482 vistas

Cargado por api-3798479

- Formula SAE - Steering & Suspension Design - [ IntensePotential.com]
- Suspension 2005-01-3994Formula SAE Suspension Design
- Motorhome Parts Manual
- 04-EQ Protect Systems
- IIJME-2014-10-17-8
- ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC SHOCK ABSORBER VALVE BEHAVIOR.pdf
- Baja India 2010 Design Report VAJRA
- MaintenanceBrochureFinal_singlesm
- Fiat Linea Active 1
- O&M
- Rc 10 World Car
- Em Shock Absorbers
- LaTeX3
- Vehicle Tech.
- 08_seismicdesignofstructureswithviscousdampers
- Tire
- Artic Ula Do
- Project On Bajaj Automobiles Sales Marketing
- Compression Testing Tutorial
- FMC - Electromagneticheavyfeeders

Está en la página 1de 16

Mechanical Systems

and

Signal Processing

Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

www.elsevier.com/locate/jnlabr/ymssp

characteristics for displacement-sensitive shock absorber

using ﬂuid-ﬂow modelling

Choon-Tae Leea, Byung-Young Moonb,

a

Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Systems Engineering, Busan National University, 30 Changjeon-dong,

Keumjeong-ku, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea

b

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Busan National University, 30 Changjeon-dong,

Keumjeong-ku, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea

Received 23 February 2004; received in revised form 27 August 2004; accepted 27 September 2004

Available online 11 November 2004

Abstract

In this study, a new mathematical dynamic model of shock absorber is proposed to predict the dynamic

characteristics of an automotive system. The performance of shock absorber is directly related to the car

behaviours and performance, both for handling and ride comfort. Damping characteristics of automotive

can be analysed by considering the performance of displacement-sensitive shock absorber (DSSA) for the

ride comfort. The proposed model of the DSSA is considered as two modes of damping force (i.e. soft and

hard) according to the position of piston. For the simulation validation of vehicle-dynamic characteristics,

the DSSA is mathematically modelled by considering the ﬂuid ﬂow in chamber and valve in accordance

with the hard, transient and soft zone. And the vehicle dynamic characteristic of the DSSA is analysed

using quarter car model. To show the effectiveness of the proposed damper, the analysed results of damping

characteristics were compared with the experimental results, which showed similar behaviour with the

corresponding experimental one. The simulation results of frequency response are compared with the ones

of passive shock absorber. From the simulation results of the DSSA, it can be concluded that the ride

comfort of the DSSA increased at the low-amplitude road condition and the driving safety was increased

partially at the high-amplitude road condition. The results reported herein will provide a better

E-mail address: moonby@pusan.ac.kr (B.-Y. Moon).

0888-3270/$ - see front matter r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ymssp.2004.09.006

ARTICLE IN PRESS

374 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

understanding of the shock absorber. Moreover, it is believed that those properties of the results can be

utilised in the dynamic design of the automotive system.

r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Shock absorber; Damping force; Quarter car model; Vehicle vibration; Ride comfort; Displacement

sensitive; Body valve

1. Introduction

Shock absorber is an important part of automotive which has an effect on ride characteristics

such as ride comfort and driving safety. There are several kinds of automotive shock dampers

such as position-sensitive damping, acceleration-sensitive damping, and continuous damping

control. Displacement-sensitive shock absorber (DSSA), which is also called stroke-dependent

shock absorber, and has a similar structure compared with conventional passive shock absorber.

Nevertheless, the DSSA has additional ﬂow passages such as displacement-sensitive oriﬁce at the

cylinder wall. The DSSA has two modes of damping force according to piston stroke.

When piston stroke is in the range of displacement-sensitive oriﬁce, the leakage occurs through

this oriﬁce. In this range, the damping force become low compared with the passive shock

absorber. On the other hand, when the piston stroke is out of range of displacement-sensitive

oriﬁce, leakage through the oriﬁce is blocked. In this range, the damping force becomes high

because of leakage block. Such a DSSA improves ride comfort on the paved road driving

conditions because of low damping force caused by small piston stroke. Also, the driving safety is

improved when the vehicle is driving on rough roads or bumper roads because of high damping

force caused by large piston stroke and high-vibration amplitude. Accordingly, the DSSA can

keep ride comfort and driving safety as well.

