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Fokker 100

Key Facts
© Nicolas Mollet v2 - Sept 2006

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Fokker 100 © NM

Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS....................................................................................... 3

1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 7

2 AIRCRAFT GENERAL ................................................................................. 9

3 FLIGHT WARNING SYSTEM ......................................................................15

4 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT........................................................................17

5 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT..........................................................................21

6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM...............................................................................25

7 FUEL SYSTEM ............................................................................................31

8 POWER PLANT ..........................................................................................35

9 FIRE PROTECTION ....................................................................................47

9.1 Engine ............................................................................................................................................ 47

9.2 APU................................................................................................................................................ 49

9.3 Cargo and toilet compartments................................................................................................... 50

10 BLEED-AIR SYSTEM ..............................................................................51

11 AIR CONDITIONING / PRESSURIZATION .............................................55

12 ICE AND RAIN PROTECTION ................................................................63

13 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.............................................................................67

14 LANDING GEAR......................................................................................71

14.1 Landing gear operation................................................................................................................ 71

14.2 Nose-wheel steering ...................................................................................................................... 72

Key Facts
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............................................... 100 17.................................................................................................................................................2 Attitude and heading system......................1 Electronic Flight Instrument System ................................... 110 18............................................................................... 81 15...........................6 ATC transponder / TCAS .......................................................................................Fokker 100 © NM 14..............................................3 Ground Proximity Warning System ............................................................................4 Flight envelope protection..4 Avionics Cooling System ............................................................ 98 17................................................................................. 105 18 FLIGHT CONTROL & AUGMENTATION SYSTEM ........................ 87 16............................................................... 84 15.........4 Take-off configuration warning .........................................................................................5 ADF........................................................... 107 18............................................................................. 86 16.........................................................................3 Brake control system ............................2 Secondary flight controls ............7 Radio Altimeter ........................................................................................................................................................................3 Autothrottle system ............... 92 16........... 111 Key Facts -4- .............................................................................. 85 16 FLIGHT / NAVIGATION DATA SYSTEMS ...... 97 17 FLIGHT / NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS ...............77 15.......................................2 Automatic Flight Control System.................................8 Flight Data Recording ...................................................................1 Primary flight controls....... 96 16..4 VOR / DME / marker beacon / ILS ....................................................................... 89 16....3 Stall prevention system ..................................................................... 74 14...................................................................................... 106 18.............................................................1 General ..................... 76 15 FLIGHT CONTROLS ................................................................................................................................ 93 16........................................ 91 16.........................................................3 Weather radar .106 18...............................98 17......................................4 Proximity switching / ground-flight control ....................................................................................2 Secondary & standby instruments .................................................................................................................................1 Air data system ............................................................................................86 16................................................................................. 77 15.................. 102 17............................

....................5 Flight mode annunciation ..............................................................................................3 Speed limitations.......................................... 123 20.............. 115 18................................................4 Weather limitations ..........................................................6 Flight augmentation system.............................7 AFCAS limitations... 123 20.............................................................. 117 19 COMMUNICATION ............................................................Fokker 100 © NM 18.............................................................. 121 20 LIMITATIONS .....................................................................................................2 Weight limitations ........................................ 122 20.......................................................... 124 20...................... 122 20....................................................9 Miscellaneous ..............................8 Navigations limitations...................................................... 123 20.................2 Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR)................................................118 19....................................1 General .................122 20.... 122 20.............................................................. 114 18...................................................................................6 Fuel system limitations................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 123 20.............5 Powerplant & APU limitations........................................................................................................................................................................7 Wind shear detection & recovery................................ 118 19............................................................................................... 125 Key Facts -5- .....................................................................................................................1 General limitations ...

Fokker 100 © NM INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Key Facts -6- .

please only refer to an official publication.Fokker 100 © NM 1 Introduction This document has been based on personal notes during computer based training and classroom sessions.M.O. enrichments and some further explanation by the diagrams. it only contains key facts. Enjoy! Key Facts -7- . In that case. experiences shared by instructors and the Aircraft Operating Manual itself which has been used as backbone for this writing. Its purpose was not to present a complete writing about the different subjects. No further distribution is allowed as this manual contains copyright-protected material such as diagrams from the F100 A. This is not an official document meaning that nothing of its contents may be used as training purpose.

Fokker 100 © NM INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Key Facts -8- .

Fokker 100 © NM 2 Aircraft general (± 60 pulses/min) 2 NAV-lights + 1 strobe per unit. Figure 2-1: Exterior lighting of the Fokker 100 Key Facts -9- . Only 1 NAV-light will be illuminated when NAV-light is OFF and towing switch activated.

C) of the aisle o Three on the right side (D. .2 m. Mechanically connected to the locking mechanism is a vent flap. In this case the door can be locked with the lock pin. the lower part of the door can be kicked out after the turn knob (under the doorknob) is removed. There are 5 maintenance access hatches: • 2 x avionics compartment • 3 x airco + space beneath flight deck floor . There are 2 parts in the flight deck door.21.12 and 14 . Cabin layout: • A total of 100 seats • 20 seat rows: o Two on the left side (A. The cabin windows are a Perspex laminate and consist of inner and outer panels. In the event of an engine failure. The door is properly locked when the inboard door lock handle is pointing in the direction of flight. when the door is locked. Front and slide windows are electrically heated. the electrical lock of the flight deck door is removed and the door can be opened from both sides. F) of the aisle • The rows are numbered row 1 . the flap is closed. . The spring plate will drop and the panel can then be removed. At the flight deck side.Fokker 100 © NM Figure 2-2: Exterior lights panel . . An indicator at the top left side of the door shows the door status: Green indicates locked Red indicates open . all extended landing/taxi lights will retract automatically except when the landing gear is down. . . . The flap will dump the cabin pressure when the door is unlatched. excluding row 13 • Rows 12 and 14 have self – help emergency exits Key Facts -10- . . Maximum pavement width for a 180° turn is 22. side windows are demisted. There are 34 windows on the left-hand side and 33 on the right-hand side. In battery only conditions. E.

• 31-50 passengers: symmetrically about row 10. with the exception of one small compartment at row 1 (right side) which will take about 20 kg. Area call lights are located forward and aft in the cabin ceiling: • A red light indicates a call from an attendant station • A blue light indicates a passenger call • A left or right amber light indicates a call from the left or right hand toilet • A green light indicates a cockpit call Key Facts -11- . .Fokker 100 © NM . rows aft of row 16 are not used. • >50 passengers: symmetrically about row 12. Overhead stowage compartments are fitted along the length of each side of the cabin and are stressed to contain 85 kg of luggage each. all seats are available. . rows aft of row 20 are not used. Seat restrictions: • < 30 passengers: symmetrically about row 8.

(When the aircraft is on the ground and no external power is available. . Above the doors. Emergency lighting: Figure 2-4: Location of the emergency lighting • Exit lights: . ON when landing gear down and when the emergency lights are in armed position.Fokker 100 © NM Figure 2-3: Cabin & Ground call p/b .) Key Facts -12- . • Standby lights: . and in the aft cabin area. Any attempt to contact the flight crew over the interphone will result in the call button illuminating but the audible warning being inhibited. in the passenger compartment aisle. In the passenger entrance. except in the toilet compartment (Standby lights in the toilet compartment are continuously on). . the batteries can be switched on so that the standby lights will be illuminated from the aircraft batteries. and in the passenger compartment aisle. in the front of the cabin. ON in battery only conditions. toilet compartment. The F100 is fitted with an audible warning inhibit function below 400 feet. . above escape hatches.

ON automatically when generator power is not available. Key Facts -13- . . With batteries fully loaded. the lights can illuminate for 30 minutes.Fokker 100 © NM • Emergency lights: . provided the guarded emergency lights switch is in the armed position. Emergency lights are installed in the following locations: o 1 in the flight deck o 1 in the entrance o 6 in the cabin o 1 in each toilet compartment o In the exit signs o 3 on each side of the fuselage on the exterior o Extra exit signs under the escape hatches and at the lower side of the doors o Floor proximity path markings on the right hand side of the aisle .

Fokker 100 © NM ‘NOT ARMED’ if selector in ON or OFF position Figure 2-5: Emergency light switch Key Facts -14- .

Whooler 3. ‘C’ chord 7. it will be indicated by a ‘PAGE 1’: • Use ‘CANCEL’-button to remove presented amber alert messages • Alert message of page 2 will now be displayed • ‘MSG CANCELLED’ will appear if these amber alert messages are also cancelled. • Restoring cancelled amber alert messages possible with recall button (Remark: No red alert messages can be removed) . If LH MFDU fails. the information is automatically displayed on the RH MFDU. Cavalry charge (with or without autoland caution lights) 2. Autoland caution lights (without cavalry charge) 6. Alert messages: • a maximum of 11 alert messages can be displayed • LEVEL 3 in red. Secondary page information can be visualized with the XFR p/b except when red alert messages are displayed. If more than 11 alert messages exist. FWC generated alerts (in order of descending priority): 1.Fokker 100 © NM 3 Flight Warning System . LEVEL 2 in amber • on LH MFDU • in descending order of priority • the last incoming is indicated by a pointer . Single chime Key Facts -15- . Double chime and MCL 8. . Repetitive triple chime and MWL 5. Clacker 4. Two LEVEL 3-alerts cannot be cancelled by depressing either MWL: • the LG-not-down alert: o LG not down o Radio altitude < 1000 ft o Flaps > 23° OR thrust below MIN TO • take-off configuration alert .

independent of flight altitude. Figure 3-1: Warn Audio p/b . GPWS) can be inhibited by depressing WARN AUDIO p/b. Aural alerts generated by FWC (≠ SAP-generated aural alerts (cavalry charge and clacker). when on. the AP remains engaged • When thrust levers are below MIN TO position and the gear is up. Key Facts -16- . AUTOLAND caution light o Overhead panel fault lights o Aural alerts except AP disconnect (cavalry charge) and overspeed (clacker) • MFDS displays only engine indications • AP. when off. not by FWC) • Following alerts no more available: o MWL. cannot be engaged. MCL.Fokker 100 © NM . Warning computer inoperative: • SAP automatically activated and only SAP alerts indicated • SAP displays all LEVEL 3 alerts and some LEVEL 2 alerts • ‘FAIL’ displayed on MFDU (provided by MFDS. the SAP will show a red LG warning.

