 .

d = c1 F q [ ’q’ remains same after disconnection of battery] = 20 3 5 = 10 V.19 (b a . which are connected in series. These three metallic hollow spheres form two spherical capacitors. for (1) and (2) 4( for a spherical capacitor formed by two spheres of radii R ab C1 = a 0 b C= 4 R2 0 2 > R1 ) R2 R 1 R2 bc (4 )2 ab 2 c a) bc (b b) 4 c 0 Similarly for (2) and (3) 4 C2 = b c 0 C ef f = C C C 1 1 0 C 2 (b 2 a )(c b) (b a )(c 4 ab (c 0 a) = 4= abc ab 2 0 ab 2 c b c 2 4= 0 ab 2 c a abc b (c 2 ac a) 63.5 (b) New C = C = 2.5 × 10 New p.5 10 4 (c) In the absence of the dielectric slab. 2 . Here we should consider two spherical capacitor of capacitance cab and cbc in series Cab = ) 4Cbcabk) = 0 4 (c 0 bc b 31. 61. Solving them individually. q = charge of plate) = 5 × 10 –3 5 1 1 = 5 × 10 2. Capacitance = 100 F = 10 P. –3 3 = 3 × 10 × 5 –3 = 3 mc.5 × C = 2.Capacitor 60.d = 30 V (a) q = CV = 10 –4 –4 F –3 × 50 = 5 × 10 c = 5 mc –4 Dielectric constant = 2. Here we should consider a capacitor cac and cabc in series Cac = ) Cbc = ) 1 C 4 k(c 4 (b 1 Cac 0 0 ack a bc c 1 Cbc (b 4 0 0 C a C b b (c = aabc ) = bc 4 ack 0 c) b(c a) k4 0 ka (b c) C a b C= ) 4 ka (b kabc b(c a c) C 62. the charge that must have produced C × V = 10 –4 × 20 = 2 × 10 –3 c = 2 mc (d) Charge induced at a surface of the dielectric slab = q (1 –1/k) (where k = dielectric constant.

M We knows In this particular case the electricfield attracts the dielectric into the capacitor with a force d Where b – W idth of plates k – Dielectric constant d – Separation between plates V = E = Potential difference.54 × 2548 .Capacitor 1 = bc C Cab C= ) 4 c (b a) 1 1 Cbc 0 (b = a ) abc 4 b 0 (c 4 0 b) c (b a) k4 0 ka (c b) abk kabc ka ( c 64.85 = 10 12 10 8. A = 100 cm V = 24 V = 10 –2 m2 d = 1 cm = 10 0 m = A 0 8. Hence in this case the surfaces are frictionless. = Mg 2 (k bE So. Q = 12 c V = 1200 V v=3× d V= d= ) (v / d 10 –6 v m 1200 4×6 3 = 10 10 6 –8 –4 m Q = 1200= 10 12 10 c= v C= d A= = 10 A 0 f –8 f 10 8 10 8 0 d 2 = 0.8 × 10 2.45 m 4 10 10 4 4 2 8.20 .8 = 10 1 2 10 10 2 – 12 The forced attraction between the plates = d 66. d 0 2 M = dg 0 0 bV 2 ( k 2 1) 1) 1) bE 2 (k 2 31.85 × 10 10 1 2 – 12 2 2 The capacitance C = d The energy stored C – 12 = (1/2) CV = (1/2) × 10 C × (24) 2 = 2548. this force is counteracted by the weight. d K 1 = –7 N.854 –2 65.

= (dc) v 2 – fdx bv 2 2d = ) 0 (k1 1 = ) 0 F V 2d b(k1 1 = ) 1 F b(k 2d 1 1 For the right side. V F V= 1 V2 0 0 F 0 2d 1 2 b(k 2 2d 1) 1) 1 2d b(k1 F b(k 2 k2 k 1 V1 = 1 V2 The ratio of the emf of the left battery to the right battery = 1 k2 k 1 1 31. l1 l2 K1 K2 nn (a) Consider the left side The plate area of the part with the dielectric is by its capacitance k and with out dielectric C bx C1 = d 1 0 These are connected in parallel b C = C 1 + C 2 = )]0 [L 1 d Let the potential V U = (1/2) CV 2 1 1 2 = d0 b(L1 x) x(k 1 1 = …(1) 2 bv 1 0 2d L1 x(k 1) Suppose dielectric slab is attracted by electric field and an external force F consider the part dx which makes inside further.21 . dq = (dc) v to the capacitor The work done by the battery is dw The external force F does a work dw during a small displacement The total work done in the capacitor is dw Thus (1/2) (dk)v 1 dc f = dx v2 2 from equation (1) F= ) V 2 1 0 2 b b = v.Capacitor 67. The charge supply.dx) + dw e = (dc) v 2 – fdx This should be equal to the increase dv in the stored energy.dq = (dc) v e 2 = (–f. As the potential difference remains constant at V.

which causes an increase of capacitance by dc dQ = (dc) E The work done by the battery dw = Vdg = E (dc) E = E Let force acting on it be f Work done by the force during the displacement.Capacitor 68.22 . k C1 = d 0 A l l Capacitance of the portion without dielectrics. dx = fdx Increase in energy stored in the capacitor (1/2) (dc) E 2 2 dc = (dc) E 2 2 – fdx 1 E 2 dc 2 fdx = (1/2) (dc) E C= da ) a (k (here x = a) d 0 f = dx A 1) A d dc 1 2 ) A 0 dc = A ) d da 0 a (k 1 (k =ddx 0 1 dc = f = dx 1 2 E2 E2 d (k 1 1 2 4m d( 0 a t= d E a) f = dm 2 (l0 –A(k= 1) = m 2 2(= ) a ) ad 2(= ) a )2 dm E2 0 ad t 2 a) A(k 1 a) (k 1 AE 2 (k 1 Time period = 2t = ) 8m d( 0 AE 2 31. Capacitance of the portion with dielectrics. C2 = d 0 ( a)A E 1 K Net capacitance C = C C= 0 + C2= 0 A d ka ( a) a A d a (k 1) Consider the motion of dielectric in the capacitor. Let it further move a distance dx.