There have been several studies about shock absorber. At ﬁrst, Lang [1] proposed simple

mathematical model of passive shock absorber. After that many studies have been carried out to

analyse the performance of shock absorber [2]. Cherng et al. [3] reported the effect of noise of

shock absorber using acoustic index method. Koenraad [4] proposed a mathematical model of the

mono-tube-type gas-charged shock absorber. Herr et al. [5] proposed a mathematical model of

twin tube-type shock absorber. Simms et al. [6] investigated the inﬂuence of damper properties on

luxury vehicle dynamic behaviour through the simulation and test. Liu et al. [7] reported the

characteristics of non-linear dynamic response for the twin-tube hydraulic shock absorber by

using a software programme. Nevertheless, there have been few studies carried out on the DSSA.

Recently, there has been a study reported on the DSSA [8]. In those studies [9], the transient

characteristics of displacement-sensitive oriﬁce were not considered and the performance of the

vehicle with the DSSA was not veriﬁed. In general, those studies are insufﬁcient to understand the

dynamic characteristics of DSSA completely to judge the handling and ride comfort of

automotive.

Therefore, in this study a new mathematical and simulation model of the DSSA is proposed

and analysed, which considered the transient range of displacement-sensitive oriﬁce of the DSSA.

And the vehicle dynamic characteristics of the proposed model are evaluated in the time and

frequency domain using quarter car-simulation model. The results of the dynamic characteristics

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 375

and the performance of the DSSA are compared with the passive shock absorber to prove the

effectiveness.

automotive system. Basically the shock absorber consists of a piston, which moves up and down

along ﬂuid-ﬁlled cylinder. The cylinder is fastened to the axle or wheel suspension, and the piston

is connected via the piston rod to the frame of the vehicle.

As the piston is forced to move with respect to the cylinder, a pressure differential is developed

across the piston causing the ﬂuid to ﬂow through oriﬁces and valves in the piston. The portion of

the cylinder above the piston is known as the rebound chamber, and the portion of the cylinder

below the piston is known as the compression chamber, and the volume which surrounds the

cylinder is known as the reservoir chamber. The reservoir chamber is partially ﬁlled with ﬂuid and

partially ﬁlled with a gas phase, normally air. The ﬂuid ﬂow between the compression and

reservoir chambers passes through the body valve assembly at the bottom of the compression

chamber. Fig. 2 shows the conﬁgurations of the piston valve assembly and the body valve

assembly and their part of the shock absorber. As can be observed in Fig. 2, the DSSA has an

additional ﬂow passage in the cylinder wall of a typical passive shock absorber. And these

displacement-sensitive oriﬁces can be divided into three zones such as the soft, transient and

hard zone. Here, the transient zone has tapered scheme to avoid abrupt changes of damping force.

Fig. 3 illustrates the analytic model of the DSSA, which describes a ﬂuid-ﬂow pattern according to

piston movement.

The ﬂuid ﬂows at the compression stroke can be divided into two ﬂows such as Qr and Qc. The

ﬁrst Qr is a ﬂow which ﬂows from the compression chamber to the rebound chamber through the

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of typical twin-tube-type passive shock absorber of an automotive system.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

376 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

Fig. 2. Typical conﬁguration and ﬂuid ﬂow pattern of DSSA: (a) ﬂuid ﬂow pattern of DSSA at compression and

rebound stroke and (b) cross-section of A–A.

piston valve (1) and the other Qc is a ﬂow which ﬂows from the compression chamber to the

reservoir chamber through body valve (2), where the valve numbers are noted in Fig. 2(a). The

ﬂow Qr, which ﬂows through the piston valve, can be divided into three ﬂows Qri, Qro and Qrd.