Fokker 100 © NM 4 Emergency equipment . Crew oxygen mask: • NORMAL (N): mixture of ambient air with oxygen on demand. At 30 000 ft cabin altitude the flow in both modes will be 100% • EMERGENCY: rotate to supply 100% oxygen continuous flow provided NORMAL/100% lever is set to 100% Oxygen is set to 100% position. this is used in all circumstances unless decided otherwise by the FCM. dependant on the cabin altitude • 100%: supply of 100% oxygen on demand. Figure 4-1: Oxygen mask Key Facts -17- .

Table 1: Duration table of cockpit oxygen bottle . the mask microphone becomes hot.Fokker 100 © NM When mask is activated. Cabin oxygen system: • Each passenger drop-out stowage holds a spare mask: o the unit above the double seats contains three masks o the unit above the triple seats contains four masks o units located above all crew seats each contain three masks o units in each toilet compartment contain three masks • Drop-out at ± 14 000 ft or manually with MAN OVRD p/b • non-smoking sign comes on at drop-out • pulling mask starts oxygen flow for approx 12 min Figure 4-2: Pax oxygen p/b Key Facts -18- . Close container doors and reset reset/test lever before regaining normal communication via boom.

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 4-3: Emergency equipment location Key Facts -19- .

5 Mhz for 72 hrs • 243 Mhz for 72 hrs • 406 Mhz for 24 hrs Key Facts -20- .Fokker 100 © NM . ELT: • 121.

. overspeed. APU requires for operation: • Fuel from LH collector tank • DC electrical power .g. but wait 2 min for draining • Not more than 3 consecutive APU starts allowed . fire. . high oil temperature. . APU bleed should be switched off during aircraft de-icing. Door closed if APU off. bleed-air supply is decreased. .Fokker 100 © NM 5 Auxiliary power unit . Key Facts -21- . Exhaust valve at RH side fuselage. Landing with an APU fault leads to an automatic shutdown 60s after touchdown. high exhaust gas temperature. low oil pressure. Closed if: • APU off • APU fire . All APU fault on the ground are level 2 + auto shutdown. Air for oil cooling and ventilation ducted from inlet on fuselage: controlled with ventilation (inlet) valve. . When the combination of electrical and bleed-air loads exceeds the APU capacity. Air supplies through air intake door (on top fuselage). Unsuccessful start: • Start selector to OFF before attempting another start • Restarting inhibited till 30s after OFF selecting (= till RPM < 10% to avoid damage). If APU on: • 15° on the ground • 10° in flight . . If no external power available. In flight the APU shuts down automatically in case of: • APU fire • Overspeed • Starting cycle > 90s On the ground for any failure (e.…). wait 70s before switching off the batteries after APU shutdown.

LH Collector tank Fuel fire shut-off valve Bleed air valve Fuel Control Unit APU Oil Accessory Cooling Exhaust Fan valve gearbox AC Gen Fuel shut-off valve Figure 5-1: Auxiliary power unit . READY TO START • Pull and rotate start to START APU START IN PROGRESS • Fuel fire SOV opens • Power supplied to starter motor • At 10% RPM: fuel SOV opens and igniter energizes • At 50% RPM: self sustaining • At 94. APU start sequence: • Selector to ON APU OFF • After 3sec APU OFF.Fokker 100 © NM . Bleed air valve closed when airborne. DOORS TRAVEL • Ventilation valve opens • Air intake opens APU OFF.schematic .5% RPM: APU AVAILABLE • After 2’: bleed air valve opens Key Facts -22- .

Normal APU fuel flow is 1. APU off: • All air and fuel valves close • 30sec time delay in start system .02.Fokker 100 © NM .44 kg/min or 86 kg/h (AOM 9.01 p2) Figure 5-2: APU start switch Key Facts -23- .

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. . a red AC SUPPLY light on the SAP is on. When AC external power is connected and within limits. . TRU 1* GND SERV TRU 3 . Table of priorities: Automatic AC bus transfer system Priority AC BUS 1 ESS AC EMER AC AC BUS 2 AC GND BUS BUS SERV BUS 1 GEN 1 GEN 1 ESS AC BUS GEN 2 AC BUS 2 2 EXT PWR GEN 2 EMER INV EXT PWR EXT PWR 3 APU GEN APU GEN . . DC BUS 1 DC BUS 1 . . BATs . GEN 1 - DC bus transfer system Priority DC BAT ESS DC EMER BAT DC DC GND BUS 1 BUS 1 BUS DC BUS BUS 2 BUS 2 SERV BUS 1 TRU 1 BAT 1 ESS TRU ESS TRU BAT2 TRU 2 DC EXT PWR 2 TRU 2* . provided AC and DC external power are not available. the AVAIL light in the external power p/b is on and the AC ground service bus is energized. . - (*) manual operation (DC X-TIE) Table 2: AC and DC priority table Key Facts -25- . . Batteries supply the DC ground handling bus. Total loss of emergency power may occur after 30 minutes.Fokker 100 © NM 6 Electrical system . 115 V / 400 Hz three-phase AC power and 28 V DC power electrical system. As long as the batteries are the only electrical sources. APU GEN - 4 GEN 2 EXT PWR . .

the galley busses are automatically de- energized. Key Facts -26- .Fokker 100 © NM . . DC Ground Handling Bus supplies power to: • fuelling panel • towing • hydraulic service panel • engine starter valve . ESS + EMER PWR ONLY: • power from AC bus 1 and 2 removed • essential + emergency AC bus remain energized . LOAD is expressed in (%). except for BAT where is mentioned in AMP. In flight during single generator operation. Dual DC Bus provides uninterrupted power source in the event of DC Bus 1 or 2 failure during landing for: • lift dumpers • anti-skid • speed brake .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 6-1: Electrical panel Key Facts -27- .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 6-2: AC electrical system Key Facts -28- .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 6-3: DC electrical system Key Facts -29- .

Fokker 100 © NM INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Key Facts -30- .

Fuel from the center tank is transferred to the wing tanks. . the excess fuel flows into the outer tank. Wing tank = 4 sections = 3 outboard sections + 1 collector tank. Fokker 100 © NM 7 Fuel system . When the collector tank is full. With 1 pump operating in the center tank. . FAULT in  pump p/b  LoP Figure 7-1: Fuel system Key Facts -31- . The center tank and each wing tank contain 2 electrically driven fuel pumps. . a normally closed transfer valve will open to allow fuel transfer from the operating pump to both collector tanks.

Key Facts -32- . Note: We can select CTR TK fuel pumps on before departure when operating in AUTOFEED. . Automatic fuel transfer from center tank to collector tank is possible: AUTO FEED p/b blank + either center tank pump is ON AND Engine fuel flow > 1135 kg/hr AND/OR Fuel quantity of both wing tanks below a predetermined value . Each pump in the collector tank has sufficient capacity to supply one engine in all thrust conditions or both engines in climb and cruise conditions. AUTO FEED MAN = fuel transfer to collector tank as soon as a center tank pump is switched ON. Even with full wing tanks.Fokker 100 © NM . Fuel asymmetry alert if > 350 kg and disappears if < 250 kg. . So no fuel will be pumped overboard. CTR TK pumps will only start operating when the fuel level in the wing tanks is below a predetermined level.

Fokker 100 © NM

- Indication in case of a pulled fire shut-off valve:

Figure 7-2: System shut-off indicator

- Pump L1 or R1 inop: 14 kg unusable fuel
- Pump L2 or R2 inop: 120 kg unusable fuel

- Fuel is measured with:
• 10 capacitive-type probes / wing tank
• 2 capacitive-type probes in center tank

- Main tanks, collector tanks & center tank incorporate:
• Water drain
• Ventilation vents at outbound flap track fairings

- 1 wing tank = 4 sections:
• 3 main tanks
• 1 collector tank

- 18 jet-pumps maintain maximum collector tank level.

- Flapper valves provide gravity feed if the jet-pumps fail. Level in the collector
tank will be equal to that of the main tanks.

- LEVEL 1 alert if collector tank < 600 kg.

- When the fuel quantity drops < 100 kg, LO + numerals (flashing) will be shown
on the corresponding fuel quantity display.

- Digital fuel quantity indicator receives information from CPT (= Combined
Processor Totalizer).

Key Facts
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Fokker 100 © NM

Figure 7-3: Fuel panel

Key Facts
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Fokker 100 © NM

8 Power plant
- Twin spool, bypass turbofan engines:

Figure 8-1: Rolls Royce Tay twin spool, bypass turbofan engine

LP-spool 1-3-3 N1 (LP rpm)

Single-stage fan, three-stage Intermediate Pressure (IP) compressor, three-stage LP turbine

Figure 8-2: Low speed gearbox

Key Facts
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. . 10 combustion chamber. The LP shaft passes through the HP shaft. two-stage turbine Figure 8-3: High speed gearbox . . . Fan output: ¼ is directed to the engine core. ¾ is bypassed. The engine is started by an air starter motor which drives the HP shaft via the high speed gearbox. Key Facts -36- . 2 bleed air tappings on HP compressor. 2 igniter plugs (chamber 4 & 8).Fokker 100 © NM HP-spool 12-2 N2 (HP rpm) Twelve-sage HP compressor.