The ﬂow Qri ﬂows through the bleed valve (4). The ﬂow Qro ﬂows through intake valve (6) and the

ﬂow Qrd ﬂows through displacement-sensitive oriﬁce (9) of piston valve, respectively. The ﬂow Qc,

which ﬂows through body valve (2) at the compression stroke, can be divided into two ﬂows Qci

and Qcf. The ﬂow Qci ﬂows through the bleed valve and the ﬂow Qcf ﬂows through a blow-off

valve.

On the contrary, at the rebound stroke the ﬂuid ﬂows can be divided into two ﬂows Qr and Qc :

The ﬁrst Qr is a ﬂow which ﬂows from the rebound chamber to the compression chamber through

piston valve (1) and the other one Qc is a ﬂow which ﬂows from the reservoir chamber to the

compression chamber through body valve (2).

The ﬂow Qc ; which ﬂows through body valve (2), can be divided into two ﬂows Qci and Qco.

The ﬂow Qci ﬂows through the bleed valve and the ﬂow Qco ﬂows through suction valve (7). Also,

the ﬂow Qr ; which ﬂows through piston valve (1), can be divided into three ﬂows Qri, Qrf and Qrd.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 377

Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of ﬂuid ﬂow and pressure at compression and rebound stroke.

The ﬂow Qri ﬂows through bleed valve (4), the ﬂow Qrf ﬂows through blow off valve (5) and the

ﬂow Qrd ﬂows through the displacement-sensitive oriﬁce, respectively.

The ﬂow continuity equation of the compression chamber at the rebound stroke, as described in

Fig. 3, can be expressed as follows:

V c @Pc

¼ Ap x_ þ ðQr þ Qc Þ: (1)

K @t

The ﬂow continuity equation of the compression chamber at the compression stroke can be

expressed as follows:

V c @Pc

¼ Ap x_ ðQr þ Qc Þ; (2)

K @t

where K is a bulk modulus of elasticity of working ﬂuid, Vc is a volume of compression chamber,

Pc is a pressure of compression chamber, Ap is an area of piston and x_ is a velocity of piston.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

378 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

Similar way, the ﬂow continuity equation of the rebound chamber at the rebound stroke can be

expressed as follows:

V r @Pr

¼ ðAp Arod Þx_ Qr : (3)

K @t

The ﬂow continuity equation of the rebound chamber at the compression stroke can be

expressed as follows:

V r @Pr

¼ ðAp Arod Þx_ þ Qr ; (4)

K @t

where Vr is a volume of rebound chamber, Pr is a pressure of rebound chamber and Arod an area

of piston rod.

The ﬂow rate of the piston valve Qr which ﬂows between the rebound and compression

chambers at the compression stroke can be expressed as follows:

Qr ¼ Qri þ Qro þ Qrd : (5)

Here, each ﬂow rates can be obtained as follows:

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 2

Qri ¼ C d Apb ðPc Pd1 Þ ¼ C d Ad1 ðPd1 Pr Þ; (6)

r r

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 ðPd2 Picr Þ

Qro ¼ C d Ad2 ðPc Pd2 Þ ¼ Qim : (7)

r ðPim Picr Þ

Here, when Pd2 oPicr ; Qro becomes zero.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

Qrd ¼ C d Ads ðxÞ ðPc Pr Þ; (8)

r

8 h

< wfz2 ðx þ z1 Þ þ hg

> ðz1 oxpðz1 þ z2 ÞÞ;

Ads ðxÞ ¼ wh ðz1 oxpz1 Þ; (9)

>

: h

wfz2 ðx z1 Þ þ hg ððz1 þ z2 Þoxp z1 Þ;

where Cd is a coefﬁcient of discharge and Apb is a bleed valve (4) oriﬁce area of piston valve (1).

Ad1 and Ad2 are areas of piston valve (1) port restriction (3), Pd1 and Pd2 are pressures at piston

valve (1) port restriction (3), Qim is a maximum ﬂow rate of the intake valve (6), Picr is a cracking

pressure of intake valve (6), Pim is a pressure of intake valve (6) at the maximum ﬂow rate Qim and

Ads is an area of the displacement-sensitive oriﬁce.