Air can be supplied to starter motor when the electrically operated starter valve is open =  system electrically armed via START p/b  engine selector operated . Self-contained oil system: Oil which is too thick (cold) passes the by-pass valve Oil pump Engine and IDG oil Filter Engine bearings cooler  and Single pressure Temp. Supply: • pneumatic power • electrical power (AC power or batteries) . If fuel lever opened: • Fuel shut-off valve opens  fuel to nozzles • Igniter activated Key Facts -37- .Fokker 100 © NM . bulb Pump driven by high (info to FWC + MFDS) gear boxes speed gear box  Oil-fuel cooler Scavenge Pumps Filters Oil  Tank de-aerator chip detector Figure 8-4: Self contained oil system Starting: .

the air conditioning packs are shut-off and the output of hydraulic and pneumatic power from the respective engine is inhibited. EXT or other engine to starter motor) 4. At min 15% N2. Upon moving the start selector. Ignition switch in NORMAL 2. Start sequence: 1. During engine start with battery power only. After starting both engines: START p/b OFF HP shaft High Speed Gearbox APU EXT Air Starter Motor Control Valve Other engine single stage turbine Figure 8-5: Starter system Key Facts -38- . Start selector 1 or 2. hydraulic and pneumatic power inhibit. This will open the starter valve (= air entering from APU. START p/b ON (electrical power is available on the start system) 3. At 43% N2: starter cut-out: • starter valve closes (if not: alert) • ignition de-activated . and automatic air conditioning shut-off is not provided. select fuel lever open (= fuel + ignition) 6. At 43% N2: starter valve shuts (red & amber limit jump on TGT) 7. .Fokker 100 © NM . HP spool starts rotating 5.

Ignition: 43% N2 Figure 8-6: Ignition system Key Facts -39- .Fokker 100 © NM .

forward thrust lever movement is limited to approx 80 % N2. thrust idle N2 is increased to 70% when the landing gear is lowered (approach idle).Fokker 100 © NM EMER DC BUS NORM igniter plug 1 activated during start when FUEL lever opened. FAULT in engine START p/b: starter valve not closed after engine start. Key Facts -40- . . The fuel system is a mechanical all-speed governing system which controls fuel flow automatically to maintain a selected N2. When the flight control lock is on. . . Normal (low) idle is regained five seconds after touchdown. To reduce engine acceleration time from idle to go-around. de-activated at starter cut-out CONT 1 continuous ignition of selected plug ESS DC BUS CONT 2 EMER DC BUS RELIGHT continuous ignition of both igniter plugs ESS DC BUS Table 3: Ignition system Figure 8-7: Engine start panel . MAN EPR: if both AT channels fail or if both AT p/b’s are manually selected off. . an EPR target (for pilot reference) can be set manually.

Fokker 100 © NM Pressure differential switch . N2 . HP compressor inlet & outlet pressures Figure 8-8: Engine fuel system Key Facts -41- . TLA .

Fokker 100 © NM . fuel is inhibited Figure 8-9: N1 Governer Figure 8-10: Reverse thrust lever Key Facts -42- . N1 governer: F U E L FUEL   Nozzle N1 turns the governer. In case of N1 overspeed.

Engine indications: • Wedges: Maximum EPR for selected thrust rating. ATS can be re- engaged after positioning the thrust lever of the inoperative engine adjacent to the thrust lever of the live engine. Key Facts -43- . . depress either AT disconnect button before retarding the thrust lever. EMUX/EFSU (Engine Multiplexer / Engine Failure Sensing Unit) N2 < 43% OR EMUX ‘Engine Out’ GLC (Generator Line Contactor) open  L & R N1 > 30% AND Drop N1 > 50 RPS EFSU ‘Engine Fail’ (rapid detection of thrust loss) AND Both TLA ≥ MIN TO . • Oil Quantity is displayed from 15 min after both engines out till START p/b has been depressed. • Lazy T: EPR target:  Blue: automatically controlled (not in descent or in AFCAS)  White: manually controlled.Fokker 100 © NM . • Fuel Used is set to zero when on the ground the START p/b is depressed OR when secondary page MFDU is turned OFF and ON on the ground. Wedge is not presented during manual control of EPR target. When an engine has to be shut down. When the engine has been shut down.

APU bleed air pressure required for engine starting: 25 – 35 PSI at sea level. If TGT start limit (740° C) has not been exceeded. . Light-up should normally occur within 5 to 10 seconds after selecting the fuel lever to OPEN. . With the VIB p/b set to ALTN a subsequent high vibration will only be indicated by a single chime and the MFDS. . . Key Facts -44- . the VIB HI light on the overhead ENGINE panel will not come on. Observe 30 seconds rundown time between each attempt. After 4 attempts delay use of the starter for at least 15 minutes. The green dot speed increases with weight and/or altitude and is equal to VFTO and above 15000 ft increased by 2 kt/1000 ft. For the max range speed the still air descent distance (engines out) is approx 3 nm for each 1000 ft altitude lost. a second start may be attempted. .Fokker 100 © NM . The max range speed for engines out is the green dot speed. Normal use of the starter is limited to 4 attempts with a maximum of 2 minutes per attempt.

sleet. . In case an engine fails during take-off in PROF. rain. MCT is set automatically via ATS upon reaching the single-engine climb speed.Fokker 100 © NM . Above FL250: CLB EPR = MCT EPR. snow. ice or snow present on the ground and when: OAT (TAT) is below +6° C down to and including -25° C on the ground (in flight) . shut the fuel lever and select START p/b OFF after 30 seconds. ice crystals or with standing water. . such as clouds or fog with low visibility. . Icing conditions are present when visible moisture is present. In case of a high TGT during start. Bleed air requirement for starting: • External air: 30 – 50 PSI • Cross bleed starting: advance thrust lever till approx 30 PSI Key Facts -45- .

Fokker 100 © NM INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Key Facts -46- .

fire detection will be inoperative as long as faulty loop has not been switched OFF manually. If a predetermined temperature is reached. Rupture disc: fracture in the event of overpressure. . During fire warning test.g. When pulling the handle. Electrically detonated cartridges to let detonate rupture disc to fire the bottle. . Both loops must report a fire condition to the FWC before triggering an alert. Figure 9-1: Engine fire panel Key Facts -47- . Pulling a fire handle closes: • The respective fire shut-off valves in the fuel system • The respective fire shut-off valves in the hydraulic system • Over Pressure and Shut-Off Valve (OP/SOV) in the bleed-air system . In case of a faulty loop. check ‘Agent Low Pressure’ on. Also ON when rupture disc is broken due to e. . high ambient temperatures). a fire warning is presented. Dual sensing element loops. the white fuel lever warning light will not come on if in SHUT position. . . overpressure (caused by e.1 Engine .g. 2 extinguisher bottles behind rear pressure bulkhead: • Bromo-trifluro-methane gas • Nitrogen as propellant . .Fokker 100 © NM 9 Fire protection 9.

Fokker 100 © NM Engine Fire Panels (red light in handels) Flight Deck FWC MFDS Alert Fuel levers (white light) SENSOR ELEMENTS FDCU  Fire Detection Control Unit (aft avionics bay)  Temperature sensitive material If T   R  Figure 9-2: Engine fire detection Figure 9-3: Test panel: engine & APU fire test Key Facts -48- .

. Bottle discharged 5 seconds after the warning in order to close the APU inlet door and vent valve. sounds also (inhibited during APU fire test).2 APU . If the aircraft is on the ground a warning horn. located in the nose wheel well. Fire shut-off valve in the fuel system closes automatically and APU shuts down. Single sensing element loop. . Figure 9-4: APU fire panel Key Facts -49- .Fokker 100 © NM 9. .

Two extinguisher bottles are installed for the fwd and aft cargo compartment: • Agent 1: high rate discharge bottle • Agent 2: low rate discharge bottle . the agent will discharge automatically into the waste container. If there is a fire in the waste container. Simultaneously agent 2 is discharged into the selected compartment at a reduce flow rate to maintain a minimum extinguishing agent concentration. . Toilet compartments each have a single (hidden) smoke detector. Figure 9-5: Cargo smoke panel Key Facts -50- . The call that is suggested for use by the FCM is (twice): “Attention cabin crew. . Selecting DISCH 1 causes immediate total discharge of agent 1 into the selected compartment. check right/left toilet” . check right/left toilet” “Attention cabin crew. Fwd and aft cargo compartment each have dual smoke detectors. One fire-extinguisher bottle is installed in the waste container area in each toilet compartment. however the power supplies for discharging are interchanged for redundancy.Fokker 100 © NM 9. Selecting DISCH 2 will discharge the same agent 1 and agent 2.3 Cargo and toilet compartments . . The agent 1 low pressure light (LO1) comes on within seconds after selecting DISCH 1 or DISCH 2 and the agent 2 low pressure light (LO2) remains off for approx 60 min due to the reduced flow rate. Both incorporate a smoke detection and a fire-extinguishing system.

connected to source 2 SO and modulating valve X ENG 1 MANIFOLD ENG 2 APU GND SRV ENG 1 STARTING ENG 2 STARTING ENG 1 ANTI-ICE ENG 2 ANTI-ICE SO and regulating valves AIR COND WING WATER HYDRAULIC & ANTI-ICE RESERVOIR RESERVOIR PRESS Pack valves SO and modulating valves Double walled duct (additional protection in pressurized areas) Figure 10-1: General bleed air distribution . Fokker 100 © NM 10 Bleed-air system TAIL Single walled ANTI-ICE duct . the HP bleed valve opens fully to supply pressure while the LP valve is closed. During idling. . .incorporating check valve See GND SRV + bleed valve . HP bleed valve closes. Key Facts -51- . Any anti-icing system ON: activation of the temperature modulating function of the HP bleed valve to admit HP bleed-air to the LP bleed flow that the required temperature is maintained. LP bleed is used in any flight condition except idling. At take-off when thrust increases.

Temperature in the common duct (where it is measured) will be maintained at 250° C. . Overheat: • closes respective HP bleed • closes respective PR/SOV • Level 1 – alert: Bleed 1(2) remark: OP/SOV remains open to provide bleed-air from the other engine anti-icing .Fokker 100 © NM Inhibition: • 60 seconds after TOGA selection • Continuously when either thrust lever is selected to maximum take-off position .5 PSI • Closes if fire handle is pulled . PR/SOV: • Pressure Regulating and Shut-Off Valve • Will limit downstream pressure • Controls 55 ± 5 PSI • Controlled by bleed p/b . Key Facts -52- . Conclusion: HP valve open: During idling (N2 range up to 80%) Anti-ice ON . Leakage: • closes respective HP bleed • closes respective PR/SOV • closes respective OP/SOV • Level 1 – alert: Bleed 1(2) duct leak remark: Engine anti-icing on the affected side will be inoperative although airframe anti-icing remains available. OP/SOV: • Over Pressure and Shut-Off Valve • Will limit downstream pressure in case of a failure of the OP/SOV • Closes if pressure > 70 ± 2.

Fokker 100 © NM 12th stage 7th stage  to prevent reverse flow To control temperature 250° ± 15° C Key Facts -53- .

Increasing thrust lever decreases APU supply. Bleed air pressure: • Normal operating range: 15 – 49 PSI • Recommended minimum for engine start: 25 PSI Key Facts -54- . APU delivers air as long as pressure is greater than 12th stage. . A single bleed system will meet all bleed-air demands. On the ground APU supplies air to both engine starters if both: • APU bleed valve open • OP/SOV open . .Fokker 100 © NM Figure 10-2 (previous page): Bleed air system .

servicing the flight deck. The excess airflow from the flight deck system supplements the cabin airflow. Ventilation now by recirculation fans (*) Auto shut-off function due to engine failure can be manually deactivated with the Air Conditioning Auto Shut p/b.Fokker 100 © NM 11 Air conditioning / pressurization . pass into a manifold.Both pack valves must be open . . During engine start (except in battery power only) . servicing the cabin. PACK 2 Cabin (70 %) Flight Deck (30 %) PACK 1 . and pack 2. Engine failure detected during take-off or in flight at altitudes below 13 500 ft and a thrust lever setting above MIN TO is selected (*). Pack valve is open when relevant p/b is blank + following conditions are met: • Bleed-air pressure > 10 PSI • No pack overheat condition • No Auto Shut-off has occurred  . The airflows from pack 1. When both thrust reversers are unlocked .Automatically controlled cabin temperature is within a preset range from the selected temperature Key Facts -55- . Flow control: • Normal flow: • Economy flow: o Manual selection (with ECON p/b): .

Inhibited when both temperature control p/b’s are in manual mode.Fokker 100 © NM o Automatic selection .When TOGA is activated the economy flow is maintained for 60 seconds . . LP conditioned air ground connection at forward right section of the aircraft Key Facts -56- .If an engine fails/shut down above 13 500 ft with thrust lever > MIN TO . Example of a normal sequence: • APU Ops: normal (or ECON if selected) • Engine start: Auto Shut-OFF. .As long as max T/O thrust is selected • Augmented flow: Only available when one pack is manually switched OFF.During take-off. then back to normal (or ECON if selected) • MIN TO pos: ECON • 1’ after lift-off: back to normal (or ECON if selected) • Thrust reverse: Auto Shut-OFF till reversers are stowed • Engine failure: < 13 500 ft: thrust > MIN TO Auto Shut-OFF > 13 500 ft: thrust > MIN TO ECON Figure 11-1: Airconditioning auto shut & ram air p/b . The remaining pack valve will open fully. normal flow is restored approx one minute after lift-off .

Fokker 100 © NM NORM ECON Augmented mode AUGM CLSD Pre-cooling fan (ram air) + Air cycle machine LP Conditioned air  Right fwd side of a/c Only pack 2 intake has a RAM AIR connection Figure 11-2: Airconditioning system Key Facts -57- .

In MAN the selector knob directly controls the valve position. so the pilot has to monitor the temperature and adjust the control knob as necessary. ECON: • Reduces APU fuel consumption + APU TGT • Reduces fuel consumption in flight by ± 0. Only a too high/low temperature. . In AUTO the control valves are automatically modulated to obtain the selected temperature. Remark: There is no indication of a failure of the AUTO-mode. There is no temperature control.Fokker 100 © NM .5 % Figure 11-3: Aircondtioning panel Key Facts -58- .

Fokker 100 © NM . The controller limits the differential pressure to 7. .46 PSI . primary valve is controlled by pressurization controllers while secondary is controlled by the primary. 2 inward pressure relief valves prevent negative cabin pressure. . Protections: • Automatic: . 2 outflow valves. . Altitude limiting is provided at 13 500 ± 1500 ft. • Manual: . . A cabin altitude of 8000 ft can be maintained at 35 000 ft. Dual channel pressurization controller of which one active and one inactive. The cabin alt limiter will close both outflow valves. Excessive cabin altitude warning at 10 000 ft.65 PSI . . The outflow valves limit the max differential pressure to 7. Alternated: • After each landing • After each power interruption • Manually by pressing PRESS CONTROL p/b twice • Should the active channel fail Figure 11-4: Pressurization control p/b Key Facts -59- .

Regulated maximum rate of cabin pressure change: • Aligned with datum: maximum 500 FPM in climb and 300 FPM in descent • Fully INCR: maximum 2500 FPM in climb and 1575 FPM in descent • Fully DECR: no change.Fokker 100 © NM . 0 rate Figure 11-5: Cabin pressurization panel Key Facts -60- .

– 70 ft 3. – 200 ft In case of RTO 4. Thrust levers forward: airport elev. -- 6. Door closed + engines running: airport elev. Operation: 1. Cabin climbs to airport elevation – 70 ft in 20 seconds 5. e.Fokker 100 © NM . Cabin depressurizes 1 minute later Normal TO If destination elevation > departure elevation 4. At selected altitude: cabin climbs according to climb schedule In case of aborted flight (return to base) 7. Select land altitude (cabin altitude will now be established for different flight phases) 2. 150 FPM if rate selector is neutral) 5. Maintains this cabin altitude till climb schedule is intercepted 6. Cabin descends to selected (land) altitude at dwell rate (= ½ of the selected rate.g. Climbs according to climb schedule If destination elevation < departure elevation 4. Cabin climbs at selected rate to the selected (land) altitude 5. Cabin altitude returns to departure airport altitude if aircraft loses 1000 ft • Within 10’ after take-off OR • Before aircraft reaches 6000 ft Key Facts -61- .

Fokker 100 © NM Normal cruise 8. When the aircraft reaches cruise altitude. cabin reaches cruise altitude (according to schedule) and remains steady for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes cabin descends towards destination airport altitude: • limited by max diff. Rate of cabin altitude change is determined by pressurization controller with a maximum of 300 FPM if rate selector is in neutral OR • selected altitude is reached 10. the cabin descents according to the descent schedule (differential pressure and cabin altitude decreases). 9. Touchdown: cabin altitude = airport elevation – 200 ft 11. Thereafter: cabin depressurized . Within 1 minute: airport elevation – 70 ft 12. main instrument panel. glare shield and pedestal are cooled by the avionics cooling system: • 3 blower fans • 3 suction fans • 1 emergency cooling fan . Avionics compartment. The EFIS emergency cooling fan will automatically be activated in case of: • an inoperative avionics cooling • when operating on battery power only Key Facts -62- . pressure  stabilizes at this altitude Once aircraft starts descent.

Fokker 100 © NM 12 Ice and rain protection Inhibited: .till 60s after TOGA selection .continuously while either T/L in max TO POS FAULT in p/b LO CPTY (*) LO CPTY (*) Nacelle L/E Leading edge horizontal (Flexible tip) Leading edge stabilizer = wing bay overheat or duct overpressure FAULT in p/b (*) No local lights. only MFDU message Key Facts -63- .till 60s after lift-off .

. Level 1alert when: • Pitot heat system is OFF AND • Aircraft on the ground AND • PARK BRAKE released AND • Engines running AND Key Facts -64- .Fokker 100 © NM Figure 12-1 (previous page): Engine and airframe anti-ice system . In battery-power-only condition only pitot head 1 is heated. . Increasing thrust may correct the situation. Tail and/or Wing LO CPTY can be caused by a low bleed-air pressure. Static ports heated in combination with pitot heads. . Airframe anti-icing is not available on the ground but can be pre-set. .

Fokker 100 © NM

This alert in only available from engine start till T/O-power. This allows
switching of pitot heat during taxi-in.

- In case of a PITOT 1 (2) FAULT, switch on the other AP, switch ADC and FCC
to ALTN and select AT and STAB TRIM switches on FAC of the affected side
OFF.

In flight, icing conditions are present when TAT is below +6° C down to and
including -25° C and visible moisture is present

- In case of late engine anti-ice system activation, select RELIGHT ignition prior to
wing anti-icing activation.