The ﬂow rate Qrd becomes zero when the displacement of the piston detaches from

displacement-sensitive oriﬁce, and the ﬂow rate of the body valve Qc, which ﬂows between the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 379

reservoir and compression chambers. At the compression, stroke can be expressed as follows:

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

Qc ¼ C d Aa3 ðPc Pa3 Þ ¼ Qci þ Qcf : (10)

r

Each ﬂow rates of Eq. (10) can be obtained as follows:

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

Qci ¼ C d Abb ðPa3 Pa Þ; (11)

r

ðPa3 Pbcr Þ

Qcf ¼ Qbm : (12)

ðPbm Pbcr Þ

Here, when Pa3 oPbcr ; Qcf becomes zero. Abb is a bleed valve oriﬁce area of body valve (2), Ad3 is a

port restriction area (8) of body valve (2), Pa3 is a pressure at the port restriction of body valve (2),

Pa is a pressure of reservoir chamber, Qbm is a maximum ﬂow rate of the blow-off valve at the

body valve, Pbcr is a cracking pressure of the blow-off valve at the body valve and Pbm is a

pressure of the blow-off valve at the maximum ﬂow rate at the body valve.

The ﬂow rate of the piston valve Qr ; which ﬂows between rebound and compression chambers

at the rebound stroke can be expressed as follows:

Qr ¼ Qri þ Qrf þ Qrd ; (13)

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

Qri ¼ C d Apb ðPd1 Pc Þ; (14)

r

ðPd1 Ppcr Þ

Qrf ¼ Qpm : (15)

ðPpm Ppcr Þ

Here, when Pd1 oPpcr ; Qrf becomes zero.

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

Qrd ¼ C d Ads ðxÞ ðPr Pc Þ; (16)

r

where Qpm is a maximum ﬂow rate of blow-off valve (5) at the piston valve, Ppcr is a cracking

pressure of the blow-off valve at the piston valve and Ppm is a pressure of the blow-off valve at the

maximum ﬂow rate of the piston valve. Qrd becomes zero when the displacement of the piston

detaches from the displacement-sensitive zone. And the ﬂow rate of body valve Qc*, which ﬂows

between the reservoir and compression chambers at the rebound stroke can be expressed as

follows:

Qc ¼ Qci þ Qco ; (17)

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 2

Qci ¼ C d Abb ðPa Pd3 Þ ¼ C d Ad3 ðPd3 Pc Þ; (18)

r r

ARTICLE IN PRESS

380 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 ðPd4 Pscr Þ

Qco ¼ C d Ad4 ðPa Pd4 Þ ¼ Qsm : (19)

r ðPsm Pscr Þ

Here, when Pd4 oPscr ; Qcf becomes zero, where Ad4 is a port restriction (8) area of the body

valve. Pd4 is a pressure at the body valve port restriction (8), Qsm is a maximum ﬂow rate of

suction valve (7). Pscr is a cracking pressure of the suction valve and Psm a pressure at the

maximum ﬂow rate of the suction valve.

Because the piston rod passes through the rebound chamber, and is connected to the rebound

side of the piston, the area of the rebound side is less than the area of the compression side of the

piston. Accordingly, as the piston moves, the combined volume of the compression and rebound

chambers changes by an amount equivalent to the inserted, or withdrawn piston rod volume. The

amount of ﬂuid equivalent to the inserted, or withdrawn piston rod volume must be transferred

to, or from, the reservoir chamber which normally surrounds the cylinder. Air pressure of the

reservoir chamber can be expressed as an ideal gas equation as follows:

Pa V a ¼ ma RT; (20)

where Pa is an air pressure of the reservoir chamber, Va is an air volume of reservoir chamber, ma

is an air mass of reservoir chamber, R is a gas constant and T is the temperature of air in the

reservoir chamber.