- Level 1 alert triggered as soon as ice deposit on ice detector reaches 0.5 mm.

Figure 12-2: Engine & Airframe Anti-ice System p/ b

Key Facts
-65-

Fokker 100 © NM

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Key Facts
-66-

Fokker 100 © NM

13 Hydraulic system

1 2
LH Aileron RH Aileron

Rudder
Elevator
Stabilizer

Priority
Valve Speed brake Normal braking
Thrust reversers system

Landing gear

Nose-wheel steering

Alternate braking (incl. parking brake)

Flaps

Lift dumpers

Figure 13-1: Basic hydraulic system

- To equalize the fluid level in the tanks on the ground a transfer system is installed.
In the fluid transfer line a transfer valve is installed.
- To ensure equal air pressure in the tanks, the top of the tanks are interconnected.
In the tank air pressure connection line a shut-off valve is installed.

Both valves normally closed and will open for a pre-set time with the aircraft on the ground and both: o At least one engine running o Parking brake set Key Facts -67- .

Nitrogen pressurized to 1000 PSI Figure 13-2: Functional diagram of the hydraulic system . Fokker 100 © NM . Hydraulic system operation is not affected during single-engine operation. Normal system pressure 2800 – 3200 PSI. Minimum fluid level for dispatch: 70 %.Emergency hydraulic power . . .Smooth out shock loads . Tank air pressure connection line QTY (%) 100 Fluid transfer line LO QTY FAULT System pressure: 3000 . Reservoir capacity: • System 1: 23 L • System 2: 4L Key Facts -68- .

switch ELEC PUMP of HYDR SYS 1 on until pressure is approx 3000 PSI Key Facts -69- . Electrically driven pumps: • For maintenance use • To pressurize hydraulic systems prior to engine start (e. . OVHT if fluid temperature > 90° C. FAULT in ENGINE PUMP p/b if pump output pressure is < 2400 PSI (≠ system pressure).Fokker 100 © NM . • Priority valve activated if pressure < 2300 PSI • Priority valve de-activated if pressure > 2650 PSI . Priority valve: All systems below the priority valve incorporate an alternate system.g. use of parking brake on the alternate braking system (sys 1)) If prior engine start the alternate brake pressure is below 1000 PSI. . LO QTY – alert if : • System 1: if < 37 % tank capacity • System 2: if < 20 % tank capacity .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 13-3: Hydraulic panel Key Facts -70- .

Gear extension: ± 26s Gear retraction: ± 9s . During alternate gear extension. Figure 14-1: Landing Gear Lever Key Facts -71- . the blue transit light will remain on till the LG selector is selected down.1 Landing gear operation . The LG will then free-fall and mechanically lock down. . Nose-wheel steering becomes inoperative after alternate gear extension. this alert may result in either a RUD 1 or RUD 2 fault as the rudder limiter does not switch automatically from LO to HI speed. LG unsafe – warning (after down selection): if the gear fails to lock down within approx 35 sec. After gear extension this alert may result in a RUD LMTR fault: the applicable procedure should be applied (= Manual rudder limiter procedure). Operation of the alternate LG selector dumps the LG hydraulic system pressure. The affected rudder channel should be switched off.Fokker 100 © NM 14 Landing gear 14. L (R) (NOSE) LG DOWNLOCK SW – warning: After gear retraction and with a speed > 200 kt. The main-gear inboard doors will stay open and are protected against serious damage on landing by slide strips. Manual switching is not effective. . .

. Steering pressure will be restored approx 5 seconds after touchdown of the LH main gear.Fokker 100 © NM 14. Key Facts -72- . Towing switch depressurizes the nose-wheel steering system. Upon LG down selection. Nose-wheel steering angles (either side): • Rudder 7° • Steering tiller 76° • Towing 130° .2 Nose-wheel steering . When the LG is selected up. . the steering system will be depressurized to prevent inadvertent steering angles while using rudder pedals. the nose wheels are hydraulically centered.

Fokker 100 © NM (1) Steering system Depressurizes system depressurized for towing purposes (2) Steering pressure > 76° restored after ± 5 sec depressurizes system till again < 76° (hydraulically) Figure 14-2: Functional diagram nose-wheel steering Key Facts -73- .

the accumulator in the alternate brake system will provide 6 brake applications.3 Brake control system . . In the event of loss of system 1 pressure.Fokker 100 © NM 14. Brake unit: • Carbon fibre • Self adjusting • Brake wear indicator • Thermocouple (temperature measurement) • Speed sensors for anti-skid system Key Facts -74- . Automatic change-over to alternate brake operation (system 1) occurs when the pressure of hydraulic system 2 drops < 1500 PSI. Alternate brake operations provides skid protection on paired wheels on either side. = Alternate brake system pressure indicator . .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 14-3: Brake temperature indicator . Anti-skid control box: • Touchdown protection circuit: in flight no brake fluid to brakes  no landing with brakes possible • Locked wheel protection: reduces possible aquaplaning during landing • Skid detector circuit at positive wheel rotation: gives maximum wheel braking when needed Key Facts -75- .

Fokker 100 © NM 14. After takeoff. the gear selector cannot be moved up: No actions below 400 ft > 400 ft: No GND/FLT CTL alert GND/FLT CTL alert failure anti-retraction lock ESS / EMERG PWR ONLY condition anti-retraction solenoid is unextended main landing powered by dual DC bus gear strut.4 Proximity switching / ground-flight control . GND/FLT CTL relay remains in ground position use OVRD button do not retract gear – see GND/FLT CTL fault effects Key Facts -76- .

.2 Ailerons . The lights are not inhibited for a complete hydraulic system failure.Fokker 100 © NM 15 Flight controls 15. 15.1. Control input stops: • Hydraulic pressure difference ceases • Movement of control surface stops when input stops . . Outbound trailing edge. the local FAULT lights of the respective flight controls are inhibited.1. 20° in either direction. Flight control lock: • Lock linked with thrust levers to prevent take-off thrust being selected • The rudder is hydraulically dampened . Artificial feel: • Incorporated in ailerons and rudder • Proportional to rate of input • Not required in horizontal stabilizer and elevator (aerodynamic load already felt) . Key Facts -77- . the servo tab will unlock to assist in manual operation of the affected aileron.1 General PILOT Actuator moves Surface moves SERVO .1 Primary flight controls 15. If hydraulic system 1 or 2 should fail. If one aileron actuator becomes depressurized.

. Rudder authority at high speed is reduced by a rudder limiter which uses airspeed information from both ADC’s to reduce the hydraulic pressure at the rudder actuator. • Automatic mode: o < 200 kts: actuator hydraulic pressure: 3000 PSI o > 200 kts: limiter reduces actuator hydraulic pressure to 1100 PSI • Manual mode: In the event of a rudder limiter failure. . The ailerons are then operated by the servo tabs. . control forces increase at low speeds. 15. 33° in either direction. both servo tabs are unlocked and are operated by control wheel movement.1. If system 2 hydraulic pressure is not available the rudder will be operated by hydraulic system 1.3 Rudder . a low or a high speed mode can be manually selected when the rudder limiter p/b is depressed to MAN: The system will default to: o low speed mode LO if the landing gear is down o high speed mode HI if the landing gear is up (= reduced hydraulic pressure Figure 15-1: Flight augmentation panel Key Facts -78- . In manual.Fokker 100 © NM If hydraulic pressure is not available. Rudder normally operated by hydraulic system 2 (n° 1 actuator depressurized).

75 Key Facts -79- .4 Elevator . 9° ANU and 3° AND .Fokker 100 © NM 15. 25° up and 15° down . Either system capable of operating of operating the elevator. Left actuator powered by system 1 and right actuator by system 2 . In manual. 15. Mach trim active > M 0. interconnected by torque tube.1. . interconnected by torque tube. elevator forces increase to approx 5 times normal.1. Either system capable of operating of operating the stabilizer. . Left actuator powered by system 1 and right actuator by system 2 .5 Stabilizer .

Runaway stabilizer: There is not checklist. Figure 15-2: Alternate Stab trim switch + wheel Figure 15-3: Stab Trim switch Key Facts -80- .Fokker 100 © NM Controlled by FAS (automatically in AP ON or with stabilizer trim switches on steering column) (FAS fails) Stabilizer trim wheel (hydraulic pressure n/a) Alternate stabilizer (electric) trim switch . by recall switch both STAB trim switches on FAP to OFF.

Fokker 100 © NM 15. i. A feedback system will de-activate the flap drive when the flaps reach the selected position. Figure 15-4: Flap Lever & Altn Flap Switch Figure 15-5: Speedbrake 15. Flaps fully extended: • 20 sec hydraulically • 90 sec electrically . when an asymmetry is detected. 2 flaps (outer and inner) per wing. DO NOT use alternate flaps (may aggravate the asymmetry). When asymmetry between the LH and the RH flap positions is detected.e.2 Speed brake . . During flap asymmetry.2 Secondary flight controls 15. . the alert is presented. Can be extended when: • The thrust levers < MIN TO • Gear is down (except in TO or GA mode) . hydraulic operations will be de-activated and an alert presented. . When use of alternate flaps: • hydraulic operations de-activated • disagreement alert inhibited • asymmetry protection not provided.1 Flaps .2. Automatic retraction: • When TOGA triggers activated • Maximum forward thrust position is select (wind shear recovery) Key Facts -81- .2. but alternate operation is not de-activated .

Retraction in case of a failure: • Electrical failure: speed brake will retract automatically but very slowly • Hydraulic failure: speed brake remains in selected position. No memo message on MFDU. Key Facts -82- . . . 15. .3 Lift dumpers . Accumulators provide pressure to extend and retract the lift dumpers once in case of hydraulic failure. Can be deployed at any speed: • > 190 kts: until air load and hydraulic forces balanced • < 190 kts: to maximum 60° .2. Armed before take-off: • System is automatically disarmed at lift-off • In the event of a rejected take-off the lift dumpers will extend when the thrust levers are retarded and the speed is above approx 50 kts . lift dumper arming is inop for 60 sec. speed brake will retract very slowly by aerodynamic air load . Manual operation of lift dumpers: when reverse thrust levers are raised. only 2 speed brake lights on main instrument panel. At IN selection. After TOGA activation in the air.Fokker 100 © NM • A thrust lever advanced > MIN TO with landing gear up • The landing gear is selected up with both thrust levers > MIN TO (manual go-around) . Armed in flight (before landing): • Automatic operation of lift dumpers: o Wheel spin-up AND o Thrust levers idle • Retraction when thrust levers are advanced • Disarmed when TOGA triggers are activated or either thrust lever advanced to max TLA Note: At any moment the lift dumpers can be disarmed or retracted by depressing the arming p/b.

Key Facts -83- .Fokker 100 © NM . LIFTD FAULT: manual operation (thrust reverse ops) still available. Lift dumper p/b on hydraulic panel to inhibit lift dumper operation. .

the stick shaker function would still be performed by the stall protection computers.During wind shear recovery Key Facts -84- . In this case the margin between the moment of stick shaker actuation and actual stall will be reduced .Activation when airspeed drops to VSS (calculated by the FCC’s) .Controlled by stall protection enhancement units .Fokker 100 © NM 15.If both protection enhancement units fail.Till 10 sec after lift-off .3 Stall prevention system .Controlled by stall protection computers . Stick shaker activation: • < 20 250 ft . Stick pusher: • Pneumatic operated stick shaker • Both stall protection computers must detect a stall condition • Inhibition: .Activation in function of angle of attack and flap position • > 20 250 ft .

Figure 15-6: T/O configuration Test Button Key Facts -85- .4 Take-off configuration warning . Level 3 alert when aircraft on the ground an either thrust lever advanced to MIN TO position (or TOGA triggered) and following conditions are not met: • Flight control lock on • Parking brake set (*) • Stabilizer not in TO range • Speed brake not in • Flaps not in TO position or in the alternate mode • Lift dumper unlocked • One elevator hydraulic system depressurized (*) will not initiate the alert in case of the TAKE-OFF CONF test.Fokker 100 © NM 15.

Pitot-static 1 feeds ADC 1 Pitot-static 2 feeds ADC 2 Pitot-static 3 feeds: • combined altimeter-airspeed indicator (P+S) • stand-by altimeter (S) • cabin differential pressure indicator (S) • air conditioning pack auto shut-off control (S) . 2 temperature probes. . .1 Air data system . Pitot vanes + static ports + vanes are electrically heated. . Never transfer to offside ADC (source select P/B) for electrical problems (or smoke). Dashes on Barometric reference display indicated that the offside ADC supplies the onside system. Figure 16-1: Source select switches Key Facts -86- .Fokker 100 © NM 16 Flight / navigation data systems 16.

2 Attitude and heading system . Initialization is possible with both the FMS CDU and the ISDU. 2. the aircraft should not be moved. As long as the ALIGN-light remains on. TAS information is provided by the ADC’s (both to both IRS’s). the time to nav is displayed from 7 to 0 minutes.Fokker 100 © NM 16. Notes: 1. Key Facts -87- . A flashing ALIGN-light on the MSU means that a position needs to be entered. . . The mode selector should remain in ALN when entering a new position. During alignment and when the mode selector at the ISDU is in HDG/STS. .

the IRS’s store ‘status’ and ‘PPOS’ – data in non-volatile memory. Never transfer to offside ATT/HDG (source select P/B) for electrical problems (or smoke). IRS 1 is connected to the EMER DC BUS and can be battery powered. During IRS shutdown (OFF mode). Figure 16-2: Inertial System Display Unit & Mode Select Unit Key Facts -88- . . IRS 2 uses battery power only for power-down in the OFF mode. A yaw rate sensor provides information for AFCAS to ensure yaw damper operation in case of an IRS failure. . . Use of ATT-mode: • Fly straight and level (as long as the ALIGN-light is on) • Put IRS mode selector (MSU) in ATT • When attitude information is restored.Fokker 100 © NM . . put the following information in the ISDU: o Select the SYS DSPL on L or R o Enter ‘H’ and the corresponding magnetic heading on the keyboard o Press ENTER . All directions are based on True North.

Activation with either: • WX control knob at EFIS control panel (OR) • WXR page p/b at MFDS panel. . Either captain’s (WXR L) or the F/O’s (WXR R) control setting can be selected. WX-info can also be displayed on the RH MFDU.3 Weather radar . .Fokker 100 © NM 16. Order of intensity: • green • yellow • red • magenta (in WX/T only to indicated turbulence within 50 nm) Key Facts -89- . Level 1 alert if flight control lock is on and WX Radar not off. Figure 16-3: MFDS / TRP .

yellow. Key Facts -90- . WX/T and MAP). TFR: to display offside WXR info (with selected mode. Antenna is stabilized for pitch and roll by a drive mechanism using data from IRS 1 + manual selection for 15° up/down. MAP: ground mapping (green. Figure 16-4: Weather radar control panel . . IDNT button: ground clutter suppression to reduce intensity of ground returns when operating in the WX modes. . Receiver Gain: for optimum weather and terrain mapping details (in WX. WX/T only possible if range 60 is selected and can only detect < 50 NM. red). gain and tilt). Gain UCAL (uncalibrated) light: receiver sensibility below the calibrated sensitivity.Fokker 100 © NM . . . .

MM = amber and airway (fan) marker = white. 1 ILS panel but 2 localizer antennas. VOR frequency range: 108. In the event of an ILS failure. OM = blue.Fokker 100 © NM 16. the offside ILS can be selected with the source select p/b.05 MHz or 50 kHz spacing.95 MHz with 0. ILS frequency range: 108. . Glide slope pointer flashes if: • deviation > 1 dot • altitude < 500 ft and > 100 ft • AP engaged .4 VOR / DME / marker beacon / ILS .00 MHz to 117. . .3 dot • altitude < 500 ft and > 5 ft • AP engaged . 2 glide slope antennas and 2 receivers. . Figure 16-5: VOR/DME Selector Box Key Facts -91- . .00 MHZ to 111. Localizer pointer flashes if: • deviation > 0. GPWS receives data from ILS 1 and 2. ILS frequency tuning is inhibited when LAND mode is activated.05 MHz or 50 kHz spacing.95 MHz with 0. .

Only 1 receiver is installed.Fokker 100 © NM 16. Figure 16-6: ADF Selector Box Key Facts -92- . . ADF frequency range is between 190 kHz and 1750 kHz and can be selected in steps of 0. .5 kHz. A1 (= BFO mode): provides 1000 Hz (= 1 kHz) tone for ease identifying unmodulated signals. . NORM: for reception of modulated signals.5 ADF .

6 ATC transponder / TCAS . Once every second the transponder transmits a beacon signal for traffic collision avoidance purposes. vertical range 9900 ft above and below the aircraft.Fokker 100 © NM 16. TCAS surveillance range: ±40 nm. . . XPNDR transmits replies when interrogated by ATC ground stations or TCAS equipped aircraft. . . TCAS categories: → Resolution Advisory (RA) traffic:  predicted to get too close within approx 25 sec  displayed at PFD  detected in TA/RA only  Solid red square  Type of RA’s: o Corrective RA Change vertical path of aircraft • aural advisory • red band + green ‘fly to’ on vertical speed scale • ‘get out of red box’ + arrow pointing o Preventive RA Maintain a present vertical speed • aural advisory • red band on vertical speed scale • ‘do not fly into’ cue(s) + arrow pointing  Other warnings: TRAFFIC OFF SCALE on ND TRAFFIC on ND (= traffic display not selected on EFIS ctl panel or ARC/PLAN selected) Key Facts -93- . A new code becomes active 5 seconds after entering except when pushing IDENT where the new ATC-code will be transmitted immediately. Mode A and mode C replies are inhibited whilst the aircraft is on the ground.

Key Facts -94- . Optionally. . select AP on.Fokker 100 © NM → Traffic Advisory (TA) traffic:  predicted to get too close within approx 40 sec when in TA/RA  predicted to get too close within approx 20 sec when in TA Only  displayed at PFD  detected in TA/RA & TA  Solid amber dot  Other warnings: TRAFFIC OFF SCALE on ND TRAFFIC on ND (= traffic display not selected on EFIS ctl panel or ARC/PLAN selected) → Proximate traffic:  Non-threat traffic within 6 nm horizontal and 1200 ft vertical  detected in TA/RA & TA  Solid blue diamond → Other traffic:  Non-threat traffic outside Proximate traffic range but within approx 2700 ft vertical  detected in TA/RA & TA  Open blue diamond  Altitude limits can be selected: o ABV: from 9900 ft above to 2700 ft below current altitude o N: from 2700 ft above to 2700 ft below current altitude o BLW: from 2700 ft above tot 9900 ft below current altitude . Flight Identification light (FID): if FID selected and flashing when entering a FID code. aircraft on ground are never displayed. When ‘CLEAR OF CONFLICT’. disconnect AP and follow PFD pitch cue (do not use FD in V/S). Aircraft on ground or < 380 ft are considered as non-threat traffic. . The AP will engage in either the default V/S mode or ALT capture. In case of RA. Do not select LVLCH as the aircraft will first accelerate before intercepting the desired vertical path. .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 16-7: ATC transponder .TCAS box Key Facts -95- .