Generally, the mass of air is assumed constant because the chamber is sealed, and the

temperature T of the reservoir chamber in assumed constant to simplify the analysis. Accordingly,

the air of the reservoir chamber can be expressed as an ideal gas equation as follows:

Pa V a ¼ const: (21)

The time variation of air volume Va of reservoir chamber can be expressed as follows:

Z

V a ðtÞ ¼ V a0 Qc dt; (22)

where Va0 is an initial air volume of the reservoir chamber. Therefore, the air pressure variation of

the reservoir chamber can be obtained from Eqs. (20) and (22) as follows:

ma RT

Pa ¼ R : (23)

V a0 Qc dt

The damping force of shock absorber is determined by the forces acting on the both sides of the

piston. And the friction forces are another factor that determines damping force. Nevertheless, in

this study, the friction forces are ignored to simplify the analysis. Fig. 4 shows free body diagram

of the piston considering the damping force.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 381

By considering the forces acting on the piston, the damping force can be obtained as follows:

F damping ¼ Pr Ar Pc Ap F friction ; (24)

Ar ¼ Ap Arod ; (25)

where Fdamping is a damping force. Ffriction is the friction force, that is acting on piston rod.

Numerical calculation results of vehicle system are obtained under the road excitation.

Dynamic characteristics of the response are observed by the proposed method.

As an analysis model, a shock absorber system, which is shown in Fig. 2, is considered. Fig. 5

shows simulation results of damping force versus stroke for the excitation velocity of 0.1, 0.3, 0.6

and 1.2 m/s, respectively. The damping force changes from soft mode to hard mode due to the

displacement-sensitive characteristics around the stroke of 720 mm, as shown in Fig. 5.

Especially, the damping force changes smoothly around the transient zone. It illustrates well the

function of transient zone which prevents abrupt changes of the damping force.

To verify the reliability of simulation results of the proposed method, experimental results of

shock absorber study are presented in Fig. 6 [8]. As can be observed in Fig. 6, the experimental

result shows very similar tendency with the result of this study.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

382 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

2400

transient zone soft zone transient zone

hard zone hard zone

2000

1.2 [m/sec]

1600

1200

damping force [N]

0.6 [m/sec]

800

0.3 [m/sec]

400

0.1 [m/sec]

0

-400

-800

-1200

-40 -20 0 20 40

stroke [mm]

In this study, quarter car model adopted to analyse dynamic behaviour, including the DSSA in

the vehicle, as shown in Fig. 7. Here, a tire model is assumed to have both characteristics of spring

and damping. And a relative displacement of the shock absorber is calculated from the absolute

displacement of the body and suspension to embody the displacement-sensitive characteristics of

the shock absorber.

The main physical properties of quarter car simulation model are listed in Table 1.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 383

Table 1

Properties of quarter car model

Parameter Value

Un-sprung mass, m 50 kg

Shock absorber spring constant, K 18 N/mm

Shock absorber damping coefﬁcient, C 1273–1697 N/m/s

Tire spring constant, k 270.8 N/mm

Tire damping coefﬁcient, c1 0.1 N/m/s

To analyse the dynamic characteristics of the DSSA, four kinds of damping modes are selected

and the corresponding results are compared with each other, as listed in Table 2. The DSSA has

two kinds of damping modes according to the piston stroke, such as soft and hard mode. Here,

the mid-mode has an intermediate characteristic of the soft and hard mode. Thereby, the mid-

mode is estimated as a typical passive shock absorber in this paper.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

384 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

In general, driving characteristics of the vehicle are affected by sprung mass vertical

acceleration, dynamic wheel force and suspension deﬂection. The vertical acceleration of the

sprung mass means the magnitude of vibration transmitted to sprung mass, which is directly

related to the ride comfort. The dynamic wheel force affects on the holding force characteristics

Table 2

Deﬁnition of damping modes

Mid-mode 1485 0.35

Hard mode 1697 0.4

Displacement-sensitive mode 1273–1697 0.3–0.4

0.05

0.3

0.04

derivative of input [m/s]

input displacement [m]

0.2

0.03

0.1

0.02

0.0

0.01

0.00 -0.1

-0.01 -0.2

-0.02 -0.3

-0.03 -0.4

0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10

(a) time [s] (b) time [s]

-9

10

-10

10

-11

PSD of input [m2/Hz]

10

-12

10

-13

10

-14

10

-15

10

-16

10

-17

10

1 10 100

(c) Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 8. Input characteristics of quarter car model of DSSA: (a) input excitation signal, (b) derivative of input excitation

and (c) PSD of input.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 385

between the tire and road, which is related to the driving stability. And the suspension deﬂection is

related to the rattle space of the suspension system, which is necessary to operate suspension

system properly. Accordingly, it becomes a constraint condition at the initial stage of the

suspension system design.