Range from 0 ft to 2500 ft.7 Radio Altimeter . FDR systems receives data from radio altimeter 1. the offside RA can be selected with source select p/b. In case of a failure. . .Fokker 100 © NM 16. . 2 radio altimeter systems are installed. Key Facts -96- .

8° C  lasts for 30 days o ground control p/b . Operation is indicated by an ON light in the p/b till engine start. the system may be operated by depressing FDR/CVR GND CTL p/b. Operates automatically whenever 1 fuel lever is open. Figure 16-8: FDR/CVR GND control p/b Key Facts -97- .8 Flight Data Recording .Fokker 100 © NM 16. Before engine start. Flight data recording system compromises: o Flight Data Recorder (FDR) o Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU) o underwater locator beacon:  3568m operating range  from -7° C to 37.

DH –selector set to: M/DA DH > 2500 ft AGL < 2500 ft AGL > 2500 ft AGL < 2500 FT AGL Selected DH Selected DH Selected Selected =0 ≠0 M/DA = 0 M/DA ≠ 0 M/DA displayed at PFD DH displayed at PFD M/DA DH displayed at PFD displayed at PFD = Flight Path Target = Flight Path Vector = Ground Reference Pointer (indicates absolute altitude reference above terrain). . The display units from EFIS 1 provide a DH passage output to the GPWS. . MAP symbols may be added in both MAP and PLAN modes. FPA. indicates the direction of the required pitch change (TCAS correction) Key Facts -98- . . = Arrow. Appears at approx 500 ft RA. M/DA.1 Electronic Flight Instrument System . PLAN mode is true north up oriented. Fokker 100 © NM 17 Flight / navigation instruments 17.

Wind direction on the ND is referenced to true north in cruise and to magnetic north in take-off or landing. Figure 17-1: EFIS control panel Key Facts -99- .Fokker 100 © NM = Indicates pitch angles to avoid (TCAS correction) .

Fokker 100 © NM 17. Radio Magnetic Indicator: o Magnetic heading supplied by onside attitude and heading system o Power supply: Right RMI: 115V AC-bus Left RMI: 28V DC emergency bus o In case of a flag (failure). pointer will be fixed in last position Figure 17-2: RMI Key Facts -100- .2 Secondary & standby instruments .

Fokker 100 © NM

- Clock:

o The clock installed at the captain’s side provides a GMT output to the
flight data recording and flight management system
o Electrically powered by 28V DC emergency bus

Figure 17-3: Clock

- Combined stand-by altimeter / airspeed indicator

- Stand-by horizon

o Powered when either FUEL lever is opened.
o The gyro reaches operational speed approximately one minute after power
has been applied.

- Stand-by compass

o Compass light powered by 28V DC emergency bus

Key Facts
-101-

Fokker 100 © NM

17.3 Ground Proximity Warning System

17.3.1 Basic GPWS

 Based on radar altimeter; effective between 30 ft and 2450 ft RA.

Mode Event Aural warning Visual
warning
Mode 1 Excessive sink rate “SINKRATE SINK RATE” Two red
– “PULL UP” GPWS-lights

Mode 2 Excessive terrain closure rate “TERRAIN TERRAIN” –
“PULL UP”

Mode 3 Descent after take-off “DON’T SINK DON’T
SINK”

Mode 4 Inadvertent proximity to terrain “TOO LOW TERRAIN”
or “TOO LOW GEAR” or
Inhibit: “TOO LOW FLAPS”
Guarded FLAP OVERRIDE switch;
when a landing has to be made with less
than landing flaps
.
Mode 5 Descent below ILS glide slope “GLIDE SLOPE GLIDE Two amber
SLOPE” GS-lights
Inhibit:
Warning can be inhibited when a/c is
deliberately flown below the glide slope
during final approach
< 1000 ft RA. Mode rearms passing
1000 ft RA in a climb,
30 ft RA in descent or when other ILS
frequency selected.

Mode 6 Descent below DH, bank angle (if “MINIMUMS”, “FIVE N/A
bank angle > 10° at 30 ft AGL. Then HUNDRED”, “ONE
linearly till > 40° at 150 ft AGL and HUNDRED”, “FIFTY”,
above) and RA callouts before “FORTY”, “THIRTY”,
touchdown “TWENTY”, “TEN” or
“BANK ANGLE BANK
ANGLE”

Key Facts
-102-

Fokker 100 © NM

17.3.2 Terrain Awareness and Warning System

Event Description Warning

Terrain Ahead Alerting Warning envelope generated 1 Caution (40-60 sec ahead):
minute ahead of a/c based on
the internal database + “CAUTION TERRAIN
predicted flight path (OBSTACLE), CAUTION
TERRAIN (OBSTACLE)”

Warning (30 sec ahead):

“TERRAIN (OBSTACLE),
TERRAIN (OBSTACLE), PULL
UP”
+ Two red GPWS-lights

Terrain Clearance Floor - Protects against premature
(TCF) descent during non-prec. appr. “TOO LOW TERRAIN”
- Based on current position, RA + Two red GPWS-lights
and distance to center point of
nearest runway in database.
- Envelope around rwy directly
related to the distance from
that runway
- T/O, cruise, final approach
- More restrictive than Mode 4

Runway Field Clearance - As TDC except that RFCF is
Floor (RFCF) based on current a/c position “TOO LOW TERRAIN”
and height above destination + Two red GPWS-lights
rwy based on geometric
altitude.
- Active within 5 nm

Terrain Awareness Display Graphic display of surrounding Terrain above current aircraft true
(TAD) terrain on the EFIS navigation altitude
displays. Medium density red
Medium density yellow

Terrain at and below current
aircraft true altitude
Light density yellow

Key Facts
-103-

Fokker 100 © NM Medium density green Light density green Terrain penetrating caution envelope High density yellow Terrain penetrating warning envelope High density red Flying at high altitude above terrain (improving situational awareness) High density green Medium density green Light density green . TAWS inhibit p/b at each pilot’s instrument panel will not inhibit the basic GPWS mode 1 thru 6. . provided ARC or MAP mode is selected and the WX control knob at the respective EFIS control panel is out of the OFF position. In case of terrain awareness caution or warning the terrain awareness display will automatically pop-up. Key Facts -104- .

Key Facts -105- .Fokker 100 © NM 17.4 Avionics Cooling System See chapter 10 Airconditioning & pressurization.

1 General AFCAS Automatic Flight Control and Augmentation System AFCS ATS FAS Automatic Flight Autothrottle System Flight Control System Augmentation System Autopilot Flight Director Altitude Alerting Yaw Damping Stabilizer Trim Key Facts -106- . Fokker 100 © NM 18 Flight Control & Augmentation System 18.

selection of LVLCH or using vertical speed). Basic AP modes: vertical speed & heading hold.g. both AP’s will engage if in TO mode or when below 1500 ft AGL. Upon LAND capture (= established on the beam and below 1500 ft AGL). FD 1 will capture VOR 1. Note: During manual flight with both FD’s on.Fokker 100 © NM 18.2 Automatic Flight Control System . Table 4: Side in control Key Facts -107- . speed window will be dashed . . At engagement of AP 1 or 2 during takeoff. . Using AP disconnect bar directly interrupts the FCC output to the AP servo’s. (Leaving TO mode is possible by e. both AP’s will engage: • no ILS frequency and localizer course changes are possible • no LAND engagement if glide is intercepted below 1000 ft AGL • below 500 ft AGL. FD 2 will be biased out of view.

PROF may not be used independently of NAV during descent and initial approach. LVLCH: climbing or descending to a preselected altitude with (pre)selected speed (or with existing speed when no speed (pre)selected). If NAV is armed on the ground. selecting MAP at the side in control after VOR capture results in a VOR mode failure. . thrust to maintain 2000 ft a minute rate of climb (1000 ft a minute in single engine conditions) or 200 kts . . the aircraft will continue to climb on that Mach number (= at crossover altitude) . Activation: • In AFCAS: → LVLCH p/b → pulling ALT knob • In PROF: → LVLCH p/b In LVLCH climb: CLB (rating selected at TRP) Speed controlled by elevator In LVLCH descent: LL (Low idle Limit) . ALT Hold: amount of altitude over/undershoot amounts to approx 10 per cent of the vertical speed existing at ALT hold selection.Fokker 100 © NM . thereafter. it will capture on 30 ft AGL. . . If PROF is armed on the ground. Go-around mode by TOGA selection: • maintaining existing heading at TOGA selection • initially TOGA thrust. Maximum bank angle in TO and GA (irrespective of bank selector): • < 50 ft AGL: 5° • 50 – 400 ft AGL: 15° Key Facts -108- . it will capture upon reaching Thrust Reduction Altitude. AFCAS climb at constant Mach number (same procedure for descent): • push IAS/M p/b to activate IAS hold • depress IAS/M select button (Mach number is displayed) • select required Mach number • where the IAS equals the Mach number. . When in ARC/ROSE and VOR selected.

FD command during TO: 18° pitch or V2+10. both FD’s will be flagged and the AP reverts tot the HDG and V/S mode. The affected mode will flash amber at the FMA. whichever comes first. AFCAS SPEED: Selected or actual speed too high for autoland. .Fokker 100 © NM Note: bank limit selector is only effective in HDG-mode. AFCAS MODE: AFCAS reverted to basic mode (VS and HDG). AFCAS TARGET: AFCAS unable to reach or maintain selected value. pull or push the HDG knob at the FMP. . To regain the FD’s and to cancel the flashing amber mode at the FMA. . Figure 18-1: Flight Mode Panel Figure 18-2: Thrust Rating Panel (TRP) Key Facts -109- . .