To analyse the frequency characteristics of the DSSA in a quarter car model, the input

excitation signal is applied as described in Fig. 8. A sinusoidal sweep function from 0 to 30 Hz was

applied according to the road input condition. In each frequency range, the maximum velocity is

0.3 m/s. The velocity characteristics of input signal is shown in Fig. 8(b). As shown in ﬁgure, the

maximum velocity of input signal is a constant of the value 0.3 m/s. Also, the power spectrum

density (PSD) of input signal is illustrated in Fig. 8(c), which stands for the random process of the

road condition.

Fig. 9(a) shows the sprung mass acceleration response of the displacement-sensitive mode using

the DSSA in time domain against the input signal stated in Fig. 8. Also, Fig. 9(b) shows the PSD

4

sprung mass acceleration [m/s2]

-1

-2

-3

0 2 4 6 8 10

(a) time [s]

PSD of sprung mass acceleration [(m/s2)2/Hz]

mid mode

-5 soft mode

10 hard mode

disp.sensitive mode

hard mode

-6

10

soft mode

-7

10

1 10

(b) Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 9. Sprung mass acceleration response of displacement-sensitive mode: (a) time response of sprung mass

acceleration and (b) PSD of sprung mass acceleration response.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

386 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

of sprung mass acceleration response for the four damping modes, which is described in Table 2.

As shown in Fig. 9, the response characteristic of the DSSA shows a similar one with the passive

shock absorber around the resonance frequency range of sprung mass. However, at the resonance

frequency of un-sprung mass, which means low-amplitude condition of input, the DSSA shows

soft damping characteristics. Therefore, it can be said that the ride comfort characteristics of

DSSA was improved compared with the ones of passive shock absorber.

Fig. 10(a) shows the analysis result of suspension deﬂection of the displacement-sensitive mode

using the DSSA in the time domain. Fig. 10(b) shows the analysis results of suspension deﬂection

in the PSD for the four damping modes in the frequency domain. As shown in Fig. 10, the

response characteristic of the DSSA seems similar to the ones of passive shock absorber around

the resonance frequency range of sprung mass. However, at the resonance frequency of un-sprung

mass, the DSSA shows soft damping characteristics.

Fig. 11 (a) shows the analysis result of dynamic wheel force in the displacement-sensitive mode

using the DSSA in the time domain. Fig. 11 (a) shows response results of dynamic wheel force in

the PSD for the four damping modes in the frequency domain. As illustrated in Fig. 11, around

the resonance frequency of sprung mass, which means high-amplitude condition of input, the

0.04

suspension deflection [m]

0.02

0.00

-0.02

-0.04

-0.06

0 2 4 6 8 10

(a) time [s]

10-8

PSD of suspension deflection [m2/Hz]

soft mode

hard mode

10-9 disp.sensitive mode

hard mode

disp. sensitive & soft mode

-10

10

mid mode

10-12

1 10

(b) Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 10. Suspension deﬂection of displacement-sensitive mode: (a) time response of suspension acceleration and (b)

PSD of suspension deﬂection.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388 387

7000

6000

dynamic wheel force [N]

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0 2 4 6 8 10

(a) time [s]

1

10

soft mode &

disp. sensitive mode disp. sensitive mode

PSD of dynamic wheel force [N /Hz]

soft mode

mid mode

2

hard mode

100

hard mode

10-1

10-2

1 10

(b) Frequency (Hz)

Fig. 11. Response of dynamic wheel force in displacement-sensitive mode: (a) response of dynamic wheel force and (b)

response of dynamic wheel force in PSD.

DSSA shows slightly improved characteristics of driving safety compared with the ones of the

passive shock absorber.

This paper has a validation of a mathematical model for a sensitive shock damper. As a result,

the proposed DSSA has an engineering knowledge as follows. From the sprung mass acceleration

response analysis, the response characteristic of the DSSA showed soft damping characteristics,

which stands for the improvement of ride comfort characteristics of the DSSA compared with the

ones of passive shock absorber on the paved road driving conditions. From the analysis result of

suspension deﬂection, the response characteristic of DSSA showed soft damping characteristics,

which stands for the improvement of ride comfort characteristics of the DSSA. From the analysis

result of dynamic wheel force, the response characteristic of the DSSA showed improved

characteristics of driving safety compared in a high-amplitude condition. Those improved

ARTICLE IN PRESS

388 C.-T. Lee, B.-Y. Moon / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20 (2006) 373–388

characteristics of ride comfort and driving safety will contribute to the design of a shock absorber.

And the geometry of the displacement-sensitive oriﬁce will be deﬁned in a further study.

4. Conclusions

In this study, a new mathematical dynamic model of the DSSA is proposed. The ﬂuid rate and

the damping force of a shock absorber of an automotive system was theoretically formulated. The

analysis results of the proposed mathematical dynamic model of the DSSA showed similar results

of the corresponding experimental study. It is shown that the damping force could be efﬁciently

calculated according to the excitation. And the vehicle dynamic characteristic of the DSSA is

analysed using quarter car model. Several damping properties of the automotive shock absorber

that are of interest in vehicle vibration applications are reviewed in accordance with the ride

comfort problem. The simulation results of frequency response are compared with the ones of

passive shock absorber. From the analysis results of the DSSA, the ride comfort of the DSSA

increased. The results reported herein will provide a better understanding of the shock absorber.

Moreover, it is believed that those properties of the results can be utilised in the dynamic design of

the automotive system.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Grant No: R08-2003-000-11075-0 from the basic Research

Program of the Korea Science Engineering Foundation and the authors wish to thank for this

support.

References

[1] L.H. Harvey, A study of the characteristics of automotive hydraulic dampers at high stroking frequencies, Ph.D.

Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, USA, December 1977.

[2] S.W. Duym, R. Stiens, G.V. Baron, K.G. Reybrouck, Physical modeling of the hysteretic behavior of automotive

shock absorbers, Society of Automotive Engineers 970101 (1997) 125–137.

[3] J.G. Cherng, T. Ge, J. Pipis, R. Gazala, Characterization of air-borne noise of shock absorber by using acoustics

index method, in: Proceedings of the 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition, 1999-01-1838.

[4] K. Reybrouck, A nonlinear parametric model of an automotive shock absorber, Society of Automotive Engineers

940869 (1994) 79–86.

[5] F. Herr, T. Malin, J. Lane, S. Roth, A shock absorber model using CFD analysis and easy 5, in: Proceedings of the

1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition, 1999-01-1322.

[6] A. Simms, D. Crolla, The inﬂuence of damper properties on vehicle dynamic behavior, Society of Automotive

Engineers 2002-01-0319 (2002) 79–86.

[7] Y. Liu, J. Zhang, F. Yu, H. Li, Test and simulation of nonlinear dynamic response for the twin-tube hydraulic

shock absorber, Society of Automotive Engineers 2002-01-0320 (2002) 91–98.

[8] J. Park, Dongwoo Joo, Youngho Kim, A study on the stroke sensitive shock absorber, Journal of Korean Society of

Precision Engineering 14 (1997) 11–16.

[9] B.Y. Moon, B.S. Kong, Statistical seismic response analysis and reliability design of nonlinear structure system,

Journal of Sound and Vibration 258 (2002) 269–285.