. AT 1 or AT 2. During emergency descent.Fokker 100 © NM 18. When released. . Note: During TO in strong headwind conditions. Automatic engagement in flight occurs when: • the alpha mode becomes active • maximum speed is exceeded • when TOGA triggers are pulled . Indication on FMA: AT. Each AT channel drives its own thrust lever. 80 kts may be reached before engines reached TO EPR. Thrust levers incorporate force override. . alpha mode protection and max speed protection is inop • automatic gust correction during approach is inop • automatic full throttle thrust selection in case of windshear warning is inop Key Facts -110- . Reclutch: • change of thrust rating (to CLB) • capturing of FMP altitude or selection of V/S • windshear . . LL is variable and depends on bleed air demand for pressurization and anti-icing. When both ATS channels are inop: • VMA protection.3 Autothrottle system . thrust levers restore previous position except in LVLCH descent when adjusting throttles forward. In this case the engines should be manually accelerated to 1.30 EPR before pulling TOGA triggers. . At 80 kts during TO: throttle declutch (‘D’): Goal: to prevent possible thrust lever retardation caused by a system failure during the critical part of the TO. If one AT channel fails the operative channel will drive both thrust levers via a tie-clutch. When both channels engaged: ATS synchronizes the EPR’s except: o during TO and GA o EPR < 1. ATS must be selected OFF to avoid LL to be selected.2 .

45 VS Linear increase to FL 350 1.62 VS . No speed selection below VMA possible Alpha mode protection .Fokker 100 © NM 18.5 kt (provided AT p/b at FAC panel are on): • ATS engages • Thrust limit at TRP becomes TOGA • The force override switches are de-activated Drift down control Key Facts -111- .30 VS Transition is 20s after LVLCH or PROF capture in TO At 15250 ft 1. VMA displayed at top of amber scale and depends on: o weight o flap setting o cg o flight phase o altitude .20 VS Other phases 1.4. TO and GA 1. Where VMA protection is not available: • AP + ATS off + idle thrust + ALT hold or V/S climb • AP off + FD off + ATS off • AP off + LVLCH descent + FD commands not followed .4 Flight envelope protection 18.1 Minimum speed protection VMA protection . Activation at VMA .

ATS engages automatically and reduces thrust preventing exceeding VMAX 18.4.4. Bottom of red checker bar .3 Excessive vertical speed protection Key Facts -112- .2 Maximum speed protection .Fokker 100 © NM 18.

4.4.5° => to speed that is 8 kts/degree in excess of 3.6 Altitude alerting Altitude exit alert at ± 250 ft except: • GS captured • gear down • drift down • reacting to TCAS RA (only aural altitude alert is inhibited.5 Automatic gust correction During approaches in gusty wind conditions ATS will control to a speed not below VMA + 8 kts.Fokker 100 © NM 18. 18.4 Flight path angle protection If: • < 1000 ft AGL • flap 25 or 42 • ATS engaged • Flight path angle in excess of 3. altitude scale still amber) Key Facts -113- .5° higher than VMA 18.4.

push or pull the HDG knob at the FMP (AFCAS MODE). and which causes the situation will be shown in magenta. A triangle affixed to the annunciation of a mode is used to indicate a capture phase. Key Facts -114- . the following takes place (AFCAS TARGET): • The annunciation of the parameter that is no longer controlled or cannot be reached will flash. Failures resulting in loss of armed or active modes are indicated by an amber flashing annunciation in the particular window. . Both FD’s will be flagged and the AP reverts to the HDG and V/S mode.Fokker 100 © NM 18. To regain the FD’s and to cancel the flashing amber mode at the FMA. • The annunciation of the parameter that is at its limiting value. .5 Flight mode annunciation . When a target or a requested flight path cannot be maintained or reached.

Whooler when trim switches operated for more than 2. an automatic nose up trim bias will ensure a safe pitch attitude upon AP disconnect close to the ground.6.6 Flight augmentation system 18.1 Yaw damping & turn coordination . Mach trim compensation Key Facts -115- .6. . Manual stabilizer trimming by the pilot (AP off) . . Available with AP on or off. the monitoring circuit will interpret this as a fault in the trim switch wiring. 18. This condition will result in a non resettable STAB TRIM 1 AND 2 fault the next time the trim is operated.Stabilizer trim switches at control column de-activated.5 sec when airborne or 1 sec on the ground. 2.In LAND mode.Fokker 100 © NM 18. . .Trim rate is function of speed (trim rate high at low speed and vice versa).2 Stabilizer trim operation 1. Automatic stabilizer trim (AP on) .‘Stabilizer trim double-channel fault’: • STAB TRIM 1 AND 2 – indication • Automatic AP disengagement 3.If pilot operates erroneously only one half of the stabilizer trim switch for more than 15 sec. Controls for yaw dampers are located at the Flight Augmentation Panel (FAP). .

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 18-3: Flight augmentation panel Key Facts -116- .

Annunciation: o Performance increasing shear: . WINDSHEAR warning at PFD + AMI (Alpha Margin Indicator). o Performance decreasing shear: .7 Wind shear detection & recovery . Key Facts -117- . . Wind shear detection operative: • T/O from lift-off up to 1500 ft AGL • Approach from 1500 ft AGL to 30 ft AGL • No detection in case of an engine failure . take-off and approach.Fokker 100 © NM 18.only in approach. . triple “wind shear” via loudspeakers.WINDSHEAR caution at PFD + AMI (Alpha Margin Indicator). . activation of recovery mode:  automatically during TO and GA  upon selection of TOGA during approach  FD guidance  HDG hold mode becomes active with 5° bank limit  full throttle Remark: When ATS is inop (FAP AT p/b’s OFF) full throttle thrust must be selected manually and reduced to TOGA thrust when passing 1500 ft AGL and the warning is no longer present. .

both loudspeakers are muted. Figure 19-1: Communication panel Key Facts -118- . When the oxygen-mike is operative (automatically through oxygen flow).and boom-microphones are inoperative.or boom-microphones. the doors of the oxygen-mask container must be closed and the reset/test lever must be operated.Fokker 100 © NM 19 Communication 19. . To restore communication with hand. both hand.1 General . The loudspeakers are not muted when oxygen-mask mike is in use. Two loudspeakers are installed in the flightdeck ceiling. When the hand-mike or boom-mike is used.

which is a maintained position.33 kHz channel spacing. . Figure 19-2: VHF communication box Key Facts -119- .990 MHz with 8. As long as one microphone switch at either audio panel is in the OPEN IC position. both loudspeakers remain muted.Fokker 100 © NM . Frequency range of VHF COM box: 118.00 to 136.

Fokker 100 © NM Figure 19-3: Avionics panel Key Facts -120- .

. .Fokker 100 © NM 19. Figure 19-4: CVR panel Key Facts -121- . Automatic from engine start (or upon pressing FDR/CVR GND CTL p/b) until 5 minutes after shutdown. Records last 30 minutes of flight deck audio (+ audio from remote area microphone) on a continuous magnetic tape. By pressing the FDR/CVR GND CTL p/b. ERASE button can only be used on the ground with the parking brake set. . the ON light comes on till either engine is started.2 Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) .

65 . Maximum flight speed with open slide window: 160 kt Key Facts -122- .77 . Maximum lift dumper extension speed: 170 kt .2 Weight limitations . VMO/MMO: 320 kt / M 0.3 Speed limitations . VLO/VLE: 200 kt Maximum altitude for gear extension: 25000 ft . VRA/MRA: 250 kt / M 0. maximum operating pressure altitude: 35000 ft . maximum takeoff and landing pressure altitude: 8000 ft 20.Fokker 100 © NM 20 Limitations 20.1 General limitations . MTOW: 44 450 kg . VFE: Flaps 8 250 kt Flaps 15 & 25 220 kt Flaps 42 180 kt Maximum altitude for flap extension: 20000 ft . MTW: 44 680 kg . MZFW: 36 740 kg 20. MLW: 39 915 kg .

5 Powerplant & APU limitations Condition Max TGT Time limit During start 740° C momentary Max takeoff 850° C 5 minutes (*) Max continuous 795° C unrestricted (*) In the event of an engine failure. Maximum crosswind component: 35 kt . 20. the remaining engine may be operated at takeoff thrust for a maximum total period of 10 minutes.6 Fuel system limitations .Fokker 100 © NM 20.4 Weather limitations .7 AFCAS limitations . Usable fuel tank capacity:  wing tanks: 7 744 kg (= 2 x 3872)  center tank: 2 512 kg  total: 10 256 kg 20. Autopilot engagement: 35 ft Key Facts -123- . Maximum tailwind component: 10 kt 20. Maximum allowable fuel asymmetry:  in flight: 1000 kg  on the ground: depending on aircraft weight and actual fuel in the wing tanks .

8 Navigations limitations .Fokker 100 © NM 20. The FMS may not be used:  above 70° north latitude  below 60° south latitude . BRNAV equipment required: The BRNAV operation shall not be continued if the FMS CDU message ‘LOW POS ACCURACY’ is displayed. Key Facts -124- .

Do not arm liftdumpers before gear is down and locked.9 Miscellaneous . . buildings or personnel is more than 10 meters. Required equipment: 20. The IRS may not be used:  above 73° north latitude  below 60° south latitude Key Facts -125- . RVSM Approval for flight in airspace above FL 290 where a 1000 ft vertical separation minima is applied. aircraft. The WX radar may not be used on the ground except to assess takeoff flight path conditions provided the distance to ground vehicles. .Fokker 100 © NM .