- Formula SAE - Steering & Suspension Design - [ IntensePotential.com]Cargado porJuanMa Ag
- Suspension 2005-01-3994Formula SAE Suspension DesignCargado poronezero111
- Motorhome Parts ManualCargado porklassen33
- 04-EQ Protect SystemsCargado porcarlosrobles147741
- IIJME-2014-10-17-8Cargado porAnonymous vQrJlEN
- ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC SHOCK ABSORBER VALVE BEHAVIOR.pdfCargado pormantegh
- Baja India 2010 Design Report VAJRACargado porPranav Rawat
- MaintenanceBrochureFinal_singlesmCargado porCristian Chiru
- Fiat Linea Active 1Cargado porSarah Dean
- O&MCargado porThuong Cong Nho
- Rc 10 World CarCargado porvintagerccar
- Em Shock AbsorbersCargado porIctor Prince
- LaTeX3Cargado porAnbu Sachinist
- Vehicle Tech.Cargado porEbubekir Buğra Özarslan
- 08_seismicdesignofstructureswithviscousdampersCargado porMoshe Pour-David
- TireCargado porLiviu Mihon
- Artic Ula DoCargado porFelipe Coroceo Silva
- Project On Bajaj Automobiles Sales MarketingCargado porViPul
- Compression Testing TutorialCargado pormardukzek
- FMC - ElectromagneticheavyfeedersCargado porenrique polar
- LOVOL Workshop ManualCargado poranibalwol
- Maruti Swift DzireCargado porkeshavsaini
- l. Ingeniería Sísmica Basada en el Desempeño Convencional vs. Enfoques Innovadores BERTERO.pdfCargado porSnjder Prince
- GT600EXCargado porOtto Heinrich Wehmann
- Mantto Candado HUB 14freewheeCargado porArmando Garcia Perea
- Rex Ton Service ManualCargado porpepe31416
- Technical Inforinforme tecnico falla cilidrosCargado porJulio Palacios Vera
- ZEB_Taisei.pdfCargado porgraciela.ovando2725
- Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Uncertain Electrohydraulic Active Suspensions With Input ConstraintCargado porSam Do
- creativity assignment-andrew wagnerCargado porapi-365139420

- C210_WML_604Cargado porUrso Sc
- 0542Cargado porMuhammadTaufikAliRahman
- 2440 Maintenance BookCargado porMarcel Hayon
- ME6604_qb.pdfCargado porAnirudh
- Analysis and Design of a Cantilever StaircaseCargado porwalaywan
- 00515 ODOT Micropile Spec V8.0Cargado porAnonymous dHyxmD
- Use of European Standars in the AustralianCargado porLissette Rohs Mauricio Herhuay
- InsigniaOwnersManual_Jan09Cargado porAnescu Adrian Dorin
- Stress, Strain and ElasticityCargado porchowhk
- Split Frame Manual Rev 2Cargado porMahalingam Nanjappan
- Grove RT760E DK03 Lift ChartsCargado porEstefan Santos
- 1.Cryogenic Hydrogen Vessels 1957Cargado porMrPicaro Otra Vez
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 111Cargado porpawkom
- 0622457 - Sonatrach Antisurge.pdfCargado porKorichiKarim
- Especificaciones ChillerCargado poryen2704
- Hydro Static Bearing ionCargado porJayachandran Senguttuvan
- AMRI-ISORIA-10-Type-Series-Booklet-data.pdfCargado porMurrali Raj Jeyagapal
- Direct Analysis Method HandoutCargado porArmando Farías
- ME231_lecture_35.pdfCargado poralp_alp
- Single Bolt Embedment Design -Aci 349Cargado porAkhtar Bahram
- Flapping Wing MAVCargado porsaket
- Service Manual H2SM-14 18HC03R2-SM080229Cargado pordacrys
- Question Bank OnStatic Force Analysis-2016-17Cargado porSriram Sastry
- 48-86 Ford Truck 08Cargado portruckshop
- AEM Cold Air Intake 21-416 InstCargado porTHMotorsports.net
- RA_27506_0203Cargado porred100rose
- Flow Through NozzleCargado pormite_torteski
- Solid LubricantsCargado porpgtmamb
- Training 3512A C15Cargado porAli Mekhzoumi
- EJ602 Topic 1a - Introduction of Indutrial Control SystemCargado porSyafwan Laili